20 matches were found
- Friday, June 17, 2005 #6955
hi media guru,
can pls tell me the relationship between reach and frequency and average frequency
- The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 17, 2005 ):
Each person reached has a specific number of exposures to the campaign (simple frequency). The phrase "reach and frequency" refers to average frequency among all thosae reached. GRPs ÷ reach = average frequency.
Or, each person reached multiplied by the frequency of that person's exposures yields a number of impressions. The sum of all impressions of all persons reached = gross impressions. gross impressions ÷ number of persons reached = average frequency.
- Tuesday, April 12, 2005 #6893
- The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 17, 2005 ):
Sometimes OTS refers to average frequency, sometime to gross impressions, depending on context. Click here to see past Guru responses about OTS
- Tuesday, March 01, 2005 #6824
- The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 01, 2005 ):
Click here to see past Guru discussion of gross impressions.
- Wednesday, November 24, 2004 #6701
My question is two-fold. We are trying to project the number of responses from a print campaign in trade publications. Realize that there are many variables to consider (offer, response mechanism, size of ad)
but are there any rules of thumb on response rate. Would the response rate be applied to gross impressions, net impressions, of net effective impressions (e.g., % reach at 3+ level).
Thank you, in advance, for your thoughtful consideration.
- The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 24, 2004 ):
The Guru does not know of any specific rules of thumb here. The various publications may have some parameters. Generally, the Guru is used to seeing rates applied to gross or net impressions.
- Thursday, March 25, 2004 #6434
How important are gross impressions to a media buy (specifically radio or traffic sponsorships)? Wouldn't eff. net reach be more important? How can I better explain the difference between gross impressions and frequency to a client that has these two efficiencies confused as the very same thing?
- The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 26, 2004 ):
Firstly, a media buy must answer the specifications of the plan:
Do plan communication goals specify maximum weight or a focus on frequency over reach?
Frequency is linked to gross impressions but only through other factors and neither is an "efficiency." Budget divided by gross impressions is CPM, which is the classic measure of "efficiency" and no normal cost / frequency ratio with which the Guru is familiar is in use.
gross impressions takes into account both frequency and reach. 1million gross impressions can be 1 million people each exposed to advertising once or 10,000 people each exposed 100 times. Radio is commonly considered a "frequency medium" but is capable of generating significant reach. Traffic radio is typically a frequency buy. Effective reach, i.e. reach at a specified minimum level of frequency is not the most likley goal for a traffic radio campaign.
- Monday, March 24, 2003 #5902
Dear Guru, I hope you can help answer this question. If I have a TV Schedule and a Radio Schedule, and I mix them together using a media mix program, I am asked which Population base to use. If I pick the Radio market pop, I get smaller gross impressions, than if I used the TV market pop. Which one of these is the correct way? I have to explain this to a client. Thanks in advance.
- The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 24, 2003 ):
Radio is typically based on a Metro (MSA) geography and TV on a Nielsen DMA geography, which is usually larger. In reality, Radio GRP would be lower in the DMA area (reduced coverage due to distance), but the DMA basis is probably to be preferred.
- Friday, March 01, 2002 #5127
I am a student trying to target the affluent for radio advertising. Is it possible to obtain reach and frequency when I don't know exactly how may individuals are in this market. Thank you. Looking forward to hearing from you soon.
- The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 04, 2002 ):
If you think of reach and gross impressions in thousands, then there is no problem; if you want Percent reach, then obviously you need to have an estimate of the size of your target universe.
Scarborough is a resource which can provide universes and percent reach estimates for an affluent audience, if you can define affluent in concrete terms, e.g. HH income over $100K.
- Friday, February 08, 2002 #5072
what is GRP
- The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 10, 2002 ):
"Gross rating points" is a comarison of the impressions delivery of a schedule to the target universe size. One million gross impressions equates to 100 GRP if the target population is one million.
- Wednesday, January 09, 2002 #4989
I have some questions about duplication. If I want to find the duplication between 2 titles (i.e. what % of readers of either title read both) do I want to determine net or gross duplication. Should I be dividing duplication impressions by gross impressions of the two titles or net reach of the tow titles? When would you want to look at net duplication instead of gross duplication?
- The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 13, 2002 ):
"Net" and "gross" usually refer to the unduplicated or total audiences, respectively, rather than variants of duplication.
There are just a few simple quantities involved. It is easier to consider them as impressions (numbers of persons) than percentages at first:
- Let A = Persons in the average issue audience of title A
- Let B = Average issue audience of title B
- Let X = Persons in within A who are also within B (i.e. readers of A who also read B)
- Let Y = Persons within B who are also within A.
- Let Z = Readers of A and B
The first thing that you should realize is that X, Y and Z are all the same group of people!
