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Guru Search Results: 44 matches were found

Wednesday, January 11, 2012 #8395
Have talked with a media agency and they gave me this figures for a certain campaign: - You will achieve around 1300 GRPS - 8-10 ots - 30" spot How is that possible? won't that mean a reach of 130%? I am confused. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 13, 2012 ):
Yes, there are various ways different people and countries use ots, but one is for average frequency, (the other being a gross measure, so that can't be it, here).

You are correct, these numbers imply a reach of at least 130, which is of course, impossible.


Monday, June 27, 2011 #8119
what is ots

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 27, 2011 ):
OTS is "Opportunities To See."

Click here to see past Guru discussion of ots


Sunday, May 15, 2011 #7879
How can you measure TV Ad clutter? and what relevance does it have on your ots levels

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 15, 2011 ):
Clutter can be measured in number of non-program minutes per hour and / or number of non-program units per hour, i.e. 15 minutes of :15 commercials might well be considered more "cluttered" than 15 minutes of :60s.

This has no relevance to ots of a schedule.


Tuesday, November 17, 2009 #7738
Dear Guru, I'm a marketing assistant on an online company that is starting to do TV marketing. I have the following questions concerning smaller sized TV-campaigns; is there any recommended value one should optimally achieve or get when it comes to GRP and ots values? What is a good benchmark? What would be typical in Europe, for a bit smaller sized TV-campains (i.e. not always prime-time and in a limited number of nationwide reaching TV-channels)? Many thanks in advance!!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 18, 2009 ):
There are many minimum theories. A minimum reach level of more than 50% of the target reached at least 3 times is one the Guru finds generally acceptable.

In different media or different countries with different research systems and metrics, the GRPs / ots behind this level can vary considerably


Thursday, May 21, 2009 #7695
please help me understand difference/ relation b/w reach & ots

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 24, 2009 ):
As other Guru queries have explained, "OTS" can refer to either average frequency of message exposure or to gross numbers of exposures.

Gross exposures ÷ reach = average exposures.

Typical reach calculations use gross exposures (Gross ratings points / GRPs) as input variables) 0


Tuesday, April 21, 2009 #7687
Dear MG, When you report deliveries to a client - for the result value how many decimals do you show for GRP's, Reach @ 1+ and ots?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 21, 2009 ):
As a rule, the Guru uses no decimals for GRP nor reach and one decimal for average Frequency. e.g.

Reach / Avg Freq /  GRP
37 / 3.4 / 126

In a case where the numbers were very small, perhaps for internet, the Guru might use one decimal for Reach and GRP.


Wednesday, April 15, 2009 #7680
I would like to know if i am advertising a PSA 45 sec & 60 sec how many ots would I need for the audience to remember it and for it not to be overkill and for it maybe to make an impact.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, April 17, 2009 ):
PSAs are like other categories in that needed ots depends on the quality of the commercial and the appeal of the "product" as well as competitive climate. PSA's supporting the needy in a holiday season may face a great deal of competitive noise. PSA's supporting environmental cause my pull better more easily after a well publicized environmental disaster.


Wednesday, February 04, 2009 #7660
How to calculate ots for Print campaign

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 04, 2009 ):
The answer depends on two things:
  • What definiton of ots are you using, and
  • what data do you have to work with?

OTS is sometimes used as equivalent to Gross Impressions (total exposures of the ad campaign to the target group) and sometimes as equivalent to average frequency ( the average number of times a member of the target group who has been exposed (reached) to the campain is exposed to the campaign.

So Gross ots is the sum of all the impressions of all the ads in the campaign.

Average ots is this number divided by the reach, expressed in the same terms, e.g. thousands, etc.


Tuesday, October 28, 2008 #7626
I am looking to initiate a coverage and frequency research project for our outdoor sites. We have a number of outdoor advertising panels on UK railway station barriers and therefore have good data on numbers of people going through. The question is how do we get to coverage and frequency with a cost effective research project and what sort of sample size would be normal to establish convincing information for media planners and buyers? We have TGI research data which has a sample of attidudes and frequency of usage of railway stations already. Up to now we have always used ots numbers but believe a lot of our larger competitors are using coverage and frequency and we wish to be able to explain our medium's effectiveness in this language.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 02, 2008 ):
Sample size should be determined by how reliable you need answers to be and how large you expect specific critical reponses to be. In other words, if you expect to find out that 5% of your sample exhibited some important behavior, you want a sample large enough that 5% of it produces an answer with a tolerance (+/-) swing that you find acceptable. This might mean a sample big enough that a 5% answer reflects 100 respondents, or a total sample of 2000. Or pehaps you need have a reliable answer from 5% of the women 18-34.

