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Guru Search Results: 226 matches were found

Tuesday, January 10, 2012 #8394
what does DMA mean

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, January 10, 2012 ):
"Designated Market Area", Nielsen's definition of TV geographies measured. 210 make up the US.

Wednesday, December 21, 2011 #8372
How do you calculate how many national TV grp's convert to any market? Is there a formula?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 21, 2011 ):
If you mean on average, the average market will have the same GRP as the national schedule, If you mean how to determing the specific GRPs seen in each market for a given schedule, you would use resources like Nielsen's "Network Programs by DMA". Over many schedules, you could calculate DMA indices for the schedules or dayparts you typically run.

Thursday, December 15, 2011 #8362
where can i find a DMA list by income

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 15, 2011 ):
Try Snapshots or MRI market by market

Wednesday, August 24, 2011 #8196
I am trying to understand media weights at a DMA level resulting from a National buy. For instance, if one buys 100 National TRPs, how do you calculate TRPs at the local DMA level given differences in viewership behavior across DMAs? I have heard of something called the PAL index that indexes up or down the National TRPs to local DMA TRPs. Is this the correct approach? Are there other ways? Thanks in advance for the help.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, August 24, 2011 ):
The Guru's first thought is Nielsen's Quarterly "Network Programs by DMA" report which has market by market ratings for each network program.

Wednesday, May 25, 2011 #7929
re: #7926 Sorry about the lack of information: •Each of the four TV stations is within the same DMA; The cable schedule is based on a number of networks. •Using the report the client gave me, I plugged in the corresponding numbers for another month’s buy where I actually have the combined TV totals. TV’s reach/Freq/GRPs was 99.4 / 7.1 / 702. Cable’s was 61.2 / 2.1 / 129. •Using the client’s ‘formula’ the average reach would be 69.4 , average freq would be 2.4 and total grps would be 831. •It sounds to me in the above example, I should be weighting it per your suggestion. How do I do that?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 26, 2011 ):
Do you want the R&F of the market where the TV schedule ran or the national R&F combining cable and the one TV market?

  • If you want the schedule of the one TV market, and if the cable schedule is expressed in US R/F/GRP, assume the cable R/F/GRP is the same in your market as in the whole country.
  • With 99+ reach locally, this almost doesn't matter in this case (the Guru never reports reaches above 98%, as a matter of principle)
  • So the local market reach stays at 99, since there is no room for cable to increase it. The GRPs are additive, or 831 in total, and the frequency is 831 99 or 8.4.
  • If you want the US reach, and again if the cable is expressed as US reach, then use the weight of the market size agains the local reach.
  • Suppose your market is 4% of the US. Then, nationally, you would be adding 4% of 702, or 28 GRP to the cable 129, for a total of 157.
  • Now is the trickier part: your local TV reach adds a maximum of 4% of the local 99 reach points to cable's 61, or a max of 65 reach.
  • To properly combine the local and the cable you could run the combined cable and spot though an R&F program with the 4% of GRP figure. Realistically, of the 4 added reach points potential, you would probably gain 2 or 3. Of course this 2 or 3 or 4 depends on the market size. But assuming a very generous 4%, your R/F/GRP is somewhere between 63 / 2.5 / 157 and 64 / 2.5 / 157, so why fuss?
69% Reach is out of the question, even if your market is New York, with 6% of the US.

Wednesday, May 25, 2011 #7926
Hi there. Thank you for your guidance on the used car infomercials vs. used car spot schedule. They went with the latter :) Next question: I had a client average the reach % of 4 TV station schedules and 1 cable station schedule. They did the same for frequency. Then they added all the grps for all 5 schedules, and listed that on the report as well. They came up with 73.74% average reach, 3.54 average frequency and 1838 total GRPs. That HAS to be inaccurate because the reach x freq formula should still hold true, right? and they are dealing with two different universes as well? Is there a way to come up with average reach/freq for the TV+Cable schedules?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, May 25, 2011 ):
Congratulations on doing the right thing with the used cars.

Certainly what you describe is wrong, but there is not enough information to correct it.

  • If each station is in a different market, then it is proper to average the reaches, but they must be weighted by market size, and in this case, the GRPs would be averaged the same way.
  • Frequency would be GRP reach.
  • If these stations are in the same market then their reaches must be combined with a method that considers their duplication. In this case the GRPs are added. Again, GRP R = F.
  • The cable "station" is a puzzle here. Cable is usually a network, unless either a) you are talking about a local cable origination, such as New York's NY1 or News12 or b) a DMA interconnect or single system buy. If a such a local buy, then it's treated like the TV stations above. If it's a network buy, it's different markets and the weighting approach applies.

Friday, May 20, 2011 #7899
I have been buying spot TV for many years but now have the opportunity to buy DR TV. Can you please point me to the right direction to learn about this topic? I have searched the archives but don't find anything that is not a number of years old. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 21, 2011 ):
The Direct Marketing Association (DMA) is probably your best informational resource.

The site has an Events and Training section.

Monday, May 16, 2011 #7880
we buy TV at a national level (so I have GRP's by week). I want a report to get actual GRPs (delivered) at GRP level by week. I am told by my media agency that one way to get to that is use PAL reports from Nielsen and extrapolate my National GRPs to get DMA level GRPs. However the challenge is that PAL report (which gives market level GRP delivery) is available only quarterly, which is not ideal as it will show delivery constant across a DMA , across 12 weeks in a quarter. Is there a more accurate method (or source) to get actual GRPs by DMA level?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 16, 2011 ):
GRP by week is easy to get at the national level. Nielsen tools such as Galaxy Explorer can access GRP delivery by program or time period by telecast, by day, week, month, etc.

The core of your question seems to be how to get this data by DMA.

You need to keep in mind that most DMAs only have quarterly ratings reports available, so that hoping for weekly data in all DMAs except by some form of extrapolation isn't reasonable. Only the 56 metered markets out of the 210 total can offer actual weekly data.

A Nielsen report like Network Programs by DMA would allow you to develop quarterly indices of DMA by DMA delivery to apply to each national spot in your weekly report. Not perfect, but possible.

Thursday, January 27, 2011 #7830
Very roughly, what is the % difference in CPP between cable and broadcast spot during primetime? Is the answer different in large DMAs vs. medium and small DMAs?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 13, 2011 ):
There are many variables, such as the size of your buy within the DMA and the size of list of DMAs. Primetime itself is defined differently for broadcast and cable.

Cable should be priced well below broadcast, in general. You need to actually contact the interconnects or SpotCable

Wednesday, January 12, 2011 #7825
Dear Guru: I am interested in buying ad spots on cable tv. What I need is a list of cable providers for each DMA. Can you help?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 12, 2011 ):
Contact SpotCable or contact the major operators, listed at

Saturday, January 08, 2011 #7823
Dear Media Guru, I am hoping you can help. We are currently included in an adpool in the Philadelphia DMA however our store is physcially located in the heart of the Reading MSA. We are looking for any data that can show us if we are getting a fair amount of exposure in Reading pa if our adpool is are on Network stations such as Fox, nbc, as well as phl, comcast cable. We feel seen we are so far on the outreach from the heart of philly alot of our viewer tend to watch affliates that boarder our DMA but can not find any data to show this effect either way. I have been told about a special tri county report from neilsen but no one from our adpool knows what that is or how to get it. Any help or direction is greatly appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 08, 2011 ):
You would be helped by the Nielsen County Coverage reports.

Monday, May 24, 2010 #7784
This is an issue that I have struggled with for some time. I hope I can phase it correctly...anyway here goes. When you have multiple cable systems that cover one DMA, how do you split the ratings or for that matter do you split the ratings and if so how?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 24, 2010 ):
The first consideration is that for lack of better information, you have to assume that the cable ratings are the same among any set of subscribers; any system.

Now, unless you have an interest in the subs of specific MSOs, why do you need to split?

Using the first assumption, audiences would split in proportion to subs.

Tuesday, May 04, 2010 #7778
We are a front-door media advertising company specializing in door hangers. I'm the marketing director and one of our sales reps asked me whether there are any published statistics on advertising recall across various types of media, including: - Direct mail - Outdoor advertising - FSI's - Radio - TV - Magazines - Internet We'd like to be able to compare message recall and comprehension scores with those of our own doorhanger media when presenting our media for consideration to ad agency media planners and buyers. Thank you, Barry

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, May 05, 2010 ):
There are too many different sources, measurers and metrics for good comparisons. One classic is Starch AdNorms. Otherwise try the industry associations, like Direct Marketing Association (DMA), Outdoor Advertising Association of America, The Newspaper National Network, TV Bureau of Advertising, The Radio Advertising Bureau, The Magazine Publishers' Association, and The Internet Advertising Bureau.

Wednesday, April 21, 2010 #7777
Is there a FREE source to obtain african American percent of HH's by DMA?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, April 21, 2010 ):
Not likely. DMA data can only be created by Nielsen or licensees like Geoscape.

Wednesday, April 21, 2010 #7776
What is the proper calculation for applying cable zones? Will the client expect to see a decrease in the population or the rating when zoning is applied?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, April 26, 2010 ):
The question is rather unclear.

But the Guru will make the following asssumptions:

  • You are looking at NSI DMA ratings of cable networks
  • You are considering how the audience metrics will differ if you try to apply subscriber counts of specific zones of an MSO
Therefore you may expect:
  • Populations will be smaller since you are only considering a portion of a DMA
  • The sum of all the zones impressions is not theoretically equal to the DMA impressions, because satellite audiences are in the reporting of networks' audiences but not in any MSO zones. Satellite can account for about 30% of "cable" network sunscribers
  • THe ratings will be higher because you are reducing the denominator of the ratings equation to a smaller population.
So your equation might be audience within the zone subscribers in the zone. The Guru cannot recommend an accurate way to get the first piece.

Tuesday, April 13, 2010 #7775
What is a formula that can be used to calculate reach and frequency in just one newspaper?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, April 14, 2010 ):
If you mean reach and frequency for one insertion in one newspaper, the reach is the daily coverage divided by the relevant population (Metro, DMA, Trading area, etc). The GRP is equal to that and the frequency is 1.0.

If you mean multiple insertions in one newspaper, it is more complex to calculate.

You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.

The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function. There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables

Tuesday, April 06, 2010 #7772
Guru,I need to calculate CPM for a client for a media buy. The spots will air on radio, SAP on TV and on the internet. Ocationally the spots will air on XM radio too. How would I go about calculating the cpm? also, for the radio portion, do I use the specific audience numbers for the station or the entire DMA population?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 08, 2010 ):
CPM is cost divided by audience impressions. It's the same for all media.

Friday, November 20, 2009 #7740
What is known about the effectiveness of using direct mail in conjunction with radio?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 20, 2009 ):
Contact Direct Marketing Association (DMA) and The Radio Advertising Bureau (RAB)

Wednesday, May 20, 2009 #7694
When buying in a hyphenated market, should I buy using CPP or audience cume ratings? What factors need to be taken into consideration when buying a hyphenated market?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 23, 2009 ):
The "points" in CPP and cume ratings are both percentages of the same total DMA population. The hyphenated name makes no difference to these metrics.

Tuesday, February 03, 2009 #7659
I am making a tv buy in the Indianapolis DMA with a very small budget. Would it be appropriate to provide a budget to the four major networks and ask them to prepare a proposal based on the fact that only two will be chosen?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 04, 2009 ):
The Guru supposese you mean the affiliates of the four major networks. If your goal is to get the most weight for your money, your approach can work, but why not consider all affiliates?

The Guru would not reveal budget to the stationsm but let them know they are competing for 50% of the budget. They are all likely to come back with rates they say are based on 60% of the budget, anyway.

There will surely be other back-and-forth in the process.

Monday, November 10, 2008 #7635
Is there anywhere to download pdf's of DMA maps without subscribing to Nielsen Data?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 11, 2008 ):
Only Nielsen creates DMA definitions. You can buy the map from Nielsen without subscribing.

Friday, August 29, 2008 #7585
Dear Guru, I am working for a telecom service provider client. Problems I am facing are that: 1. How to successfully capture consumer mind space in an extremely cluttered environment and category? 2. How to quickly build up TOM & ensure acquisitions? 3. How do we successfully differentiate the brand from key competitors in the mind & media space? 4. The brand launch to happen in phases circle wise. How do we ensure maximum media mileage without spillovers? I know this is like asking too much but, still I am hopeful.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 31, 2008 ):
The Guru finds that your questions range well beyond media issues and answers; some of the media points raised by the answers will take you in opposite directions.

  1. Talking about cluttered environments implies you expect to be advertising in the same media vehicles as the competition. If you really "need" to do this, breaking though to top of mind will either be a creative problem or a matter of out-shouting (mostly out-spending) the competition.
  2. Ensuring acquisitions will be matter of the creative and the offer made, more than media choices (however, selection of DM lists is a media issue critical in that arena..
  3. Differentiation in the mind space is again a creative matter if you use the same media as competitors. You might break through by using different, unexpected media for your message to catch the attention of the audience reached. Others have used multiple small-space ads and other odd units to get noticed.
  4. The Guru is not sure he understands "happen in phases circle wise." If you mean introductions in different DMAs geographically arranged in a contiguous circle, spillover can't be avoded in major broadcast media. Cable tv can be tightly controlled geographically as can out-of home media. Larger internet sites can be bought with tight geographic controlls. Small radio stations and local print will minimize spillover, but at some cost to efficiency and reach.

Monday, August 18, 2008 #7580
Our company acquired a new client in Philadelphia where two casinos are about to be built within the next couple of years. How much of an affect would advertising of these casinos on the CPP for the entire Philly DMA?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 22, 2008 ):
If you mean will your advertising activity affect the overall cpp averages for the DMA for all advertisers, it depends on two factors;
  • What portion of the market's spending will you account for, and
  • How far from existing averages will you buy?
Unless the answer is a very large unlikely number on both issues, the effect should be negligible.

Tuesday, August 05, 2008 #7577
The situation we have is that one of our clients, a luxury hotel, is interested in acquiring data on monthly advertising expenditure of their competitors by media in Mexico and Costa Rica from 2006 - 2008.

Is there any service that would be able to provide something similar to what our client is requesting?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 07, 2008 ):
There are competitive expenditure services which cover Latin America. Try Research and Markets, TNS or Nielsen Monitor Plus

Wednesday, May 07, 2008 #7542
Good Morning Guru- I have been asked by a client to place a spots schedule in the top 20 US Markets. I notice from SQAD that this has the ability to reach 44% of the US households. Where is the "tipping point" where it is more cost effective to buy national instead of spot? In all my years, I have never bought does this differ from spot and how do I learn.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, May 07, 2008 ):
"National" should mean network. Today we have broadcast network, e.g. NBC, ABC, Fox, CW, etc, and spot consists of their local station affiliates, such as WNBC in New York, KABC in LA, WNYW in NY and independent local stations.

National can also refer to cable networks like Bravo or ESPN, and the "spot" scenario of buying local DMA interconnects or MSOs. There are national alternatives like Telamerica Cable Connect as well.

Assuming you mean the first of these situations, you can compare buying one network announcement that covers the entire country or a spot on each of the affiliates of that network. In terms of "effectiveness" this should be more or less equal, assuming your brand is evenly sold across the country. If there are gaps in distribution or variations in sales rate, spot in selected markets or some network weight supplemented by spot in key markets could be more "effective."

But, you probably mean to ask which is more "efficient."

Almost invariably, a network spot costs less than the sum of all the local spots that make up that same audience. So, at what point in buying spot markets does the cost equal the national for only a portion of the audience value? It will probably be around 45-50% of US coverage if you are buying top markets, but there can be significant variance depending on daypart and demo.

SQAD also offers network cost tools that can allow you to make the case-by-case comparison easily.

Sunday, April 20, 2008 #7532
Hi Guru - I need to compile a fair-share delivery analysis of our spot tv buy for a typical QSR Fair Share co-op. As I have been doing this on an as-needed basis, I have been using what is reported by county for a M-Sun 6AM - 12M daypart and not specific to the stations or shares on buy....this, out of the nielsen county-by-county analysis. Not the best but for my immediate purposes, was ok. Now I want to step up and perform the analysis in the best way possible and for the whole 820+ restaurant system. When I worked on a competing brand in the 90's, we had a software package that allowed us to drop in points and would generate a share of viewership index by county to the full DMA. The software package also took the aggregate of entries and reported spill in and out of the DMA. This, I am pretty sure, was proprietary to the QSR I was servicing. Are you aware of anything new/available to help me with automation and/or provide more finely tuned readings? Howard Spies Senior manager - Media Checkers Drive-In Restaurants, Inc. 813/283-7025

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 20, 2008 ):
The Guru recalls a similar program, called "MARS," created by our sister company, Telmar, in the 80's. It may be currently available and updatable.

