35 matches were found
- Monday, May 10, 1999 #2502
I've always looked at communication goals in terms of effective reach. Determining effective reach goals can be different agency to agency. That is fine.
My issue has to do with combining broadcast media with print media. Can there be an effective reach goal when these media types are combined? In a discussion with
my Media Director, they felt that there can only be a 1+ goal. That the concept of effective reach curves were developed on a broadcast model and that print cannot be
combined. If not why? I would love your opinion and insight. Thanks.
- The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 11, 1999 ):
First, the 3+ concept goes back 115 years, to a researcher named Ebbinghaus, who found three repetitions of a series of nonsense syllables was needed for "learning" or memorization.
Combining media to achieve 3+ goals depends on a variety of philosophical judgements:
- Is the message sufficiently similar, between broadcast and print, so that repeats of either count equally toward establishing the information in the consumer's mind? (unlikley)
- Determining what level of reach should be achieved at 3+ and/or whether 3+, 4+ or another level should be set as "effective" usually depends on issues like the competitive pressure in the media used, clutter in the media selected, message complexity, category appeal, category novelty, etc. Many of these evaluations would have different results in different media.
It seems to the Guru that the issue is not whether to look at 1+ versus 3+ but whether to consider effectiveness medium-by-medium or in total.
The bottom line would depend on whether the communication focus is on the specific message, which leads to medium-by-medium evaluation, or more on brand or ad awareness, which leads to combined media evaluation.
- Thursday, March 25, 1999 #2412
1) Are the terms OTS, impressions, hits and exposures
2) Are there media industry norms (or even studies)
that indicate a correlation between a number of OTS
or exposures and audience (reader) behavior. I
understand there were a number of Politz studies
conducted in the 60s which suggested that one exposure
produced a dicernible response and two exposures
produced about double that response. Also there are
European reports stating that a magazine ad should
provide at least 5 OTS in order for the reader to
digest or understand the ad message -- is '5' the
number? Are there industry norms, and if so, do
they differ by media vehicle? Thanks in advance!
- The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 26, 1999 ):
1) Other than "hits," you may generally consider those terms interchangeable. "Hits" is a much abused term peculiar to the internet. Some people do use it when the mean impressions, but technically "hit" is defined as "an entry in a server log."
Whenever a visitor requests a page on a site, as by clicking on a link, the server log records a "hit" for the text of the page, and hits for each frame and hits for each little bullet or other icon and a hit for each ad. A single page on one of today's commercial sites may consist of several dozen items which would all create "hits" in a server log when only one page impression is happening. The internet is also unique in its ability to serve content with a different ad each time a new user arrives at a page. So page impressions and ad impressions will not agree as they do in magazines or broadcast.
"Hits" originated in the early days of the world wide web, when browsers read text only, like the venerable "Lynx," and a page was just one block of text, so "hit" then equalled "impression," more or less. Hits include server log error messages as well, which are of no value to anyone.
The study of effective numbers of exposures goes back at least as far as the scientist Ebbinghaus (1883) who tested how many repetitions of nonsense syllables were required to achieve learning. This was the origin of 3 as a magic media number there have been infinite numbers of other studies, more advertisng and sales focused since.
Note that European media and Europe's media environment are different than the U.S. It is a common trap to assume that media perform the same tasks with the same effectiveness when used in different cultures. The U.S. Hispanic market is a good exanple, with TV, radio and print all delivering very different reach / frequncy, reach potetial and overlap than do the parallel general market media.
The best source of studies on the topic are:
Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter, Newsweek
Media Research Index and ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization.
The Guru has discussed this frequently.
Click here to see past Guru
responses about "effective frequency"
- Thursday, February 18, 1999 #2347
As a buyer I have always been given the necessary
information needed to put together a buy. I am
currently in a new position, and I am being asked to
provide information that I've never concerned myself
with before, or gotten involved with the how's or
why's of the decision. I'm in dire need of help.
I have been asked to determine the number of GRP's that
should be used in a proposal for a new client. I have
not received any budget information. The schedule will
run 6-8 months, my demo is A 25-35 and the GRP's
should be spiked during the 1st & final week of each
month. Also, I am to include TV, Cable, and Radio.
My question is:
Do I simply request avails from the various TV & radio
and cable stations within the market, put together a
proposed schedule based on the avail information I
receive, and add up the number of GRP's accordingly?
- The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 18, 1999 ):
Congratulations, today you are a media planner. But apparently you are working with people lacking professional advertising experience or perhaps a retail client.
You either need some marketing goals input or you need to suggest some goals and get agreement before proceeding. You have been presented with a question equivalent to "how many pounds of nails are needed to build a building?"
You need to know how big a building, what materials it will be made of, how many nails in a pound, to what use will it be put and how big must it be?
To recommend schedule weights you need either a budget or a communications goal to deliver. In media / marketing terms you need to establish -- whether you are given direction or someone accepts your suggestions:
- What has priority: Reach or frequency?