Also consider the sample size used by competitors.


Wednesday, October 15, 2008 #7618
Please explain the following on how are they calculated as I cant get it. I couldnt paste the Table so for your understanding the data has 6 Columns & 3 rows.

Markets| Pop ln 000s| Reach 1+%|AvgOTS| Reach 3+%|Avg ots
MumbaiUA| 3703 | 64 | 9.29 | 53.4 | 11
BangloreUA|1139 | 61 | 7.36 | 43.8 | 10
Thnkx Anoop

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 15, 2008 ):
The calculations are not apparent from the data.

The populations of the markets are probably adjusted census data created by your media measurement resource.

Reach 1+ is the unduplicated number of persons exposed at least one or more times to the relevant media schedule, expressed as a % of the populaiton Complex algorithms are used to model actual, measured media consumption,

Average ots (Opportunities To See) or "average frequency" in US terms is the average number of times each person reached one or mmore times has seen an ad in the schedule.

A missing datum is GRP. Reach X ots = Gross Rating Points Reach 3+ is the % who have been exposed to the campaign at least 3 times and the next ots column is the average number of exposures among this more heavily exposed set of persons reached. The same model algorithms will have been used.


Wednesday, March 05, 2008 #7507
How do you get the daily effective circulation for specific areas?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 07, 2008 ):
Daily Effective Circulation (DEC) is a characteristic of a particular out of home sign. rather than of "areas." According to the Traffiic Audit Bureau, "the DEC is the average number of persons 18+ who have the opportunity to see an out-of-home message during a 24-hour period. DECs are typically measured and adjusted for hours illuminated and for 18+ vehicle occupancy (current load factor is 1.38)."

The DEC for signs in specific areas is available from the operator of the sign or from TAB.


Tuesday, December 04, 2007 #7455
Hi What is effective cover? Is it the same as effective reach?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, December 04, 2007 ):
"Effective cover" is unfamiliar. Effective coverage might be a term you have seen abbreviated that way. Adding the word "effective" to another media metric like reach means that there is some limitation to the measurement, as effective reach means that we are counting only the portion of the reach that has received some designated amount of frequency of exposure.

Coverage is generally used in one of two ways:

  • The portion of a demographic group that is in the audience of a single issue / episode of a media vehicle, most often a print vehicle, or
  • The portion of a media market with the opportunity to see a media vehicle issue, most typically newspaper coverage, calculated as circulation households.

The limitation that might be intended by any particular use of "effective coverage" is unclear. Often cable and syndicated tv programs use coverage to describe the portion of the U.S. in the markets where the programming is available, regardless of whether or not everyone in those markets subscribes to that cable network or ever choses to view the program. In such a case, "Effective coverage" might be one way to put it.


Wednesday, August 15, 2007 #7405
Can you tell me if the following thing is true? It comes from an article in the economist.com, which I've seen reprinted in a few places, including here: http://doublefusion.com/posts/economist.com--the-ultimate-marketing-machine24.php The article is all about how the internet is making advertising less wasteful. There's one particular sentence that I must be misunderstanding, which seems to say advertisers are paying for a CPM of $500 to get their ads on a website that comes up in a search. Here is the relevent section: "By contrast, the new advertising models based on internet technologies amount to innovation. Instead of bombs, says Mr Tobaccowala, advertisers now "make lots of spearheads and then get people to impale themselves." The idea is based on consumers themselves taking the initiative by showing up voluntarily and interacting with what they find online. In its simplest form, this involves querying a search engine with keywords ("used cars", say), then scanning the search results as well as the sponsored links from advertisers, and then clicking on one such link. In effect, the consumer has expressed an intention twice (first with his query, then with his click). The average cost to an advertiser from one such combination is 50 cents, which corresponds to a CPM of $500; by contrast, the average CPM in traditional ("exposure") media is $20. A consumer's action, in other words, is 25 times as valuable as his exposure. " Am I reading this right? Is this some kind of typo or drastic miscalculation? I've never seen anything like a $500 CPM anywhere (I'm not too confident on the $20 CPM for traditional media either, but it's the $500 that shocks me). Do $500 CPMs exist anywhere at all? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, August 15, 2007 ):
Search engine results should not be compared to other media on a cpm basis.

