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 Monday, June 05, 2000 #3529

Hi, I would like you to expain the terms, TG, TRP, CRP, GRP, ROS, RODP and the basic difference between the trems. Thanks a ton!. Anjali
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 08, 2000 ):

 TG= Target group, the selected demographic or psychographic group against which a media plan or buy will be constricted
 TRP=Target Rating Points; the sum of the audiences of the all media insetions in a plan or schedule, expressed as a percentage of the target group population, such that 100 TRP indicates a summed audience equal to 100% of the group's population.
 GRP= Gross Rating Points; this si essentially identical to TRP, except that some planners use GRP only in reference to Household audiences and TRP for any other dempgraphic. Others use "GRP" in all cases
 CRP= Cost per Rating Point ( some say CPP for "Cost Per Point"); Simply a division of the media's cost by the rating points (TRPs or GRPs) delivered
 RODP=Run of Daypart, also referred to as "daypart rotator," wherein a broadcast spot is purchased to air at anytime within a defined dayaprt, such as 6am to 10am, Monday thru Friday
 ROS=Run of Schedule or Run of Station, wheriein a broadcast spot is purchased to air at anytime from station signon to signoff. Sometimes the term "Daypart ROS" is encountered. This is another version of Run of Daypart.
 Thursday, June 01, 2000 #3517

What is the general rule of thumb (in terms of number of :60 radio spots per week) in a nonmetered market? The goal of the advertising campaign is awareness over a 7 month period (no weekly promotion to talk about  just letting people know about our business). In the past we have been running anywhere from 14 to 16 spots per week.
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 01, 2000 ):

The "overkill" level of frequency will depend on continuity among other things.
In a market too small to measure, the Guru imagines that there are relatively few radio stations, perhaps 12 or fewer, and average ratings might be 5 or better. So suppose 16 spots is about 100 GRP. FOr reach you would still want to use more than one station, at least 12 times each. Are you sure your market isn't measured, perhaps as part of a larger market as defined by Arbitron? Even tiny Lima, Ohio, the 201st of the 210 DMAs making up the entire country has ratings twice yearly. Check out Radio & Records.
 Tuesday, May 16, 2000 #3476

What is the usual time of TV copy wornout? Please give me some examples of Western markets (I am writing from Poland). Is there a big difference when you use the same copy all the time or several versions (let's say  the same logo, text, packshot, but different scenario)? Please submit it to FMCG brands. Thanks in advance. Cezary
 The Media Guru Answers(Friday, May 19, 2000 ):

It depends on how you define wear out, which might be based on GRPs or frequency or sales rate.
Click here to see
extensive past Guru comment on wear out
 Tuesday, March 07, 2000 #3291

Is there a formula which calculates effective reach and
frequency? I know that reach x frequency=GRP's, but how
can I determine what the effective reach and frequency
would be for 100 GRP's or 150 GRP's?
 The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 10, 2000 ):

Of course there's a formula, but it can be immensely complicated. In fact, media planners rarely, if ever, considered effective frequency before computers became a part of everyday reach and frequency calculation in the 70's.
Your "reach x frequency=GRP's" is not a formula, but merely the arithmetical relationship of these quantities as they are defined. GRPs are the convenient weights and mesures we use in media buying. They are simple statistical measurements, whereas reach and frequency are more complex statistical models In some cases, there are relatively simple reach formulae derived from compiling the actual, measured reaches of actual schedules with known GRPs.
The formula is nonlinear. To find the effective reach of a schedule, you first determine level of frequency to consider "effective" and then examine the frequency distribution of the schedule to see how many people have been reached that number of times The frequency distribution shows exactly how many people have been exposed to each integral number of announcements in a schedule. The math is based on nonlinear functions. For any given reach and GRP set, the frequency distribution can vary considerably depending on the media combined and the dayparts within the media.
 Thursday, January 13, 2000 #3119