- is there a minimum reach or effective reach to attain; per week, in four weeks, or in total?
- To help answer those questions, if no simple answer is available, you might ask is it a new or established product or service?
- What levels are used by the competition, if any?
- Are there any specific product awareness, ad awareness or sales volume goals?
- (In planning advertising, assume everything is a result of advertising: there is no awareness among people not reached; there are no sales to people who are not aware of the product.)
Knowing all this, you could examine reach frequency and continuity impact of various levels and combinations of your media choices. In other words, you somehow need to establish what must be accomplished by the GRPs, before you can decide how many to use.
It is puzzling, in this great information vacuum, that someone has decided to "spike" certain weeks. Apparently there is some information around which you haven't yet been given.
- Monday, February 15, 1999 #2336
How are effective frequency and reach levels determined for new product categories?
- The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, February 16, 1999 ):
The Guru has discussed this frequently.
Click here to see past Guru responses on effective reach
- Thursday, February 11, 1999 #2322
Ephron(1993)suggests that the more a planner goes for
frequency on television, the less effective he will
progressively be, because the extra GRPs will fall
increasingly into the "black hole" of the heavy
viewers' viewing times, when they already have more
In the context of "Effectiv Frequency", do you think
concentrated frequency with a low reach is usually
"better" than a lower frequency with a higher reach?
- The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 13, 1999 ):
In the context of effective frequency, yes, more frequency with less reach is better than less frequenct with more reach, but that isn't the point of effective frequency. effective frequency is the concept of focusing on the reach which is delivered at enough frequency.
effective frequency is one basis of Ephron's theories. The key point he adds in movimg to recency planning is that frequency is additive over time; once a message has passed the effective threshold, each additional exposure is with effective frequency, especially when advertising is continuous. There is no need to consider only four week
- Thursday, February 11, 1999 #2321
I have been trying to understand Plan Optimisers for quite
some time now.I still am unable to understand.
Especially in a complex media scenario like India
where languages differ from region to region and
different cities have to be covered and a lot of non-
quantitative factors like regional sensitivity have to
be considered , how can we effectively use
Optimisers that are predominantly manufactured in the
- The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 13, 1999 ):
Quite possibly, you cannot. Optimisers are meant to deal with quantitative issues of media selection, getting the most reach or effective reach or quintiles-of-frequency balance for the money.
Many seemingly subjective elements of the media possibilities, like the effects of regional sensitivity, can be judgmentally quantified and processed by an optimizer.
When languages differ, it is comparable to geographic differences: they are different universes and call for separate plans.
- Sunday, January 10, 1999 #2257
I am a media planner in India. Need some information on latest effective frequency models. The Ostrow model as described in the Scissors and Bumba is the only one I have seen. Are there any other models developed? Also it would nice if you could pass on some info on recency planning theory.
- The Media Guru Answers(Monday, January 11, 1999 ):
The Advertising Research Foundation library would be the best source for alternative models.
The Guru has often discussed recency.
Click here to see past guru responses on recency planning
- Friday, December 04, 1998 #2198
Dear Guru. Thank you for your answers - they are very
helpfull to me. My question is on "recency".
1.What groups of products best fit for "recency"
2."Recency" planning needs continuity. But it is
not evident what frequency level is needed at every
moment of such continious ad campaign. It seems
reasonable to set more frequency at the launch period
and then decrease frequency for mantainance. Also we
should take into consideration seasonality. Thus our
campaign becomes pulsing but not continious. What are
your comments? Thank you very much.
- The Media Guru Answers(Friday, December 04, 1998 ):
1- Recency seems to best fit common products that are bought regularly; in other words, a purchase is stimulated by running out of the current supply. This means food and HBA products, primarily. More "considered purchase" products, like automobiles, may not be a good fit.
Erwin Ephron, principal proponent of Recency, has commented to the Guru that about 30 reach on a weekly basis is a threshold level. This might mean 50-60 GRP depending on the media used amd target.
Part of recency theory, in relation to frequency levels and effective reach, is that after three exposures have been delivered, every subsequent exposure is supported by adequate frequency. Recency generally applies to brands with established awareness; when you raise the issue of product introductions, it is a different situation.
Seasonality is the principal exception to recency. There is no point in delivering the most recent ad exposure at a time when no purchase is likely. It is important to distinguish products with seasonal fluctuations, like deodorant, from products with very specific seasons, like barbecue charcoal.
Also consider that Recency does not mandate even levels in its continuity. The weight can be raised above the threshold when appropriate.
- Wednesday, December 02, 1998 #2194
Dear Guru, can you name any media analysis tools and media predictive tools that media planners use on a regular basis without being too technical, of course. Many thanks
- The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 03, 1998 ):
Here are several:
- Reach: the number of different target households or persons exposed to a campaign (most often expressed as a percentage of the target universe, and most often calculated over a 4-week period).