This is a highly advanced form of direct marketing. In ordinary media, such as magazines, cpm is based on a theoretical "opportunity to see," as if every reader of the magazine not only saw your ad but was shopping for the product when they saw it and then decided to call for information or visit your store. What percent of a magazines audience do you imagine would qualify on that basis? Probably less than 0.1%.

So a magazine with a $20 cpm would deliver a $20,000 cpm on that basis, to compare to your $500

In search engine results, you only pay 50 cents for those people who have decided to shop for what you are selling and then have visited your your online "Storefront."

So it's a good deal, and traditional cpm is an irrelevant measure in this case.

Isn't a consumer who actually browses your catalog or visits your store 25 times more valuable than one who may or may not have even seen your ad, much less cared about it?


Saturday, August 06, 2005 #6990
Hi MG - What are your thoughts on traditional media's frequency vs. the new theory of "engagement"? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, August 06, 2005 ):
Engagement means "probably saw." This moves measurement from simple "opportunity to see," which is based on the traditional Nielsen style of audience impressions measurment onward to a value based on attentiveness or other adjustment that reflects whether a person in the counted audience actually was engaged in the commercial or left the room, started a conversation, etc. It's certainly not new, but is becoming more recognized. Marketers have been using such adjustments for at least 30 years to get more realistic evaluations of communications. Erwin Ephron writes about engagement.


Friday, June 10, 2005 #6948
Please let me know what is the formula to calculate ots of an advertisement in a print newspaper?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 11, 2005 ):
The Guru sees ots used in two ways:
  • Averaage frequency of exposure of those reached, or
  • gross number of exposures of the schedule (persons exposed counted each time they are exposed)
In the latter case, audience of the newspaper times the number of ads gives ots. In the former case, this calculation is divided by the net exposures (counting each person exposed only once) to yield average frequency of exposure.


Tuesday, April 12, 2005 #6893
OTS

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 17, 2005 ):
Sometimes ots refers to average frequency, sometime to gross impressions, depending on context. Click here to see past Guru responses about ots


Tuesday, February 22, 2005 #6806
I have been asked to evaluate spending money on a transit program versus adding GRPs and/or weeks to our existing radio campaign with the same amount of budget. The problem is that comparing GRPs for one versus the other, transit clearly has higher levels and extremely high frequency if you believe the numbers they provide. Any additional thoughts?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 23, 2005 ):
Transit GRP are real, but they are based on traffic with an opportunity to see the poster. The real distinction of out of home is the limited message as compared to radio.

If your message can be simple, and reach/frequency are your top communications goals, then transit can be a powerful addition and probably more effective than adding more to an already adequate schedule in your main medium.


Thursday, September 02, 2004 #6590
Hi MG ,could you pls tell me what the standard ots for deciding a schedule in a multi vechile medium. plese explain with an example

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 02, 2004 ):
Many people believe that a minimum of three exposures is necessary for an ad message to communicate its sell. Click here to see past Guru responses about ots and frequency


Thursday, May 20, 2004 #6500
Using the ots formula (GRP/Net Reach), if we set an ots target with a predetermined reach, can we arrive at the required GRP for differrent ots targets. Why effective frequency is more popular over ots when setting frequency objective. In my experience we need to achieve more GRP's to achieve a predetermined reach for an effective frequency over ots target, any reason for that methamatical relationship.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 20, 2004 ):
As a matter of simple arithmetic, Reach and GRP are inextricably linked by a multiplying factor which can just as readily be effective frequency. This does not mean that you can set any reach goal at random and assume a given GRP number will relate back with a specifc ots. Different mixes of dayparts and media elements have different capabilities in reach / effective frequency generation.

Why more GRP for an effective reach level? Again, simple arithmetic explains it. "Reach" in an ordinary "reach and frequency" calculation, means reach 1 or more times. In other words, a frequency of 1 is treated as "effective." Typically, when we talk about "effective reach" we are working on an assumption that 3 or more frequency is needed for effective communications so that only those reached at least 3 times count. Naturally, more GRP are needed to get a given reach 3 tiems than only once.


