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Media Guru

Guru Search Results: 1843 matches were found

Thursday, July 21, 2005 #6981
Is there a way to calculate Rtg, TRP's & Reach for media that has no surveys: Biilboards, Cinema??

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 24, 2005 ):
One can estimate audience based on experience and judgement and build from there. But both billboards and cinema do have surveys.

Start with TAB for billboards and Movieadvertising.com for Cinema


Thursday, July 14, 2005 #6974
What are the "10 golden rules" of media? (mediaadvertising)

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 17, 2005 ):
It appears that you are referring to something written or said by a specific author or expert, perhaps about planning or buying or selling. The Guru has not encountered any well know or accepted "10 golden rules" of media.

He could invent a few.


Wednesday, July 13, 2005 #6972
Hello, I am an Exec Producer for a national TV show targeting a predominantly male audience 16-35 yrs old. I am in need of a media sales person/team to sell our commercial airtime and integrated advertising opps within the show. Please advise. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 17, 2005 ):
Try advertising at MediaPost and CraigsList


Monday, July 11, 2005 #6968
Hi, There's are especialized publication such as magazine that reach the army. Bottom line you can place ads in those publications?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 11, 2005 ):
For advertising to the Army, the classic of the kind is Stars and Stripes


Tuesday, July 05, 2005 #6965
Hello Guru, I am trying to find information that supports (or not) the use of Tandems (advertisement cut-downs) in the same ad pod and it's effects (positive or negative) on ad Recall. Additionally I would like to know if it makes any difference if the tandem is creatively related to the main spot, meaning must there be a dynamic continuance of the main spot, or can it be simply used to give added information that is not in the main spot? Do you have any information on this subject or is there any chance you can point me in the direction of a study that has examined the use of tandems. I am in a discussion with any agency executive that tells me that tandems make a huge difference in recall, however he has no evidence to back this up, although it has been ask for. I understand the frequency argument, however 15" tandems cost me 75% of a 30" spot. Should I try and communicate within 30" or do tandems really work that well?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, July 05, 2005 ):
Try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. ARF materials will also be available through American Association of advertising Agencies and Association of National Advertisers.


Tuesday, June 21, 2005 #6959
I am a media buyer. Can you help me find some research regarding the benefits of flighting a radio campaign. 8 week promotion, one market, budget supports 300 weekly GRPs. I am trying to decide whether or not to buy 4 weeks continuous or 8 weeks flighted (one week on, one week off, one week on...etc for 4 weeks total). Can you help?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 25, 2005 ):
For research reosurces, see The Radio advertising Bureau (RAB) and The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. ARF materials will also be available through American Association of advertising Agencies and Association of National Advertisers.


Friday, June 17, 2005 #6956
Hi, Guru! How to count average number of spots (any commercial tv spots) that have been seen by an average tv viewers? Let's take - per day? Thanks in advance cez

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 19, 2005 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses on the topic


Monday, June 13, 2005 #6951
Hi, media guru...Have you seen any research on which medium drives the most traffic to a client's website (in this case they only sell online) I'm leaning towards internet and possibly tv. Radio not as much because you are more likely mobile and not close to a computer. Any thoughts you have are welcome. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, June 15, 2005 ):
Certainly, internet first. Try The Internet advertising Bureau for some others.


Friday, June 10, 2005 #6949
Do you know where I could find the total volume of advertising inserts printed in an average month for the US market?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 11, 2005 ):
Try The Newspaper advertising Association .


Thursday, June 02, 2005 #6943
Dear Media guru, I have recently heard a lot about 'receptivity' research and I am just wondering what it is. Please give me some clue. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 05, 2005 ):
Receptivity is about the state of mind of the target audience when exposed to the message. It includes the idea that a consumer is more receptive to a message about power saws when reading Home HandyMan or watching This Old House or that the consumer is more receptive to car ads when about to start shopping for the next car.

For research on the topic try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. ARF materials will also be available through American Association of advertising Agencies and Association of National Advertisers.


Thursday, May 26, 2005 #6938
I have a new client that specializes in remote control cars. Currently they are advertising in every hobbyist magazine out there. I want to tell them that this is not a smart way of spending their dollars. Are there any statistics or info that I can get to help convince the client to reallocate their dollars more effectively?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 30, 2005 ):
There are lots of statistics in the world. But what do yu want them to prove?
  • That the buyer of remote control cars doesn't read these magazines?
  • That they read something else or find information elsewhere, like online?
  • That after "X" number of insertions you have reached everyone who reads these books, and are wasting your money?
If you don't have a hypothesis, what will statistics do?


Tuesday, May 24, 2005 #6934
Any case studies for brand building without using TV?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, May 25, 2005 ):
The best places to look would be The Radio advertising Bureau (RAB), The Internet advertising Bureau and The Magazine Publishers' Association


Wednesday, May 11, 2005 #6920
As a ball park figure how much would it cost to sponsor a prime time tv show?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 15, 2005 ):
Too broad a question. Are you fully sponsoring (all advertising within the program) an episode of an existing program or staging a special? Current :30 network rates may range from $30,000 to $600,000. A ballpark estimate for an hour's sponsorship might range from $400,000 to $10,000,000. Expect economies of scale as a series sponsor.


Wednesday, May 11, 2005 #6918
What is the standard response to advertising rate? How does it differ by product category?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 15, 2005 ):
Response differs by medium, offer and audience in addition to category. Are you thinking about simple response to the ad, as online click rate or do you mean sales? Such broad generalities as you request are meaningless.


Monday, May 09, 2005 #6916
I need to find a resource for researching various magazine advertising opportunities in a small niche market. Is there a database or a resource for searching for small magazine opportunities?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 09, 2005 ):
Try PubList and Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS)


Monday, May 02, 2005 #6912
Hello Guru, I am looking for b2b advertising expenditures (europe, USA and if possible International). Actually I would like to know the expenses in media and the b2b communication budgets of the leading b2b actors or at least the % which they represent of the total advertising expenses. I hope you can help me finding these information.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 07, 2005 ):
Start with CMR (Competitive Media Reports) and Nielsen Monitor Plus.


