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 Thursday, September 02, 2004 #6590

Hi MG ,could you pls tell me what the standard ots for deciding a schedule in a multi vechile medium.
plese explain with an example
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 02, 2004 ):

Many people believe that a minimum of three exposures is necessary for an ad message to communicate its sell. Click here to see past Guru responses about ots and frequency
 Thursday, May 20, 2004 #6500

Using the ots formula (GRP/Net Reach), if we set an ots target with a predetermined reach, can we arrive at the required GRP for differrent ots targets.
Why effective frequency is more popular over ots when setting frequency objective. In my experience we need to achieve more GRP's to achieve a predetermined reach for an effective frequency over ots target, any reason for that methamatical relationship.
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 20, 2004 ):

As a matter of simple arithmetic, Reach and GRP are inextricably linked by a multiplying factor which can just as readily be effective frequency. This does not mean that you can set any reach goal at random and assume a given GRP number will relate back with a specifc OTS. Different mixes of dayparts and media elements have different capabilities in reach / effective frequency generation.
Why more GRP for an effective reach level? Again, simple arithmetic explains it. "Reach" in an ordinary "reach and frequency" calculation, means reach 1 or more times. In other words, a frequency of 1 is treated as "effective." Typically, when we talk about "effective reach" we are working on an assumption that 3 or more frequency is needed for effective communications so that only those reached at least 3 times count. Naturally, more GRP are needed to get a given reach 3 tiems than only once.
 Sunday, April 25, 2004 #6471

1)what is the significance of ots in selecting a eedia vechile
2)can u clarify the concept of BDI & CDI with a suitable example
 The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 25, 2004 ):

1. Any vehicle offers a measured number of "opportunities to see." Ultimately one may chosse vehicles for a plan based on cost per OTS.
2.
Click here to see Guru discussion of BDI / CDI.
 Tuesday, April 20, 2004 #6464

What is the differrence between avg. ots & Effective frequency. Which is the most popolar measurement tool used for setting frequency objective & can you illustrate the differrence through a sum.
 The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 20, 2004 ):

OTS is generally a raw exposures count (impressions). One could take total ots and divide by reach to get average OTS, which would equate to average frequency; that is, the average number of times any person exposed to the message (reach) sees the message.
Effective freqeuncy is the number of exposures JUDGED to be required before a person reached is affected by the message, e.g. remembers or understands it. Effective reach is the numer of people reached at this effective level. 3+ is probably the most commonly used effective frequency standard, but there are various models for setting the level. See the Guru's comments on the Ostrow model.
 Saturday, June 21, 2003 #6029

Dear Guru, Please help me to clarify these issues :
 What CPT and CPM stand for ?
 Are the formulas to calculate them as follows :
CPT=(Costx1000)/Impression
CPM=(Costx1000)/Reach(000)
 Impression and Reach in thousand are not the same,are they? Impression include duplication but the reach in thousand does not. Impression = Reach(000)x OTS?
 Therefore, there must be different b/w CPT & CPM. But it seems that most books consider them as the same.
 GRP = ots x Reach (%)or GRP = Frequency x Reach (%)?
 Does ots have some meaning of impression?
Since these issue confuse me now so much and I current get a stuck in preparing a report. Pls do reply me as soon as possible. Many thanks.
 The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 21, 2003 ):

You have tangled up several ideas and defintions. In different countries, some of these terms are used differently or not used. For example, in the Guru's base of the U.S., we do not use "opportunities to see (OTS)," and though you may be in Thailand, the Guru will not assume so.
CPM stands for cost per thousand impressions; the "M" is the Roman numeral M, meaning one thousand. CPT is not familiar in the US, but is probably another indicator of Cost per Thousand impressions.
The Guru most often sees "OTS" used as equivalent to "impressions" but sometimes as a reference to average frequency, so here are the simplest definitions.
"Impressions" are the number of advertising exposures, i.e. the number of different people exposed to advertising times the average number of occasions on which they are exposed. Thus, duplication is included. "number of different people exposed" is equivalent to "reach." "Number of occasions on which they are exposed" is equivalent to "frequency."
CPM is cost of advertising divided by impressions in thousands. Reach is not involved. When reach is expressed as a percentage of a target group, then reach x frequency = GRP.
 Thursday, May 29, 2003 #5984