Sunday, April 25, 2004 #6471
1)what is the significance of ots in selecting a eedia vechile 2)can u clarify the concept of BDI & CDI with a suitable example

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 25, 2004 ):
1. Any vehicle offers a measured number of "opportunities to see." Ultimately one may chosse vehicles for a plan based on cost per ots.

2. Click here to see Guru discussion of BDI / CDI.


Tuesday, April 20, 2004 #6464
What is the differrence between avg. ots & Effective frequency. Which is the most popolar measurement tool used for setting frequency objective & can you illustrate the differrence through a sum.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 20, 2004 ):
OTS is generally a raw exposures count (impressions). One could take total ots and divide by reach to get average ots, which would equate to average frequency; that is, the average number of times any person exposed to the message (reach) sees the message.

Effective freqeuncy is the number of exposures JUDGED to be required before a person reached is affected by the message, e.g. remembers or understands it. Effective reach is the numer of people reached at this effective level. 3+ is probably the most commonly used effective frequency standard, but there are various models for setting the level. See the Guru's comments on the Ostrow model.


Thursday, November 13, 2003 #6241
Dear Guru, what is ots? tal

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, November 15, 2003 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses about ots


Saturday, June 21, 2003 #6029
Dear Guru, Please help me to clarify these issues : - What CPT and CPM stand for ? - Are the formulas to calculate them as follows : CPT=(Costx1000)/Impression CPM=(Costx1000)/Reach(000) - Impression and Reach in thousand are not the same,are they? Impression include duplication but the reach in thousand does not. Impression = Reach(000)x ots? - Therefore, there must be different b/w CPT & CPM. But it seems that most books consider them as the same. - GRP = ots x Reach (%)or GRP = Frequency x Reach (%)? - Does ots have some meaning of impression? Since these issue confuse me now so much and I current get a stuck in preparing a report. Pls do reply me as soon as possible. Many thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 21, 2003 ):
You have tangled up several ideas and defintions. In different countries, some of these terms are used differently or not used. For example, in the Guru's base of the U.S., we do not use "opportunities to see (OTS)," and though you may be in Thailand, the Guru will not assume so.

CPM stands for cost per thousand impressions; the "M" is the Roman numeral M, meaning one thousand. CPT is not familiar in the US, but is probably another indicator of Cost per Thousand impressions.

The Guru most often sees "OTS" used as equivalent to "impressions" but sometimes as a reference to average frequency, so here are the simplest definitions.

"Impressions" are the number of advertising exposures, i.e. the number of different people exposed to advertising times the average number of occasions on which they are exposed. Thus, duplication is included.

"number of different people exposed" is equivalent to "reach."

"Number of occasions on which they are exposed" is equivalent to "frequency."

CPM is cost of advertising divided by impressions in thousands. Reach is not involved.

When reach is expressed as a percentage of a target group, then reach x frequency = GRP.


Thursday, May 29, 2003 #5984
Want to know the calculation of different GRPs to get required reach on 2+ or 3+ ots e.g. on 400 GRPs gets 60% reach on 3+ ots

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 31, 2003 ):
You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.

The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function. There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables


Sunday, May 11, 2003 #5965
Dear Guru, Many thanks for your reply on ots and Effective frequency. It's been a great help finding you online, b'cos we don't have any institution to get proper training on issues regarding media planning. The thing is in our country (Bangladesh), while media planning, we always face a lot of problems due to the unavailabilty of data. However, we've got TV viwership ratings, Newspaper circulations and readership ratings etc. At this point, how can I effectively calculate ots? Is it possible to do with the data I've mentioned. Thanks once again. M. A. Toolie

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 11, 2003 ):
In the Guru's prior response (#5938) he explained how to calculate print ots, if one audience exposure is your standard. For TV, 1 rating point means a quantity of audience exposures equal to 1% of the specified population.


Wednesday, April 16, 2003 #5938
Dear Guru, What are the methods for calculating ots of TV and Press ads with limited data? can you help me find articles on effective frequency?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, April 21, 2003 ):
OTS is a matter of measurement. If the limited data includes circulation of press, as it always should, then an assumption of readers per copy may be made -two is usually a safe starting point in paid media. With no data there is no way to estimate sensibly.