Nielsen now offers software to manipulate their own data but, of course, you need something that lets you overlay your chain's geographic distribution, which was a feature of the "MARS" program the Guru recalls. Start with Telmar.

Friday, March 21, 2008 #7519
I'm working feverishly to expose TravelAdNetwork here in Canada. I have found some list of Agencies. But I'm finding through my research that many online planning agencies aren't listed. As one mentioned they like to stay under the radar.

Is there an easier way ie, database that I can access to find online Media Planners in Canada? I've been told no.. but I'm stubborn. As this does exist on the US side.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 22, 2008 ):

Research and Markets has published articles like "US and Canada top 50 interactive advertising agencies ranked by forecast interactive revenues in US dollars for 2002, with number of employees and actual revenues for 2001."

More promising still are Canada's Institute of Communications Agencies and Canada's as sources. It doesn't seem at all likely that ad agencies, which are generally as eager for business as you are, would want to "stay under the radar."

Googling "canadian ad agencies" would probably turn up additional resources

Friday, March 14, 2008 #7515
Is there any source that will give DMAs ranked by media cost?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 14, 2008 ):
First you need a source that offers media costs by DMA, such as SQAD.

SQAD offers software to manipulate their data.

Friday, March 14, 2008 #7514
I work for a small advertising agency, we are looking to buy SQAD books. We buy in the ten DMAs buy i can't buy them every month. We cater to Hispanic customers and right now i have no bench mark to place my buys as far as where to get my CPP in each DMA's.What would be the ideal month or Quarter to buy this year? Should we buy the one from June or 2nd Quarter last year?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 14, 2008 ):
As long as you understand how the quarters index to each other, the best bet is probably to buy the latest available book.

Friday, March 07, 2008 #7508
I am doing research on HDTV and how it will affect advertising. Besides the clarity issue, I have not found anything. When a station multi-casts (sends SD and HD to a TV set) will we be able to pick our "cast?" I have heard that there will be ads that will either run on the top or the side of the screen, but can't find any definitive information. If you can point me in a direction, it would be greatly appreciated. J

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 07, 2008 ):
Virtually all stations are now broadcasting both analog and digital signals, until early 2009 when there will only be digital broadcasts.

One of the virtues of digital signals is much greater bandwidth, i.e. more "information" within the signal, which allows HD pictures. One needs an HD receiver to see an HD broadcast.

Currently, digital signals are on different channel numbers than the analog signals of the same stations. For instance, in the New York DMA, WABC (analog ch 7), WCBS (ch 2) and WNBC (ch 4) broadcast digital signals on channels 45, 56 and 28, respectively. The digital signals are usually, but not always in HD. The digital signals can be received over the air with a suitable rooftop antenna and digital TV receiver. The digital bandwidths allow multiple signals, so that a viewer with such equipment may find he is able to receive "Channel 4.1" and "channel 4.2" and "channel 4.3" with different programming, which might be SD on 4.1, HD of the same program on 4.2 and all news / traffic / weather on 4.3. People using digital cable or satellite might find that local NBC station at channel 4 and their HD version of the same station at channel 804 with an extra digital signal ("channel 4.3") at channel 884. The Guru doesn't think he would ever choose SD over the same program in HD, but he could change the channel if desired.

The bandwidth could probably allow ads on the top or sides of the screen, just as annoyingly as all those tickers and crawls on analog cable news networks now.

For a list of current digital channels visit NAB. Also try NAB (National Association of Broadcasters) for other technical broadcast questions.

For extensive discussion of industry digital TV plans and capabilities, visit TV Advertising Bureau's (TAB's) multiplatform area.

Thursday, February 21, 2008 #7499
what is the difference between a DMA and MSA?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 21, 2008 ):
MSA is "Metroplitan Statistical Area"; a business-based population geography used by the Census Bureau, and defined by the U.S. Office of Management and the Budget.

DMA is "Designated Market Area"; a Nielsen Media Research definition of a measurement geography based on TV viewing patterns. DMAs usually have an MSA at their center but may have more than one within the boundaries. In some cases one MSA may have more than one DMA, such as Baltimore, MD and Washington, DC.

Wednesday, January 09, 2008 #7470
I am trying to locate a list of the geographical make up of all 210 DMAs.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 09, 2008 ):
See Nielsen's "Zip by DMA, DMA by Zip" or DMA Maps

Friday, December 28, 2007 #7464
In national industry with quiet competition, not much advertising - strongest competitor did unprecedented national cable TV buy and acheived significant brand name recognition resulting in gains. Moved the bar. We need to place more nationally now to keep up - currently doing regional spot cable buys in few larger DMA's. Would it be more cost effective to do national cable network buy or national spot cable in mid-sized and up DMA's for max reach(Service not typically used as much in rural areas.) Also, any research on how much average TV ad spend it takes to achieve national brand name recognition? I've heard $25 million but don't know the source of that figure.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, December 29, 2007 ):
Every case is unique, but in rules-of-thumb terms,
  1. If thinking of national brand name recognition, you should be thinking of national media
  2. Arbitrary numbers like $25 million are just that, arbitrary. If your target needs you to be in more expensive (less efficient) media to get to a certain point with the right image or environment, so be it. If more efficient media work, that's even better. Set reach goals and price a plan.
  3. National buys are almost always more cost effective than local / regional, unless you can truly ignore large portions of the country.
  4. "Rural areas" do not account for much of the country.

Wednesday, October 24, 2007 #7433
Hi Guru, We are looking into buying spot cable, and had a few questions. - Where NCC talks about Syscodes and zones, this is the same as a Retail Zone? - The Cox or Comcast provider will sell certain zones at certin prices, and even mix and match the zones into "packages"? -Also, if we buy an interconnect, this is one big retail zone/unit with a certain price for programs, or should these also have smaller zones in them? - And, are there usually large price differences between zones? - Lastly, do we buy directly from NCC or from someone like Comcast in an certin DMA? Thanks for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 26, 2007 ):
Syscodes and zones are based on cable operators' ("MSO's") systems' structure and physical head ends. Retail zones are a matter of shopping and business patterns, typically used in newspaper planning. For an illustration, see the New York Interconnect system map. The NY Interconnect includes Cablevision sytems plus some Time Warner and Comcast in the NY DMA.

Zones can vary greatly in their coverage and hence their price. SpotCable is a good way to buy local cable. ViaMedia is another. If your buy only uses a single MSO's area, you can work directly with them. In come cases, a single operator may offer a multi-MSO interconnect, as Cablevision does with the NY Interconnect. The flexibility in selling individual networks varies.

Thursday, July 26, 2007 #7398
Hi Guru, Can you please put light on the top three cable providers in U.S that should be considered Locally. I presume Comcast( includes time warner i think) is the top and the major contendor, but is there any other provider who might have a better reach than Comcast

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 29, 2007 ):
Comcast and Time-Warner are separate companies.

On a local basis, either of these or one of several other MSO's, e.g. Charter, Cox, Brighthouse or Insight might be more important in any given market. For example, in the New York market, Cablevision is the leading MSO, but has virtually no presence in any other DMA.

Consult SpotCable for further information.

Monday, March 26, 2007 #7303
Hi Media Guru, We are researching Hispanic NPPs in a variety of DMAs. Is there an online resource that you would recommended that may house contact info and or rates for the major Hispanic NPPs in the US?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 27, 2007 ):
Try American Multicultural Marketing, Latino Print Network or Ethnic Print Media Group

Monday, January 15, 2007 #7273
Dear Guru, Is there a minimum benchmark for GRP-Reach-and Freq when buying spot TV or Cable in one DMA? For example, I have been using a goal of 150 GRP with a 40% reach at least 3.0 times toward the target demo over a four week period when consulting clients on the miniumum amount they need to spend in a certain DMA. This means if the most recent avg CPP in that DMA is $35.00, I would recomend they spend a minimum of $5250 (150GRP X 35CPP per month. Is this calculation correct or should I be using a different formula when reccomending a budget per DMA?? Thanks!!

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, January 16, 2007 ):
The calculation is correct if you have validated your 150 GRP / 40 reach for 4 weeks. 150 seems much too low to generate 40 reach at 3+ frequency in four weeks. A level closer to 250 is probably needed.

Friday, December 22, 2006 #7249
Hi Guru, I've bought spot TV in several markets but definately not all 210 DMA's. I have a new manager that keeps asking me about specific markets - some I've planned some I have not. It has been my thinking that if I can do a few, then I can plan any of them. Before i make a statement like that, can you tell me if that's not the case. I have all the data (Telmat, SQAD, MRI etc). Thanks again.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, December 25, 2006 ):
Hi Dopey, long time no hear.

In principal, yes, you can do it. Now ask yourself: in the markets where you operate frequently, is there specific local knowledge that you have acquired that helps you make decisions about those markets, that isn't available fom your usual sources? If not, you can do them all.

Thursday, December 14, 2006 #7246
Maybe this is a very obvious question about Television in US, but since I'm from Mexico our Television is very different from you and I would like to understand your country in this particular medium. What is the difference between what you call: Spot TV, National TV, Network TV, National Cable TV, Syndicated TV? Is there any other kind? thank you very much.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, December 17, 2006 ):
The distinctions are about geographic differences and how one buys.

First you must understand that the U.S. is divided into about 210 different TV markets ("DMAs"), each with its own TV stations. The division is based on assigning each county to the market whose TV stations get the major share of the county's viewing. In rare cases, perhaps half a dozen nationwide, counties are split.

  • "Spot TV" advertising is bought on individual local markets' stations.
  • "Networks" in the case of "Network TV" are sets of local stations afilliated with the large national broadcasting companies to carry their programs. These are networks like Fox, ABC, NBC, CBS, or CW which transmit their programming by satellite to the stations to broadcast locally. The affiliates generally carry each program at the same time, across a US time zone. This advertising is bought from the network.
  • Cable networks transmit their programming to local cable system operators for transmission to the systems' cable subscribers. MTV, Bravo and CNN are examples. National cable advertising is bought from these networks.
  • Syndicated TV programming is broadcast by local stations which may or may not be affiliated with the networks. The syndicators have bought the broadcast rights to the programming and sell local airing rights to the stations. Advertising may be bought nationally from the syndicators. Advertising in these programs may also be bought locally as part of spot tv schedules.
  • "National TV" encompasses network TV, national cable and syndication.
  • Types you have not mentioned include spot cable; local buys through cable systems in cable network programming and true local cable; buys in locally produced cable programming such as Cablevisions' "News 12" or TimeWarner Cable's NY1

Monday, December 11, 2006 #7244
saya sedang melaksanakan tugas akhir, produk yang saya jadikan bahan GSM pasca bayar Matrix, setelah sya pelajari saya kesulitan dalam menentukan judul untuk masalah yang akan saya bahas dalam proposal, judul di tinjau dari efektifitas iklan matrix terhadap masyarakat dan apakah kartu Gsm pasca bayar masih di minati oleh masyarakat karena sekarang konsumen beralih memakai cDMA . juga saya kesulita dalam menemukan market size dan market share matrix dengan kartu yang lainya ? terimakasih

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, December 11, 2006 ):
The Guru accepts queries only in English.

Monday, October 30, 2006 #7217
I plan to buy local/spot cable in 8 DMAs. We will likely be using :15 DR spots (bookends)-I heard something along the lines of, "DR doesn't work on cable." Is this true or to be ignored?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 30, 2006 ):
There is a lot of DR on local cable . . . a lot. One thing about DR is certain: the practitioners know what works, they wouldn't be back if something didn't work.

The Guru would note that :15 seems like a short time to complete a sell and give contact info. And short bookends around cluttered breaks seems questionable too, especially if it's a divided sell / contact info message.

Friday, October 27, 2006 #7216
What are the differences between spot, cable and network television buys and which is best for a smaller budget and limited markets?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 29, 2006 ):
Broadcast network television buys cover the entire US (or major regions), delivering commercials simultaneously (or same time by time zone) through all the local broadcast affiliates of the network.

Spot television buys are placed with local broadcast stations. which may be network affiliates or independents. These stations each generally cover a single one of the US's 200+ Designated Market Areas (DMA's).

Cable has network and local options as well. Network cable, such as CNN or the Comedy Channel covers the entire US that subscribes to the network, which may be as many as 90+ million homes. One may also buy local cable through the various system operators in a specific market or spot cable which delivers all the cable operators covering a particular DMA or group of DMA's. There are sales organizations which sell local cable on a DMA basis.

When a marketer's distribution area is much less than national, spot options are a more effective investment. There is always a point at which network becomes more efficient to buy. This may be 50-75% of the US, depending on which markets are on your coverage list and your target demographic.

On an out-of-pocket basis, buys of single local cable systems are least costly. If you are supporting retail locations in small definable areas, this can be an effective apporach.

Tuesday, October 03, 2006 #7199
Can you provide a general statistic for Awareness as a result of a stand-alone, postcard Direct Mail campaign? We're not looking for purchase, just awareness.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 04, 2006 ):
Check the Direct Marketing Association (DMA)

Thursday, April 06, 2006 #7126
We handle 3 co-op's for a major fast food chain. We want to intergrate internet into our annual plan. Is there a source that will tell which web sites best reach our demo? Also, if those website be purchased on a DMA or more local basis? I have had some experience with internet, but it was in the tourism industry and I know at one time there was a source, but it was more on a national basis. Thanks for your help...again!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 06, 2006 ):
@plan can give you site demographic details, but not at the DMA level. Many of the the biggest traffic sites do sell by DMA, but you need to inquire.

Monday, March 27, 2006 #7120
How do Newspapers calculate Cost Per Point and Cost PerThousand readers?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, April 01, 2006 ):
Survey research, such as Scarborough, measures newspapers' single issue readers. These can be expressed in demographic coverage of the newspaper's metro or DMA area, an equivalent of rating.

Cost per point is not commonly used by newspapers, but arithmetically,
ad cost rating = Cost per point
ad cost audience in thousands = Cost per thousand readers

Monday, March 27, 2006 #7119
My client, in the home building services, has asked our agency to do a point of view on "lead generation". What are my best resources to pull information from? The DMA (Direct Marketing Association???? I have no idea where to start.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 27, 2006 ):
The Direct Marketing Association (DMA) is a good starting point.

Tuesday, February 07, 2006 #7093
Is there a way to look up DMAs by County? Right now I'm using a cable based software that only works if the zip, city or county is covered by cable. But I have a few that aren't and I'm not even sure what market they're in! I checked my regular resource websites but didn't see anything searchable by county. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 11, 2006 ):
Your best tool might be Nielsen's DMA map or its data file

Sunday, January 29, 2006 #7086
When I refered to proper Grips for Hogs on The High Seas I was referring to each specific DMA I ran a cable schedule in with a target of Adults 45-64 using STRATA to measure. Each DMA we chose had a high percentage of motorcycle owners in that age group. So are you suggesting a direct mail piece to all the news mediums or a direct mail piece to potential cruisers?? My target market for this campaign are retired 45-65 motorcycle owners on the west coast.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, January 30, 2006 ):
Your previous query asked about how to get media coverage for your charity. Direct mail to these targets is what the Guru recommends for this goal per, your specifications.

Saturday, January 28, 2006 #7085
I have a national client that wants to generate national news media attention to help promote awarness of their charity to raise money for Dialysis and sell tickets on thier cruise. This is their 4th annual cruise (one to Alaska and one to the Caribbean). Last year I ran a 15min segment on Speed Channel and I saturated cable in several target DMA's. Speed did okay but cable bombed. I had the proper amount of GRIPS reach and freq reaching the right demo with no results. How can I expose this client to the news media nationally without having to spend a ton of money. Would you suggest USA Today or Washington Post or should I create a Press Release along with a media kit and send it to all the major news networks and talk shows?? Your thoughts. Its a big client for a great cause.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 28, 2006 ):
The Guru doesn't deal with PR, but as media, doing a direct mail piece (press release) to an audience in the business of reading press releases seems sensible.

Awareness isn't your problem, persuasion is.

You refer to a demo, but your target, the news media, is much more specific than any demo; the Guru would be interested in knowing how you calculated GRP against news media.