Want to know the calculation of different GRPs to get required reach on 2+ or 3+ ots
e.g. on 400 GRPs gets 60% reach on 3+ OTS
 The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 31, 2003 ):

You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.
The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Betabinomial function.
There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables
 Sunday, May 11, 2003 #5965

Dear Guru, Many thanks for your reply on ots and Effective frequency. It's been a great help finding you online, b'cos we don't have any institution to get proper training on issues regarding media planning. The thing is in our country (Bangladesh), while media planning, we always face a lot of problems due to the unavailabilty of data. However, we've got TV viwership ratings, Newspaper circulations and readership ratings etc. At this point, how can I effectively calculate OTS? Is it possible to do with the data I've mentioned. Thanks once again. M. A. Toolie
 The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 11, 2003 ):

In the Guru's prior response (#5938) he explained how to calculate print OTS, if one audience exposure is your standard. For TV, 1 rating point means a quantity of audience exposures equal to 1% of the specified population.
 Wednesday, April 16, 2003 #5938

Dear Guru,
What are the methods for calculating ots of TV and Press ads with limited data? can you help me find articles on effective frequency?
 The Media Guru Answers(Monday, April 21, 2003 ):

OTS is a matter of measurement. If the limited data includes circulation of press, as it always should, then an assumption of readers per copy may be made two is usually a safe starting point in paid media. With no data there is no way to estimate sensibly.
Click here to see extensive Guru discussion of effective frequency
 Wednesday, April 10, 2002 #5214

please tell me all about ots (opportunity to see)
 The Media Guru Answers(Monday, April 15, 2002 ):

Click here to see past Guru responses about OTS
 Friday, August 17, 2001 #4663

Love, love, love this site! I think you are providing a wonderful service. I read a recent question which as about an ots formula (OTC?) I have never heard of this term. Would you tell me what the letters stand for? (I looked in your media terms section, and it is not there.) Thanks,
 The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 17, 2001 ):

Thank you for your kind words.
"OTS" or "opportunities to see" is used differently by various practitioners. One meaning is equivalent to impressions, or the number of exposures of a campaign to individual members of the target demographic; a summing of the audiences of all the advertsing occasions of a campaign. In this sense, "average" is not an appropriate modifier. Others may use the phrase "average OTS" as we in the US use "average frequency."
The term ots is not commonly used in the US, but is standard in the rest of the English speaking world.
 Saturday, August 11, 2001 #4650

can you give me the formulae to calculate the ots viv a vis competition in the print media.
 The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, August 11, 2001 ):

The question isn't quite clear: If you mean the formula to determine what your own OTC goalshould be visavis competition, it is very simple:
If Y= your goal ots and
C = competitor's ots then
Y > C
If you mean a formula to calculate your competitors current OTS, you need to have quantities from reports before you can determine what formulae to apply. For example, do you know spending ($)and average cost per ots (O)? Then the formula is $ ÷ ots
 Thursday, July 19, 2001 #4594

Hi Guru,
I have a set of queries:
1. What is the difference between program reach and program TVR.
2.How can reach curves be used in planning media
3.What skills apart from negotiation does a media buyer need
4. The gross weight of a tv plan can be
a. sum of all spot tvrs
b. product of 1+ reach and average ots of the entire plan
These values for the same plan are not always equal why?
5. Why dont u allow advertising on your site? How do you make money from your website currently
Please let me know
Thanks
Ajit
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 19, 2001 ):

Your terminology is a bit different from US usage, but with given assumptions the Guru's answers are as follows:
 Assuming "TVR" is rating, program reach and rating are identical for a single ad unit. Reach and ratings accumulate differently because reach discounts audience duplication from one ad unit to the next.
 As an example, reach curves show where the reach added by additional advertising in the same medium diminishes and a new medium should be added to the mix to optimize the effect of more spending.
 Aside from negotiating skills, a buyer needs good communication skills to convey the benefits of his buys. Otherwise, the skills are the same as any for business, perhaps emphasizing math.
 Assuming again that "TVR" is ratings and that "average ots" is average frequeuncy of exposure, then the sum of tvrs must equal the product of 1+ reach and average ots. Any tiny difference will be rounding.
 Of course AMIC accepts advertising! Ads do not appear on the Guru's "current answers" page, because it is dynamically generated by scripts, from a data base.
 Saturday, December 23, 2000 #4063