Media Guru,
I'm an advertising student and will be going out into the working world of advertising on a media buying internship in two weeks. I have one question which i would much like your input on. The question is as follows; Junior media buyers are routinely asked to book millions of dollars worth of advertising. But do they know enough about the vast complexities of media to do the job right?
sincerly,
intern student
 The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 19, 2000 ):

No, they don't. But then again they aren't actually asked to do this. You have a somewhat oversimplified view of the roles, the Guru believes.
Junior buys operate within tighly defined limits on their authority to make spending decisions.
Over the course of a year a "junior buyer" at a large agency might book millions of dollars, a few tens of thousands at a time. Each time, in a properly run agency, there should be a set of buying parameters from a olanner which specifies the target group, amount of media weight, (GRP or impressions) type of programming or environment, minimum audience size of an ad unit, cpm/cpp range, and perhasp even reach of the schedule. With all these parameters properly set, there is little room fro a junior buyer to make a significant error. The job is to find the right media according to clearly set, mostly numerical, standards and then to negotiate the best possible price. Additionally, there should be review of a junior buyers proposed buy by a supervisor.
If you find yourself in a situation without these controls, then you are not observing a professional media operation.
 Thursday, October 28, 1999 #2918

i guru
could you please explain what should be the diffrent
between plan GRP and plan TRP and the real resoult in TRP and GRP terms?
thamk you
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 28, 1999 ):

1. None
2. Some people use "TRP" when referring to GRPs of a specific
demographic and say "GRP" only in reference to Household Rating
Points.
 Thursday, August 19, 1999 #2726

I buy a base level of 500 Ad 1849 TRP's per week; a typical flight will run 4 weeks  for a total of 2000 TRP's. From this base buy, we usually split the base buy in 1/2 trafficking in two different spots (1000 / 1000 TRP's). At what level do you think that wear out will occur? Thanks for your help.
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 19, 1999 ):

What is your definition of wearout? A frequency level? A decline in ad awareness? A sales decline? There are may ways to set wearout.
One of the oldest, and easier to use because it is defined entirely by media measurement, is a certain frequency level in the nexttohighest quintile, perhaps a frequency of 20.
Depending on daypart mix, this might mean wearout at about 2000 GRPs for a spot.
 Monday, July 19, 1999 #2643

Dear Guru! I've got the following question.
Our client has a product to advertise. He has set
advertising goals for the ad campaign. We defined
the level of effective frequency needed to reach
these goals.
1. What is the range of effective reach? For example,
30%
 The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 23, 1999 ):

Media plan communications goals should specify a level of effective reach along with specifying the effective level of frequency.
Basic, as well as more advanced media software, calculates reach and frequency, frequency distribution and reach at various (effective) frequency levels. Input is typically GRPs.
Setting an effective reach goal can be based on gut, such as reaching the majority of the target at effective frequency levels in 4 weeks, or based on sales predictions. For example, this might be an estimate that 10% of those reached efectively will buy and X number of sales are the goal. Then 10 times X are the number who must be effectively reached.
 Wednesday, July 14, 1999 #2632

What are GRP's and what do they stand for in a media buy? I am an Account Manager and don't have the Media background but need to explain the GRP levels to my Product Managers. Please help.
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 15, 1999 ):

GRPs are gross rating points, the pounds and ounces of media buying and selling. The target audience of an advertisement divided by the population of the target group is the ad's rating. The sum of the ratings of the ads is the Gross Rating Points. Plans specify how many GRPs of each medium to buy. For print, specifications are more often numbers of insertions in specific titles, but the GRPs can be calculated the same way and one plan compared to another.
Allowance must be made for :15 versus :30 GRP or half page versus full page. A given program or magazine has the same rating (GRP) whatever the ad size/length, but obviously there is more benefit from 100 GRP of :30s or pages than from 100 GRPs of :15s or half pages.
 Monday, July 12, 1999 #2623

Reciently I have read a couple of documents
that explain that you may estimate wearout using an
equation(applying quintyl analysis). I would like to
know if there is any equation to estimate hoe many
GRP's per version you need to generate awareness.
As always thansk in advance.
 The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 12, 1999 ):