Thursday, December 15, 2005 #7069
Hi Guru. My question is regarding broadcast (TV) negotiations for a new client in the las vegas DMA (which I'm not familiar with). I have the rates client paid last year, along with station shares/rtgs/pvts for all relevant timeperiods in last four books: nov04, feb05, may05 and jul05. The stations don't have Nov05 in their computers yet, so they didn't send me rtgs/share/pvts for Nov05. Should I use May05 shares to negotiate 2006 annual rates?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, December 16, 2005 ):
Seems like Nov ought to be available by now, but use May conditioned on Nov being reasonably close when available. You'll be buying GRP anyway.

Tuesday, November 01, 2005 #7035
Where can I quickly find average household income by DMA?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 13, 2005 ):
Get it by metro at The US Census for no cost. Otherwise you'll need to pay at a site like Geoscape.

Thursday, October 27, 2005 #7034
Hi Guru. We are running an online promotion with an enter at store element. Our client has asked us about projected response rates. Any advice?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 30, 2005 ):
This depends on the offer, the power of the promotion and the availability of stores at which to enter. Try Direct Marketing Association (DMA) for further info.

Friday, October 07, 2005 #7026
Hi, Guru. I am trying to show a client that buying cable is more efficient than network TV in a large Metro market, ie. Chicago. I've determined the client's service area is 19% of the DMA. 1) Is it fair to compare reach and frequency of 2 schedules? 2) When comparing number of impressions in client's service area, can I use 19% of total impressions of broadcast TV and 100% impressions on cable (assuming all cable zones fall in service area)? 3) Can I consider 81% of the impressions on broadcast TV waste? Any other suggestions or advice on the best way to show to compare the two is appreciated. Thanks in advance Guru.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, October 08, 2005 ):
Apparently your premise is that the client's entire service area is 19% of one DMA. The Guru doesn't understand how such a client could possibly consider network TV at all. But,
  1. Yes, you can compare two schedules
  2. If you are talking about broadcast spot TV rather than network, yes, roughly 19% of broadcast, vs 100% of cable "counts." A more precise measure of this should be available through Nielsen.
  3. Yes, similarly, 81% of the DMA broacast coverage is "waste."

Tuesday, May 24, 2005 #6932
Hi MG - Now that I've moved from a large agency to a smaller one, I've found that they do not subscribe to basic research materials such as SQAD & SRDS - we do not even have the capability to even pull RANKERS. Obviously, this makes it difficult to analyze media efficiencies. Aside from asking vendors to put together their own numbers (as I would have to pull this info across numberous DMAs), are there any free online resources you can direct me to which has CPP info for both TV/RD as well as somewhere where I can pull ranker info? ANY help would be appreciated! Thank You!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, May 25, 2005 ):
Radio & Records offers very basic radio audience ranking data. Audience and CPP data are costly commerical products and not genrally to be found at no cost.

An agency buying media regulalry in "numerous" markets needs to invest in research resources or rely on the kindness of reps. They are lucky to have hired a media pro who, at least, knows how it should be done.

Tuesday, May 10, 2005 #6917
Hi. I'm working on a Q4 spot tv media plan for a client in Michigan City IN. What is the best way to get a sense of what CPPs and ratings should be for the Chicago and Sound Bend DMAs for this time period? (SQAD? - If so, which time periods should I request?) Thanks in advance for your help

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 15, 2005 ):
SQAD for the time period you will be buying. SQAD offers projections.

For ratings, see Nielsen.

Wednesday, March 16, 2005 #6854
Do you know where I can get a list of US internet penetration by DMA?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 20, 2005 ):
Scarborough is one good source, for the top 70+ markets.

Monday, March 07, 2005 #6844
Hi - My agency uses the NCC DMA Fusion Cable Universe ratings and nothing else. What is the correct way to estimate cable ratings? What factors should be taken into account? Thank You.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 07, 2005 ):
To the extent possible, use the procedure you would use in broadcast spot: Look at seasonal ratings and balance against latest performance versus competition.

Wednesday, December 29, 2004 #6728
What is the percentage of homes that subscribe to satelite television? I'm looking specifically for the Stockton-Modesto area, but if there is a national percentage I can use that as well.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 29, 2004 ):
It's roughly 15% nationally. Details such as DMA penetration are available from Nielsen and Skyreport

Monday, December 13, 2004 #6717
Do you know of a case study study that shows outdoor can successfully be used for direct response.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, December 13, 2004 ):
Try Outdoor Advertising Association of America, Direct Marketing Association (DMA) and The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. ARF materials will also be available through American Association of Advertising Agencies and Association of National Advertisers.

Sunday, November 14, 2004 #6682
How many coffee drinkers are there in the southeast Texas area?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 14, 2004 ):
First we need to define "southeast Texas area." If we could define it as the DMAs of Houston, Austin, San Antonio, Laredo, Corpus Christi, and McAllen-Brownsville, for example, or a subset of those markets, then a resource like Scarborough or The Media Audit could answer the question.

Thursday, September 30, 2004 #6620
Where would one go to find more research on alternative advertising, such as register receipt advertising or utility bill ad inserts, etc.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 01, 2004 ):
For register receipts research, consider Catalina Marketing. Regarding bill inserts, start with Direct Marketing Association (DMA)

Tuesday, September 21, 2004 #6614
Are you aware of any case studies of Magazines that have used Direct Response on cable to boost subscription sales?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 21, 2004 ):
Try Direct Marketing Association (DMA), Cable TV Ad Bureau and The Magazine Publishers' Association.

Monday, September 13, 2004 #6601
When using an MRI Index - do you have a range of an acceptable index. In other words, is there a 2-5% either way that you would consider within the average range? Would you consider a range of 95-105 as average or no margin of error, and stand firm on 100 being exactly average.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 16, 2004 ):
Results of all media research or marketing research which is survey and sampling based, including MRI, Nielsen, Arbitron, etc. are subject to a "tolerance" range and should always be interpreted with that understanding.

What does this mean? Suppose a study has a sample of 25,000 of which 12,500 are women and tells you that 50% of the women use product "A." The technical data would inform you that this answer has a tolerance of plus or minus 0.872% at 95% confidence, which means that if you conducted the same study 100 times with the same question and sample, the result would be between and 49.128% and 50.872%, on 95 of those 100 occasions. So if the results said that 48% of the total population used product "A," women have an index of 104 to the total population. Now, if the total population sample is 25,000, there is tolerance on the 48% result as well, roughly a tolerance of plus or minus 0.62. Therefore the 50% of women result is actually equally likely to be 49.128% and the 48% result is equally likely to be 48.62% If so, now the index is 101.

With smaller samples, like women 18-34 or in smaller studies, such as individual DMA's reports, these tolerances can make indices of 110 swing to 90.

As a rule of thumb in any study, the Guru uses a minimum of +/- 10 index points (over 110 or under 90), before treating the result as truly indicatiive of actionable behavioral differences. In crucial situations, sample size and tolerance projections should be examined.

Monday, August 02, 2004 #6561
I've been searching your archives for information regarding advertising on the satellite feed. I found the info on the national satellite advertising, but was curious about local advertising. Are the satellite companies inserting spot locally (by DMA) or regionally at this time?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 06, 2004 ):

Tuesday, July 20, 2004 #6543
Hi, Hope all is well. I was wondering how I can get information on a small, new cable network. The information that I need is the number of satellite and cable households broken down by market. The rep keeps telling me that that information isn't available, but they quote 35 million HH. That has to come from somewhere? Can you stear me in another direction? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, July 20, 2004 ):
Hi again, Dopey. A network will know from its business dealings with cable systems how many total subscribers are able to receive it. Its audience however, will be a matter of Neilsen survey measurement, and a new network might not be subscribing. The subscriber data ought to be available on a localized basis, but perhaps not a DMA basis. Satellite is also less likely to collect subscriber data by DMA - nothing is sold on that basis. In cable you might need to find out which systems are carrying it and how their distribution runs by DMA. The further the information gets from the ways in which the advertsing is sold, the less likley to be available.

Thursday, June 17, 2004 #6514
Hi Guru. I have been given the task of planning and buying some spot TV in 5 DMAs to promote a live event in one of those DMAs. There will also be follow-up spots right after the event. On rare occasions in the past when we've bought TV spots, it was on a cost per spot basis. I've been told to do it on a CPP basis this time. I understand what a CPP is and how SQAD works, but how do I determine how many points I need to buy in order to effectively reach my target audience? I don't have my budget for this yet, and anticipate them asking me how much $ I would need to do this right. Can you help me?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 20, 2004 ):
The essence of your needs is in determining what portion of your target audience you need to reach, how often, and over how long a period of time. Reaching the majority of the target (at least 50%) at least three times is a starting point.

Then, you need reach calculation software to see what level of GRP gets you there. The Guru's favorite software, naturally, is our own eTelmar.

Tuesday, June 08, 2004 #6510
What is the average reader response rate from a magazine ad?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 12, 2004 ):
If you mean a direct response ad, probably in the 1 to 1.5% range, but averages are almost meaningless.

Also see Direct Marketing Association (DMA)

Tuesday, May 25, 2004 #6501
I work on a automotive account on the retail level. The national plan is provided by a different agency, but teh DMA plans are done by us. A retailer has just stated he does not get his "fair share" of the National TV plan. We have no control over what the National plan is, but have been asked to provide something that would prove he gets his fair share. I am uncertain of what he considers fair, and don't no anyway I can analyze the national buy in a local level other thatn explaining the way national TV works. Do you have any suggestions? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 25, 2004 ):
The Guru wonders why it becomes your job to provide this, since if there is a fault it's in the national plan, not the one you work on. Perhaps you're expected to makle the local plan balance inequities in the national?

Whichever, we must first understand the complaint: Does the complainer believe the DMA as a whole doesn't get its fair share of national? Or that the portion which is his particular trading area is short-changed?

In either case there must be some assessment from the dealers to compare against a "share." In the DMA case, if the DMA receives 5% of the national impressions and the group of dealers in the DMA is assessed 5% of the national dealers' allocation of contribution to the budget, then that would seem fair. If the assessment is based simply on DMA population or sales or something unrelated to media delivery, then that could be unfair. To consider fairness against smaller geographies will depend in part on whether there is a measurement of that geography. Nielsen provides various tools that measure network program delivery by DMA or by county with which to address the issue. Other than counties or metro areas, that is less likely to occur. There are some geodemographic systems which can estimate narrower geographic delivery of broadcast media, but balancing problems at this geographic level with local TV is only sometimes possible.

Wednesday, May 19, 2004 #6499
We are currently purchasing local broadcast television combined with local cable television in a large number of markets. We have been grappling with the question of how to report the ratings achieved by each medium. Our initial thought was to add the broadcast DMA ratings to the DMA equivalent ratings of the cable activity in order to keep the figures "apples to apples." How do other agencies report cable ratings back to their client? (Local cable reports their audience delivery a number of ways including: DMA ratings, cable universe ratings, cable zone ratings within cable universe, etc.). However, there are some cases where we may be purchasing select cable zones in a market, rather than the entire market's cable interconnect. In these cases, the cable television activity probably won't be efficient when compared to the broadcast TV DMA CPPs. On the other hand, purchasing the entire broadcast television DMA probably isn't an efficient way to reach just the geography surrounding a few stores. How do other agencies rationalize purchasing select cable zones (surrounding store locations) to their analytical clients? In these cases, the DMA CPP comparison probably isn't realistic. What this boils down to is a basic question--is local cable forced to compete on exactly the same playing field as broadcast television? Are both forms of media judged against the same CPP goals or is cable allowed to compete based on a different CPP (based on the cable universe or percentage of cable penetration)? Does this answer change if purchasing an entire market's interconnect versus a single zone or multiple zones? How is cable television posted when buying an interconnect? When buying a zone or zones? What other factors should be considered in this analysis (i.e. are we overlooking anything)? How is the budget (or TRP goals) allocated to between cable and broadcast television?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 20, 2004 ):
The Guru reports ratings on the basis that makes sense for the clients' marketing needs. If the client is a retailer, ratings localized to cable zones in store trading zones make sense and will reflect the efficiency of this localization, while also put the waste of DMA ratings into perspective. On the other hand a national consumer goods marketer with interest in entire DMA's should use DMA ratings as a comparison basis.

Tuesday, February 17, 2004 #6386
Guru: I have a spot TV plan to pull together for a client in Atlanta. Since this is a high ADS market, the question has been asked if one can buy ADS advertising on a local level. I'm receiving mixed responses. Can you tell me this is possible and who to turn to for cost info? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 20, 2004 ):
The Guru will assume that by "ADS" you mean satellite, such as DirecTV and DishNetwork. These systems deliver signals from an orbiting satellite to a footprint much larger than one DMA, probably closer to a broadcast network's regional feed. There is no analog to cable's local system operator who can send commercials down a relatively narrow pipe, generally covering an area smaller than a DMA.

Thursday, February 05, 2004 #6376
Why do TV signals spill out of one DMA and into the next? Do broadcast signals get mixed up and therefore some homes on the borders btw DMAs are able to receive 2 ABC stations on 2 different channels? How do you properly calculate "spill %"? - What data do you need and where is it available?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 08, 2004 ):
  • TV signals don't "know" anything about DMA borders; signal coverage is a matter of physics and DMAs are business / research definitions
  • DMA boundaries are based on analysis of each county's viewing patterns in Nielsen audience data. Each county is assigned to the DMA whose TV stations capture most of the county's viewing. Only in VERY rare cases is a county split (TV stations tend to be in the central city of a DMA).
  • Under this definition, it is easy to imagine that viewers in border counties may be able to receive stations from two adjacent DMAs. For example, the map below shows Long Island, New York, which is assigned to the NY DMA. You may observe that the middle of Long Island (near where the county name "Suffolk" is printed) is only half as far from New Haven, CT, a home city of the Hartford-New Haven DMA, as it is from New York City, the home city of the NY DMA
  • "Spill" is based on audience from one DMA reported in another DMA, so you must compare Nielsen audience measurements from the station's home DMA to audience measured in other DMAs. Spill is not always into adjacent DMA's, particularly for cable-carried "super-stations."

Thursday, January 29, 2004 #6368
market rankings

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 30, 2004 ):
Markets are ranked on several bases and definitions. Nielsen provides DMA rankings base on HH population. Arbitron ranks radio metros based on 12+ population. The Census Bureau ranks metropolitan areas and other geographies on various bases.

Friday, January 23, 2004 #6356
In a recent conversation I have locked horns with a large agency media director. The issue is on local cable ratings. It is my understanding that Nielsen (or other) does not currently differentiate between local cable viewers and ADS (i.e. dish) viewers in providing their cable rating estimates. Thus, a cable rating includes viewers not exposed to your specific (or any local) message. As a rating is derived from the number of people "watching" against the total universe, I believe that you must subtract the ADS viewers and adjust the supplied rating accordingly. ie. 100,000 cable homes with 20% ADS(assuming all networks have equal ADS %s). A 1.0 rating = 1,000 viewers. Since 20% ADS only 800 views can see your local insertion. Your true rating on the actual cable system becomes a .8 against your cable universe, not a 1.0. The directors contention is that a 1.0 rating is a 1.0 rating on both local cable and a 1.0 rating for ADS and, thus, it is still a 1.0 rating in the cable universe. Again, it is my understanding that the cable universe does not include ADS homes yet the Nielsen (or comparable) rating does. Help. Please enlighten me. Thanks. p.s. this seems true even if you take a DMA cable rating and adjust to the cable universe rather than a cable universe cable rating..

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 23, 2004 ):
The Guru loses track of your issue somewhere, but these facts might help:

A standard Nielsen report uses a Cable+ADS universe for a DMA and reports Cable+ADS ratings (ratings and universe will always match in a given report).

Therefore, a "cable rating" in a DMA which is actually a cable+ADS rating, is correct for program audience but overstates cable commercial audience in the way that you suppose.

(By the way, it is not a 1.0 for cable and a 1.0 for ADS, but an average of the two that comes to 1.0 for the combined universe) Since you are buying local cable commercials from a cable system, they will not run in local ADS (satellite) programs unless you also buy these. Even if you did, the Guru does not expect that they would run simultaneously.

The good news is that Nielsen will sell you a pure cable report.

Friday, January 02, 2004 #6327
Dear Media Guru, Is there a site that would list the rankings of the various US "Media Markets". I have heard reference to Philadelphia being the "sixth largest US Media market" and have heard others say that "NY or LA are the largest media Markets" and would like to see a ranking of all of them if one exists. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 02, 2004 ):
"U.S. Media Markets" can mean federally defined "metros" as used by the Census Bureau, (Philadelphia is #6) or more usefully, Nielsen's Designated Market Areas. Philadelphia is currently fourth ranked.