Saturday, April 30, 2005 #6909
Iam a marketing student and iam having some doubt on the following " what is fundamental difference between internet advertising vis-a-vis conventional forms of mass advertising" thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, April 30, 2005 ):
See the Guru's media strengths page


Tuesday, April 26, 2005 #6908
I was asked to present Q1 & Q2 local TV buys to my client's new advertising manager. Both buys include daytime and early news only. The Q1 buy aired Mon-Sun/8-week flight: Q2 airs Wed-Sun/8 week flight. Question #1: The new ad manager insists that the reach and frequency of the 7 days/week buy should differ from r/f of the 5 days/week buy. I say its the same. Who's right? Question #2: The ad manager informed me she likes marketron reports (because they are easy to read) and asked if I could obtain them for the current buy for her review. My reply was, "Sure I can. No problem". There is, however, one small problem. I don't know what a marketron report is. Please help!!!!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 01, 2005 ):
Assuming the same daypart dispersion and GRPs, the same schedule dispersed over more days should have a higher reach; there is greater reach potential in more dispersion. The typical reach model at your disposal may not have the ability to account for this level of detail in the input variables. In any case, the 5 day / 7 day difference is most notable in a one-week schedule. Over eight weeks, little or no difference would remain.

Marketron is a vendor of computer analysis systems for broadcast, nowadays more used by stations and reps than by agencies. One of the stations you buy from may be able to produce the report you need.

Sytems more oriented to agency media buyers and planners include those from our own eTelmar.


Tuesday, April 19, 2005 #6902
Thanks for your response to my question re: media buying through an online system. I believe the WebAD.vantage site you mention below is for advertising online. My question pertained to buying traditional radio media online via some kind of internet based solution. Although your point re: posting rate cards on media sites is well taken......rates for radio stations are for one dynamic so I don't understand how a radio station could effectively post their rates in a meaningful way to buyers. Not to mention other considerations that can effect rates quoted by media companies. In a recent article Chrysler's Julie Roehm said " Buying ads should be more like buying stocks." She goes on to say "creating a more efficient electronic system for buying ad spots would free advertisers to concentrate more on developing branded content and interactive TV". Perhaps I'm just looking for something that doesn't exist yet it would seem to me there is a need for a system that leverages the internet to facilitate the buying/selling of radio media....and the efficiencies would save media outlets and media buyers and their clients time/money. If this is not available today then perhaps you can tell me what's preventing this technology from coming to market? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 19, 2005 ):
The online buy/sell of media "commoditizes" advertising, that is it makes an impression just an impression; it is reduced to buying impressions or spots for a set or low-bid price. Speaking for media professionals, the Guru believes that there are important evaluative steps; audience evaluation, qualitative and quantitative, schedule refinements and actual negotiation, none of which lend themselves to handling online. Surely it is not in the interest of radio stations to support "development of branded content and interactive TV." Nor are the people most likely to have this responsibility the same ones involved in negotiating radio. They are non-intersecting disciplines in the Guru's opinion. The concept seems aimed at eliminating radio sellers and buyers, a direction not likely to be supported by agencies, and probably not by stations seeking a selling advantage, either.


Thursday, April 14, 2005 #6898
Which magazines are the most popular for advertising food in

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 14, 2005 ):
Try CMR (Competitive Media Reports)or Nielsen Monitor Plus


Monday, April 11, 2005 #6890
I'm looking for a statistic on the number of brands the average person can actually remember in any given category. I know that it will differ based on the consumer's involvement in a particular category at any given moment, but I'm just looking for an average.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 14, 2005 ):
The Guru doesn't have this data and believes it would be meaningless. In categories with dozens of well advertised brands (soft drinks, cars, shoes), remembering one dozen may be good and in categories with only 2 or three (Satellite tv) remebering all may be no achievement. But try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. ARF materials will also be available through American Association of advertising Agencies and Association of National Advertisers


Thursday, April 07, 2005 #6887
Can you give an updated response to the question of how many ads the average person is exposed to every day? I read your 1997 response, but it seems that now with the Internet and so many more types of "interruption" advertising, that number must have increased. And while we're on the subject, what would the number be for the average American 25 years ago?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 10, 2005 ):
It is crucial to keep in mind that a person has only so much time in a day to experience commerical exposure, And that hasn't changed much in 25 years.

Assume a person has 16 waking hours a day, or 960 munutes.

Assume that this person works or attends class or otherwise is not experiencing significant ad exposure for 7 of those hours, leaving 9 media consumption hours, or 540 minutes. And assume that one-quarter of that time is consumed by ad exposure, or 135 minutes. And if :30 is the average broadcast ad length these days, that's 270 ads if it's all broadcast. Print must be calculated somewhat differently, but lets say one ad exposure for two minutes of consumtion here as well. If web surfing time has replaced 1 daily hour of TV time for the average person in 25 years, how many more ads per minute does the intenet present than TV? On a content site, even if it's 2 per minute, the overall effect on average daily ad exposure is minimal. The Guru would guess less than 10% change in daily ad exposures over 25 years, again because there is only so much time in which to experience ad exposure.


Thursday, April 07, 2005 #6886
Hi Guru, We get asked often by clients to plan a radio campaign with sufficient budget to achieve a minimum threshold required to sustain market share. Is there any scientific method of analysing this "minimum threshold" or do we use our own insight? Thanks very much!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 10, 2005 ):
You seem to imply that radio is the only advertising at play here.