- Frequency: The average number of exposures of the campaign to those reached.
- Gross Rating Points (GRP) / Target Rating Points(TRP): Essentially interchangeable terms for the sum of the audiences of all the ad units in the campaign, expressed as a percentage of the target universe.
- Gross Impressions: Same audience count as GRP/TRP but expressed in whole numbers rather than percents.
- CPP / Cost per GRP and CPM / Cost per thousand impressions: should be self evident from the previous. These are referred to as the "efficiency."
- effective reach: Those in the "Reach" who experienced a specified minimum number of exposures (effective frequency)
All the above stem from the audience research tools and investment figures. So called "reach and frequency" systems typically generate all these figures.
Other tools, especially in print media are also occasionally used. These may include "time spent with" media vehicles, "page openings", attentiveness, etc.
- Tuesday, October 06, 1998 #2073
In media jargon, what does recency planning mean?
- The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 06, 1998 ):
Most simply, it's the idea that the message heard closest to the time of purchase decision is most effective. This leads to plans that optimize continuity instead of focusing on achieving a minimum level of GRP's or minimum effective reach for some affordable number of weeks.
The Guru has addressed recency often; try searching the term in the Guru Archives Search Engine.
Recency has also been a hot topic on our MediaPlanning and Award-papers e-mail discussions.
- Tuesday, August 25, 1998 #2014
Hi, I would like to know anything regarding setting the minimun level of TRP's, or minimun reach goal. We know how to set the optimun level, but there is a minimun? One point where is better not to advertise at all. Thank you.
- The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 31, 1998 ):
Any GRPs generate some reach and frequency.
Any reach generates some consumer impact. Setting minima is a matter of judgment and logic.
If you are an adherent of the effective reach theory, you will determine what is your effective level (3+ or more) and what portion of your target you need to reach at that level, to make advertising worthwhile. This determination will tell you either how much time you can be active in advertising or across how much geography. The Guru favors 50% as the portion of target to set as minimum to reach effectively.
If you believe totally in the recency theory, any is a reasonable minimum, because each impression has its greatest chance to produce a sale this way, as it is more likely to produce unduplicated reach at any point in time. Yet, few planners can avoid feeling there should be a minimum, probably because they want to see measured sales movement for some period of time.
In either case, seasonality and purchase cycles will inform the decision.
- Tuesday, August 04, 1998 #1991
Dear Guru! What could you say about STAS ( Short Term Ad Strength)model usage in media planning istead of effective frequency approach.How could you estimate STAS advantages, limitations and forecast its delevopment in the future for the different countries.
- The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, August 04, 1998 ):
For the latest on STAS, see the Telmar Awards Paper by J.P. Jones, creator of STAS. Other articles explaining STAS have been published in the Journal of Advertising Research from the Advertising Research Foundation.
- Monday, August 03, 1998 #1987
Dear Guru, I am new to media planning and have been
asked to predict the major changes for media planners
over the next five years. can you give me any starters?
Thanks in advance
- The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 03, 1998 ):
Since this must be a training exercise for new planners, isn't asking the Guru cheating? But since this sort of exercise is silly anyway, the Guru will go along; after all nobody would have predicted the media planners' involvement in on-line, five years ago.
Come to think of it, on-line may have been the only major change of the past five years.
For example,the incremental importance of cable and the slow decline of broadcast ratings is not a major change for planners. They face the same questions, but the answers have changed somewhat.
The new millennium, whether one considers the "popular" start date of January 1, 2000, or the actual date of 1/1/2001 will, no doubt, be a time to look for new approaches and focus more on the future. Marketers will finally recognize that the various major ethnic markets: Hispanics -- newly the largest ethnic group -- plus African American, Asian American and smaller minorities will encompass most Americans in the first decade of the new century. This will mean planners must pay far more attention to assessing the importance of and covering these market segments.
Also in the next five years the Guru sees the debate between advocates of "Recency" plannning and those backing "effective reach" being settled. Categories of marketing or rules on which to base application of one or the other will be clearly defined and two distinct styles of planning will emerge.
Finally, coming back to online, the internet's amazing growth will max out. No more than 50% of the population is likely to be on-line. The internet universe and internet ratings, on a U.S. basis, will be readily available, so that on-line media will become just another element of media plans. Specialist agencies will fold into general agencies and internet media will have no more mystique than out-of-home.
- Wednesday, July 29, 1998 #1978
If I'd like to compare cost-efficiency of certain radiostation and certain TV station, would it be correct to apply some coefficient for radio GRP's (like 0,3 radio grp's vs 1 TV's)? Is there any reliable research findings concerning the question of comparable value of, say, the same kind of units but for different media? Thankful for your answer, Elena, Moscow
- The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 29, 1998 ):
Cost efficiency is typically used to compare media while intentionally ignoring "qualitative" differences. Of course, planners like to assign values to represent the differing value of communication power or whatever.