Sunday, December 14, 2003 #6310
If I am doing a direct marketing campaign. :90s and :120s on television, in general, what respnse rate should I expect? The product sells for $60.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, December 21, 2003 ):
There are many factors, including product interest, commercial quality and targeted placement. 0.5 to 1% is probably a high expectaion over time. Visit Direct Marketing Association (DMA)

Friday, December 05, 2003 #6300
Guru, I am responsible for national marketing programs for a chain of 1000 service/retailers. I am looking for trends on retailers shifting their advertising dollars from broadcast to direct. Our new president seems to think that many of the recent sucesses by companys like Home Depot and others have happened because of their shift in advertising spend. I always appreciate the information you are able to provide, I hope you can help me on this request or point me in the right direction. Thanks,

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, December 06, 2003 ):
Direct Marketing Association (DMA)

Friday, November 21, 2003 #6268
How many counties make up the Washington DC MSA? TSA? DMA? What is the largest county in this metro?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, November 22, 2003 ):
These are Nielsen's definitions.

Wednesday, November 19, 2003 #6256
Dear Guru, Would you please explain to me the difference between Nielsen Cable Ratings Data versus that of cable data supplied by NCC or Adlink? My understanding is that NCC / Adlink ratings are: 1) does not reflect local market data (DMA specific) 2) provides information based upon cable households instead of DMA based ratings. If you would please confirm. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 20, 2003 ):
It is historically normal that sellers use ratings based on their coverage area or user base while Nielsen uses standard geographies such as DMA's. Ask the vendor for the specifics.

Tuesday, November 18, 2003 #6253
What is the best source for finding cable cpp in a given DMA?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 20, 2003 ):
Talk to 2 different reps. Start with SpotCable.

Friday, October 24, 2003 #6218
Dear Guru, My company is planning to try out POP digital signage advertising. Could you recommend any Digital Signage networks in any big DMAs as well as who (agencies) should we approach to place ads?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 26, 2003 ):
Any agency should be able to handle placement. The Guru would begin by asking the store chains where your POP would be placed about who operates the digital signage in their locations.

Wednesday, September 17, 2003 #6160
How many ads - across all media - tend to feature phone numbers vs. strictly branding?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 20, 2003 ):
Try Direct Marketing Association (DMA) or or, CMR (Competitive Media Reports) and other ad tracking services.

Wednesday, September 10, 2003 #6149
In regards to buying spot tv and spot cable tv - At what point is it more efficient to plan in network buys to either replace or compliment spot buying? Is it the number of markets client has locations? Our client who places spot buys in 55 DMA's, cannot grasp the benefit of a more efficient buy on network and is stuck on having, what he calls "waste" in markets with no locations. Please help!! You have a GREAT site!!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 11, 2003 ):
Assuming you have the same weight goal (GRPs) in all markets, when the combined cost of your selected markets exceeds the cost of that weight level in network, network is more efficent. On this basis, "the waste" just becomes free advertising that does not matter. It is not a matter of the number of markets. One advertiser might have a budget for 55 small markets that wouldn't cover 10 large markets. If there are no locations in the other markets, ill will might be a problem, especially in consideration of future growth. Efficiency is simply not the only consideration.

Monday, August 25, 2003 #6138
Where does the term DMA come from. The US Census or Federal Statistics doesn't measure population by DMA. Also which is more effective to measure population an MSA or DMA

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, August 26, 2003 ):
Nielsen Media Research' DMAs are defined on a basis of TV viewing habits in counties, not simply geography. They do include Federally defined metros within their geography, but are not simply geographic. Population-wise, DMAs include all counties but metros do not, so the sum of DMAs better agrees with national totals.

Thursday, July 03, 2003 #6060
Hi Guru, I'm running a direct response radio campaign and wanted to find out if there has been any studies regarding an average response rate on this type of campaign. I wanted to find out if let's say I ran an average of 5-10 spots per day in a mix of morning, afternoon, and evening dayparts, how many calls should i expect to see? Thanks in advance for your help! k

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 07, 2003 ):
Ratings, daypart, offer, and copy strength are all other important variables. Try Direct Marketing Association (DMA) or The Radio Advertising Bureau (RAB).

Wednesday, April 09, 2003 #5927
For Our target segement which is households who have car and have at least one child under the age of six,we would like to find out What is the ranking for TV Channels based on the frequency in states such as Illoinis,Michigan,Ohio and Indiana?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, April 11, 2003 ):
This question doesn't quite make sense. Frequency of what? If you mean incidence of HH with car and kid under 6, that's a population question and not related to TV Stations. If you mean audience rankings of TV stations among HH with car and kid under 6 that isn't related to frequency. Also TV audiences are not calculated by state, but by Nielsen's Designated Market Areas

Wednesday, April 02, 2003 #5913
We have a new client (a high end residential community) that would like an estimate of how many phone calls they can expect from their print campaign for 2003. All I can think of is to give him examples of other similar print campaigns. Is this the only answer I can give him and if so do you know where I can find this information?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, April 05, 2003 ):
Try the Direct Marketing Association (DMA)

Monday, March 24, 2003 #5902
Dear Guru, I hope you can help answer this question. If I have a TV Schedule and a Radio Schedule, and I mix them together using a media mix program, I am asked which Population base to use. If I pick the Radio market pop, I get smaller Gross Impressions, than if I used the TV market pop. Which one of these is the correct way? I have to explain this to a client. Thanks in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 24, 2003 ):
Radio is typically based on a Metro (MSA) geography and TV on a Nielsen DMA geography, which is usually larger. In reality, Radio GRP would be lower in the DMA area (reduced coverage due to distance), but the DMA basis is probably to be preferred.

Tuesday, February 18, 2003 #5845
Dear Guru, I need to find average TV and radio rates per state, major metropolitan areas and major cities. Could you please let me know where I can find these? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 23, 2003 ):
TV and radio rates are generally based on metro area for radio, and by DMA for TV. SQAD is the main broadcast rate resource.

Monday, February 10, 2003 #5822
Hi Media Guru- Is there a rule of thumb for the response to diferent medium? In general what percentage of readers will respond to an ad with and without a BRC?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 17, 2003 ):
Try The Magazine Publishers' Association or Direct Marketing Association (DMA)

Saturday, February 01, 2003 #5790
Where can I find a source that will list # of households with children on a market level?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 01, 2003 ):
Nielsen's DMAs or Arbitron's Metros? Nielsen deals in households, Arbitron with people 12+.

Friday, January 31, 2003 #5786
I am looking for a source that gives # of Households with children by market. Can you point me in the right direction?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 03, 2003 ):
Census Bureau for metro markets at no cost. For DMA's, you need Nielsen or Scarborough

Monday, January 06, 2003 #5722
will the use of a BRC in conjunction with a page increase reponse? If so what percent? Please provide a source

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 12, 2003 ):
Try the Direct Marketing Association (DMA)

Tuesday, December 17, 2002 #5688
Gear Guru, Does any kind of publication exist that shows magazine audience penetration by city? Someone described it to me as "circles around the DMA showing magazine audience penetration". Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 19, 2002 ):
One source is SRDS' Circulation 2003

Tuesday, November 12, 2002 #5610
Media Guru, How do I find the BDI/CDI and SOV for the retail industry. Specifically NIKE.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 12, 2002 ):
"Retail" usually means stores, so Footlocker is retail, Nike isn't.

BDI is calculated by comparing sales to population, e.g. if 15% of Nike revenues are generated in the NY DMA and NY DMA has 10% of the population, BDI is 150.

CDI is similar, but based on category, rather than individual brand.

The Guru doubts that these sales data are public.

SOV is Share of Voice, meaning the portion of category advertising dollars spent by the particular advertiser. CMR (Competitive Media Reports) is the data source you need for this.

Friday, November 08, 2002 #5602
I am looking for a theoretical planning number that seems to be eluding me. Howmany US households are there & how many US cable households are there?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 08, 2002 ):
According to Nielsen Media Research, there are 106,641,910 TV HH as of September, 2002.
  • 69% receive wired cable
  • 40% receive wired pay cable
  • 81% receive wired cable and/or "Alternate Delivery Systems" which includes cable and satellite.

Monday, October 21, 2002 #5570
Dear guru, How is it that I would get a lower net reach in TV when targeting a specific CPP than if I target against affinity? I am trying to determine the best benchmark for buying against A18-49 in a country with a TV monopoly - no real channel selection, some programm choices for younger audiences. I am insisting on affinity, my agency maintains that when targeting CPP, the net reach is higher for this target. I understand that affinity targeting may increase my CPP but how is it that they feel by buying on CPP I will optimise net reach AND get the cheapest CPP (?) - with the warning that, yeah, you will get the GranDMAs too, but hey, they watch everything, can't help that. Are they kidding me, or what?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 27, 2002 ):
The Guru is not sure what you mean by "affinity: in this case, but let us assume that you mean product users, such as ice cream eaters.

A given program has a given audience, no matter how you identify your buying target.

Suppose a program reaches 10,000 people among whom are 5,000 A18-49 and 4,000 ice cream eaters. And let us suppose that the universe od persons 18-49 is 100,000 persons, while the universe of ice cream eaters is also 100,000 persons.

A spot in this program costs $100.

The program has a rating of 5 against A 18-49 and a rating of 4 against ice cream eaters, right. So the same program has a cpp of $20 ($100 ÷ 5 rating) for A 18-49 and a cpp of $25 for ice cream eaters. So there is an apparent efficiency advantage when you look at it that way, even though you get the same people for the $100. And an apparently better net reach A18-49.

The Guru believes in the long run if the affinity group is the target, you are better off buying the group and not a statistical abstraction of the group.

Friday, October 04, 2002 #5546
Can you provide a concise definition for "non-metro"?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 06, 2002 ):
The U.S. Census Bureau defines 200+ metro areas, in terms of specific counties. These are, loosely speaking, major cities and surrounding areas. Those counties not included in these metros are "non-metro." A DMA may have more than one metro within it, and some non-metro counties as well.

The Census Bureau's detailed definition says, in part

Standard definitions of metropolitan areas were first issued in 1949 by the then Bureau of the Budget (predecessor of OMB), under the designation "standard metropolitan area" (SMA). The term was changed to "standard metropolitan statistical area" (SMSA) in 1959, and to "metropolitan statistical area" (MSA) in 1983. The collective term "metropolitan area" (MA) became effective in 1990. MAs include metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), consolidated metropolitan statistical areas (CMSAs), and primary metropolitan statistical areas (PMSAs).

OMB has been responsible for the official metropolitan areas since they were first defined, except for the period 1977 to 1981, when they were the responsibility of the Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards, Department of Commerce. The standards for defining metropolitan areas were modified in 1958, 1971, 1975, 1980, and 1990. OMB announced the adoption of new Standards for Defining Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas in the December 27, 2000 Federal Register. OMB will apply the new standards with Census 2000 data and will announce definitions based on these standards in 2003.

Defining MSAs, CMSAs, and PMSAs

The 1990 standards provide that each newly qualifying MSA must include at least:

one city with 50,000 or more inhabitants, or

a Census Bureau-defined urbanized area (of at least 50,000 inhabitants) and a total metropolitan population of at least 100,000 (75,000 in New England). Under the standards, the county (or counties) that contains the largest city becomes the "central county" (counties), along with any adjacent counties that have at least 50 percent of their population in the urbanized area surrounding the largest city. Additional "outlying counties" are included in the MSA if they meet specified requirements of commuting to the central counties and other selected requirements of metropolitan character (such as population density and percent urban). In New England, the MSAs are defined in terms of cities and towns rather than counties.

Wednesday, August 21, 2002 #5477
Guru, Are you aware of a free resource that will allow me to determine which TV and Radio DMA a particular town/city has been asigned?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, August 21, 2002 ):
The Guru does not believe there is a free resource for this. There is a reasonably priced city / DMA directory resource available from Nielsen for $135.

Arbitron also offers a resource.

Thursday, August 08, 2002 #5458
Dear Guru, I am the marketing director for an 80 unit restaurant chain with locations in 9 DMA's (2 being top 20.) For us to advertise promotions at point levels that increase sales and are within our budget, we have been forced to use a tiering strategy in our media purchases. By this I mean that we determine what type, weight and number of weeks of media each market will receive based on dividing the cost by market by the number of locations. Are there any other formulas or tools we should use to help us with this proces??

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, August 10, 2002 ):
Your current method assumes that every restaurant is equal in generating sales or profits. You could allocate according to market sales. Or you could account for efficiency: If market A has half the population of market B and each has 10 restaurants, but the cpp is double in B, do you adjust for this, i.e. spend where the dollars give more action?

Monday, July 22, 2002 #5425
Dear Guru, Which is the world's most expensive (in terms of cover price) and exclusive/elite business or general interest newspaper? Have any existed ever to close down?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 25, 2002 ):
The Guru has not seen such information compiled and doesn't see the value of it for media planning purposes.

Granting there's a value to knowing someone has paid for a subscription, comparing prices around the world would be meaningless. How would a planner buying b2b newspapers in the US use the fact that a b2b newspaper in the Belgium has a cover price of 50?

How does one compare ADMAp's $35 cover price to Ad Age's $3.50?

Wednesday, July 17, 2002 #5415
Where can I get a comprehensive list of local TV stations by DMA? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 17, 2002 ):
Start with Gebbie Press. The FCC also has a lookup system. These use city and state rather than DMA. Nielsen, who defines DMA's, provides a DMA station directory for a nominal charge.

Monday, June 10, 2002 #5341
I wanted some resources on Direct response television and radio buying...any resources you could recommend?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 15, 2002 ):
Visit Direct Marketing Association (DMA)

Friday, June 07, 2002 #5333
Guru . . . Is there a source from which I can determine total advertising dollars investmed in all media by DMA market?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 07, 2002 ):
Totals come from CMR (Competitive Media Reports) and include local spending for top markets. If you want to attribute a portion of national spending to each market, there are two methods. In proportion to population See Nielsen DMAs or according to how the audience falls, based on ratings and circulation reports.

Thursday, May 30, 2002 #5312
Our agency has suggested moving away from a national cable buy and buying local cable instead. Our brand has franchises throughout the country, although there are certainly heavier pockets in some areas of the country - we are nationwide. The thought behind the switch is that we would be able to afford higher GRP levels if advertising is concentrated in top markets by franchisee. The agency believes that buying spot still engages a lot of waste, which is why they are recommending a time consuming, potentially more costly buy. They believe that matching cable systems to specific franchisees will produce better results. What, in your opinion, are the disadvantages to buying local cable? I know that we would lose rating guarantees, and sponsorships, but are there other issues as well? Thank you for assistance.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, May 31, 2002 ):
The chief disadvantage which the Guru sees, in addition to those you have mentioned, is inefficiency. Local cable bought system by system is probably the least efficient form of TV.

It's a matter of ratios, though, and probably should be considered market by market. For example:

  • In one market, perhaps you would only buy cable sytem "A," which covers 25% of the total DMA.
  • $10,000 buys you 100 GRP within that system
  • But $10,000 would buy you 150 GRP in the entire DMA (and equally within the system).
  • So even if 75% of the DMA-wide buy is "waste," it still delivers 50% more weight where it counts.

These are theoretical numbers and you have to look at the actual numbers for your market areas, including the comparison of a national buy to local cable. The Guru expects that local cable will be neither the most efficient nor lowest-cost choice.

Wednesday, May 01, 2002 #5261
Where can I find a list of DMA's with the cable companies that service each DMA?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, May 01, 2002 ):
Try SpotCable

Thursday, April 25, 2002 #5247
Where can I find current internet penetration per DMA data?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 28, 2002 ):
Scarborough is one source. The Media Audit is another.

Tuesday, March 12, 2002 #5145
Hi Guru, I am doing research on the correlation of Ad Response by DMA (as derived from marketing mix models) to traditional sales measures (BDI/CDI/Growth Trends) and have some interesting findings. My question relates to spot buying tactics and if the list below is exhaustive: 1) Opportunistic--Strong CDI Weak BDI 2) Share Defense--Basically opposite of above 3) Spend to Business--more of an allocation strategy as opposed to a market selection 4) Impression weighting--Like number 3 but takes into account viewership Am I leaving anything off (especially sales based metrics) or not characterizing it correctly. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 17, 2002 ):
All of your tactics are presumably based on total market delivery, that is accounting for national media weight and bringing the market in line with a goal based on one of your ways of setting market levels.