If you assume that the only influence on share maintenance is advertising weight (which is dangerous, of course), then considerations might be:

  • What is the current share? Obviously it will take more weight to maintain an 80% share than a 10% share.
  • What is the current awareness level?
  • What is the historical share of voice?
  • What are competitors likely to do; is it a stable category or are there new entries?

In the absence of better factors, the Guru would keep reach at the current aweareness level and share of voice at the current share of market level.


Saturday, April 02, 2005 #6878
Hi Media Guru, Where I can find the data for Elevator advertising? I checked SRDS and SQAD, they don't have that.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, April 02, 2005 ):
Talk to vendors, starting with Captivate


Friday, March 25, 2005 #6871
I'm from Europe and keep on seeing the term 'FSI' in American texts on media. What does it mean?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 27, 2005 ):
FSI = "Free standing insert." This is a small folio of advertising, usually including coupons, which is typically stuffed into newspapers. It is distributed by a national company which has arrangememnts with the various newspapers to carry the inserts. "Free standing" means not printed within the run-of-press pages of the newspsper.


Friday, March 25, 2005 #6870
advertising terminology - advertorial, co-op ad, image advertisement...

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 27, 2005 ):
  • Advertorial: An advertising unit that appears to be part of the editorial content of the publication
  • Co-op ad: an avertising unit partially underwritten by the manufacturer or brand and partially by the local retailer. In form, it may be an ad for a retail organization or franchisee that features the national brand being offered or an ad for the national brand that features a local retail supplier. Local fast food franchise outlet ads may be partially paid by the National company or ads fro automoabiles might list members of the local dealers association.
  • Image ad: A vaguer concept, but essentiall an ad aimed at influencing how you feel about a company rather than aimed at immediately selling you a product or service. E.g. "We don't make carpet, we make it better" from a chemical company that sells fiber to carpet mills.


Wednesday, March 23, 2005 #6864
Hi Guru, I work in a magazine and I have a question, concerning advertorials, PR publications, etc. How to define a clear description for ads and for other advertising forms. Is there any rule that clarifies the differences between a paid publication, a print ad, a promotional page...? Thank you!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 27, 2005 ):
The terms use are using seem to be equivalent. Terms like "earned media" or "advertorial" might be more confusing. Different publications use different definitions..


Tuesday, March 22, 2005 #6862
Can you tell me what companies offer billboard advertising in Seattle and what their rates are?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 22, 2005 ):
Outdoor advertising Association of America lists outdoor vendors by market. Major vendors post rates on their own websites.


Monday, March 14, 2005 #6850
What might be the drawbacks of sponsoring a tv program vs buying normal tv spots

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 20, 2005 ):
Principally:
  • Less reach than a dispersed schedule
  • Less efficiency
  • Shorter duration of advertising suport


Wednesday, March 09, 2005 #6848
Hi, I've heard a lot about you.My name is Ragheed and I recently joined an advertising agency(media Dept). I was asked to prepare a presentation on the advantages and disadvantages of sponsorship adverting versus the advantages and disadvantages of normal spot buying.My presentation is next week.I appreciate your genuine feedback. Thank you in advance. Ragheed

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 09, 2005 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses about sponsorships


Monday, March 07, 2005 #6845
Hi - You don't need to post this, but I couldn't find an area on this website for comments. You are incredibly knowledgeable and helpful and I wanted to thank you for all your insights on everything media related. Even though my advertising career has started only 4 years ago, I do hope that one day I can be as knowledgable as you are in all aspects. Thanks again and for as long as you are answering questions, I will be asking them until I am blue in the face.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 07, 2005 ):
Thank you. Such comments are always welcome in the Guru Query area.


Monday, March 07, 2005 #6842
What is the difference between advertising and Marketing?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 07, 2005 ):
Marketing encompasses all activites aimed at selling, positioning and promoting a brand. It includes advertising but also public relations, promotion, packaging, pricing, etc..

Advertiing is essentially mass-media messaging.


Thursday, March 03, 2005 #6832
For a launch, growth and maintenance campaign in a high competition category, after arriving at the reach and the frequency and arriving at the amount to be spent for a month can you tell we how many burst of advertising we will need to do for the year. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, March 03, 2005 ):
Only the budget will tell you that


Wednesday, March 02, 2005 #6829
If using CPM to price web advertising, what is the going rate? I've seen anywhere from $1/cpm - $35/cpm. Is there a standard?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 02, 2005 ):
The range is much broader than you suggest. It depends on how broadly or narrowly you are targeting, and what your content quality standards are. Cheap is cheap.


Wednesday, February 23, 2005 #6809
Please settle a loud discussion now taking place in my company. What is the definition of "net advertising revenue?" Thank you!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 25, 2005 ):
It depends in part on who is using the term. A media seller could mean thte total ad sales income not including agency commissions paid. An agency could mean all fees and commissions collected for advertising work. "Net" is also in general use to mean income after taxes and expenses. It's all contextual.


Sunday, February 20, 2005 #6802
In about '86 the AAAA & media representatives signed an agreement stating that there should be no difference between the charge to an agency and the charge to a client. Where can I find a copy of this? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 20, 2005 ):
Try American Association of advertising Agencies


Tuesday, February 15, 2005 #6794
Local Sales Marketing. With the shrinking shares of broadcast TV and the effects of Tivo and DVRs, how are marketing/advertising agencies managing getting the most for their clients media wise? How do you foresee DVRs effecting TV shares/viewing?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 23, 2005 ):
The first solution to shrinking broadcast shares is cable, of course. And other media mix adjustments. DVRs will eventually be a bigger problem. Nielsen now tells us that DVR users are much greater consumers of other media, so to the extent these are a key target, meida mix is all the more important. Analyzing reach against this segmentation will become more important. When Nielsen begins reporting DVR-based ratings, better judgements will be possible.