What is your measurement standard in a media plan? Reach, effective reach, sales per grp?
It is quite unlikely that a TV grp has 3 times as much of anything - recall / sales motivation / etc. And one must keep in mind that GRPs have their effects as part of schedules, not one at a time. Even if one radio announcement was 30% as strong on some basis as one tv annoouncement, the accumulation of effect over the course of a schedule would become much less, especially if radio's lower cost per GRP allowed a bigger schedule for the same money, which is why efficiency is compared in the first place.
Short answer - develop comparisons of efficiency and effectiveness separately. Then use effectiveness as an index on efficiency if you must.
ESOMAR , the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research organization or the Advertising Research Foundation may have studies on the relative effectiveness question.
- Monday, July 20, 1998 #1962
Thanks for your response to my question (#1955.) I was refering to average frequency NOT effective frequency.
In addition, our buys are targeted to the same demo, Men 25-54. Do these clarifications add any new light to your thoughts?
I maintain that an average frequency of three (3) per radio station per week requires reducing the number of stations purchased which in turn
reduces my reach and overall delivery. Any new thoughts. Thanks
- The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 20, 1998 ):
The problem seems to be lack of a specific communication goal.
- Is the plan goal maximum reach?
- Is the plan goal optimal reach at an average frequency of 3 or more?
Once there is agreement on this, it is a simple matter to construct paper buys to illustrate what is acheived buying with and without the requirement of an average reach of 3 on each station and how each contributes to agreed goals (a buyer should not decide independently that reach is the overall goal).
The Guru notes that he does not generally support buying to goals based on set frequency per station. Some stations with low turnover will build reach slowly while frequency mounts quickly. A 3 frequency will come too early in that station's reach curve, while another station builds reach quickly and frequency slowly.
- Monday, June 22, 1998 #1915
Do you know of any awareness tracking studies or models that relate recall by medium to purchase intent? Would it be feasible to carry out this kind of effectiveness study to determine what kind of results a media placement agency is delivering to clients?
- The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 25, 1998 ):
No doubt some users of recall tests have made an effort to relate recall to sales or purchase intent. This involves using their own, proprietary test scores and sales data. It is possible that the Advertising Research Foundation Library or the archives of their Journal of Advertising Research or conference presentations include the sort of analysis you need.
However, whether this is a basis for judging the performance of a media service is another question altogether. Has the media service been instructed to buy for optimal recall? Has the media service been instructed to buy to optimize purchase intent? In the Guru's experience, these are rarely part of the media goals conveyed to a buyer. More often, buying efficiently or to achieve a reach, frequency or effective reach goal is the instruction.
Further, if you wish to make recall or purchase intent your standard of evaluation, it only makes sense if you share the model you wish to use with your buying service
- Friday, May 29, 1998 #1613
1.what is osto's model?
2.In case of an absence of duplication data for publications, how do l calculate
the effective reach using 2 or more media vehicles? in such a scenario, is it safe
to use the random theory even if multiple readership is negligible?
- The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 02, 1998 ):
1) The Guru is not familiar with Osto's model. It may be specific to India, from where you are writing.
2) The Random method is a starting point. If you can find two other similar publications with measured duplication, you can use the duplication ratio from those publications. If you literally mean "effective reach," that is, reach at or above a minimum exposure level, then you need a more complex formula or a computer program like Telmar's ADplus.
- Thursday, May 14, 1998 #1592
There are two questions I wish to address to you:
1. Is there any rule of thumb regarding the weight of 10'' spots? How effective can a relatively 'small' campaign composed chiefly of such short spots can be? By a small campaign I mean one that has arounc 300-400 GRP.
2. When it comes to factors that either enhance or lessen the effectiveness of a campaign, are there any conventions regarding the use of relevant factors? The order in a break may be a more familiar example but there are other factors that one may incorporate to a media plan, e.g whether the commercial is new or not.
Thank you so much for the attention
- The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 14, 1998 ):
1) The Guru's rule of thumb in general, is if the effectiveness - relative to a :30 - is better than the price ratio, a :10 can be a good investment. In the early days of :15s in the U.S., they were evaluated as about 75% as effective as :30s, and sold for 50%, so they were popular. The Guru believes he has seen research to say a :10 is worth 75% of a :15.
However, you are posting from Israel. Your local standards may be different, because of the different culture and different media environment, clutter, media mix, etc. If you can ascertain a local effectiveness ratio, you can make an informed decision.
In any case, the Guru believes these short executions are best used as a supplement to longer copy. The Guru does not believe most creative people would be comfortable with only :10 copy and just 300-400 GRP.
2) The number of factors, such as break position, age of commercial, complexity of message, product interest, etc, which can be influential is almost infinite. The relative influence is a judgement call. Evaluating through a logical process, by establishing your rules and executing them, is best.
The Guru has seen these factors used to develop an effective frequency basis for a media plan's communication goals. In this way all considerations come down to a single number.