Click here to see extensive Guru discussion of effective frequency


Tuesday, March 18, 2003 #5886
Greetings Guru! Some clarification on basic web-site metrics would be much appreciated. What are the current evaluation metrics? Is it Unique visits, page views, and time spent on site? I am confused about the utility of page views- am I correct in my understanding that a page view does not mean that the ad was actually "served" and if it was not served, then there was no "opportunity to see", so what is the value in reporting this number? Are web-sites providing Ad-view data? R.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, March 20, 2003 ):
Are you evaluating a site or an ad campaign? Unique visits is about the site's reach. Pageviews is about the sites total impressions, If a page is designed with ad positions, an ad is served when the page is served. This does not mean the user saw an ad if the user has images turned off or uses ad-blocking software, but the site can't control that, although it can track it.

Generally, web sites provide you ad view data about a campaign if you are the buyer. Thre are various ways to provide thie data, ranging from third party ad-serving servces to site's internal server logs.

Time spent relates to a site's opportunity to expose pages and ads; of more use to the site operator than the media planner.


Wednesday, April 10, 2002 #5214
please tell me all about ots (opportunity to see)

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, April 15, 2002 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses about ots


Wednesday, January 23, 2002 #5030
Hi Mr Guru. Just wondering : in the basic (reachxfrequency)xCPM/1000 formula, I have a question about reach. Are we talking about the number of people who see the ad, or who might see the ad ? E.g. the 500,000 people who drive by a billboard every week, but who don't necessarily see it. Thanks a lot.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 31, 2002 ):
There is a term - "opportunity to see" - more commonly used in Europe and probably more descriptive than our own "impressions." Each research measurement has a standard for inclusion in the reported audience. For outdoor it may be something like: the number of cars passing a billboard each day time an average of 1.7 passengers per car. In magazine, the number of persons who say they looked into the most recent issue. There are arguements about why each overstates the numbers actually exposed to the ad. However, reach and frequency systems are usually built to deal with the reported audiences fed to them. Most sytems have allowances to adjust inputs or results based on attentiveness, noting or other refinements.


Friday, August 17, 2001 #4663
Love, love, love this site! I think you are providing a wonderful service. I read a recent question which as about an ots formula (OTC?) I have never heard of this term. Would you tell me what the letters stand for? (I looked in your media terms section, and it is not there.) Thanks,

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 17, 2001 ):
Thank you for your kind words.

"OTS" or "opportunities to see" is used differently by various practitioners. One meaning is equivalent to impressions, or the number of exposures of a campaign to individual members of the target demographic; a summing of the audiences of all the advertsing occasions of a campaign. In this sense, "average" is not an appropriate modifier. Others may use the phrase "average ots" as we in the US use "average frequency."

The term ots is not commonly used in the US, but is standard in the rest of the English speaking world.


Saturday, August 11, 2001 #4650
can you give me the formulae to calculate the ots viv a vis competition in the print media.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, August 11, 2001 ):
The question isn't quite clear: If you mean the formula to determine what your own OTC goalshould be vis-a-vis competition, it is very simple:
If Y= your goal ots and
C = competitor's ots then
Y > C

If you mean a formula to calculate your competitors current ots, you need to have quantities from reports before you can determine what formulae to apply. For example, do you know spending ($)and average cost per ots (O)? Then the formula is
$ ots


Thursday, July 19, 2001 #4594
Hi Guru, I have a set of queries: 1. What is the difference between program reach and program TVR. 2.How can reach curves be used in planning media 3.What skills apart from negotiation does a media buyer need 4. The gross weight of a tv plan can be a. sum of all spot tvrs b. product of 1+ reach and average ots of the entire plan These values for the same plan are not always equal- why? 5. Why dont u allow advertising on your site? How do you make money from your website currently Please let me know Thanks Ajit

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 19, 2001 ):
Your terminology is a bit different from US usage, but with given assumptions the Guru's answers are as follows:
  1. Assuming "TVR" is rating, program reach and rating are identical for a single ad unit. Reach and ratings accumulate differently because reach discounts audience duplication from one ad unit to the next.
  2. As an example, reach curves show where the reach added by additional advertising in the same medium diminishes and a new medium should be added to the mix to optimize the effect of more spending.
  3. Aside from negotiating skills, a buyer needs good communication skills to convey the benefits of his buys. Otherwise, the skills are the same as any for business, perhaps emphasizing math.
  4. Assuming again that "TVR" is ratings and that "average ots" is average frequeuncy of exposure, then the sum of tvrs must equal the product of 1+ reach and average ots. Any tiny difference will be rounding.
  5. Of course AMIC accepts advertising! Ads do not appear on the Guru's "current answers" page, because it is dynamically generated by scripts, from a data base.


