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 Tuesday, February 05, 2002 #5059

Dear Guru (by the way, thanks for your earlier answers, they are really helpful !) :
If I reach 3 differents profiles of people with 1 outdoor campaign, is it correct to say that reachxfrequency for each target equals the TRP (target rate points), and that the grp is reachxfrequency over the entire population. So the GRP would be composed out of several TRPs?
 The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 10, 2002 ):

First, GRP and TRP are equivalent terms. Some people reserve use of TRP (Target Rating Points) for cases where a speciific demographic is targeted, such as Women 1849, College educated men, or Employed teenagers, and then only use "GRP" (Gross Ratings Points) for a Household target. Others use GRP for any target. In either case, the term means gross percentage of the specified target universe.
Arithmetically, Reach x Frequency = GRP or TRP. GRP or TRP for different targets may not be added.
 Tuesday, December 11, 2001 #4938

Greetings. You previously answered a question for me regarding calculating R/F for a trade print plan (question #4900). Based on your answer (which included calculating ratings and using industry standard duplication figures), I am calculating overall Reach for each publication and for the entire schedule. Once I have that information (Reach%, Rating%), can you confirm what formula I would use to get the Frequency (both for each publication and for the entire schedule). I have searched many years of your archives and can't find an answer that addresses that specific question. Thanks!
 The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, December 11, 2001 ):

Frequency = GRP ÷ Reach
grp is the sum of all the Ratings which go into the Reach. For example, if publication "A" has a 12% rating, three insertions = 36 GRP.
A schedule of 3 times in publication "A," plus 4 times in publication "B," which has a 16% rating = 110 GRP.
 Thursday, September 28, 2000 #3851

Oh great and powerful guru...
I've just read a series of responses concerning GRPs and wearout. Most questions seem to be based on X # of GRPs but no mention of reach or frequency. The real answer may lie in average frequency. If your GRP of 1000 is 1000 reached 1 time wearout is not a factor. If the grp is 50 frequency for 20 reach, it's time to change spots. Am I'm living on a different planet or am I close to understanding something?
 The Media Guru Answers(Friday, September 29, 2000 ):

You are quite correct; the key audience metric in examining wearout is frequency.
But media people use boxcar GRP numbers as a general reference for schedule magnitude. Any reasonable TV mix of 1000 or more GRP will deliver about 85  95 reach for a typical demographic, making the average frequency about 11. The range in this discussion is therefore pretty narrow.
Some set a wearout standard according to frequency in the nexttohighest quintile, something like "when the nexttohighest quintile has a frequency of 20+." Even this kind of standard doesn't give greatly varying results across reasonable mixes of high numbers of GRP.
 Wednesday, November 24, 1999 #2998

hi media guru
please guide me : how can i know how much frequency, reach,
and grp is needed for an old brand which first advertise
on t.v? ( the target audience: main shoper with young
children  48 years old) thank you
 The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 28, 1999 ):

This is a judgment call. The Ostrow model can help guide setting of effective frequency goals.
Reach then becomes what you can afford or what you need in terms of numbers of sales to become successful judged against anticipated consumer response as a percentage of target consumers reached effectively. Further, one must keep in mind, since you are writing from outside the U.S., that cultural situations and media environments have a big impact on the matter.
 Friday, March 19, 1999 #2400

I need to know the calculation to work out margin of error for TV reach and frequency results. E.g. what is the margin of error of 40% @ 2+ depending on the size of the sample, penetration etc.
 The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 20, 1999 ):

Assuming you are using a model to calculate reach and frequency, your error is no longer an aspect of sample size but of the reliability of the model.
For instance, suppose your schedule consisted of 20 advertisements with an average rating of 10. And, based on sample size, the 10 rating was +/ 2 rating points (or 20% relative error). But your total schedule of 200 grp is not going to be +/ 40 points. Because error is plus or minus, there is an equal chance that one 10 rating is really PLUS 2 and the next 10 rating is really MINUS 2. So, in a schedule, most of the error cancels out. This is one reason why ratings minima for buying are often shortsighted.
When it comes to reach analysis, someone might have built a model by compiling several actual schedules measured by the original research and finding a formula for the straight line formed by the average frequency of each. Since the actual schedules came from the orignal research, the sampling error of each (minimized by the plus or minus aspect of the schedule elements, as above) could have been calculated. But now the "curve" coming out of the model is only judged by its ability to match back to actual schedules.
 Thursday, February 15, 1996 #1761

I would like to know a DETAILED calculation for GRP's for Television advertising. I assume the frequency is the number of times the ad ran across all channels. But how do I calulate the Reach for a T.V. AD. Is it based on the rate cards of the networks?(if so, how) or is it based on direct audience measurement. As much detail as possible would be greatly appreciated. darrylw@conceptus.on.ca
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 15, 1996 ):

Calculation of GRP does not depend on knowing reach, though reach x frequency is ONE formula. Reach is the more complex calculation, grp is relatively simple (see other formulae in the adjoining question).
Reach has no relationship at all to rates, nor to commercial length, for that matter. Audience research surveys such as Nielsen can tell us the audience of individual programs. The net unduplicated audience, or reach, of actual advertisers' schedules, examined over time covered by a given survey period, typically four weeks, can be determined. When many such scehdules, usually thousands, have been examined in that way, "curves" on a graph can be drawn representing the intersections of reach values with schedules' GRPs. The graph curves because each added announcement adds fewer new, unduplicated people toi the reach of the schedule. The curve can be expressed as a formula y = ax+b, which then can be built into the computer model which media planners use to quickly calculate reach from given GRPs and sometimes other descriptive details of scheduling, such as average ratings, numbers of different networks or programs, etc. The Guru is now nearly out of details unless Nielsen survey methodology is of interest.
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