Other possibilities include looking at spot on its own and at the other extreme, taking into account a complete media mix. One tactic more in line with your probable intent of allocation or level setting strategies might be Share of voice or other tactics based on competitive activity.

Tuesday, March 05, 2002 #5135
Dear guru: I'm seeking some guidance on planning and buying local cable tv advertising and how it relates to local network tv placement. For example, many of the smaller markets we are researching do not have cable ratings available. Is it safe to use the nearest DMA available cable ratings as a guideline? Also, does Nielsen offer cable ratings, and if so, is it standard practice to post cable networks against these projections? Also, does a national guide of cable providers exist, that enable you to look up a specific geographic region and identify cable providers in the area? Is there any type of reference guide of sorts that could assist me in cable tv planning in general? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 11, 2002 ):
  • The Guru would not base cable ratings on a nearby DMA. This situation implies you would use the ratings data of a larger, urbanized market to judge a smaller, suburban or rural market where tastes might differ greatly. Similarly, cable penetration might be very different in a rural market, and most importantly the competitive picture as far as networks and local stations available will likely be different.
  • Yes, Nielsen offer cable ratings and where available, are appropriate for posting. Nielsen reporting standards are based on audience size, not on the type of signal.
  • You will probably find SRDS' Broadcast and Cable Source useful.
  • Also, try the national spot cable reps like NCS

Wednesday, February 27, 2002 #5122
Guru . . . Is there a no-cost source of very basic (age, sex, income, household size, etc.) demographic information by market? Thanks.l

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 27, 2002 ):
If you use metros (MSA) as your markets, it's all free from the Census Bureau.

DMAs are proprietary definitions by Nielsen and their details are usually only compiled with some cost attached.

Tuesday, February 19, 2002 #5096
I buy spot television in a DMA in which there is a local WB affiliate that is a local cable origination station Nielsen has ratings for the programming on this station and lists it with the other affiliate stations. So this WB station argues that it's "just a regular station" and a 2.5 rating on their station is the same as a 2.5 on the NBC affiliate. How can this be? Cable and spot are not of the same universe and this station is only carried on 1 system (there are over 20+ DMA wide). I have posed this question to my Nielsen rep as well as the planners at my agency, and no one can come up with a good explanation.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, February 19, 2002 ):
If this station is being reported in your local DMA NSI report, next to to other stations, then its 2.5 IS the same as 2.5 on the NBC affiliate. Its rating might be much higher against its limited subscriber universe, but the NSI report reports against the DMA.

Wednesday, January 30, 2002 #5037
Is there any research I can access showing difference in response between stand-alone letterbox delivered catalogues, and those catalogues also promoted on another medium eg. Television ? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 31, 2002 ):
Try Direct Marketing Association (DMA) and The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Tuesday, January 08, 2002 #4985
Where does Pittsburgh rank as a market? NYC is #1, etc....

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, January 08, 2002 ):
Pittsburgh is the 16th largest DMA.

Thursday, January 03, 2002 #4973
Can you please explain the difference between TV network and spot buying. What is the equivalize and non-equivalize concept. Why is it used in network buying and not in spot(units are not equivalized). Also can you please explain the reweight concept. How do you come up with reweight cpm. Why can you just do a straight year cpm comparison.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 04, 2002 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses about equivalizing. "Why use it?" is a good question regardless of the network versus spot element. The use of equivalence is an artifact of mass buying by corporation wherein large numbers of :15's and :30s are bought but need to be readily comparable. In spot, this type of buying is less common. Also, network :15s are almost alwasy priced at 50% of :30's making equivalence simple. In spot the ratio is usually higher, and inconsistent.

In network, the geography for CPP / CPM is consistent, so that CPP and CPM can be converted back and forth based on simple multiplication or divsion by the relevant demographic universe. In spot however, while CPP is based on the defined DMA (or occasionally metro) geography, CPM is based on impressions generated anywhere, so there is no simple mathematical relationship.

For other network buying concepts use the Go to the Guru Archives Search Engine.

Tuesday, December 18, 2001 #4954
Greetings Guru. I am not in the advertising industry but doing some research on advertising effectiveness. Can you help me find (preferably free) regional Newspaper, Radio and TV advertising costs and audience sizes for the state of PA. For example, is there some sort of directory or rate cards that list the different newspapers in PA, what it costs to place an ad., and how many subscribers they have. Thanks a million!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, December 21, 2001 ):
For free, best bet is MediaFinder in print and AMIC's Ad Data area for broadcast. In broadcast, listings are not typically organized by state, but by metro area or DMA.

Wednesday, November 21, 2001 #4901
I am considering selling a simple, novel, kitchen handtool using national newspaper advertising to reach an audience of several million potential purchasors. The advert will have a black and white photo of the handtool with a simple, clear selling message and call to action (telephone orderline to place credit card payment). Assuming my product is correctly priced and has reasonable appeal and my advert is reasonably well constructed and effective, what range of order response rate can I reasonably expect to see (i.e. what percentage of the newspaper readership could reasonably be expected to order based on experience of similar advertising campaigns?). A percentage range (low to high) would be a useful answer rather. Many thanks for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 21, 2001 ):
There is not really enough information for an accurate projection. The results might be anywhere from 0.1% to 3% of persons reached.

Try Direct Marketing Association (DMA) and The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Friday, November 16, 2001 #4895
I'm trying to gauge the "typical" response rate to a BRC in a magazine. I know that there are many factors that will effect the response rate (creative, offer, etc.)but I have a client with a driving need to have a benchmark for response. Individual publications haven't been much help. Is there a benchmark or do you have any suggestions on where to look for this type of info? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 18, 2001 ):
As you recognize, there are so many variables. Direct Marketing Association (DMA) might be a source of average data.

Tuesday, November 13, 2001 #4885
We're attempting a TV DR campaign. Our DR company is a little nervous about giving any hard facts and I was hoping you could help. (1)What is the life cycle of a typical direct response campaign for unsuccesful, moderately successful and highly successful products? 2) what type of results are considered successful to unsuccessful? (3) Typically, how much as a percentage of revenues are spent on the media buys? This is the best way for us to estimate promotional expenses. It is easiest to benchmark it according to sales revenue. (best case, worst case etc??) Thanks for any help in advance!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 14, 2001 ):
  1. The beauty of DR is that you immediately know what is or isn't working. Life cycle is therefore directly dependent on "success."
  2. Successful = profitable ROI. The variables are advertising expediture and selling price versus cost of goods. The same advertisng budget might be put behind a $29 item that cost $10 to make and sells in enromous volume or a $290 item that costs $225 to make and sells many fewer units.
  3. Similar variables apply to the revenue/media spending ratio. It's all a crap-shoot and you rely on the expereience of your DR people. If they have the experience, they will show you case studies, but possibly not rules-of-thumb

Try Direct Marketing Association (DMA).

Thursday, October 25, 2001 #4832
I work on a heavy retail account where we are continually being asked to plot DMA maps with individual store locations- currently, we are xeroxing the maps, and manually putting on dots- there has to be a better and faster way- however, it would have to be a service that does not charge. Thank you Media Guru

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 26, 2001 ):
Not everything is available for free.If this is a "heavy account," it should be well worth investing a few hundred dollars in a mapping system like MapInfo if not a more full featured sytem like Geoscape. Otherwise, if your heavy account is investing heavy media dollars, you will find several media vendors willing to do such maps for you as a service.

Friday, October 19, 2001 #4809
Dear Guru, We are searching for expected direct mail response rates, along with a validated research source of this information. Realizing that there are many variables with a particular direct mailing, do you have any recent "general guideline" statistics that reference 1)an expected standard response rate for a mailing to current long-term customers, and 2)a "mass" (slightly larger quantity) mailing to potential customers? We have checked with the DMA, which only provides this research to non-members at a relatively high expense. We have also checked the guru archives, and not found the exact answers to this question. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 19, 2001 ):
For this type of question, the Guru always refers to Direct Marketing Association (DMA) or The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Both are for members or fee.

A DM house sucas ADVO or Madison might have something.

Friday, October 12, 2001 #4783
I used the archives to look up a question concerning the use of celebrity endorsements. Both of the responses in the archives referred to the Advertising Research Foundation. I called the number, and was told that information is only available to paid members. You should note this when you refer people to that organization.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 12, 2001 ):
The Guru does not purport to provide, primarily, links to free data. Most of the sources cited, Nielsen, Arbitron, MRI, Direct Marketing Association (DMA), , CMR (Competitive Media Reports) etc., have membership fees, subscription fees, or data charges.

The user must decide whether the need justifies the cost.

It doesn't cost any more than a phone call or email to learn there is a charge.

Personally, the Guru feels that ARF membership is justified by access to the library alone.

Thursday, October 11, 2001 #4781
Dear Guru, In testing DM/OTM only versus the impact of mass media with a call-to-action on the response to DM/OTM, have you ever seen an instance in which the introduction of mass media actually depressed the response to the DM/OTM due to the introduction of other response options? Thanks in advance for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 15, 2001 ):
It seems possible. Try Direct Marketing Association (DMA) and The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Thursday, October 11, 2001 #4780
I am gathering information on direct mail, more specifically, its current status and forecasts for its future as an advertising technique. Any information you have or could direct me to would be appreciated. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 15, 2001 ):
Contact Direct Marketing Association (DMA)

Tuesday, October 02, 2001 #4747
Guru - I am trying to do some research on direct response TV for a new client. We are a small agency with limited resources. Do you know of any good articles or books that would explain the best way to plan for and/or purchase DRTV. Also I am looking for information on how determine cost per response on a first time advertiser and why might it be more likely to receive more response in a late fringe program vs. prime programming? Your advice is much appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 02, 2001 ):
See past Guru commnet on Direct Response and Direct Marketing Association (DMA)

Friday, September 21, 2001 #4730
If I am planning radio in Los Angeles for the Lottery for a project, should I use radio in all markets?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 24, 2001 ):
The Guru isn't clear what you mean by 'all the markets' when you are talking about LA. But if you mean that everyone in the Los Angeles DMA is equally important to you, so should you buy Riverside-San Bernardino, the answer is yes. Even more important will be including Spanish stations.

Friday, September 14, 2001 #4716
I went to and found total ad dollars spent in calendar year 2000. I can not find total ad dollars spent in Seattle DMA for calendar year 2000 or 1999. Can you help me? Would also want to see what media got what percentage of the total amount...TV, Radio, Newspaper, Out of Home and Internet for a calendar year in Seattle is what I am looking for.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, September 14, 2001 ):
Consult CMR (Competitive Media Reports)

Tuesday, August 07, 2001 #4635
Where can I find the definitions of "lead" and "emarketing vs. interactive"?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, August 08, 2001 ):
Try Direct Marketing Association (DMA)

Friday, August 03, 2001 #4631
Do you know if there is an interactive tool to find Dear Media Guru, Do you know if there is an interactive tool where I can enter CITY & STATE and it will tell me DMA ? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 06, 2001 ):
Since Nielsen doesn't offer this, it probably isn't available.

Friday, August 03, 2001 #4630
Have you seen a top 200 list by DMA and MSA by Adults -African American- Hispanic- Asian 18+ with Census 2000 data?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 03, 2001 ):
The Census doesn't issue any data on a DMA basis. Nielsen, which establishes the DMA definition, will not issue market populations for Hispanic for a month or so; Census data has not yet become available at the necessary level of geographic detail. Even then some data will be modeled, pending Census detail. Nielsen will also do African American DMA populations, but probably not Asian-American. On a metro basis, all three segments' total populations have been posted on the Census site.

Wednesday, August 01, 2001 #4623
Is there a resource that lists each cable system in each DMA and their channel line-up and cost? I'm looking for a quick way to find cable subscription costs without having to call each cable system.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, August 01, 2001 ):
The Guru thinks it unlikely. Organizing data by DMA is usually done for media planners' or marketers' use. COnsumer pricing of tiers of subscription would not ordinarily be of interest to these people. The giant MSO's might consider doing this within their own systems, but again for whom would they compile such a list? The spot cable sellers like SpotCable would have most of the data, but little use for subscribers' costs.

Friday, July 20, 2001 #4595
Where can I find a list of populations for all major markets?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 20, 2001 ):
Metropolitan areas are available at the Census Bureau site. DMAs are available from Nielsen.

Thursday, July 05, 2001 #4549
Guru, wanted to get information on the response rate for e-mail advertising. Do you have any sites or articles that can provided information on this? I have been quoting 5-10% as an average. I do understand that it can be higher or lower depending on some variables. Thanks for your help in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 06, 2001 ):
The Guru does not believe the reponse rate is as much as 1%, if you mean orders as a percentage of mail sent. Try the Direct Marketing Association (DMA)

Thursday, June 14, 2001 #4488
Id like to know about media (TV and Radio) for the hispanic market at the USA, information about ratings, share, costs by State. thank you!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 17, 2001 ):
For links to US Hispanic media, the best resource is our own Abbott Wool's Market Segment Resources Hispanic page.

For general information about ratings and shares, without buying the full research from Nielsen or Arbitron, browse through Abby's Hispanic Market Weekly Media and Research articles.

For costs, you will generally need to contact the media, but SQAD offers a current Hispanic spot TV cost guide.

In the US, TV and Radio are not costed by state, but by metropolitan area (MSA) for radio or designated market area (DMA) for TV.

Monday, June 11, 2001 #4471
Where would I find overall, all dayparts, CPP and CPM for network stations in a specific DMA?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 16, 2001 ):
For that level of specifics contact station reps.

Tuesday, May 22, 2001 #4421
What are the 3 most listend to Radio station in the NYC DMA during morning drive for adults 18+ with a HH income between 18K-60K?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 22, 2001 ):
Consult Scarborough

Wednesday, May 02, 2001 #4357
How do I convert CPM's from SPARC to CPPs by market?For example, NY radio Average CPM for 3Q 01'=8.40 for A18-49. Its population is 8097000.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 05, 2001 ):
Think of the CPP as the cost of 1% of the specified population. So, the general rule for CPM vs CPP is
CPP = cpm X 0.01 X population in thousands.

This requires the cpm and cpp to be based on the same geography, so be careful. If you're working with DMA CPM and DMA CPP, that's fine, but typically cpm is based on total survey area (TSA) and you are looking for metro CPP.

Friday, April 20, 2001 #4331
Where can we find information about advertising expenditures, by market and by individual medium. For example, how much was spent on television advertising in the Quad Cities DMA in 2000 (or by month)?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, April 20, 2001 ):
See CMR (Competitive Media Reports).

Wednesday, April 11, 2001 #4322
Can you think of a resource where I could find total media spending by MSA?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, April 11, 2001 ):
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) reports 75 top DMAs of Tv plus some other media.

Wednesday, April 04, 2001 #4313
Please give me a list of DMAs in alphabetical order cross-referenced to their Radio Metro Markets (Metropolitan Statistical Markets or MSAs are also acceptable). For example: under Los Angeles DMA we have Los Angeles Metro Market, Riverside-San Bernardino Metro Market, and so on.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 05, 2001 ):
DMA's are defined by Nielsen.

Radio metros are defined by Arbitron. Arbitron can provide a map indicating both geographies, and prints the list you are requesting in "Nationwide" audience reports.

Wednesday, March 21, 2001 #4280
Concerning Local Cable ratings, there seems to some confusion as to the availability of Nielsen demographic ratings. While I know that HOUSEHOLD Local Cable ratings are availbale on Nielsen's HH overnights, how are demographic ratings developed? I have heard of two methodologies: 1) Apply DMA VPVHs to the HH overnight ratings 2) Use Nielsen diary info to determine demographic Local Cable ratings. From my experiences, Local Cable is severly underreported thorugh diary measurement. Therefore, I believe the use of HH overnights would be preferred. Can you provide some insight into Local Cable rating accuracy and methodology? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 25, 2001 ):
Household overnights are only available where Nielsen uses set meters to measure the Household audience. These meters automatically send their daily readings to Nielsen's computers so that Nielsen can then issue ratings "overnight."

According to information at Nielsen's web site:

" In 49 of the largest markets, we have a sample of homes with set meters (not people meters) which provide the tuning status (set on/off, channel and time) of TV sets in the home. We collect information about who is viewing from separate samples of homes in these markets with diaries for each TV set. We combine the meter and diary information in a way which projects the diary viewing data adjusted to the meter tuning data."

The Nielsen NSI service reports cable in local market reports when the audience meets reporting standards.

So, in any case where HH overnights would be available, NSI is adjusting diary demographic findings to reflect (preferred) meter measurment of households.