- Monday, March 23, 1998 #1541
I need latest info on the recency theory for tv media planning and the general opinion of the industry on this theory.
- The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 30, 1998 ):
Trade publications like Ad
Age, Mediaweek and Jou
rnal of Advertising Research cover this topic
regularly, with articles from Erwin Ephron, Walter Reichel
and John Paul Jones.
Media Research Index and theAdvertising Research
Foundation Library also archive such information.
The Guru believes the industry is still divided on Recency
vs effective reach.
- Thursday, March 05, 1998 #1521
What is recency planning and
is it different from the method
of acquiring effective frequency
as a media objective
- The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, March 05, 1998 ):
Recency planning is quite different than effective
Recency planning is based on the premise that the ad
exposure closest to the time of purchase decision is far
more effective than any other.
Hence flighting, to build up to a given effective
frequency, for a shorter period of time will sell less
product than having some activity at any time when
purchase might be occurring.
- Friday, August 08, 1997 #1386
I wanna know if exists any similar combination for media as exists with marketing-mix with the 4 P's (product, placement, price and promotion).
- The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 08, 1997 ):
Though not as alliterative, the comparable media factors
- Ad unit
- Media Mix
All this is, of course, a sub-set of marketing's
Other factors in media, which you
would be used to encountering in plans' Objectives and
Strategies sections, come before or after these decision
points. For instance, Budget, which controls the
degree of freedom possible in selecting options for the
list and Reach / effective reach which is
essentially a result of the decisions made about the listed
- Thursday, June 19, 1997 #1366
I have a set of urgent questions to ask of you. I have a meeting tomorrow, and need your help!
1. How is effective reach calculated?
2. Reach v/s Frequency -- when should one be given priority / importance over the other?
3. Is there any way of taking creative into account while analysing competition? If yes, can a system of weights be worked out?
4. How do you reconcile to the vast difference between reach/frequency deliveries from a Peoplemeter system as opposed to the Diary system? My client refuses to accept a 4+ reach of 30% being accustomed to levels of 70% for the same plan!
Would greatly appreciate your immediate reply.
- The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 19, 1997 ):
1) In any schedule of several commercials, some of the
target group will see only one, some will see two, some will
see three, some will see four, some five, etc, etc.
actual measurement is based on tracking the cume of
several different advertisers schedules in a single
measurement period such as one month of the PeopleMeter.
A mathematical model that will match the measured
GRP/Frequency is calculated so that plan deliveries can be
predicted. Going more deeply into the actual measurement, it
can be determined how many people of each demographic group
were exposed to each commercial in the schedule and a model
calculated which will predict that performance for a plan.
For example, below is the typical output of a computer
models' frequency distribution, showing what percent of the
target saw exactly n commercials and what percent saw
n+. (this example is from Telmar's ADplus):
Frequency (f) Distributions
% who saw
#seen exactly at least
----- ------- -------
Target: f rch rch
P18-49 --- ----- -----
0 69.1 100.0
1 11.5 30.9
2 6.0 19.3
3 3.7 13.4
4 2.6 9.6
5 1.8 7.1
6 1.3 5.2
7 1.0 3.9
8 0.7 2.9
9 0.6 2.2
10+ 1.6 1.6
20+ 0.0 0.0
2) Reach vs Frequency: The determination of emphasis here
can be a complicated analysis making up the greater part of
a plan's documentation, under the heading of
"communications strategy." A commercial so powerful that
it's sell is overwhelming in one exposure might take the
"Let's buy one spot in the Superbowl" route as did the
Macintosh computer with the classic "1984" execution.
In more competitive situations, competitors' levels are
taken into account, clutter in the media of choice, copy
quality, etc. Obviously a balance must eventually be struck
between reach and frequency based on judging all these
3) There are several ways to take creative into account
while setting up reach vs frequency goals;
complexity or simplicity of the message
The number of
commercial in the pool
how close your commercial is to
the established "wear-out" level
The balance of :30 to
etc, etc. can all be assigned factors and totalled or
averaged to give a reach vs frequency emphasis factor
similar exercise can also set effective frequency
4) There should not be "vast"
differences between effective reaches based on people meter
and diary systems if schedule GRP and other aspects are the
same. 5 or 10% would be the range the Guru would
A plan with a 70 reach at the 4+ level would be
delivering in the range of 98% total reach. It sounds
as if your client may be confusing a plan with 70 reach and
an average frequency of 4 with 70 at an
effective frequency of 4. Or perhaps
confusing 4-week reach with a long term cume?
- Friday, June 13, 1997 #1365
Could you please give your opinion on what can be viewed as a recommended level of GRP, frequency and effective frequency for a highly competitive advertising category on TV. As an example we can take a carbonated soft drinks' category. What should be the planning guidelines? When and why we should use flighting (pulsing) or what is the rationale for a continous campaign. Additionally to TV which other media should we use and why?