Any number of GRPs generate some awareness. So the question is how much aweareness do you want to achieve. Reach may tie more closely to awareness generation, but GRPs are easier to work with.
Also, consider whether you really care about awarness of individual commercial versions as opposed to advertising overall.
Formulas the Guru has seen generally assume some beginning level of awareness and a falloff in any week with less than100 GRP.
 Friday, July 09, 1999 #2620

Hello GURU ! I have 2 questions for you : 1. One of the media analysis we do in our agency,mainly for TV, consists in comparing a competitor's share of spending (calculated as his % of advertising expenditure within the total category) with his share of voice (calculated as the % of his 30 sec equivalent GRPs within the category). Is this correct in your opinion ? 2. How do you define SOV ? Is this the % of the GRPs one achieve within a category or is it the % of money invested by an advertiser within a category in a certain period ? Thanks.
 The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 11, 1999 ):

1) What do you do with the results of this comparison? How does the ratio of SO$ to SOV help you make decisions? The :30 equivalent step is reasonable, but how do you do that effectively outside of broadcast?
2) Some use SOV to refer to share of spending, others use it to refer to share of weight. The Guru believes share of weight is more descriptive of the marketplace perceived by the consumer, but the person controlling the budget, that is, the client, more often cares about money. They can see the impact of money on the bottom line more easily than they can understand the differences in impact of their :30s versus a competitor's :15s or competitor's radio versus their own magazines.
 Monday, April 05, 1999 #2431

Dear Guru,
I have a question regarding %US coverage with spot radio. An old boss of mine who has recently left the company had used DMA %ages rather than metro %ages when reflecting total US penetration on a spot radio buy we did. I am unsure as to why this was done. Can you provide a rationale for using DMA numbers here? Thanks.
 The Media Guru Answers(Monday, April 05, 1999 ):

To some extent it represents TV thinking and to another, it's more realistic.
DMA's are really a TVdefined area. Every U.S.county is assigned to one DMA or another  except for some oddities in Alaska. So the sum of all DMAs is 100% of the U.S. with no duplication. The definition is based on which TV market gets the bulk of a county's viewing. In each market, the central city VHF stations generally reach the whole DMA. Spot TV buys are usually planned on a DMA rating/GRP basis.
Radio, on the other hand, is usally planned on a metro point basis. Even the strongest radio stations, audiencewise, rarely reach the outer areas of DMA's. In each DMA there are one or more Metros. Because the population of the DMAs concentrates in the metros, buys in the metros are treated as if they covered whole DMAs, and indeed, radio coverage is gernerally wider than the metro. In the U.S. there are roughly 10 times as many radio stations as TV sations, many surviving because they cover outofthe way areas, but others simply because we will buy small, select audiences. Consider the New York DMA. Largest in population, one of the smallest in geography, but with about 50 reportable commercial radio stations and about 9 commercial TV stations.
 Tuesday, February 16, 1999 #2338

Ambient media is defined as the "rapidly expanding
sector of nontraditional outofhome opportunities
that surround us."(Concord Ambient Media Report 1998)
My dissetation topic is concerned with measuring and
improving the accountability of this sector, what is
the best way to get started?
 The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 17, 1999 ):

The Guru would recommend that you begin with a review of the literature concerning the move by 30sheet and 8sheet outdoor from arbitrary sales of "showings" to a GRP system, in the late '70's and 80's.
 Tuesday, January 19, 1999 #2276

What you can tell me about GRP and CPT? How to explain the formulas of them?
 The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, January 19, 1999 ):

The Guru assumes that by CPT, you mean "Cost per Thousand," which is abbreviated "CPM" in the U.S., (using the Roman numeral "M" for one thousand)>
GRP stands for "Gross Rating Points." It is the sum of all the ratings of all the advertisements of a schedule. Or it is the sum of all the impressions of a schedule divided by the population of the geographic market under consideration. "Impressions" and "Population" must be in the same demographic category within the same geography when applying this formula. CPT, or cost per thousand, is simple a matter of dividing the cost of media by the number of impressions delivered expressed in thousands.
 Wednesday, December 02, 1998 #2195