Friday, July 13, 2001 #4576
Dear Guru, I have enjoyed your past insights a lot, and I wonder if there is an answer to my problem as weel. I am wondering if there are some measurement that indicates the propbablility of an ad being seen. For example, when a magazine quotes a CPM it is based on how many people that have the opportunity to see an ad. Is there a measurement or an industry standard ratio of CPM verus how many people that are likely to actually see/register the ad when they read the magazine (or some other media). Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 13, 2001 ):
Various measurs of this likelihood of ads being seen and/or remembered are online at The Magazine Publishers' Association, for example The Magazine Handbook.


Thursday, April 12, 2001 #4324
Dear Guru, we are working on a sort of educational document for an important client. What we have in mind is: what should the ideal media briefing look like, som basic media terms (GRP, ots, coverage,...), what is the difference between strategic and tactical planning, media-memorisation, ... I was wondering if you have some examples of such documents that could give us an idea of such a presentation. Thanks for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 12, 2001 ):
To determine the right media briefing, you must know your audience:
  • What do they already know?
  • What do they want to know?
  • What do they need to know for future interactions?

From the syntax of your query, you seem to use British media terms (like ots, rarely heard in the U.S.), but your email address is in Belgium. Therefore the Guru is hesitant to try to list the media terms most relevant for your needs. As a broad guide, see the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan and the Guru's Media Terms, keeping in mind that these are often U.S. - specific.

You may click here to see past Guru discussion of strategy versus tactics but briefly, tactics are specific courses of action taken to implement strategies. For example using TV is a tactic to achieve a strategy of attaining high reach towards and awareness-building objective.


Saturday, December 23, 2000 #4063
Dear Guru, I am a very new media planner so I have a very basic question. What is the difference between average Frequency and average ots and what is the formula for their calculation. Thanking you in advace.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, December 23, 2000 ):
"OTS" or "opportunities to see" is used differently by various practitioners. One meaning is equivalent to impressions, or the number of exposures of a campaign to individual members ot the target demographic; a summing of the audiences of all the advertsing occasions of a campaign. In this sense, "average" is not an appropriate modifier.

Average frequency is the average number of exposures experienced by the members of the target who have been exposed to the campaign (net reach) over a measured time period such as 4 weeks.

Formula:
Gross impressions ÷ net reach
or
GRPs ÷ percent reach.


Wednesday, August 02, 2000 #3666
Ref. question 3663 Thanx for answering my question. I buy slots with high eff. index when my objective is to accumulate GRP's and drill my message into my consumers mind. This is the secondary stage where after creating the initial reach i focus on accumulating greatest total number of impressions (Funnel Treatment). As for the decay factor it reflects the decrease in the recall leval when advertising is reduced or stoped. I normally use 10% decay level in IMphase(IM horizontal planning technologies) The question that i want to ask you is what is the better way of flighting. There is a 70's 3+ eff frequency model by Prof. MacDonald which says that brusting is a better flighting patteren.On the other hand there is more recent Recency concept championed by Prof. JP Jones of Syracuse university of NY which says that as far as FMCG goods are concerned people are in the market every week and infect only needs one ots to stimulate purchase.Please comment MY second question is how do you calculate Eff Frequency. Normally i use Eff frequency model where i calculate the eff frequency by applying judgement and common sence in a disciplined manner using Marketing, Advertising and competitive factors Thanx Sarwar Khan Media Manager R-Lintas Lahore,Pakistan

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 06, 2000 ):
1. In regard to 3+ effective frequency versus recency, the Guru tends to favor recency for "Fast Moving Consumer Goods." Recency is not really a contrast to the 3+ frequency theory, but an extension. As championed by Erwin Ephron, a core concept of recency is that once the third exposure is delivered, all additional exposures are at 3+.

2. Once again, there seems to be a semantic issue when you say "calculate" effective frequency. If you mean setting the frequency level to be considered effective, then your "judgment and common sence in a disciplined manner using Marketing, Advertising and competitive factors are the right approach, and the Ostrow Model will be helpful.