Thank you in advance,
- The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 13, 1997 ):
You are actually asking for the complete Objectives,
Strategies and communications tactics of a full scale media
plan, without offering enough background.
Nevertheless, here are some considerations:
One theory of competitive media planning calls for
delivering a minimum of 10% more impressions than the key
competitor, in head to head media. This assures beating the
competition in GRP, reach and effective reach.
Budget is a consideration. If there is not enough money to
compete as above nationally, then selecting geography where
the delivery advantage can be maintained should allow you
to beat the competition, bit by bit, until you can afford
When there are time-sensitive promotional issues, then
pulsing can be an effective way to deliver more impressions
over the crucial period. Recent media theory has emphasized
the benefits of continuity, because "the impression
delivered closest to the purchase decision is the most
effective impression." In the soft drink category, where
purchase decisions are constant, continuity may be
generally preferable to pulsing.
In other, highly competitive, seasonal categories
pulsing may be needed.
As far as recommending other media, that calls for more information, but
please look at the Guru's Media Advertising Strenghths
- Monday, February 17, 1997 #1045
I am interested in obtaining research that explores effective consumer promotion television weight levels. A typical consumer promotion window may be 2 - 3 weeks. Most consumer promotions are planned in the neighbourhood of 300 GRPs / week. Is there any research that has measured effective levels. I am trying to identifity an optimal level, a level (or range) below which response/sales suffer and/or above which response/sales do not substanitially increase.Goal- avoid spending too little or too much against a given promotion.
- The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 21, 1997 ):
There are so many variable beyond GRP weight that the Guru doubts you will find simple answers.
Just a few are copy length, daypart mix, competitive arena, product interest, and commercial quality and wear-out status. Further, the Guru thinks that effective reach / frequency is a more useful quantitaive standard than pure GRP.
Two places to look for relevant research would be Newsweek Media Research Index or Advertising Research Foundation
- Tuesday, February 04, 1997 #1056
What is the best way to determine effective reach? Any availabale research?
- The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 09, 1997 ):
effective reach refers to the concept that people exposed to advertising are only exposedd "effectively' beginning witha certian number of repetitions of the message.
originally, 3 tiems was the standard, based on the work of Ebinghaus in the 1880's, who tested learning of nonsense syllables.
Today logic and experience tells us that many factors determine the number of repetions necessary before recognition and understanding of a message will turn into motivation to buy.
The power of the creative, the clutter of the media used, the competitive environment, the interest of the consumer in the category, whether it is an impulse item otr considerd purchase are just a few of the 20+ factors commonly used to judge whether the effective level mustbe set at 3, 4, 6 or more.
- Friday, December 20, 1996 #1087
How do the concepts of effective frequency relate todirect response advertising? Should the same rules of frequency be taken into account when planning forresponse as when planning for awareness? Is frequency even a factor in D.R. or should I just max out on impressions and occasions?
- The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, December 21, 1996 ):
effective frequency applies, but differently. If it takes 3 repetitions for a message to be absorbed, then DR may need the 3 repitions as well before it begins to work. But perhaps that's why DR messages are often 90's or 120's, There is the chance to repeat information 3 or more times and capture attention. In half hour infomercials, it is not unusual for ther to be 3 10 minute cycles of repeated information.
- Thursday, October 31, 1996 #1115
Dear Guru,I am carrying out a study on the effects of frequency on attitudes and behavior, distinguishing between low and high involvement productsAre there any previous learnings on this subject ?
- The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 31, 1996 ):
Compilations of such research are best available from the Advertising Research Foundation or the Newsweek Media Research Index at VMR.
There ahve been several trade articles on the concept -- effective frequency vs propinquity -- most notably by Irwin Efron, and some by Abbott Wool and others, published in Inside Media and MediaWeek.
- Saturday, August 31, 1996 #1153
How does one determine what is effective advertising on the Internet?What would be thought to be an effective frequency?How does it compare with more traditional media (direct advertising etc)?
- The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 02, 1996 ):
One first has to define what qualifies as advertising in the internet context. Is it a full web page or is it a banner ad on someone else's page?
effective frequency was long cosidered to be just a simple 3 or more times, stemming from the origninal 1883 Ebbinhaus learning theory experiment.
More recent theorists look at differnet amounts of repetion needed to "learn" an advertising message, based on content (high interest/low interest, etc) or environment (relevant surroundings, clutter, competition, etc).
But in the case of banners, these are usually no more than logos, with nothing to learn, they're fishing lures to bring the browser to the more detailed inormation. In the case of full web pages, the idea is either to draw the browser through the whole content if the page is an ad or to bring the browser back often if the page itself is a medium for other people's banner ads.
Learning and repetiton may not be relevant or may nned to be redefined.
In a direct mail context, the banner may be like the outside of the envelope, and the web page like the content. Both are a one-shot deal: effective frequency doesn't enter the picture.