Wednesday, February 21, 2001 #4198
What companies (besides ADMAn and Clients & Profits) provide software for maintaining a database of vendors for generating insertion orders, and summary reports? I'm looking for a system that DOES NOT link to an accounting system. Thank-you.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 22, 2001 ):
Any contact manager / database with mail merge capability should meet your requirements. Consider Act!

Friday, November 10, 2000 #3962
Where can I find full year 1999 spot cable revenue in each of the top 25 DMAs?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 12, 2000 ):
Try CMR (Competitive Media Reports) or Cable TV Ad Bureau.

Thursday, October 19, 2000 #3898
I need help. We have a client that wants to do a campaign around sports programming and corporate sponsorships. We are looking at 12 markets - most in the top 20 DMA's. Here is my problem: We've been asked to make a recommendation on whether it is better to run on local TV, radio and in-stadium signage as packages in each of these 12 markets or, if it is more effective to run on FOX Sports Net regionally in 12 markets. 42,000 sales people later - I am getting the idea that no one can give me accurate audience numbers for radio live broadcast of home game coverage. Do you know I can get this? Also, do you have any opinion on the effectiveness of Corporate Sports sponsorship packages. These are major teams that I am talking to - Stars, Lakers, Mets etc.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 22, 2000 ):
There are no syndicated measures of individual sports events on radio. Stations may have commissioned incidental studies, ask them.

In the Guru's opinion, corporate sports sponsorships do more for corporate management egos than they do for marketing. If your target is very committed to the sport in question, or the product is closely related, like motor oil to auto racing, then it can be an effective measure.

Tuesday, October 17, 2000 #3892
Guru, I am the only media buyer/planner of a small agency with very few resources. I rarely buy radio, but when I do, I have no resource (such as Tapscan). Can you suggest any n/c service online which could supply stations by DMA and formats? I don't buy enough radio to ask my boss for Tapscan software. Much appreciated!

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 17, 2000 ):
Try Radio and Records

Tuesday, September 26, 2000 #3839
M.G.- What is the % response for direct mailing ? What does the response curve look like?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 26, 2000 ):
Consult Direct Marketing Association (DMA)

Wednesday, September 20, 2000 #3818
A client has asked us for the agency's recommendation on changing their demo and/or keeping it the same for Y2001 planning. They operate in 4 DMA's. How would you go about deciding what to change it to or whether to stay with the same demo? I've looked at cpp differences in sqad and there isn't much difference in tv but quite a bit in radio. MRI isn't much help because they don't delve into this category much. Any other ideas? Thanks for your help!

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 23, 2000 ):
CPP is not relevant to answering this question. It just changes in relation to composition. If you buy a lower cpp demo, you may just buy fewer spots for the same money.

Target basis should be who is the best customer, in terms of sales potential (high user/usage/purchase index) for the advertiser. A large enough group of customers should be targetd so that the target accounts for the majority of sales. There are other resources like MRI which may go into more depth on certain categories. Try Scarborough or The Mendelsohn Media Research Affluent Study.

Thursday, September 14, 2000 #3797
I saw a chart indicating the "time to purchase" in hours. Something like 55% in first 30 min, 10% in 60 min, etc. Unfortunately I didn't bookmark it ... any ideas?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 18, 2000 ):
The Guru assumes you are referring to time between broadcast of a direct response ad and customer telephone calls. Moist likley site is Direct Marketing Association (DMA)

Tuesday, August 29, 2000 #3760
Hi Guru, I have a client looking to open a new office somewhere in the US and am conducting research to find the best possible area to set up shop. We do not have MRI and only have 10 Scarborough markets in house. I have found can pull across Scarborough's 64 markets for certain qualifiers we are looking for but am wondering if you know of anywhere else I could obtain this information, specifically HHI, Housing Prices, and educational levels across the largest markets in the US (for free would be a plus)?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, September 01, 2000 ):
For free, the Census offers some of that. Other housing data m,ight be found through FedStats. None of that will be on a DMA basis, though. For a little money, Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) Lifestyles Analyst or Sales and Marketing Management Magazines annual market analysis.

Sunday, August 27, 2000 #3753
hi Guru where can i find information or researches about postal markets, and the competative situation with electronic mail. thank you

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, August 30, 2000 ):
Visit Direct Marketing Association (DMA)

Monday, August 21, 2000 #3727
Hello, My question is regarding the CMR BAR reports (Media Watch)...What are the 75 markets the competititve TV spending reports are done in? Is it the top 75 DMA's? Thanks for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 21, 2000 ):
Yes it is.

Wednesday, August 02, 2000 #3667
what are the demographics for boston?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 06, 2000 ):
A question like this must be much more explicit. Doe you mean age and gender demographics, the most commonly used. Or do you mean education, income, race, occupation, etc?

Do you mean city, metropolitan area or DMA?

If you want it free, online, assemble the DMA counties on the Massachusetts page of the Census Bureau site.

Some data is available online from Arbitron. Arbitron and Nielsen both make inexpensive books of market age/gender/race demographics available.

Monday, July 03, 2000 #3591
What is or where can I find an average current magazine responce rate?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 03, 2000 ):
Direct Marketing Association (DMA)

Thursday, June 15, 2000 #3553
Hello Guru, how can I define the competitors for local portals? Is it based on advertising spending or the statistics report?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 18, 2000 ):
This a decision you must make based on what is happening in your specifc case. Local portals may face competition from giant sites which offer to sell impressions targeted by DMA or other detectable locality. These sites may well deliver more localized impressions than a purely "local" portal.

Wednesday, June 14, 2000 #3549
How does one go about finding out share-of-market information by DMA? For example, how could I find out total sales for the Casual Dining industry for say, a six-month period of time?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 15, 2000 ):
Market-by-market shares are the core businesses of AC Nielsen or Information Resources. Another research firm specialized in the restaurant business is Technomic.

Monday, June 12, 2000 #3547
I am buying radio in two different markets - one is a large market which is measured by Arbitron. The other is a small market where I get the ratings through Arbitron county measuring. The two cities are only 45 miles apart and there is a large amount of radio overlap. Is there any way to figure an accurate combined reach & frequency? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 12, 2000 ):
First, define "market." If these radio markets are both in the same DMA, and you want DMA R&F, add the two stations' reach in thousands and divide by DMA universe. If they are in two different Metros, calculate reach within each and do a weighted average of the two:
  • Metro "A" target population = 100,000
  • Metro "B" target population = 20,000
  • Metro "A" target reach = 40% (40,000)
  • Metro "B" target reach = 55% (11,000)
  • Combined, total coverage area reach = 40,000 + 11,000 100,000 + 20,000, or 42.5%

Thursday, June 01, 2000 #3517
What is the general rule of thumb (in terms of number of :60 radio spots per week) in a non-metered market? The goal of the advertising campaign is awareness over a 7 month period (no weekly promotion to talk about - just letting people know about our business). In the past we have been running anywhere from 14 to 16 spots per week.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 01, 2000 ):
The "overkill" level of frequency will depend on continuity among other things.

In a market too small to measure, the Guru imagines that there are relatively few radio stations, perhaps 12 or fewer, and average ratings might be 5 or better. So suppose 16 spots is about 100 GRP. FOr reach you would still want to use more than one station, at least 12 times each.

Are you sure your market isn't measured, perhaps as part of a larger market as defined by Arbitron? Even tiny Lima, Ohio, the 201st of the 210 DMAs making up the entire country has ratings twice yearly. Check out Radio & Records.

Tuesday, May 23, 2000 #3490
What are the top ten online ad spending regions in the US

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 23, 2000 ):
The Guru finds more questions raised by your question. What do you mean by regions? For example, there aren't enough "Nielsen regions" to think about a top 10. Do you mean DMAs or some other "universe" of regions? On what basis would you want to associate spending with regions? Headquarters of the advertiser? Location of the buyer?

It is possible no data will have been compiled for this sort of geographic analysis, but the most extensive web ad spend tracking is probably the one by CMR (Competitive Media Reports).

Tuesday, May 16, 2000 #3477
What is the definition of "spill in" and "spill out"

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, May 19, 2000 ):
These terms are generally used in relation to Designated Market Areas, but may also be used relative to metros. It is an issue for market-specific media, like TV stations, radio stations and newspapers, but not for national media or place-based media, such as network TV and out-of-home, respectively.

"Spill-in" is audience generated within the DMA by media located outside the DMA. For example, in parts of the New York DMA some people view TV programs broadcast on Hartford-New Haven stations and this viewing is reported in the ratings for the NY DMA. This is spill-in.

"Spill-out" is the same thing seen from the other side. When a Hartford-New Haven station gets audience in the New York market and it's reported in the Hartford-New Haven ratings, it's spill-out.

20+ years ago, this was a relatively minor issue, but today, with cable and super stations there can be a big impact for some stations and markets.

Monday, May 15, 2000 #3474
What DMA's have a high penetration of families with children? Is there a place where I can locate penetration of families with children across all DMA's and how would those DMAs compare to the national average?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, May 19, 2000 ):
Try the Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) Lifestyle Market Analyst

Wednesday, April 12, 2000 #3393
What is the radio industry standard for a denominator such as CPM in print media. The C/RP is fine for comparisons in the same DMA, but what about cross-DMA comparisons?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, April 12, 2000 ):
CPM works in radio, too, and it's the right metric to use across markets. Arbitron reports thousands as well as rating, so it's always available. To get a rough estimate of CPM, divide CPP by 1% of the target universe expressed in thousands; Cost Per Point is the cost of reaching one percent (one rating points' worth) of the universe.

Tuesday, April 11, 2000 #3387
Is there an internet site where you can determine a given cities DMA? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 11, 2000 ):
DMAs are defined by Nielsen. They offer a city listing book.

Thursday, March 30, 2000 #3360
Please explain the use of BDI/ CDI and MOI in relation to the media strategy, whether media activity should be aggresive, maintenance etc.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 31, 2000 ):
Indices like these, (though "MOI" is not familiar, possibly Market Opportunity Index?) are used to compare geographic markets media weight/spending levels. Typically, one, geographically flexible, element of the media plan, such as spot TV is adjusted up or down in DMAs or regions, to give each area the appropriate activity based on relative sales, or sales potential index. It's not exactly a question of "aggressive" versus "maintenance."

Click here to see past Guru comment on BDI and CDI

Thursday, March 30, 2000 #3358
I'm looking for online/internet HH's/penetration by DMA or other published market definition. I know Media Audit and Scarborough have this, but is there anywhere that I could get this small piece free?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, March 30, 2000 ):
Scarborough has made their Internet Penetration Data available on line.

Thursday, March 30, 2000 #3355
dear guru is there any researches about ads that include phone numbers? thank you

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 31, 2000 ):
An in-bound telemarketing vendor might have such research on hand. Otherwise, the most likely sources are Direct Marketing Association (DMA), Newsweek Media Research Index and The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Tuesday, March 28, 2000 #3348
Dear Guru, What is the typical direct mail response on a general consumer mailing? How does this response increase when followed up with telemarketing? If a customer calls in to order from the mailing, what would the average cross-sell conversion rate be? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 28, 2000 ):
Your best source for these data would be Direct Marketing Association (DMA).

Tuesday, March 28, 2000 #3345
What is "Spot TV" Advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 28, 2000 ):
Spot TV means TV advertising placed in individual local market areas (DMAs) rather than nationally, though a network or nearly nationally, through a syndicator.

Wednesday, March 15, 2000 #3327
Where I can obtain information abut de marketing and children?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 15, 2000 ):
If you mean direct marketing and children, start with the Direct Marketing Association (DMA)

Thursday, March 02, 2000 #3271
Where can we get a list of agencies who specialize in Direct response clients?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, March 02, 2000 ):
The Standard Directories of Advertising Agencies and Advertisers ('The Redbook') could generate for you a list of Direct Response agencies.

The Direct Marketing Association (DMA) might make available a membership list

Saturday, February 05, 2000 #3194
Guru: We're planning to use magazines, national newspapers, banners and direct mail to promote a new shopping portal we expect to launch in a few months. I pretty much know what results we should get from the mags, newspapers and banners, but have no idea what to expect from the direct mailer. Went to DMA's site but got no answers. Need your help, Guru! Here's my question: What sort of "recall rate" should we expect from mailer's recipients when we do our post campaign reader-recall follow up(i.e., out of 1,000 recipients, what percent should typically recall receiving the mailer)? I realize lots of varibles come into play, but give it your best shot. Thanks, Guru!! Jim Pflaum

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 07, 2000 ):
The Guru does not evaluate direct mail in terms of recall rate. Since the only result that really matters is a sales inquiry or other consumer action. Direct Mail is more often evaluated on its opening rate.

The Guru would not expect as much as 3% site visits resulting from mailing recipients.

Wednesday, January 26, 2000 #3159
I keep hitting dead ends! I am looking for information containing "cost per lead" or "cost per sale" for various types of media marketing different types of products. An example of the information I am seeking (using figures from my imagination): Home Security Systems On-Line - $2.00 to $2.70 Direct Mail - $2.50 to $3.20 Television - $4.70 to $5.10 Radio - $1.90 to $2.60 Billboard - $2.20 to $2.80. I need this kind of information for campaigns that were/are directed to households. Examples of products or services might include: life insurance, health and beauty products, automobiles.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 29, 2000 ):
The best source would be the Direct Marketing Association (DMA).

One thought: It is a general truism that list quality is one of the most important factors in direct marketing success. So a much tighter target than "Households" would be recommended.

Friday, January 21, 2000 #3141
What is a local broadcast network

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 22, 2000 ):
It sounds like an invented marketing term that someone has created as a sales approach, and not a standard term.

The Guru would parse it thus:

  • "Local" means within a single DMA
  • "Broadcast" means over the airwaves, not cable or internet
  • "Network" means the same content on a connected or affiliated set of the local broadcast outlets.

Tuesday, December 07, 1999 #3032
i am seeking an extended list of caribbean media vehicles (tv, radio, magazines, and newspaper) reaching caribbeans living within the us. can you tell me of any names or places where i can find this information? In addition, do you have any recent information pertaining to which us markets they are living in along with population figures. the only information i was able to find was '90 census data. thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 08, 1999 ):
The Guru will asume that you are referring to "West Indians" also referred to as Caribbean Black, and not to Caribbean Hispanics. In either case these marfket segements are primarily found along the U.S.' East Coast. About 75% of the U.S. Caribbean Black population is found in the N.Y. and Miami DMA's; within NY, primarily in Brooklyn and Queens counties.

There are print, radio programs and syndicated TV programs for this market segment. Once you find one, they can probably guide you to others. For example, New York's WLIB-AM offers some Caribbean programming.

MultiCultural Target Source produces a directory of media for many ethnic and cultural segments.

Monday, November 29, 1999 #3006
Over the years I have seen various TV test market translation procedures such as Little US, As It Falls, and a P&G variant (if I remember correctly) called "Correct Increment". Where do test market translations stand in today's much faster reactive pace? what if anything is still utilized?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 01, 1999 ):
As-It-Falls and Little U.S. are still in use. The Guru is not aware of how P&G may have revised "correct increment."

All of these however, are just ways to determine what weight should run in test markets to represent a given national theoretical plan.

Today's changes affect other elements of testing, like using cable systems as test laboratories rather than entire DMA markets, or reading scanner based results rather than full-scale survey research.

Wednesday, November 17, 1999 #2980
With the plethora of media research companies today, I am having difficulty determining which research to utilize for different needs, based on the fundamental nature of the company's research. For example, are Claritas and Scarborough merely competitors or is there a basic difference between them which would determine which research I would use for a particular situation? Similarly, Simmons vs. MRI? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 21, 1999 ):
Claritas and Scarborough are both units of VNU. The former is best known as a source of market segmentation data with emphasis on geography, and is perhaps best known for their zip code-based PRIZM system. The latter is a media audience and product usage syndicated survey service, reporting market-by-market. Claritas could tell you where to find pockets of the best prospects for the most state of the art PC systems. Scarborough could help you define your target and choose your radio stations to sell those PC's in the San Franciso DMA.

Simmons and MRI, as they are best known are more directly competitive in providing media and product usage data on a national and top-few-DMA basis with very large samples. There are many technical differences in their methodologies, but few in the kinds of data they provide.

Wednesday, November 10, 1999 #2955
Why is the median measure used versus a mean as an indication of the typical age, income, etc.?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 10, 1999 ):
Because we look for the descriptive typical data:

Suppose there are nine Microsoft employees in a room. One is a new programmer who earns $50,000. The next seven employees each earn $10,000 more than the previous one; $60,000, $70,000, etc. and the last one is Bill Gates.