Saturday, February 12, 2005 #6791
TV advertising Rates

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 12, 2005 ):
SQAD


Wednesday, February 09, 2005 #6786
What is a good computer software program to use for advertising budget projections, call projections, analysis, various forecasts, etc. We do national advertising on TV, radio, and in newspapers nationwide.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 12, 2005 ):
This is beyonfd the scope of Media planning/Media buying/Media research/Media department management questions.


Wednesday, February 09, 2005 #6785
Are you aware of any recent research regarding the relationship between length of commercials (:15's vs. :60's) and their effectiveness with the 18-34 age group?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 12, 2005 ):
Not specifically. Try TV Bureau of advertising and The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. ARF materials will also be available through American Association of advertising Agencies and Association of National Advertisers.


Wednesday, February 09, 2005 #6784
Do you know of any research that makes an effectiveness comparision of full-page print ads vs. 1/2-page prints ads (specifically in business trade publications). I would love to be able to answer the question....full-page ads have an x% higher recall rate than 1/2-page ads.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 12, 2005 ):
Try In-Stat or The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. ARF materials will also be available through American Association of advertising Agencies and Association of National Advertisers.


Monday, February 07, 2005 #6777
Does Germany (or any other European country) still run their TV advertising in 15 minute blocks between programs? If so, do all channels run this way?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 14, 2005 ):
No, under EU, the practice has been abandoned.


Tuesday, February 01, 2005 #6771
Hi Media Guru, How could I find out the costs of advertising on the radio in the UK? And the demographic groups of those who listen to the station? Thank you

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 06, 2005 ):
See RAJAR and Media UK


Monday, January 31, 2005 #6770
spot advertising article?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 06, 2005 ):
MediaWeek, Media Post


Monday, January 31, 2005 #6769
Dear Media Guru, Where can I find the costs of advertising on radio stations and where would I be able to find a demographic breakdown of their audiences. Many Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, January 31, 2005 ):
Costs from SQAD. Demographics from Arbitron


Thursday, January 27, 2005 #6762
Is there any research that shows effectiveness of running multiple print ads in the same issue of the daily newspaper?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 28, 2005 ):
Try Starch AdNorms and The Newspaper advertising Association


Thursday, January 27, 2005 #6761
I am currently working with a product bottle in the house cleaning/deodorizing retail industry that is : totally black and green, yellow logo. All my research leads me to believe that since the avg. household cleaning product purchaser is female 25+, and prefers strong vibrant colors (minus black)...this color combo will not be effective to induce sales for this "1st time" product roll out. The company owner feels this color combo will "jump out BAM" and grab atention. I'm afraid it will in fact, grab attention, but in a non-purchase format. My media question: I am working on a media plan for this product, and fear the colors are wrong for the audience (broadcast, target-F30-64). Any advertising research that addresses this color preference issue?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 27, 2005 ):
The recently discontinued "American Demographics" did publish a report about color preferences. Ad Age has taken it over and may have archives.

Otherwise try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. ARF materials will also be available through American Association of advertising Agencies and Association of National Advertisers.


Wednesday, January 26, 2005 #6760
I'm doing a radio buy for POLITICAL ISSUE advertising(school bond issue). The rate cards the radio stations are giving are too high. Is there a policy they must adhere to for LOCAL political issue advertising? Are everyone's policies different?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 26, 2005 ):
The policies are built around time-before-election dates and whether local or national. The policies for candidates at typical November elections, may be different than those for issues at off-time elections like school budgets.


Friday, January 21, 2005 #6756
How do you best calculate "return on advertising investment"?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 28, 2005 ):
Most simply, it's a matter of looking at incremental returns per ad dollar. The trick is setting the standard for "return." It could be incremental dollars of sales, for example. That is, suppose I am selling $10 million dollars worth of goods right now and I spend $1 million on advertising. Then I spend another $1 million on advertising and sales rise to $15 million. I have a 500% (or 5:1) ROI for that added ad spending.


Wednesday, January 19, 2005 #6755
What is the optimal percentage of sales to use when developing advertising budgets?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 30, 2005 ):
It depends on category competition, brand profitablity and other factors specific to you product or service. There is no useful generality.


Wednesday, January 19, 2005 #6754
what is return on advertising investment

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 30, 2005 ):
Incremental revenue / profit divided by ad spending.


Wednesday, January 19, 2005 #6752
Dear Guru, please let me know which are the main topics / information / that I am supposed to write in a newsletter. Can I use the newsletter form to promote a newspaper?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 28, 2005 ):
Newsletters are wide-ranging in topic and content. Promting a newspaper through a newsletter doesn't sound useful, unless you mean something like advertising in a trade newsletter to attract advertisers for a newspaper.


Tuesday, January 18, 2005 #6751
Media Guru: When designing a print campaign in a weekly newspaper, which would you recommend? Smaller-size ads running more frequently or larger ads running less? Is there research to support the retention of messages in either format?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 28, 2005 ):
The Guru would opt for frequency id the size difference is small, e.g. hal vs full pages.

Try Starch AdNorms and The Newspaper advertising Association


Tuesday, January 18, 2005 #6747
Hi, Guru Thanks for your prompt answer. In fact my doubt was about the correct way to calculate the average between 2 or more TV programs. All my life I've been doing that in the arithmetic mode, as I exemplified im my message, but some time ago I was told that it was not the correct way anymore. According to some people, the arithmetic average would have been replaced by the weighted average, where the weights would be the duration of each TV program. Do you think that I must change from arithmetic to weighted average? Thanks in advance, Luzia

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, January 18, 2005 ):
Depends on context. If the two programs are on a station from 8:00 to 9:00 and 9:00 to 9:30 and you are discussing the average rating for that time period, you must weight them,

If you are advertising in both, one time each, and want to discuss the average rating of the programming in your schedule, just do the arithmetic (one of each) average. It is not something that has changed over the years, but varies according to the application.