- Sunday, July 07, 1996 #1185
I am convinced that with a limited budget it is necessary to reach "effective" reach levels at a given period of time rathe than spread thos dollars throughout the year to achieve low levels but high coninuity. I am working in the Automotive field. Please help me. I need specific documented research studies on effective reach!!!
- The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 08, 1996 ):
It isn't clear what your query is. Many people continue to feel as you do. In recent years, many others have espoused the "propinquity" theory which advocates continuous low levels, based on the idea that the single exposure closest to a purchase occasion is the most effective.
There has been considerable trade publication comment on the matter, most often by Erwin Ephron, probably the leading proponent of propinquity. A recent Advertising Research Foundation workshop devoted considerable attention to this issue, and the proceeding of that conference should be available from the ARF. There have been opposing positions, in agreement with yours, published as well, one of the earliest by Abbott Wool in Media Week shortly after Ephron's first publication of the theory.
The Guru has discussed this before, so using your browser's "find" function to scan this page and the Guru archives will provide additional material.
Surely the most archetypical exception to continuity is for the highly seasonal product, as automotive products may be.
- Friday, May 17, 1996 #1213
Dear Guru,I have two questions which you might have heard before.
a)I do know that a :15s commercial on TV cost between 50% to 75% of a :30s depending on market etc. Is there any studies that show what the benefit of either length is (if any) in terms of reach, frequency, effectiveness, memorability, etc.
b)I have seen studies praising the advantage of multiple media usage above single media; in other words using TV and radio instead of just TV. Can you elaborate on that and update with new info about this topic. Reason being a client who would like to slash the budget down to just using TV for campaigns. I however feel that there is an added benefit in using multiple media.Please respond by Monday if you can.Thanks.
- The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 19, 1996 ):
a) There is is no difference in reach and frequency between a :15 and a :30. In the same time period, they have the same audience, within the tolerances of research measurement.
On the other hand, a schedule using :15's in place of some or all the :30's will provide more reach and frequency, because it has more announcements, hence more GRP, etc, for the same budget.
When :15's started to become popular several years ago, there was considerable research regarding effectiveness versus :30's. The general findings were that :15's had about 70 - 75% of the recall of a :30. At the time, :15's were typically a network option priced at 50% of :30's so the trade off of price vs effectiveness seemed favorable.
b) Multi-media plans chief benefit is in reach development, though the effects of the added reach have ripples in many directions.
Adding a new medium adds more reach than adding weight in the same medium: There are more likely to be different people in the audience of a different medium, over a given period of time. This applies to effective reach as well.
There are a variety of philosophical approaches to taking advantage of this.
One approach says to build reach up to a minimum effective level in the primary medium first, before adding the next medium. Another says build the first medium to the point where the reach curve flattens, then add the next medium to resume reach growth.
A newer, different line of thought, the "recency" theory, de-emphasizes reach in favor of delivering messages to the consumer closest to the point of making a purchas decison. This argues for continuity, to reach more people at all times rather than highest levels in sporadic flights. Again, multi-media will produce more reach, but other theories of minimum weekly levels may effect scheduling, ie radio bought to a minimum of 12x weekly when active.
Judgements must also be made regarding whether TV and radio is perceived as the same message by the consumer. Of course, this same judgement must be applied to different executions in the commercial pool of each individual medium as well.
- Tuesday, April 30, 1996 #1231
I'm working on a presentation on how media planning professionals go about determining a media mix, and how a percent of budget is allocated to each medium being used. It's a general presentation for a client who is not very familiar with media planning terminology or methods. So far my sources for info include a couple of similar documents that I and others that I work with have written in the past, and the media planning textbook (by Scissors). Do you know of any other RECENT sources of info, points-of-view, articles on this topic? Or have you answered a similar question recently? If so, please tell me the category under which your response would be filed (I have looked through several categories of your responses and did not see anything relevant to this topic). Thanks!
- The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 30, 1996 ):
In the broadest terms, the process may be thought of as
Marketing Goals ---> Marketing Strategies ---> Media Goals ---> Media Strategies ---> Media Tactics, etc.
A very simple example:
A marketing goal of increasing the number of users of product X might lead to a strategy of converting users of competitive brand Y.
The media goal might then be to optimize reach at effective levels of frequency among a demographic group matched to current users of brand Y.
The media strategy to achieve this might then be built by examining various media mixes to determine which produce the best balance of effective reach for the budget, within the creative limitations.
Of course this is just one possible marketing goal, one possible strategy that might emerge.
There are many ways to set reach goals, to set minimum effective levels or decide to apply the recent "proximity" or "recency" theory of exposure.
In short, one doesn't decide on percents of media and see how it turns out, one decides which media will best answer the marketing and media strategies. Often, some creative decisons have precedence: if TV is designated as the "primary medium" because of communications ability, need to demonstrate, etc, then the strategy migh dictate putting all money into TV "until the effective reach curve is exhausted."