If instead, you mean to calculate the effective frequency delivered by your schedule, this has absolutely nothing to do with the subjective factors you have listed. A reach model determines how many persons are exposed to each discrete number of ad units in the schedule. That is if your reach is 75%, that means, explicitly, that 75% of the target has experienced one or more ad exposures. Within this, perhaps 70% of the target has been exposed to 2 or more, 66% to 3 or more, etc, up to the full number of units in the schedule. Reach models allow for expressing all of these levels. "Effective reach" mean those reached at least the minimum number of times established as effective, most typically 3.


Monday, September 20, 1999 #2808
Hi Guru!For maintainence level of advertising for an established brand, on TV why is an ots of three considered to be a minimum ? Or does no such rule of thumb exsist?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 20, 1999 ):
The 3x rule-of-thumb is based on studies dating back over 100 years to a researcher named Ebbinghaus. He determined that it required 3 repetitions of a string of nonsense syllables for them to be retained by experimental subjects.

Advertising researchers extended the research to posit that only after three exposures to a message would a consumer understand, recall and be prepared to act on the information. Media planners then started using an average frequency (as in "Reach and Frequency") of 3 as a minimum.

More recently, the concept of effective reach has used the theory that only those exposed at least 3 times should be counted as "effectively reached." So, for example, a media plan with an average four week reach / frequency of 76 / 5.2 might reach 50% of the target 3 or more times.

Some planners will evaluate several issues surrounding the copy, competition and media options to decide what effective level is appropriate and set a level of 4 or 6, etc. Of course, this is meaningless without also setting a reach goal at the stated frequency level. A plan that delivers 50 reach at 3+ might also deliver 42 at 4+, 33 at 5+ etc, so there is an issue of the goal versus the level at which the plan is examined.


Saturday, May 29, 1999 #2543
dear guru, i have a few qs regarding print advertising what is the meaning of the term 'far forward positioning'? the fps or the front page solus position of a newspaper is supposed to have very high ots, is there some solid research evidence backing this claim? like the fps are there any other postions in newspapers that pull best? if there are once again what evidence is there in this regard?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 29, 1999 ):
Far forward positioning very simply means a postion in the first few pages of the issue, at least first third. It is assumed there is a better chance of exposure in these pages. It's a common U.S. usage, but the Guru is concerned about semantics, since you are writing from India and most of the terms you are using appear to be U.K. media jargon.

Covers, opposite back cover, opposite table of contents and opposite first editorial feature, are all considered good magazine positions.

In newspapers, section front pages and section back pages are considered valuable. For research, visit The Newspaper Advertising Association and Newsweek Media Research Index or their equvalents in India.


Thursday, March 25, 1999 #2412
1) Are the terms ots, impressions, hits and exposures interchangeable? 2) Are there media industry norms (or even studies) that indicate a correlation between a number of ots or exposures and audience (reader) behavior. I understand there were a number of Politz studies conducted in the 60s which suggested that one exposure produced a dicernible response and two exposures produced about double that response. Also there are European reports stating that a magazine ad should provide at least 5 ots in order for the reader to digest or understand the ad message -- is '5' the number? Are there industry norms, and if so, do they differ by media vehicle? Thanks in advance!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 26, 1999 ):
1) Other than "hits," you may generally consider those terms interchangeable. "Hits" is a much abused term peculiar to the internet. Some people do use it when the mean impressions, but technically "hit" is defined as "an entry in a server log."

Whenever a visitor requests a page on a site, as by clicking on a link, the server log records a "hit" for the text of the page, and hits for each frame and hits for each little bullet or other icon and a hit for each ad. A single page on one of today's commercial sites may consist of several dozen items which would all create "hits" in a server log when only one page impression is happening. The internet is also unique in its ability to serve content with a different ad each time a new user arrives at a page. So page impressions and ad impressions will not agree as they do in magazines or broadcast.

"Hits" originated in the early days of the world wide web, when browsers read text only, like the venerable "Lynx," and a page was just one block of text, so "hit" then equalled "impression," more or less. Hits include server log error messages as well, which are of no value to anyone.

2) The study of effective numbers of exposures goes back at least as far as the scientist Ebbinghaus (1883) who tested how many repetitions of nonsense syllables were required to achieve learning. This was the origin of 3 as a magic media number there have been infinite numbers of other studies, more advertisng and sales focused since.