Monday, January 17, 2005 #6746
I would like to enter the field of advertising sales for magazines. Where can I find contact information for media buyers of companies? This information is usually not published on company websites.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, January 17, 2005 ):
Try AdWeek Directories and Redbooks


Monday, January 10, 2005 #6737
i want to know all about media planning in advertising

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 12, 2005 ):
Go to the Guru Archives Search Engine. Use "media planning" as your search term.


Tuesday, January 04, 2005 #6733
National Radio is expected to experience what % of growth in 2005?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 07, 2005 ):
Try The Radio advertising Bureau (RAB)


Wednesday, December 22, 2004 #6726
I am looking for an up to date CPM rate comparison across traditional media that includes Blimp (Airship) aerial advertising. (TV, Cable,Radio, Newspapers, Magazines, Billboards, Blimps) The recall and retention rate with viewers of a blimp, unlike traditional types of media, is extreemely high - 70 to 80%

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, December 26, 2004 ):
The Guru has not seen this in one place. Perhaps Outdoor advertising Association of America can compare blimps to other out-of-home placements. Even something as "niche" as blimps has several variables: small to large tethered blimps or piloted blimps or radio controlled blimps. Blimps reaching enormous audiences on New York City public beaches versus much more targeted blimps at spoecific events.


Tuesday, December 21, 2004 #6724
Most new automobile dealers in the states treat cars as they are low-involvment products. The creative is often crowded with messasges trying to sell everything at once. TV commercials often so silly they assume that the consumer is a plain idiot. Those new car dealers use all of the media budget into those hard sell ads, often black and white print ads. What do you think about this, since those are new cars? The main question, what if that new car dealer is also the one only importer of the automibile brand? How much % of the media spending budget you think should be allocated in hard Sell, how much into softer ads, such as brand image building ads?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, December 21, 2004 ):
The simple answer is that factory advertising, usually heavier and more continuous than the dealers', carries the branding burden. The dealers contribute to local factory advertising. The dealers are generally promoting short term and looking for the immediate sale of a product with established characteristics, benefits and values based on national marketing communications. Dealers are competing with other dealers more than with other brands.


Monday, December 13, 2004 #6717
Do you know of a case study study that shows outdoor can successfully be used for direct response.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, December 13, 2004 ):
Try Outdoor advertising Association of America, Direct Marketing Association (DMA) and The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. ARF materials will also be available through American Association of advertising Agencies and Association of National Advertisers.


Saturday, December 11, 2004 #6716
Hello, Guru! Please give me an advise how to plan an appropriate ad campaign to promote a newspaper. Please help me with some ideas?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, December 11, 2004 ):
Are you promoting readership or ad sales? These will have different targets, consumers vs advertsers. Decide whom, within whichever group, is the target. If readers, is there an age / gender / interests / ethnicity skew? If advertisers, do you need to talk to the advertiser itself or its agency; to media planners or account mangers?

Then it's primarily a matter of deciding which other media reach the specifc target best and will accept your advertising, as you may be considered a competitior.


Thursday, December 09, 2004 #6715
What are some pro's and con's of advertising in trade magazines? Is there a resource I can use to look this up myself?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, December 11, 2004 ):
The first question is "advertsing what?" For example, if your brand is aimed at specific vertical categories, which are served by a trade book, then waste circulation is avoided. I.e. if you sell oil drilling rig parts, then advertising outside pertroleum industry trades would likley involve a lot of waste. On the other hand, if you sell a business service, like inventory control systems, which is useful across many industries, then general busienss media would probably be more efficient. There are also issues such as the authoritativeness of specific trade media which strongly benefit narrowly targeted products and have little effect on selling more general brands.

A key comparison is trade magazines vs trade web sites. Often treade websites are moore efficient or can be more narrowly targeted than trade print; e.g. do you need to address petroleum engineers or pertroleum marketing executives?


Wednesday, December 08, 2004 #6713
Dear Guru, I am student doing research for a proposal of the production and airing of a television commercial for a small business such as a website or local store. Will you please provide me with a lead on statistical info such as increased sales or business after comercials air, and or any other salient information that might be helpful to me. Sincerely, Erik

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, December 11, 2004 ):
The question of the benefits of marketing spending or advertising spending is very much broader than the effects of a TV commercial. Variables as simple as whether it is the first advertsing ever or is an addition to a robust ad scehdule override the smaller question.

See the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan and visit TV Bureau of advertising and The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. ARF materials will also be available through American Association of advertising Agencies and Association of National Advertisers. for information


Monday, December 06, 2004 #6711
In outdoor advertising, who pays agency commission to the agency - the client or the outdoor vendor? For example, Agency (with 15% commission and 2% fee) proposes to client a $1000 gross board. This is presented to the client as $890 client net (85% of $1,000 + 4% of $1,000). Who pays the agency the $150?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, December 06, 2004 ):
If the agency deal with the client is for GROSS + a fee of 2% of gross, then the agency should be presenting gross media cost plus fee to the client and collecting gross + fee from the client. There is no difference for outdoor unless it's specifically in the client / agency agreement, and again the deal is between client and agency.


Friday, December 03, 2004 #6710
I am currently working in a sales capacity with a "new concept" advertising agency, we install flat screen televisions on mass transit buses in many large markets in the U.S. I as a salesperson would like some insight into ways to position this type of media by comparing it to other more traditional means of advertising. Can you help?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, December 04, 2004 ):
Assuming there is also sound, then you have a medium with the audience profile of transit and something like the communications power of TV. Perhaps the sort of TV encountered in doctors offices or bars, though. Not watched by choice, but still intrusive.