Now, the median income of these 9 Microsoft employees is $90,000.

The mean income is around $1 billion. So which best describes the typical member of this population, the mean or the median? Bill Gates would throw off an analysis of the entire Microsft Corporation this way, maybe the whole Seattle DMA. Similarly, a population with a lot of children and a short life expectancy would have a younger median than one with fewer children and a long life expectancy, but the mean could create a picture deceptively similar for the two groups.

Monday, October 18, 1999 #2878
Dear Guru, Where can I get information about the top 20 media markets in US ? Secondly, how are these markets determined ? Is it pop size, tv ownership, per capita.... Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 18, 1999 ):
Markets, under the broader definition of media markets, DMA (Designated Market Area), are ranked by their number of TV households. DMAs incorporate all of the U.S. counties, with rare exception counites are entirely assigned to one DMA, based on the share of the county's viewing attributed to stations which are "home" to the assigned DMA. This is all based on Nielsen measurement.

You can get considerable population data about DMA's from Nielsen at a nominal charge. Here at AMIC you can find the Household poulation totals in the AMIC's Ad Data area.

Metro areas are another definition used for media markets, and are particularly relevant to radio. These are Census definitions, also based on counties and use totoal population. Metros do not total to the entire U.S. population.

Wednesday, September 29, 1999 #2837
Can we say that the Hispanic Market market in Chicago is the same as the Hispanic Market en Miami. Eventhough they are Hispanics generally speaking aren't there some differences that we marketers should be aware of. For instance, Miami is tropical. The needs are different when it comes to certain items. Besides elements like the weather, are there any other elemnts to be aware that would make these two markets different? Thank you

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 30, 1999 ):
There are many differences, for example:

Hispanics are nearly a majority in the City of Miami and nearly 40% of the metro and the DMA. Hispanics are about 12% of Chicago's DMA. This population presence leads to amjor diffrences in the lifestyle of the Hispanic.

About two-thirds of Chicago's Hispanics are of Mexican origin, the rest primarily Puerto Rican and Dominican. In Miami, Cuban is the predominant origin with South / Central American next largest. So there are substantial cultural differences in food, music and social structure.

Miami is a wealthier, better educated and older Hispanic market. Hispanics are well integrated into the business and governmental structure. Miami's Spanish media frequently outperform general market media in the ratings.

Sunday, September 26, 1999 #2826
Our market is the Hispanic population in the Midwest. Research conducted at a national level reveals details of how consumers purchasing behavior. However, the Midwest affects the consumers purchasing decision based on climate and other elements. Should there be a research that demonstrates the diference of Hispanics in the Midwest compare to the national data? Is there one already available? Thank you. Adriana

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, September 26, 1999 ):
It isn't clear how you define "midwest." Chicago, the top midwestern Hispanic market, is one of the top five U.S. Hispanic DMA's, but only contains 4% of all U.S. Hispanics.

If we consider the midwest to be these states: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin, then Chicago holds over half of the Midwest's Hispanics. Chicago is an available market in Hispanic Simmons, and other research, and might readily be used as an analog of the midwest Hispanic. The way marketing typically works, there will be little interest in the other individual DMA's from national advertisers.

Should there be research on the midwest's Hispanics? If you are selling a medium which covers this area or have a product which is distributed primarily in the midwest and has an opportunity in the HIspanic market, it would serve your interests to do so, but but the Guru recommneds you don't count on industry support.

Friday, September 24, 1999 #2820
Hello Guru!My question may fall outside only media planning. Neverthless I hope you can direct me to the correct info. sites. I am planning a promotion for an established FMCG-Women's product. The product is used for hygiene as well as cosmetic purposes. The promotion entails the consumer entering a contest along with a proof of purchase and a writeup on her experience with the brand. 1. Which media TV or Print would yeild the best response. The brand has high TOMA. The campaign has a duration of one month in the peak sales season. 2.Is there any model to predict the response in terms of no. of entries received and offtakes 3.How should I plan- for generating max. response, in terms of reach and frequency at a moderate budget? No previous data exsists for any such promo with me.4.Are there any rules of thumb in exsistence for a corelation between reach, frequency and responses? Thanking you in advance for your guidance.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, September 24, 1999 ):
As you imagine, your questions fall mostly outside of media, and your acronyms are not standard in the U.S., so the Guru is not clear on the background.

A good source for the sort of information you want is the Direct Marketing Association (DMA)

Within the realm of pure media / direct response concepts, the Guru does not believe there is any rule of thumb for Reach / frequency / response relationships. The Gurru has seen small audiences produce much more response than large audiences in many cases.

Thursday, July 29, 1999 #2672
Could you refer me to any studies on: 1) on-line usage by demographic by time of day; and 2) on-line usage by DMA?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 31, 1999 ):
This level of detail would be available only from "user- centric" metered measurements like those from MediaMetrix.

Monday, July 19, 1999 #2645
I have spent a couple of hours searching through your archives and those of Newsweek's Media Research Index and have yet to find a direct answer to my query. Perhaps one does not exist...? I seek a minimum response rate for a full page ad (or perhaps 3, 1/3 vertical ads) for a new product. The ad contains an 800 number and the product itself targets magazines subscribers. I was thinking of using direct mail/marketing response numbers at 1%-2% --- am I way off the mark? Any insight would be most appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 23, 1999 ):
There are no absolutes. 2% would be a high response. Direct Marketing Association (DMA) would have better information.

Thursday, July 01, 1999 #2600
I'm coming from a traditional general market media background and am moving to a sophisticated direct response company. What are the primary criteria I should address in negotiating DR rates (on net cable or synd radio) vs. a fixed position schedule? CPP has become irrelevant. We just want the lowest unit rate that will clear. Any tips? (by the way, the DMA is no help here).

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 02, 1999 ):
In DR, response is what matters, and it has little to do with CPP, or rating. You need to track response by station, daypart, program type, etc. and buy based on what delivers.

Thursday, June 17, 1999 #2582
Is there any where on-line that I can get information regarding response rates in relation to 1st Class vs. 3rd Class postage. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 20, 1999 ):
The Direct Marketing Association (DMA) is your best resource for such information, but the Post Office itself is promoting direct mail and may be helpful.

Sunday, June 13, 1999 #2573
I am in the planning stages of a branding campaign and i need specialized advice relating to homeowner direct items and launching national campaign to become a outsource infomediary to the new home builder/owners field, was recently in a national industry magaizine and I just don't know how to launch a focused campaign that will reach my audience? sorry for being so wordy.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, June 16, 1999 ):
Cutting through all the words you seem to want to find a list of new home builders/owners. The Direct Marketing Association (DMA) should be able to guide you.

Tuesday, May 04, 1999 #2488
I am trying to reach college students (at schools with enrollments of at least 15,000 to 20,000 students) via local cable television. How can I find out which campuses are wired for cable tv, and if they are, how may students subscribe? I am talking about students on campus in dorms, and i am primarily interested in colleges located in DMA outside of the top 25.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 04, 1999 ):
Contact a cable sales rep, like National Cable Communications. They should be able to tell you which colleges are covered by cable systems.

Matching this list to colleges ranked by enrollment will probably be left up to you.

The Guru offers the following observations:

  • It doesn't seem likely that cable systems will allow you to direct commercials only to students or dorms. There will probably be much more waste coverage than if you bought campus newspapers, radio or wallboards.
  • The Guru doubts there will be records of student "subscribers." It is probably most common that the school wires a dorm for cable and students with TVs connect to the cable wiring in their room at will.

Monday, April 05, 1999 #2431
Dear Guru, I have a question regarding %US coverage with spot radio. An old boss of mine who has recently left the company had used DMA %ages rather than metro %ages when reflecting total US penetration on a spot radio buy we did. I am unsure as to why this was done. Can you provide a rationale for using DMA numbers here? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, April 05, 1999 ):
To some extent it represents TV thinking and to another, it's more realistic.

DMA's are really a TV-defined area. Every U.S.county is assigned to one DMA or another -- except for some oddities in Alaska. So the sum of all DMAs is 100% of the U.S. with no duplication. The definition is based on which TV market gets the bulk of a county's viewing. In each market, the central city VHF stations generally reach the whole DMA. Spot TV buys are usually planned on a DMA rating/GRP basis.

Radio, on the other hand, is usally planned on a metro point basis. Even the strongest radio stations, audience-wise, rarely reach the outer areas of DMA's. In each DMA there are one or more Metros. Because the population of the DMAs concentrates in the metros, buys in the metros are treated as if they covered whole DMAs, and indeed, radio coverage is gernerally wider than the metro.

In the U.S. there are roughly 10 times as many radio stations as TV sations, many surviving because they cover out-of-the way areas, but others simply because we will buy small, select audiences. Consider the New York DMA. Largest in population, one of the smallest in geography, but with about 50 reportable commercial radio stations and about 9 commercial TV stations.

Friday, March 26, 1999 #2415
The target audience for my schedule is "Own a dog or cat and took your pet to the vet at least once in the last 12 months". I have done the Xtab in Telmar and know which states this audience lives. I am trying to get more specific and find out what DMA the target lives in. What is the best way to find this information? I do have information from the Lifestyle Analyst book provided by SRDS but I am not that comfortable with it since I was told the data is compiled from warranties people send in. Please help.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 29, 1999 ):
Why are you troubled by data from warranty cards? Of course, this data will not be from as random a sample as Simmons, MRI or The Mendelsohn Media Research Affluent Study. However, its skews are probably based on income more than anything else and data should be fairly useful in terms of finding the geographic dispersion of behavior like vet visits.

Another approach is this: the survey data listed above does report separately on several major DMA's. Beyond that, the mapping/modeling software offered by suppliers like CLARITAS can extrapolate the survey data into regional or market by market data. Of course, this may be as removed from validity as the warranty data.

Why not contact the associations like American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) and American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) to inquire about visits per market?

Tuesday, February 23, 1999 #2352
How can you determine the corresponding county and DMA for a zip code?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, February 23, 1999 ):
Nielsen has a reference volume for this purpose. By the way, zip codes are not necessarily within one county. For example on, to consider just one sample county line within the NY DMA, there are 5 zipcodes which straddle the Nassau / Suffolk county border.

Friday, January 29, 1999 #2297
Dear Guru, I'm having a hard time finding media related information on the increase in direct marketing. Where could I find media spending, how is it affecting allocation of dollars, etc.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 04, 1999 ):
Consult the Direct Marketing Association (DMA)

Monday, January 18, 1999 #2275
Dear Media Guru: How would I go about analyzing the benefits of advertising on national cable TV vs. spot TV? For example: a retail store has locations in only 8 DMAs and therefore only buys local time in those markets. Is it feasible to compare the out-of- pocket costs of a local buy vs. a national buy? Would the wasted exposure outside of the 8 DMAs outweigh the cost efficiencies of a national buy? Are there any - simple - models that do this? Thanks for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, January 19, 1999 ):
This should be very simple. According to your question, only impressions delivered within your 8 DMAs have any value.

So, for a given amount of money invested in national cable and the same money invested in local cable, which will put more impressions into your 8 markets?

If the 8 markets are fairly large, it could be easy for the national buy to be less costly.

It also depends on the system structure of the markets. Some markets are served by just one or two systems and can be purchsed more efficiently than markets, like NY, for example, which has dozens of systems. By the same token, it can be more expensive, out-of-pocket, to buy just a segment of the NY market, like northern New Jersey, than to buy all of the DMA, because of price structure oddities.

At any rate, "waste" isn't your issue, the issue is what value do you get for your investment.

Thursday, January 07, 1999 #2253
How can I use Spot Quotations and Data (SQAD) quarterly TV Cost Per Rating Point Report (HH Ratings)to calculate CPM? Whether SQAD has info. of CPM for each DMA?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 08, 1999 ):
There is a small difficulty in that the total audience usually used to calculate cpm extends beyond the DMA. But for your purposes this can probably be ignored.

"Cost per Rating Point" means the cost of buying audience impressions equal to one percent of the population. Therefore, dividing DMA CPP by 1 percent of the DMA population yields DMA cpm.

Wednesday, January 06, 1999 #2245
Dear Guru: What is the meaning for those acronym on Spot Quotations and Data (SQAD) quarterly TV Cost Per 1OOO diagram? such as POP, EM, DAY, EN, PA, PR, and LN.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 07, 1999 ):
POP = number of households in the DMA (Nielsen's Designated Market Area)

EM= Early Morning or 7-10 am EST

Day= Daytime or 10am -4pm EST

EN=Early News

PA= Prime Access or 7:30-8:00pm EST

PR= Prime Time or 8:00=11:00pm Mon-Sat and 7:00 - 11:00pm Sun

LN=Late news

As these are all Spot costs, the actual times sold as spot in the local markets may vary somewhat from these general definitions. Prime Time hours on non-network affiliate stations may be treated as fringe time.

Tuesday, November 24, 1998 #2172
what is the standard response rate and should response be figured on GRPs or reach?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 24, 1998 ):
There isn't a "standard." The Guru has to guess that you are talking about TV infomercials. Obviously, price, product interest and quality of the infomercial can have great impact on response.

One or two percent is probably a very high response. The Guru would use reach as the base, because GRP will progressively accumulate fewer and fewer exposures among those who might buy but have not yet.

Contact the Direct Marketing Association (DMA) for more information.

Thursday, November 05, 1998 #2124
Dear Media Guru, You directed me to the Direct Marketing Association for additional research information. When I hot-link to that site I can not seem to find a way to access their research information? Do I have to become a member to do so? And if so, will I be able to access all of their information from the Internet? I have the same question in regard to the Advertising Research Foundation site. Thanks......

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 05, 1998 ):
The Guru often offers a hotlink merely as a way leading inquirers to more information about a suggested reosurce, even if actual studies are not on line. You may call the DMA's phone number to inquire further. The Guru is confident that the Direct Marketing Association (DMA) offers a lot of background information about Direct Marketing at no charge.

The Advertising Research Foundation is a membership organization. Access to its best-anywhere research library is a key member benefit.

However, a lot of the ARF's best material is published in conference procedings and in the Journal of Advertising Research. Copies of these with relevnt articles are available at nominal cost.

Thursday, November 05, 1998 #2123
Dear Guru, we work with a medical-device company. Our primary target audiences are physicians. We have been utilizing b-b pubs as our primary form of marketing communications but are looking for other means to communicate our messages. One consideration has been direct mail. I have been unable to locate any usable reseach that would indicate that direct mail is a successful means to communicate with physicians? Are there any research studies, that you are aware of, that would help to answer the question is direct mail effective when targeting a physician audience and if it is an effective means do standard frequecy rules apply? My current belief is that direct mail is not an effective means, for this audience, if the message content is image. Possibly something to consider if the message content is that of direct response. Thanks in advance....

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 05, 1998 ):
The Direct Marketing Association (DMA) ought to have some infromation for you.

Other media to consider are physicians radio networks and video tape releases.

Friday, September 18, 1998 #2049
How do rates for spot tv compare with that of local cable tv? Is there any trend?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, September 23, 1998 ):
While local cable cost-per-announcement may be less, in general, local cable is less efficient than spot broadcast tv, but there are a lot of "it depends" factors. The general rule applies most strongly when you desire full DMA coverage. You (or the cable rep firm) may need to assemble several cable systems to achieve this (or to get the 70% or so cable coverage possible).

The Guru has seen instances where local cable cost per spot to cover 20% of cable subscribers in a market required a greater cost per spot than local broadcast. The Guru has also seen a local system, again about 20% of a DMA's coverage, asking higher costs for local spots in a specific cable network than the national cost of that same network's spots.

The problem is in part a loss of economies of scale when too many individual local systems have to throw switches and do paperworks in airing what could be "one" spot.

Monday, September 14, 1998 #2042
I have been asked by a potential client about CPP's for demos in Netherlands, Belgium, and Austria. I own an ad agency in Atlanta, GA USA. Can you tell me where to find this information? Sincerely, Robert Davis

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 15, 1998 ):
The biggest international agencies, like Cordiant or Y&R, publish country-by-country media fact books which can be purchased. Otherwise, International Media Guide will provide rates, but probably not audience figures.

Friday, September 04, 1998 #2029
What is the average response rate to national cable tv advertising (with a direct response mechanism).

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 05, 1998 ):
The Direct Marketing Association (DMA) may have some data for you. The Guru believes that averages in such matters are probably fairly meaningless, as each pitch and each product are unique.