There are infinite ways to express and measure goals and their achievment. Some standard media planning software, such as Telmar's Media Maestro, and Hispanic Media Maestro, allow easy examination of various mixes, instantly showing how reach/frequency/effective reach change as budget or schedules are shifted between media by the planner.
- Friday, March 15, 1996 #1263
Can you fill me in on "recency"? Sounds like a complicated way to say low media weight, long duration? Is this correct? If so, can it work with a small budget?
- The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 18, 1996 ):
Recency does amount to lower weight and longer duration, but allows for more complex discussion. It is a theory which works in opposition to "effective reach." effective reach is based on the fact that 3, or some other minimum number of exposures to advertising, is necessary for the advertising to be digested, understood and begin to effect consumer behavior.
Recency posits that an exposure close to the moment of purchase decision is the most effective, therefore maintaining a constant presence of messages is most likely to catch the prospect at the crucial moment.
Obviously, even within the recency model, the more exposure provided at any given point in time the better the chance of catching a consumer at the critical time. Recency argues for continuity, not for low levels, though it is often used to justify low levels.
Recognizing that truly seasonal purchases call for different scheduling than regularly cyclical purchases, the concept says that if a given number of impressions are affordable, all else being equal, those impression will generate more sales when spread consistently rather that concentrated into flights at a presumed "effective" level.
- Friday, February 16, 1996 #1760
Dear Mr. Guru, Thank you for your last reponse on how to calculate GRP's. You had mentioned that you had explained it fully except for Neilson's calculation methodology. I would be interested in hearing more about this method of calculation as well. Also, is there a "better" way to measure the actual "Impact" an ad campaign has had if you know the actual length of each ad, the frequency the ads ran and the channels(and shows) that they ran during. ie. frequency X length X Audience(rate for each time slot)?? This is obviously a simplified formula, but your feedback on this would be greatly appreciated. Lastly, for television advertising, what are some of the other accepted methods of measurement. Thanks (Again) firstname.lastname@example.org
- The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 16, 1996 ):
It is Neilsen's survey methodology that wasn't covered. They would use the same calculation formulae. The full description of Neilsens methodologies for People Meter, household meter and diary would cover several pages. Contact Neilsen who will be happy to send you methodology booklets.
Regarding "impact" there are as many ways to evaluate this as there are advertisers.
Some advertisers use a factor for copy length based on norms from recall tests. For example, 75% of a :30 is a typical value for a :15.
Some use attentiveness by daypart.
Some use a combination of the two factors.
Some apply the factors to GRP as an indicator; some apply to GRPs and then estimate reach from those adjusted GRPs as an impact indicator.
The frequency of a schedule, as discussed so far, refers to the average frequency of exposure for all pesons reached.
There are those who use "effective reach," counting only persons reached at least 3 times (or any designated minimum) when evaluating the impact of a schedule.
- Monday, November 06, 1995 #1824
Do you have any information about "Wear-out" of TVCs?
- The Media Guru Answers(Monday, November 06, 1995 ):
The first thing to know about wear-out is that there are no absolutes. Different people mean different things by "wear-out" There are numerous ways to set a standard for wear out and numerous ways to measure a commercial's approach to that standard. The simplest, as stated by one of the industry's great researchers is, "a commercial is worn out when the client asks about wear out." Realistically, a practical definition of wear out is when the commercial no longer stimulates additional sales. However, it's rare that any commercial is tracked closely enough to determine that point, and the trick is to *predict* that point. Commercials differ in their quality, impact, and memorability, as well as in the clutter and audience duplication of the schedules used to air them. A commercial that's one of a pool of three closely related commercials for a brand might wear out at a different point in time than one that's one of three dissimilar executions. A commercial airing repeatedly in a single daypart wears out before one in a broad rotation. The audience target and its media habits will also have an impact. Once the wear out level is determined base on the above, then it needs to be associated with a media measurement. Measurement might vary from "when the top quintile is exposed x number of times" to "when effective reach is x% over xx weeks" to "when the commercial has accumulated xxxx TRPs." Bottom line, the answer is a commercial is worn out when it stops selling. How to determine this is a question of judgement and specific research.
- Monday, January 23, 1995 #1877
It seens that the effective reach concept is falling on disrrepute. What do you think. Is it a valuable concept for a package goods advertiser?
- The Media Guru Answers(Monday, January 23, 1995 ):
Despite some media pundits, effective reach/frequency is not dead yet. A good media plan should directly address the communication strategy of each particular product campaign. Frequency will depend upon such parameters as purchase cycle, complexity of the message, competitive advertising, the ability to deliver the message in a timely fashion at the height of consumer interest, as well as other tried and successful principles. The current heightened interest in frequency takes into account the length of the advertising commitment, a concept that was always vague in the original effective reach/frequency theory. Because this topic is of great importance, we have created a news group under Industry Forums so that all AMIC members may participate.