In radio terminology can you please explain a wired and
unwired network? Also, is a wired network the same as
a line network?
As always, thanks for your help!
 The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 02, 1998 ):

Wired and line are the same. The terms stem from the days when telephone lines were the primary connection for a network. Wired or line networks are sets of stations under affiliation ageements to carry a network's programming, typically on a common schedule or with stated exceptions.
"Unwired" is essentially a way for a spot rep to sell a long list of stations as a package. No programming is involved; just spots or GRPs.
 Wednesday, October 14, 1998 #2094

Dear Guru!
Could you explain the speciality of billboard advertising, focusing on the time length of the campaign.
I suppose there is an optimal length of a campaign, and after that the reach is not growing (or just a little).
In the European market we can find 1 week 2 week and 1 month long campaign too. Are there any available research on this topic?
Thanks
Tamas
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 15, 1998 ):

In the U.S., an outdoor campaign is usually bought as a 25, 50 or 100 "showing". "Showing" means GRP's per day, based on camparing DEC (daily effective circulation) to the population universe.
A "50 showing" outdoor campaign will achieve 85% or better reach in one month, so obviously there cannot be much reach growth from there. A 25 showing isn't much lower and a 100 showing isn't much higher.
Campaigns usually run 3 or more months. The cost of production typically works against less than 30 day postings. Even though outdoor delivers very high reach at low cpm, in the Guru's experience it is rarely employed just for this reach building, because it offers limited message length and detail.
Harris Donovan of Canada has an Outdoor Reach and Frequency system.
 Tuesday, September 08, 1998 #2031

Dear Guru,
I'm new in the Advertising field. I would like to know
how to calculate the Target Market Reach1+, Reach2+,
abd the Average Frequency.
TIA.
 SKY
 The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, September 09, 1998 ):

The answer depends upon what data you are starting with. At its most simple,
"1+" reach is the same as just saying "reach". If you know the GRPs, and the reach, then the average frequency is calculated by dividing reach into GRPs.
At bottom however, in each medium, TV, radio, print, etc. reach was actually measured at some point, rather than calculated . That is, using respondent level measurement, such as Nielsen or MRI or Simmons, actual schedules advertiser were evaluated for gross audience accumulated and the net reach accumulated, as well as how many people saw exactly one advertisement in the schedule, how many saw 2, how many saw three, and so on. As the Guru stated above, reach is defined as those who saw one or more (1+) advertisements. 2+ or 3+, etc, is determined by adding those exposed to each discreet number of ads.
Taking the results of many of these schedules as a scatter graph, a classic reach curve may be plotted. Or, by arraying GRPs and frequencies in a table, a formula equivalent to the curve can be determined statistically. This formula then becomes a "model" for calculating reaches of other schedules in similar media. Formulae for 2+, 3+ frequencies can also be calculated. There are no simple formulas for doing this. "Beta Bimodal" is one statistical function frquently used. These functions and models are usually built into large computer media planning systems like Telmar's.
 Saturday, July 11, 1998 #1944

Dear Guru, Thank you for your incredible help! I have to fulfill an RFP for an online ad campaign. The agency requested avails, SOV and a proposal.
Please explain SOV in the online context. I understand avails to be available impressions.
 The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 11, 1998 ):

"Avails" in the context of a media proposal typically means a listing of the advertising positions offered. In broadcast, it may describe dayparts and programs available for sale with audience and pricing specified.
The term seems a bit of a stretch in online, but could describe a lsiting of available banner sizes, positions and rotations, with impressions and prices.
"SOV" does not seem to fit here unless it is meant to express the portion of the site's total available impressions delivered by each available advertising opportunity in the "avails."
The Guru's observation has been that people operating web sites and managing their advertising have not come from other media or even agency backgrounds. It would not seem useful to try to impose broadcast terminology on new electronic media, except for those terms common to all other media, such as "impressions," "GRP," or "cpm."
 Thursday, June 18, 1998 #1905