You may then consider:
- X ÷ A = Magazine A's percent duplication by Magazine B
- Y ÷ B = Magazine B's percent duplication by Magazine A
- Z ÷ A + B = the duplication of the "pair," Magazine A and Magazine B
Any of these are facts you might use depending on the point you are trying to make.
As far as labeling goes,
Gross audience is A + B.
Net unduplicated audience is A + B - Z.
- Sunday, January 06, 2002 #4981
I am trying to compare cpm between print and radio. The demo is Adults 18-54. I have the readership for the demo for the MSA for the print. I have the gross impressions for the radio and have calculated a cpm for all (both the print and radio). Is this correct? Can I compare readership against GI's?
- The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 06, 2002 ):
Yes, readership is equivalent to impressions.
- Thursday, January 03, 2002 #4971
Dear Guru - Was there ever a "chart" that enabled media buyers to calculate reach/freq, gross impressions etc for broadcast television planning. I have been explaining to someone that we use programs for this kind of thing, but this person seems to remember using a chart and thinks i should be able to do this manually if he could. I've never heard of it, have you? He would have been planning around 1975. Thanks.
- The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 03, 2002 ):
Yes, before computers became common in the 80's, when there were just 3 networks, with 90%+ share, no cable, and few independent stations, R&F tables were the way it was done. Every few years, using Nielsen cume studies of actual scehdules, average reaches for various GRP levels were calculated. There might be variables for the number of programs or episodes used. In this way all possibilities for a daypart could be displayed on a single, typed page.
Today, with computers on every desk, 6 broadcast networks amassing only 50% share, dozens of cable options and hundreds of independent stations, accuracy requires computer systems. Such crude tables could be still constructed, but why bother when computers and software are so readily available?
The Guru who was using the charts in the 60's, is happy with his computer today.
- Friday, June 29, 2001 #4538
I have two questions about calculating reach and frequency that I have been unable to find in the archives of past responses. Perhaps you can help?
1. I normally use the formula (a+b)-(.a*b) to determine combined reach of two mediums, such as radio and print. How do I calculate the combined reach of more than two? The plan I am working on includes spot TV, spot radio and local newspaper.
2. Is it possible to determine a combined reach for more than one market or should each market be reported separately? In the past, I have provided separate delivery for each market in the same plan with a total number of gross impressions for the whole plan. Is this correct?
Thanks in advance!
- The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 29, 2001 ):
1. This common formula is based on an assumption that different media duplicate their audiences according to random probability. Therefore if you follow this assumption, media may be added to combinations of media in a "chain" of the same formula. So, once you have combined TV and Radio, you can use this combination as your "a" and then combine it with newspaper as "b."
2. You can combine reaches across markets by doing a weighted average. Multiply the reach in each market by the percent of U.S. in each market. Add all the products and divide by the sum of the % U.S.
- Sunday, April 01, 2001 #4302
What is the relationship between GRp's and gross impression
- The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 01, 2001 ):
For any given demographic,
gross impressions ÷ population in hundreds
- Saturday, December 23, 2000 #4063
I am a very new media planner so I have a very basic question. What is the difference between average Frequency and average OTS and what is the formula for their calculation.
Thanking you in advace.
- The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, December 23, 2000 ):
"OTS" or "opportunities to see" is used differently by various practitioners. One meaning is equivalent to impressions, or the number of exposures of a campaign to individual members ot the target demographic; a summing of the audiences of all the advertsing occasions of a campaign. In this sense, "average" is not an appropriate modifier.
Average frequency is the average number of exposures experienced by the members of the target who have been exposed to the campaign (net reach) over a measured time period such as 4 weeks.
gross impressions ÷ net reach
GRPs ÷ percent reach.
- Friday, November 19, 1999 #2989
Our client is asking us why we use reach & frequency to analyze the effectiveness of our media plans. We are not aware of any other tools/methods that have been developed. Can you give us some pointers on how best to answer this question? Thanks in advance!
- The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 19, 1999 ):
Reach and frequency are used to help predict the effect of plans and, more appropriately, to compare the available alternate plans, when communications power is the issue.
Media plans are actually advertising communications plans: "how many people of the targeted demographic receive the message and how often?" is the most basic quantification of the expected acheivements of the plan. In the process of selecting targets amd media, other issues of prospect quality and ad impact are addressed, but the final wieghts and measures are reach, frequency, and their product, gross impressions.
During and after execution, of course, sales and awareness measures are more direct evaluative tools.
- Monday, December 21, 1998 #2230
I am currently analyzing a media schedule that includes consumer print, trade print and national cable. I have been
asked to pull a reach and frequency for the entire schedule. I realize that I am working with several differenct universes. I have added
the circulations and pulled the gross impressions for cable. I have added those together. Is there any formular to determan a reach and frequency?