Sunday, November 28, 2004 #6705
MG, I believe I've seen recent news about efforts to align methods for measuring online and offline media. My first question: Are you familiar with these efforts? Second: Have you seen any data ranking the "effectiveness" of specific channels online and offline. (Clearly "effectiveness" is a tricky label, but I'm referring to it only in the sense of the effort to align measurement methods referred to above.) Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 02, 2004 ):
1. Yes, the Guru is aware of such alignment efforts. They have been going on almost since the dawn of internet advertising in 1995. Organizations like CASIE, Association of National Advertisers, American Association of advertising Agencies and The advertising Research Foundation have led these efforts.

More recently, The Internet advertising Bureau is a leader. The newly linked I/PRO and BPA internet audit effort, with the participation of Agencies for Internet Audits, is also a force for this goal.

The essential unit of media measurement is agreed among traditional and online media to be the "impression;" one exposure of one ad to one person. Although measurment methods differ among media types, once there is agreement to impression numbers, moving to reach, frequency and GRP figures is relatively easy.

2. As you acknowledge, "effectivenss" is subject to interpretation and is best examined within an advertising category. One medium may be best for selling real estate another for cars and a different one for diamond jewelry. Within a medium, it is more reasonable to compare the effectiveness of various vehicles, while controlling for copy variations. And of course defintions of effectiveness are variable; sales, awareness, share change, etc.

One great advantage of online advertising is its accountability and immediately measurable results.


Sunday, November 21, 2004 #6698
advertising objective

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 21, 2004 ):
See the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan


Wednesday, November 17, 2004 #6687
where can I find studies on the effects of D/PVRs (digital/personal video recorders)on advertising that have used in-home observation via cameras?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 17, 2004 ):
Try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. ARF materials will also be available through American Association of advertising Agencies and Association of National Advertisers.


Tuesday, November 16, 2004 #6685
HI, I am looking for some creditable research I can show my client that reinforces what we have been telling them, which is; smaller ads more often is more important and beneficial than a large ad once or twice a year (print). Think you can help me out? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 17, 2004 ):
There have been studies to this effect. Try The Magazine Publishers' Association and The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. ARF materials will also be available through American Association of advertising Agencies and Association of National Advertisers.


Thursday, November 11, 2004 #6680
Do you have information on the effectiveness of outdoor advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 14, 2004 ):
Try Outdoor advertising Association of America


Tuesday, November 09, 2004 #6674
what is advertising? why is advertising used? how is advertising used? when is advertising used?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 10, 2004 ):
advertising is marketing communications through purchased (or occasionally, donated) media. It's purpose it to influence the target's attitudes or behavior. The questions otherwise seem to be at a level of simplicity outside the Guru's scope.


Monday, November 08, 2004 #6671
How do I figure out a rating for a newspaper ad? Some of the papers I work with are small and do not have a research department and I need some clarification. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 10, 2004 ):
Circulation ÷ household universe = houshold rating

circ x demographic readers-per-copy (RPC) = demographic audience
demographic audience ÷ demographic population = demographic rating

For some approximate average rpc's go to The Newspaper advertising Association


Thursday, November 04, 2004 #6670
Dear Guru, I have several clients that like to say they want to place a media campaign with the main objective being to "raise awareness." Even if they give me an actual set percentage to measure from, say increase awareness by 20%, how do I know what GRP's to plan to? Besides the old rule of thumb of a min. of 3 frequency, are there any set "standards" in the industry of a min. reach and GRP goal to have an effective awareness campaign (I know that sounds very broad...that's why I need help!)

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 04, 2004 ):
We are discussing ad awareness, of course:

Consider the current level first. For a newly advertised product, growing awareness from 10% to 30% might be relatively easy as comarey to grwoing awareness of a product with 70% awareness to 90%.

The Guru would posit that the first step in growing awareness is by assuring reach is at least at the desired level of awareness; i.e. you won't attain 80% awareness without reaching 80% of the target.. . You will likely need to reach them 3 or more times. However, if advertising is contiuous, you may consider frequency over longer period of time.


Thursday, November 04, 2004 #6668
How do you feel PVR's are going to affect the television advertising industry?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 04, 2004 ):
PVR's make skipping ads easier. VCR zipping never became a great problem, but by the time that PVR penetration reaches 50% of VCR levels, commerical viewing measurement of recorded material will be an industry-wide demand.


Wednesday, November 03, 2004 #6664
I'm a communications student taking a marketing course. We've been asked to put together a media plan. My part in the project is to locate rates for television advertising in the los Angeles area. I've called various stations and have gotten nowhere. Are there any online resources I could access to get this kind of info?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 03, 2004 ):
Try SQAD


Thursday, October 28, 2004 #6654
Hi Guru. Do you know of a vendor who sells advertising on dry cleaning hangers?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 28, 2004 ):
You can start with Ambient Planet


Friday, October 15, 2004 #6640
Do you have a good media brief template for advertisers to use with their agency

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 17, 2004 ):
The Guru is not aware of such a third-party auditor. Contact Outdoor advertising Association of America


Sunday, October 10, 2004 #6627
Could you please tell me where to find the standard weight (in pounds) for specific magazines. I need this information to calculate shipping rates for my overseas bookstore. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 10, 2004 ):
The Guru has never encountered this datum. The weight of a magazine can vary substantially from issue to issue, depending on seasonal advertising swings (think about a Spring issue of Modern Bride) and the variance of ad sales. In any case, not a media planning / buying issue.


Thursday, September 30, 2004 #6620
Where would one go to find more research on alternative advertising, such as register receipt advertising or utility bill ad inserts, etc.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 01, 2004 ):
For register receipts research, consider Catalina Marketing. Regarding bill inserts, start with Direct Marketing Association (DMA)


Thursday, September 30, 2004 #6619
A list with the major european advertising magazines.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 01, 2004 ):
International Media Guide


Wednesday, September 22, 2004 #6615
I wish to bring out maximum points in favour of my study "Importance of Media in advertising. Can u suggest some point from your end

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, September 26, 2004 ):
The Guru would define "advertising" as communicating marketing messages through mass media. Hence, advertising, per se, does not exist apart from media, so the question as stated does not make sense to the Guru. If you mean to ask about the uses of media in advertsing, see the Guru's media strengths page and the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan


Saturday, September 18, 2004 #6609
I'm looking for information on different alternative media outlets such as, cooperative projects, inserts and ride-alongs. where would i find info on the different types of alternative media and the names of companies that specialize in the field?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 18, 2004 ):
Good old Google search for Co-op advertising, Free Standing Inserts or ride along advertising leads to numerous useful links.