Note that European media and Europe's media environment are different than the U.S. It is a common trap to assume that media perform the same tasks with the same effectiveness when used in different cultures. The U.S. Hispanic market is a good exanple, with TV, radio and print all delivering very different reach / frequncy, reach potetial and overlap than do the parallel general market media.

The best source of studies on the topic are: Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter, Newsweek Media Research Index and ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization. The Guru has discussed this frequently.
Click here to see past Guru responses about "effective frequency"


Thursday, February 11, 1999 #2322
Ephron(1993)suggests that the more a planner goes for frequency on television, the less effective he will progressively be, because the extra GRPs will fall increasingly into the "black hole" of the heavy viewers' viewing times, when they already have more enough ots. In the context of "Effectiv Frequency", do you think concentrated frequency with a low reach is usually "better" than a lower frequency with a higher reach?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 13, 1999 ):
In the context of effective frequency, yes, more frequency with less reach is better than less frequenct with more reach, but that isn't the point of effective frequency. Effective frequency is the concept of focusing on the reach which is delivered at enough frequency.

Effective frequency is one basis of Ephron's theories. The key point he adds in movimg to recency planning is that frequency is additive over time; once a message has passed the effective threshold, each additional exposure is with effective frequency, especially when advertising is continuous. There is no need to consider only four week


Wednesday, December 02, 1998 #2192
Dear Guru. It is not still clear to me how to measure or calculate Reach of the ad campaign using media mix. For example, my ads on TV provided 90% reach, and ads in print reached 25% of the target audience. What is the total reach, frequency of the campaign? What other indexes can we find for such campaign? And my second question is about outdoor advertising. It is essential to measure the effectiveness of the ad campaign comparing awereness and sales before and after the ads placing. But that is somehow the post- campaign analisys and my client would like to see some feagures before the campaign starts (pre-campaign). What indexes (like reach, frequency, GRPs, ots) can we provide to the discription of the outdoor ad. campaign? Thank You very much.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 02, 1998 ):
Reach of a medium in a plan is simply a statistical probability. Further, it is generally thought that each medium overlaps each other medium randomly.

So, in your example, if you consider the reach of each medium as a decimal, the probability of not being exposed to TV is 0.10 and of not being exposed to print is 0.75.

The probability of not being exposed to either one, is therefore 0.10 times 0.75 = 0.075.

Therefore, total reach of the mix is 92.5 (if 0.075 or 7.5% don't see it then 92.5% do see it).

Other basic "counts" for a campaign are impressions (OTS), cost per rating point and cost per thousand impressions.

All of these counts; reach, frequency, GRP, ots, etc are possible for outdoor, if the research has been done, in your country, to count the audience of the locations used.


Tuesday, October 06, 1998 #2074
Dear Media Guru, Please refer me to articles on media models to arrive at optimum desirable frequency / ots / # exposures. Thanks. softcheries@hotmail.com

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 06, 1998 ):
Try the Advertising Research Foundation library or Newsweek Media Research Index.


Wednesday, September 30, 1998 #2064
Dear Guru, in our country there are many agencies that buy raw data of television audiences and use it in their software, that have different methods for coverage and ots calculation from the ones that are generally used in the remaining agencies in the marktet, putting themselves in a priviligiate situation in newbusiness. In you country do you have a commitee that analyses this calculations, or what are the rules applied?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, September 30, 1998 ):
It is considered good business in the U.S. to develop proprietary data applications and thereby become "smarter" than the competition.

When an agency does this, it then has the burden of convincing prospective clents that the application is valid.

In the U.S. there are committees of the American Association of Advertising Agencies, Association of National Advertisers and Advertising Research Foundation that examine publicly available data analysis systems.


Wednesday, November 19, 1997 #1459
Does it make any sense to calculate GRPs not having reach and frequency stated? My campaign brings me 530 GRps - whatdoes it mean for me? Could I calculate ots if I have only GRPs? Thank you

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, November 22, 1997 ):
GRPs are simply a summation of all the audiences of all the ads in a plan. They give you the "boxcar" size of a plan without any detail. This can be used to compare to other campaigns or other times, in crude terms.

If by ots, you mean "Opportunities to See," which is equivalent to Impressions, then the calculation is simple. GRPs are a percentage of the population. Whatever your GRP's target group, you need to know the total "universe" of that population for which the GRPs are stated. Then, if you have 500 GRPs, you have impressions equal to the population, times 5.



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