Dear Guru,
I am a very new media planner so I have a very basic question. What is the difference between average Frequency and average ots and what is the formula for their calculation.
Thanking you in advace.
 The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, December 23, 2000 ):

"OTS" or "opportunities to see" is used differently by various practitioners. One meaning is equivalent to impressions, or the number of exposures of a campaign to individual members ot the target demographic; a summing of the audiences of all the advertsing occasions of a campaign. In this sense, "average" is not an appropriate modifier.
Average frequency is the average number of exposures experienced by the members of the target who have been exposed to the campaign (net reach) over a measured time period such as 4 weeks. Formula: Gross impressions ÷ net reach or GRPs ÷ percent reach.
 Wednesday, August 02, 2000 #3666

Ref. question 3663
Thanx for answering my question. I buy slots with high eff. index when my objective is to accumulate GRP's and drill my message into my consumers mind. This is the secondary stage where after creating the initial reach i focus on accumulating greatest total number of impressions (Funnel Treatment).
As for the decay factor it reflects the decrease in the recall leval when advertising is reduced or stoped. I normally use 10% decay level in IMphase(IM horizontal planning technologies)
The question that i want to ask you is what is the better way of flighting. There is a 70's 3+ eff frequency model by Prof. MacDonald which says that brusting is a better flighting patteren.On the other hand there is more recent Recency concept championed by Prof. JP Jones of Syracuse university of NY which says that as far as FMCG goods are concerned people are in the market every week and infect only needs one ots to stimulate purchase.Please comment
MY second question is how do you calculate Eff Frequency. Normally i use Eff frequency model where i calculate the eff frequency by applying judgement and common sence in a disciplined manner using Marketing, Advertising and competitive factors
Thanx
Sarwar Khan
Media Manager
RLintas
Lahore,Pakistan
 The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 06, 2000 ):

1. In regard to 3+ effective frequency versus recency, the Guru tends to favor recency for "Fast Moving Consumer Goods." Recency is not really a contrast to the 3+ frequency theory, but an extension. As championed by Erwin Ephron, a core concept of recency is that once the third exposure is delivered, all additional exposures are at 3+.
2. Once again, there seems to be a semantic issue when you say "calculate" effective frequency. If you mean setting the frequency level to be considered effective, then your "judgment and common sence in a disciplined manner using
Marketing, Advertising and competitive factors are the right approach, and the Ostrow Model will be helpful. If instead, you mean to calculate the effective frequency delivered by your schedule, this has absolutely nothing to do with the subjective factors you have listed. A reach model determines how many persons are exposed to each discrete number of ad units in the schedule. That is if your reach is 75%, that means, explicitly, that 75% of the target has experienced one or more ad exposures. Within this, perhaps 70% of the target has been exposed to 2 or more, 66% to 3 or more, etc, up to the full number of units in the schedule. Reach models allow for expressing all of these levels. "Effective reach" mean those reached at least the minimum number of times established as effective, most typically 3.
 Monday, September 20, 1999 #2808

Hi Guru!For maintainence level of advertising for an established brand, on TV why is an ots of three considered to be a minimum ? Or does no such rule of thumb exsist?
 The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 20, 1999 ):

The 3x ruleofthumb is based on studies dating back over 100 years to a researcher named Ebbinghaus. He determined that it required 3 repetitions of a string of nonsense syllables for them to be retained by experimental subjects.
Advertising researchers extended the research to posit that only after three exposures to a message would a consumer understand, recall and be prepared to act on the information. Media planners then started using an average frequency (as in "Reach and Frequency") of 3 as a minimum.
More recently, the concept of effective reach has used the theory that only those exposed at least 3 times should be counted as "effectively reached." So, for example, a media plan with an average four week reach / frequency of 76 / 5.2 might reach 50% of the target 3 or more times. Some planners will evaluate several issues surrounding the copy, competition and media options to decide what effective level is appropriate and set a level of 4 or 6, etc. Of course, this is meaningless without also setting a reach goal at the stated frequency level. A plan that delivers 50 reach at 3+ might also deliver 42 at 4+, 33 at 5+ etc, so there is an issue of the goal versus the level at which the plan is examined.
 Thursday, March 25, 1999 #2412