Sunday, August 02, 1998 #1986
Im looking to compare average household cpms across the following television segments: Broadcast Network Broadcast National Spot Broadcast Local Cable Network Cable National Spot Local Cable Can you help me with these figures or point me in he right direction on where I can find this data?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 02, 1998 ):
AdWeek's Marketer's Guide to Media might have all of these media but probably not local or spot cable.

These latter two are

  1. Sold in too many ways to average sensibly and
  2. Too often priced based on costs of selling and or integration, rather than audience.

To explain:

Local spot cable can be bought as part of a regional buy, in a DMA interconnect or system by system within a DMA. Often, buying one quarter of a DMA on a given network is more costly than the interconnect because too many individual systems need to individually load and swith your commercial.

Friday, July 31, 1998 #1981
Is there a formula that would indicate increases in effectiveness if a direct mail campaign is supported by other media? Example: TV and radio campaign to increase awareness of a product followed by a targeted mailing with a call to action. Thanks, Guru

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 31, 1998 ):
The Direct Marketing Association (DMA) would be the best source for such information.

Thursday, April 30, 1998 #1578
what is the mathematical relationship between the cpp and cpm, is there any formula linking this two concepts?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 30, 1998 ):
CPP (Cost Per rating Point) is the cost of a number of media impressions equalling one per cent of a given population group (the specified "target"), as in Women 18-49 CPP.

CPM is the cost of 1000 target media impressions.

Therefore, the mathematical relationship depends on the number of thousands of people who equal one percent the target group.

For example, suppose there are one million women 18-49 in a market, and a radio spot has an audience of 20,000 women 18-49 at a price of $50.

The rating points generated by the spot are 2.0

(20,000 divided by 1,000,000).

The CPP is $25

($50 divided by 2.0)

The CPM is $2.50

($50 divided by 20[thousands])

Since CPP is the cost of impressions equal to 1% of the population, the CPM to CPP relationship is:

CPP divided by 1% of the population in thousands = CPM

In this case, $25 CPP divided by 10 [thousand]= $2.50 CPM


CPM times 1% of the population in thousands = CPP

While this works perfectly for national media, it can be tricky in local media unless geography is tightly defined. I.e. a broadcast CPM is usually defined as being on a Metro Area or DMA basis. CPM though, is often based on all impressions generated, even if outside the basic geography. Common geographic population definitions are essential to the accuracy of the formulas.

Wednesday, March 25, 1998 #1552
I am looking for software that will help our small media company track results from DRTV campaigns. At this point in time we are spending hours & hours entering data using plain old spreadsheets to generate graphs & tables. Do you know of any software or a company who may be interested in helping us out? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, April 06, 1998 ):
Try the Direct Marketing Association (DMA)

Friday, March 13, 1998 #1527
What is a good source to correlate DMAs with ZIP Codes? Or is there an intermediate step required?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 13, 1998 ):
Nielsen Media Research, the creator of DMA's, publishes a reference book for this purpose.

Monday, March 09, 1998 #1522
How do you delicately tell the client that newspaper doesn't deliver Gross Rating Points?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 09, 1998 ):
The Guru doesn't understand. Do you mean

*Newspaper isn't measured in Gross Rating Points?


*Newpaper isn't a good way to deliver Gross Rating points?

In either of these cases you'd be wrong to tell it to the client.


*Any medium with a measured audience can be reported in Gross Rating Points. Divide the audience (households, people, etc) by the population in the same category for the geography in question: Metro Area, DMA, City, etc. This calculation will give the "rating" of a single issue or the Gross Rating Points of a campaign.

In Newspaper measurement, "Coverage" is the term usually used in place of Household rating


In some market/demographic situations, the leading newspaper might have a little as a 10 rating. But it is not uncommon to find major market newspapers with a 50 or 60 Metro coverage (or household rating).

Friday, February 06, 1998 #1501
Which source could I find information regarding the top ten cities with the highest population of females 18-34?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 07, 1998 ):
Both Nielsen and Arbitron provide management booklets with DMA (Designated Market Area) population ranked this way. These are the standard media planning/buying geographies. Additionally, the Arbitron book has metropolitan area population, if that's what you need.

If you literally need cities, the U.S. Census site should have what you need.

Tuesday, January 27, 1998 #1495
My business needs help developing an e-mail business- to-business DM program (using OPT-IN only lists) targetting the following segments: 1. Site Development Software or Services 2. Shopping Cart Software Providers or Services 3. Internet Advertising and Promotion Products or Services 4. Merchant Accout/Transaction Processing Products or Services I would like your help in locating companies that can develop my e-mail DM program.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 28, 1998 ):
The Direct Marketing Association (DMA) can guide you to DM program creators / providers.

Sunday, January 18, 1998 #1489
Can you indicate me where I can find medialandscapes (for advertising purposes) in Arizona, New Mexico and Texas : media expenditures, existing media, audience profiles. Thanks in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 22, 1998 ):
The Guru does not believe there is any current single resource providing all this information.

It calls for information most typically provided by Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) plus CMR(Competitive Media Reports) plus several audience research firms, and would be organized by DMA or Metro area, not by State.

The now defunct trade publication, Inside Media regularly produced articles spotlighting markets, including most of the information you want. Perhaps someone archived these.

Thursday, January 15, 1998 #1487
Can you explain what "mapping software" is? And, do you know about a software package called "Clarisoft" or something like that?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 15, 1998 ):
There are probably several meanings of the term, created by different software makers.

In a media context, the term usually refers to software which can draw a map colored or shaded to reflect demographic, media or product usage behavior.

For example a DMA may be drawn, and colored to indicate which zip codes have the highest circulation of the local newspaper, a national magazine, or TV show audience. It is common to separate zips or other sub areas into quintiles or tertiles, etc.

The entire US may be drawn to show sales levels of a product or BDI by DMA.

A three mile trading circle around a store location can be created to show media income of census tracts, for planning the distribution of a circular.

Claritas PRIZM, Donnelly's Cluster Plus, and other segmentation systems are typically used to analyze or model the data. There has been considerable consolidation of software vendors in this field in the last few years. Compass, Conquest, and Strategic Mapping have all folded into Compass.

Tuesday, November 04, 1997 #1449
I'm looking for research on TV spot schedules vs. placing the monies on an infomercial instead. What are the advantages or disadvantages?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 05, 1997 ):
The Guru's answer is based on the assumption that your "spot schedule" would also be direct response effort.

Research would take back seat to actual tracking of results and no one knows everyone's results.

The key theoretical difference would be much greater schedule dispersion for the spots, hence greater reach.

There would also be greater frequency for the spot schedule.

On the other hand, infomercials tend to run in fairly standard time blocks, e.g. weekend morning, overnight, etc. Therefore there is a certain segment who intentionally "shops" the infomercials.

The Direct Marketing Association (DMA) may have some tracking data regarding specific cases.

Thursday, September 04, 1997 #1407
Dear Guru, How do I subscribe to the publication ADMAp?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 06, 1997 ):
ADMAp is a British trade publication. The Guru suggests you call the telephone information operator in London, England.

Thursday, May 29, 1997 #1358
Is there any model or guideline that help me to allocate the media budget between regional media and local media, i.e. how much should be put behind regional media vs local media

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 02, 1997 ):
There are several models for accomplishing this media task. There are basic decision points that must be addressed before doing the actual calculations:

-Will you allocate impressions or dollars? (dollars leads to more efficient plans overall)

-Will you set goals for local delivery based on population, sales, brand development, category development or some other basis for assigning value to local markets?

A delivery goal is established for each market or region: e.g. let each DMA receive a percentage of all the plan's impressions equal to the DMAs percentage of the product's sales or the market's percentage of US population, etc.

Then, by examining how each national medium delivers its impressions to each DMA, using Nielsen data, ABC circulation, etc. you can determine how much media needs to be purchased locally to achieve the market by market goals.

The first time you must guess how much budget to allocate to national media, to see how the impressions fall before you have a local media budget to experiment with. Then it becomes an iteritive process to fine tune the allocation.

The Guru suggests you begin with about 75% in national media and 25% in local. If the local skews are stronger, e.g. many BDIs outside the 75 to 150 range, you will likely need a greater proportion of local funding.

It is possible to incorporate many adjustment factors, such as market efficiency, relative effectiveness of national and local media elements, etc.

Wednesday, April 30, 1997 #1334
Dear Guru Could you suggest some WWW sites, books, or any literature abot direct response models of the media evaluation? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, April 30, 1997 ):
As always, the Guru's two favorite literature sources are the Newsweek Media Research Index and the Advertising Research Foundation Library.

The Direct Marketing Association (DMA) may also have some of the information you want.

Thursday, March 13, 1997 #1018
I am in the process of researching software used to plan and buy for a direct response project, and could use some guidance. What programs do you recommend I purchase to get started? Or do you know where I could go to get advice?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 15, 1997 ):
Telmar's Ad Plus Suite containsthe ability to analyze direct mail in conjunction with other media.Pleawe note that Telmar is the sponser of AMIC.

You might also want to contact theDirect Marketing Association (DMA).

Wednesday, March 12, 1997 #1021
Hello Media Guru: I need to know WHO determines if a media market (DMA) is considered "Small" "Medium" or "Large." I cannot find a list that says what a market is--I only know what the generally accepted industry usage is, but I can't find any specific source that says what constitutes whether a market is considered Small, Medium, or Large-sized. Please help!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, March 13, 1997 ):
There are no official standardized definitions of these relative terms. Some people might consider top 25 large, markets ranked 26-100 medium and the remaining 100+ to be small. The next person might do it differently. Using the Nielsen A / B / C&D definitions would also be a reasonable approach.

Friday, March 07, 1997 #1314
Currently I am researshing markets for a 2,000+ chain of discount stores across the U.S.I have received a listing of all the locations with addresses and zip codes. I now need tosort each address and assign it to a DMA. What is the best way to approach this project or doI need to do it the old fashion way and look it up city by city? Help!!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 24, 1997 ):
Nielsen and Arbitron both have reference books that easily associate zip codes directly with DMAs.

Sunday, March 02, 1997 #1028
List the top 20 TV ADI's by population

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 03, 1997 ):
Take a look in the "Cost per TV rating Point area of AMIC's "Rates, Datesand Data" section.

CPP is listed by DMA rank order. By the way, "ADI" is dead as amedia term. Since ARBitron ceased measuring local TV, DMA is theonly viewership based, TV market definition in current use.

Monday, February 24, 1997 #1033
I have a small sportsmarketing company the looks for sponsors for teamsthroughout the US. I am looking for a listing, if itexists, that would rate the media markets of Charlotte NCagainst New York City as regards its relative media value.That is, the value of an advertising buy in a given market.Obviously, NTC is one of the top media markets in the country,ranking 1st or 2nd. How and where on the list does Charlotteplace? Thats what I need to find. I have a customer list(professional sports teams from major league level down tominor league baseball) in 216 markets. DMA or Metro Areas maymeet my needs as long as all areas of the country areincluded.

As you can no doubt tell, I have limited background inthis area but a business opportunity forces me to learnquickly.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 26, 1997 ):
You can find some industry standard costs, which will give exactly the ranking you need, right here on AMIC. They arein "Rates, Dates and Data" in the SQAD.

Thursday, February 06, 1997 #1055
Where can I get a complete list of all direct marketing agencies. We need to buy mailing lists!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 09, 1997 ):
DM Plaza's supplier's list is one of the Guru'sresources for finding such firms.Internet Public Access Corporation says they have a directory of AAAA and other agencies "coming soon" Under the "industry directories" link they have contact info for the Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies (The Redbook) generally considered the definitive source of the information you want, including geographic listings and account lists.

Thursday, January 30, 1997 #1062
If it possible to acquire a mailing list of only "New Movers"into a specific community. Or it this too specific? What would be the accuracy of this list?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 30, 1997 ):
Yes, such lists exist. They can often beenacquired from or through utility companies, eg telephone or electric.

List houses should have them as well. DM Plaza's supplier's list is one of the Guru's resources for finding such firms.

Friday, January 17, 1997 #1072
Dear Media Guru,Is there a source for finding various regional or local direct mail houses who specialize in either marriage mail or some type of insert program? SRDS has been of no help so far, and we desperately want to break away from ADVO.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 19, 1997 ):
DM Plaza's supplier's list is one of the Guru's resources for finding such firms.

Friday, January 17, 1997 #1073
Need to know if accessible research has been done on response rate of displayed 800-#s in regular TV spots (not 800#-businesses), e.g.automobile spots, phone company spots, etc.If possible, need answer before 2pm today (1/17). Thanks so much.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 19, 1997 ):
TheDirect Marketing Association research area wiil direct you to likely resources.

By the way, though the Guru is obviously all-knowing, he is not always just sitting at the computer waitng for questions. You can't count on one hour turn around, although the Guru usually is pretty quick once he sees your question.

Friday, October 18, 1996 #1124
Where can I purchase a list of e-mail addresses that match specific SIC numbers?Who on the internet does these types of services?I have a client that would like to do a mass mailing to internet users that are specific to his SIC number.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 21, 1996 ):
The guru is opposed to sending unsolicited e-mail. Consequently the guru will not promote any sources for sending unsolicited mass mailings via e-mail. There are many reasonable ways to use the internet for advertisingand promotion. The guru does not feel that mass e-mailings is one of them.

Set up a WWW home page. Register it with as many search engines as possible.Use banner advertising on appropriate other sites. Send announcements to appropriate news groups and mailing lists that permit them. Create a mailinglist of people who WANT to receive your promotion material.

There are many ways to be a good netizen. Sending unsoliciteDMAss e-mailings is not one of them. You can create more ill will, thangood will by doing things such as spamming and mass e-mailings. Remembermany people pay hourly rates for their internet connection. When you send e-mail you are in fact causing the recipient to pay to receive your message.

Friday, September 27, 1996 #1137
I am looking for advertising effectiveness research which can be transferred to the medium of direct marketing. In particular, I am interested in direct mail saturation. I have checked the guru archives. Can you suggest where I could look? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, September 27, 1996 ):
The Advertising Research Foundation library is probably the largest compendium of advertising research.

There is a lot at The U of Texas, Austin, though how much direct marketing data is not certain.

Finally, the direct marketing experts are the Direct Marketing Association (DMA)

Tuesday, September 24, 1996 #1139
What do media specialists have to learn to prepare 21st century?What will be the most important change for media specialists?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 26, 1996 ):
Media specialists will need to learn how to deal with change. In the hardly more than first half of the 20th century alone, we have gone from the dominance of Newspaper, to the dominance of magazines, to the incredible dominance of radio to the overwhelming dominance of TV.

In the latter half of the century we have seen the fragmentation of media as the key trend. When the Guru entered the business (yes, in the latter half of the century) there were only 75 independent TV stations. Now there seem to be that many in the New York DMA.

With cables growth there are nearly that many networks now. The World Wide Web is millions of individual media fragments.

Something other than computer based media will probably be the big news before 2010.Personal, wrist based satellite dish receivers?

Wednesday, June 05, 1996 #1205
I am looking for household counts and population for the top 100 ADIs in the US. Do you know of an internet source?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 06, 1996 ):
ADI is an out-of-date term, dropped by its creator, Arbitron, when they went out of the Television ratings business. Nielsen"DMA" is the standard, current geographic definition of mutually exclusive marketing areas. The Guru does not think there is a listing of these populations on the 'net. But most media, ad agencies or research companies which subscribe to Nielsen or depend on DMA's,have lists available and share the data fairly readily for legitimate inqiries. It might be worth exploring the search engines for the data, as well, since it is often incidentally attached to research results. Try AltaVista

Tuesday, April 23, 1996 #1240
Do you know of any list/directory of sites that accept advertising ?Thanks,Ron

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 23, 1996 ):
Two are on-line at i-traffic and Webtrack.

Off-line, SRDS (Standard Rate and Data Service) has a new guide called (approximately) Interactive Media Resource.

Friday, March 29, 1996 #1252
Has anyone published information regarding web access, web usage and web demographic profiles of consumers by DMA on the Web? Furthermore, is this information freely accessed? I am specifically interested in th Mpls/St. Paul DMA.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 30, 1996 ):
In the Guru's opinion, there are not even good answers to those questions at the national level. If you look down below, at a March 7 question, you'll see a link to a compilation of Web demographics info. There is also a listing of other studies and Web providers at bxi, and Nielsen has done a large scale study. It's possible that the Nielsen or O'Reilly (see bxi) web-use studies had big enough samples that they can break out Minneapolis, but that data would not likely be free, if available.