Is there a threshold at which you maximize on reach (TV) at a certain weight level?
I am purchasing a high concentration of GRPs (60% in prime / 20% in news/prime access / 20% early morning/daytime/late night) in excess of 300 Ad 1849 GRP's per week for 4 weeks. Running R&F against such a plan shows reach at 99%  which I feel is impossible.
Isn't the threshold of maxing out on reach at 96%?
 The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 19, 1998 ):

The typical, short term cume study gives a 96% top end. But 99% of Homes have TV so a 99 reach is theoretically possible.
Since either 96 or 99 is the result of all TV collectively, a very heavy plan is required to achieve it, especially in today's fragmented TV environment, where cable has so great a share of viewing.
For your schedule, even 96 is probably somewhat high. If your R&F system is unsophisticated, outdated or unable to adjust to the number of weeks in the schedule, that may explain the high result you are getting.
 Monday, August 05, 1996 #1171

In regards to print advertising, what is a wearout report? What data do I need to complete this report (reach, frequency, formulas)?
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 08, 1996 ):

The Guru has discussed Wear Out previously (see below July 17 and May 7).
A wear out report would state the status of various print executions in your campaign in comparison to the wear out standard you have established. Clients have a way of asking the wear out question without setting a standard or even being able to decide how to set one. Essentially an ad is worn out when it loses all or most of its ability to accomplish its marketing purpose with its target. The purpose may be as simple as product sales, or lead generation in a direct response campaign, or it may be as difficult to define as building brand imagery or awareness of a specific product benefit. Since directly relating any of these to a specific ad would require custom research, it is typical to use whatever research has been done in the past as related to easily modelled media measurements, such as reach, frequency, GRPs or quintiles. For example if in the past, a custom study showed the average ad was worn out at a time when the planners knew that 80% of the target had seen it 8 or more times, or when the frequency in the top 2 quintiles passed 30. (Don't use these examplenumbers). Naturally, different ads perform differently, but you will need to work on an average basis. A wear out report then becomes a matter of reporting something like how many of thetarget have seen the ad at least "x" times, or that the frequency in the top 2quintiles will exceed the standard measure as of a certain month of the schedule, or"X" number of GRPs will have run for the ad by some date. The key is knowing how one of these media measures relate to your wear out standard. Then the report is a simple task.
 Friday, March 08, 1996 #1266

Guru:Is there a formula for calculating reach & frequency for trade vehicles.
 The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 10, 1996 ):

There is no truly simple formula for calculating reach and frequency of any medium. The key datain print R&F are pairwise duplication between different vehicles and between two or more insertions in the same vehicle.
As the number of insertions in a plan increase, the number of data elements to include in a formula increase. The number of possible pairings for just a 10 insertion plan is 45 ((n x n1) / 2). Telmar among others, offers software designed to quickly perform these calculations on defined schedules of media measured by SMRB, MRI, MMR, J.D. Power or others. Using measured media as prototypes, reach of various schedules you might want to consider could then be calculated. From these numerous calculations, you could, by regression analysis, develop a "simple" formula of the form y=ax+b to calculate frequency based on GRP of typical plans of the sort you run in these media (y is frequency; x is GRP; a and b are factors from the regression). A formula of this kind is very specific to the audience dynamics of the media vehicles involved. Please understand, this is not a recommended technique, merely a response to your question.
 Wednesday, February 21, 1996 #1755

Dear Media Guru I have a two part question , both dealing with the same subject, tv sampling error. Suppose ER gets a 20% rating and Seinfeld gets an 18%, both off a sample of 1000 resondents. What are the odds of there being absolutely no difference between these two ratings? This is not as simple as looking up the standard error of each rating. I remember that it has something to do with the standard error of the difference, but I just can't recall the calculating process.Could you please explain? Then to complicate matters, I'm looking at the same phenonena on a grander scale. Suppose the estimated delivery in rating points for a tv schedule is 1000 GRPs and it underdelivers by 10% ie. 900 GRPs. What is the likelihood that the difference had to do with pure chance ( sampling error) and how do I calculate that? I know this is more difficult since you have to account for buying many programs in the estimate and the actual. Naturally, we are assuming that the error differences are all due to sampling, and not the idiosyncrasies of the marketplace or the impurity of the sample. In this case I know the answer is going to be technical, but that is what I need. Thanks
 The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 23, 1996 ):