1) Are the terms OTS, impressions, hits and exposures
interchangeable?
2) Are there media industry norms (or even studies)
that indicate a correlation between a number of OTS
or exposures and audience (reader) behavior. I
understand there were a number of Politz studies
conducted in the 60s which suggested that one exposure
produced a dicernible response and two exposures
produced about double that response. Also there are
European reports stating that a magazine ad should
provide at least 5 ots in order for the reader to
digest or understand the ad message  is '5' the
number? Are there industry norms, and if so, do
they differ by media vehicle? Thanks in advance!
 The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 26, 1999 ):

1) Other than "hits," you may generally consider those terms interchangeable. "Hits" is a much abused term peculiar to the internet. Some people do use it when the mean impressions, but technically "hit" is defined as "an entry in a server log."
Whenever a visitor requests a page on a site, as by clicking on a link, the server log records a "hit" for the text of the page, and hits for each frame and hits for each little bullet or other icon and a hit for each ad. A single page on one of today's commercial sites may consist of several dozen items which would all create "hits" in a server log when only one page impression is happening. The internet is also unique in its ability to serve content with a different ad each time a new user arrives at a page. So page impressions and ad impressions will not agree as they do in magazines or broadcast.
"Hits" originated in the early days of the world wide web, when browsers read text only, like the venerable "Lynx," and a page was just one block of text, so "hit" then equalled "impression," more or less. Hits include server log error messages as well, which are of no value to anyone.
2)
The study of effective numbers of exposures goes back at least as far as the scientist Ebbinghaus (1883) who tested how many repetitions of nonsense syllables were required to achieve learning. This was the origin of 3 as a magic media number there have been infinite numbers of other studies, more advertisng and sales focused since. Note that European media and Europe's media environment are different than the U.S. It is a common trap to assume that media perform the same tasks with the same effectiveness when used in different cultures. The U.S. Hispanic market is a good exanple, with TV, radio and print all delivering very different reach / frequncy, reach potetial and overlap than do the parallel general market media.
The best source of studies on the topic are:
Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter, Newsweek
Media Research Index and ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization.
The Guru has discussed this frequently. Click here to see past Guru
responses about "effective frequency"
 Tuesday, October 06, 1998 #2074

Dear Media Guru,
Please refer me to articles on media models to arrive
at optimum desirable frequency / ots / # exposures.
Thanks.
softcheries@hotmail.com
 The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 06, 1998 ):

Try the Advertising Research Foundation library or Newsweek
Media Research Index.
 Wednesday, September 30, 1998 #2064

Dear Guru,
in our country there are many agencies that buy raw data of television audiences and use it in their software, that have different methods for coverage and ots calculation from the ones that are generally used in the remaining agencies in the marktet, putting themselves in a priviligiate situation in newbusiness. In you country do you have a commitee that analyses this calculations, or what are the rules applied?
 The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, September 30, 1998 ):

It is considered good business in the U.S. to develop proprietary data applications and thereby become "smarter" than the competition.
When an agency does this, it then has the burden of convincing prospective clents that the application is valid.
In the U.S. there are committees of the American Association of Advertising Agencies, Association of National Advertisers and Advertising Research Foundation that examine publicly available data analysis systems.
 Wednesday, November 19, 1997 #1459

Does it make any sense to calculate GRPs not having reach and frequency stated?
My campaign brings me 530 GRps  whatdoes it mean for me? Could I calculate ots if I have only GRPs?
Thank you
 The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, November 22, 1997 ):

GRPs are simply a summation of all the audiences of all the
ads in a plan. They give you the "boxcar" size of a plan
without any detail. This can be used to compare to other
campaigns or other times, in crude terms.
If by OTS, you mean "Opportunities to See," which is
equivalent to Impressions, then the calculation is simple.
GRPs are a percentage of the population. Whatever your
GRP's target group, you need to know the total "universe" of
that population for which the GRPs are stated. Then, if you
have 500 GRPs, you have impressions equal to the population,
times 5.
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