- The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 24, 1998 ):
In general, different media have different audience accumulation patterns when thinking about net unduplicated audience vs gross audience.
Calculating reach from a total multimedia impressions number is not practical unless the gross rating points (impressions divided by GRPs) is so many thousands that a 95+ reach can be assumed.
Some media, in particular broadcast media, allow general estimation of reach from a table of GRP levels. Print media are more complicated.
What you really need is standardized media software for reach and frequency calculation like that which is offered by AMIC 's sister company, Telmar.
- Wednesday, December 02, 1998 #2194
Dear Guru, can you name any media analysis tools and media predictive tools that media planners use on a regular basis without being too technical, of course. Many thanks
- The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 03, 1998 ):
Here are several:
- Reach: the number of different target households or persons exposed to a campaign (most often expressed as a percentage of the target universe, and most often calculated over a 4-week period).
- Frequency: The average number of exposures of the campaign to those reached.
- Gross Rating Points (GRP) / Target Rating Points(TRP): Essentially interchangeable terms for the sum of the audiences of all the ad units in the campaign, expressed as a percentage of the target universe.
- gross impressions: Same audience count as GRP/TRP but expressed in whole numbers rather than percents.
- CPP / Cost per GRP and CPM / Cost per thousand impressions: should be self evident from the previous. These are referred to as the "efficiency."
- Effective reach: Those in the "Reach" who experienced a specified minimum number of exposures (effective frequency)
All the above stem from the audience research tools and investment figures. So called "reach and frequency" systems typically generate all these figures.
Other tools, especially in print media are also occasionally used. These may include "time spent with" media vehicles, "page openings", attentiveness, etc.
- Tuesday, September 22, 1998 #2052
I am working on a national cable buy. First question, please explain VPH. I have been asked to provide the following information:
-How many households will my schedule reach and how many times. Of course, I have to have all this information by tomorrow at noon.
I have selected my networks and have asked for proposals from each network. The networks inform me that it will take
several days to pull a reach and frequency. So my question to you is, can I take the HH's thousands and add them? It this the right way to
approach this project.
How will I calulate for a frequency. I can give the client the total number of spots, but is there a way to calculate frequency?
- The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 22, 1998 ):
VPH is "viewers per Household" and is used as a simple way to express persons audience in relation to housholds. In other words, if a network has a measured average quarter hour (aqh) audience of 1000 Households and a measured aqh among women 18-49 of 550, then its VPH for women 18-49 would be .55
Estimates of reach are based on modeling from actual past schedules and are typically calculated with computers. These calculations take only minutes, but you are probably facing a backlog in your vendors' research departments or, typically, a turnaround time policy which can be overriden if you apply the right charm or pressure to your sales reps.
Because these models reflect varying audience duplication between one spot and the next and between one network and another, adding household impression would be wrong. Such a calculation would produce "gross impressions" which is much greater than reach.
Frequency is calculated by dividing reach into gross impressions (or percent reach into gross rating points), so you need reach to calculate frequency.
If you have any media planning software at all, such as Telmar's AdPlus or Maestro, you would find that these system usually have a general calculator of cable reach built in.
- Friday, September 04, 1998 #2028
I am currently pulling together information for one of
my clients on national cable advertising. I have spoken
with different network reps and have been told that they
can not provide reach, frequency, or TRP's. They have
said that they are not measured this way. Is this true?
The network reps have provided gross impressions (in
thousands). Is there a minimum threshold for this
- The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 05, 1998 ):
Everything which has its impressions measured in national tv has TRPs, which is merely a calculation: the division of impressions by the relevant population base, either in the cable network's coverage area or the total U.S.
Any metered measurement can produce the data for calculation of reach of schedules or the production of formulae which will allow estimation of reach.
The Guru would guess you are dealing with smaller networks whose ratings and reach would be unimpressive and therefore are not a part of the sales effort.
A 0.1 rating is the usual threshold for reporting in a printed report. There may be a requirement to earn this rating over a specified time span before even this level is reported. On the other hand, networks with ratings normally below this level are likely to be bought strictly for their content/environment, not their audience delivery.
- Sunday, May 05, 1996 #1227
I'm trying to figure out how Gross Rating Points are used to figure out gross impressions when it comes to using billboards to advertise?
- The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 06, 1996 ):
As you may know, generally. . .
Gross Rating Points as a decimal fraction (i.e. 50 GRP = 0.50)multiplied by population (for the relevant demographic) =impressions.
The "trick" with billboards is that GRP in outdoor are expressed in daily quantities. So a #50 -- or 50 GRP -- showing means a total daily "circulation" equal to 50% of the population, or 1500 GRP per month.