The Guru loves this kind of stuff. The answer is technical but hopefully, in simple terms.
First, if ER has a 20 rating and Seinfeld has 18, with a sample of 1000 (for that demographic), then the ER 20 rating's standard error is +/ 1.265 while Seinfeld's 18's is 1.215 (See formulas in the Jan 25 18:23 Guru Q&A below). Note that the absolute size of the error on the 20 is larger but it is relatively smaller. Also note that the range of these errors is such that they can make the two programs' ratings equal: 20  1.265 = 18.735 which overlaps 18 + 1.215 or 19.215. There is a 68% probablity that these two ratings fall within this range. But the swing could go either way on either number. And could fall anywhere within the +/ range specified There is a 90% probabilty that these two ratings fall within +/ 1.999 on the 18 and +/ 2.081 on the 20. The odds are 95% that they fall within +/ 2.381 for 18 and 2.479 for the 20. These odds actually relate to reliabilty. That is, if you repeat the same rating study 100 times with the same actual facts existing, 68% of those studies will give ER a rating between 18.735 and 21.265. Now the 1000 GRP underdelivered by 10% is different As the beginning of the explanation showed, while there is a swing around any rating (a 5 would be +/ 0.689 in the same study), the odds equally favor underestimates and overestimates. This is the same as the reason why small samples don't necessarily underestimate ratings. So in 1000 GRPs made up of 500 spots with an average 2 rating, the sampling error on the individual ratings somewhat cancels out. To calculate this in an Arbitron measured radio buy using a single survey and one station, for example, the formula is GRP x ((100 x #spots)  GRP) / sample x Factor))) "Factor" is from a table provided, specific to demographic and #quarter hours in the daypart of the buy. So, if your 1000 GRP were based on Adults 1849 ( with a 1000 A1849 sample), and a MonFri, 6a7p schedule, the calculation would be: (1000 x ((100 x 500) 1000) / (1000 x 2.42))) or +/ 143 GRP at the 68% confidence interval. Obviously, if the average rating were higher, hence fewer spots or if the sample was larger the variance would be smaller. With an average 20 rating, the swing is about +/ 40 GRP. So, depending on average ratings and sample sizes, the 10% underdelivery could be within the range of standard error.
 Friday, February 16, 1996 #1760

Dear Mr. Guru, Thank you for your last reponse on how to calculate GRP's. You had mentioned that you had explained it fully except for Neilson's calculation methodology. I would be interested in hearing more about this method of calculation as well. Also, is there a "better" way to measure the actual "Impact" an ad campaign has had if you know the actual length of each ad, the frequency the ads ran and the channels(and shows) that they ran during. ie. frequency X length X Audience(rate for each time slot)?? This is obviously a simplified formula, but your feedback on this would be greatly appreciated. Lastly, for television advertising, what are some of the other accepted methods of measurement. Thanks (Again) darrylw@conceptus.on.ca
 The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 16, 1996 ):

It is Neilsen's survey methodology that wasn't covered. They would use the same calculation formulae. The full description of Neilsens methodologies for People Meter, household meter and diary would cover several pages. Contact Neilsen who will be happy to send you methodology booklets.
Regarding "impact" there are as many ways to evaluate this as there are advertisers. Some advertisers use a factor for copy length based on norms from recall tests. For example, 75% of a :30 is a typical value for a :15. Some use attentiveness by daypart. Some use a combination of the two factors. Some apply the factors to GRP as an indicator; some apply to GRPs and then estimate reach from those adjusted GRPs as an impact indicator. The frequency of a schedule, as discussed so far, refers to the average frequency of exposure for all pesons reached. There are those who use "effective reach," counting only persons reached at least 3 times (or any designated minimum) when evaluating the impact of a schedule.
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