Saturday, September 04, 2004 #6593
IS advertising REQUIRED FOR SUCCESS?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 04, 2004 ):
If you mean sales success/growth of consumer products, most generally, yes.


Wednesday, September 01, 2004 #6589
How much money is spent on TV advertising for all professional and college football games local, regional and national.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 02, 2004 ):
Try CMR (Competitive Media Reports)


Monday, August 30, 2004 #6582
need your advice on how to ensure our hotels restuarants have the greatest success for hits on the web. The restaurants are located at a Hotel in Bangkok

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, September 01, 2004 ):
Normal considerations include
  • Including the URL in all traditional media advertising
  • Online banner advertising
  • Search engine advertising specifically in local entertainment sites or Bangkok oriented travel sites, such as Concierge.com


Friday, August 27, 2004 #6580
Is there any research out there on Recall for Spot radio vs. Traffic sponsorhsips? Is there any standard on what is the most effective use of both traffic and spot radio?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 29, 2004 ):
Ask the traffic report vendors or The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

ARF materials will also be available through American Association of advertising Agencies and Association of National Advertisers.


Tuesday, August 24, 2004 #6576
Do you have research information on the effectiveness (or not) of Yellow Page and Regional Telephone Directory advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 29, 2004 ):
Yellow Pages vendors have lots of research. Beyond that, try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230


Tuesday, August 17, 2004 #6571
Dear MG: Inquiring if you are able to perform the following function: I am making media buying recommnedations for an optical client: If I supply you with the necessary information(Target audience, annual budget, demo, etc), can you send back your media recommendations? If you are able, here is the Necessary info: Client: St. Charles Vision (Optical) Geo: New Orleans, La metro area Budget: $250,000 Demo: Male/female, 40/60 25-64 Upscale TV_________ Radio______ Newspaper____ Outdoor______ Other________ Other________ Other________ Look forward to your feedback. Sincerely, Jonathan Blotner Media Buyer/Owner J. Blotner advertising & PR

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, August 17, 2004 ):
The Guru does not do media planning in this space. This would be a project worth a few thousand dollars through a consultant of the Guru's calibre.


Tuesday, August 10, 2004 #6566
Dear Media Guru: On average, for a fashion/entertainment magazine, what would you say is the ratio of editorial pages to advertising pages? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 13, 2004 ):
These are two very different categories. There is no reason to compare Vogue and People. The Guru would estimate consumer magazines are averaging around 50% advertising with fashion books on the high side.


Tuesday, August 10, 2004 #6565
what is "trade marketing?" karen

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 13, 2004 ):
Trade marketing is business to business marketing. "Trade media" for example, are publications and websites aimed at decision makers in specific industries rather than consumers, for example, InformationWeek for computer IT professionals or advertising Age


Monday, August 02, 2004 #6561
I've been searching your archives for information regarding advertising on the satellite feed. I found the info on the national satellite advertising, but was curious about local advertising. Are the satellite companies inserting spot locally (by DMA) or regionally at this time?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 06, 2004 ):
No


Monday, August 02, 2004 #6560
Dear Guru: In one of your answers re efficiency of :15 spots vs :30 you said: "In a campaign, these latter measures may mean overall recall and impact favor :15s, if the message can be communicated". Can you give me any references to such studies. The references I have been referred to so far support the opposite view: "Television viewers' attitudes and recall of 15 second and versus 30 secund commercials. James S.Gould" and "Max Sutherland & Alice Sylvester "advertising and the mind of the consumer". Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 06, 2004 ):
The issue is what do you measure; under almost any circumstances, a :30 has better recall than a :15. But the consumer experince is not about seeing a :15 or a :30. If a campaign has 50 to 100% more exposures because it is executed in ;15, the reach and frequency will definitely be increased and if the ;15 communicates the message, overall effect may be better. It's about camaign versus creative. i.e the media director view rather than the creative director view.


Wednesday, July 28, 2004 #6555
Hello, I'm trying to find national averages for click thru rates on web banner advertising placement. Do you have a reference or recommendations? Thanks. Ryan

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 28, 2004 ):
See DoubleClick's Q1 2004 Ad Serving Trends


Wednesday, July 28, 2004 #6554
hi, In this day in age would it be a good idea to purchase on-line advertising on a flat rate basis rather than on a CPM or impression basis? Thanks a lot Guru!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 28, 2004 ):
The coin-of-the-realm is cpm, which is, in effect, a guarantee of audience. Nonetheless many smaller sites without sophisticated trafiic and server software still sell at flat rates.


Wednesday, July 28, 2004 #6553
What up G, Hi i was just wandering if there was a good resource for buying online advertising as far as the prices i should be paying for it?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 28, 2004 ):
No good broad resource. Realistic prices range from under $5 cpm for very general targets in simple ad formats, to several hundred for rich media advertsing to narrow niche b2b targets.


Wednesday, July 28, 2004 #6552
Dear Mr. Guru, I currently sell on-line advertising space for a chatroom search directory web-site. We have great target advertising and average about 35,000 unique visitors a month. I think the search engine is a great place for big businessess to advertise with. The problem I have is gaining the contact information for the media buyers or whoever is responsible for making these purchases within a big company. How do I go about getting this contact information from these companies and find out which companies are interested in buying ad space on the internet?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 28, 2004 ):
35,000 uniques is extremely small audience for "big companies" unless it is a very special sort of person.

See AdWeek Directories and Redbooks for media buying contacts.


Sunday, July 25, 2004 #6549
why british teenagers is more appealing to television advertising compared to newspaper advertising. please list down the points n the relevant website for this question. thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 25, 2004 ):
Teenagers generally don't read.


Friday, July 23, 2004 #6548
Are you aware of any directory that provides a comprehensive list of commercal online newsletters (newsletters that take advertising)?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 24, 2004 ):
Start with Newsletter Access


Tuesday, July 20, 2004 #6546
What exactly is print media?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, July 20, 2004 ):
Narrowly, print media are those advertising vehicles carrying ad messages on paper, or paper equivalents, including magazines and newspapers.

Some people would include out-of-home media.


Tuesday, July 13, 2004 #6535
Do you know of any models that allow you to project what your brands advertising awareness could be based on different variables such as spending, current awareness, etc? I have a client that wants to know if he doubles spending, can he expect to double awareness? Are there other ways to answer this question?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 16, 2004 ):
Like reach, awareness grows along a curved -- not straight -- line, since it can only approach 100%; and in ever-smaller increments. Further, awareness can decline over a period of communications inactivity.

So the simple answer is no, doubling spending does not double awareness -- unless the earlier spending is on low reach / awareness vehicles and the next dollars are invested better.


Wednesday, June 23, 2004 #6517
hi guru, would you please some methods of budget setting in a typical media planning scenario.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 25, 2004 ):
Budget setting typically preceeds media planning. Budget is input to media planners.

Budget may be set based on any of the following, or other factors, as well.

  • advertising-to-sales ratio (A:S) for the category, and sales goal
  • Share of market goal vs share of voice.
  • Heavy up test requiring 30% or greater increment
Product intro versus known product, awareness goals, promotional plans all may be factors. The possibilities are idiosyncratic and virtually limitless.


Monday, June 21, 2004 #6516
I am urgently trying to confirm whether there are any copyright and licence restrictions for publishing already exisiting pictures of Ayers Rock Uluru in advertising? Thanks Hannah

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 21, 2004 ):
The Guru deals with Media planning/Media buying/Media research/Media department management questions.


Sunday, June 20, 2004 #6515
Hello there, This is my first e-mail to you. Hope you'd reply soon. I currently work for an advertising Agency as an account director. However, I recetly accepted a job as a group brand manager handling 10 print publications at a regional media company. i'd like your advice on MEDIA MARKETING books, websites or any other channels that could help me in my new assignment. many thanks in advance Jamal Nassar

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 20, 2004 ):
Visit AMIC Bookstore (in association with Amazon.com)


Thursday, June 17, 2004 #6513
My company is beginning a new program in which we trade donations of product for "in kind" advertising. Do you have any resources for quantifying the value of this; in other words, since buying decisions are rarely made from this type of exposure, in what way are we benefiting from this, and how can I place a dollar amount on that benefit?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 20, 2004 ):
There are many, readily available, price guides for media, such as those from SQAD and Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS)


Monday, June 14, 2004 #6512
Hi Abby: Any idea who might run media audits for internet advertising? I need to find someone to work with for a client. Thanks - Steve

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 17, 2004 ):
You might try the general media auditors to see if they have added such a service. The standards of price and audience measurment online are so wildly variable, it makes "auditing" -- beyond verification of placement -- quite a challenge.


Wednesday, June 02, 2004 #6504
Are you familiar with any research on the necessity of running advertising for a new line extension of an existing product?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 06, 2004 ):
Try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230

Also Journal of advertising Research


Tuesday, May 18, 2004 #6496
hi guru , I am doing an analysis of channel trends during a particular season ,say christmas what are the analysis can I do to make it worth presenting to some client , e.g how a particular channel gained or lost during the period or in market ..pls suggest few more analysis that I can do for an impressive presentation

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 20, 2004 ):
You need to think about what would be useful to the client. If the client expects you to make the right choices seasonally, does he care about this data or does he expect you to deal with it without his having to worry?

One thing advertisers do often think about is whether the clutter factor changes in a season like Christmas, so tracking changes (if any) in commercial load could be of interest. Probably more interesting in potential results would be changes in type of advertising, i.e retail vs national, kids products vs others or products vs services.


Monday, May 17, 2004 #6494
hey Guru, do you think advertising makes people buy stuff they don't need?? any links?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 17, 2004 ):
In the sense that people only need simple food, water, air, and simple shelter, yes. Otherwise, define "need." Some might say advertising creates needs. Certainly not a media question, anyway


Wednesday, May 12, 2004 #6491
I have a company which installs computerized plasma screens in retail stores at our expense and broadcasts ads via the internet. What is the best way for me to secure advertising for my network. I have had very little success with media buying agencies.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 17, 2004 ):
You are selling a form of out-of-home media. The internet aspect here is purely mechanical and irrelevant to a media decision. You need to sell to the same buyers who place signage in stores, not the typcial media buyer, more likely promotional staff at an advertiser.


Monday, May 10, 2004 #6486
How can I find advertising/prospecting info on realtors?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, May 12, 2004 ):
The Guru presumes you wish to learn about the advertising activity of real estate agents. ("Realtor" is a specific trademark of the National Association of Realtors). For advertising activity see CMR (Competitive Media Reports) or Nielsen Monitor Plus


Sunday, May 02, 2004 #6480
How much are accredited Not-For-Profit Universities & Colleges spending on advertising (Print, TV, Radio and Internet) each year?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 02, 2004 ):
See CMR (Competitive Media Reports)


Friday, April 30, 2004 #6479
Dear Guru, Our company has developed a very powerful software for booking, managing, monitoring and accounting for advertising on digital signage networks. Many advertisers do not want to run their ads back-to-back with their competition. We have automated the process of spacing out ads of competing products. However, we ran into a question: do we define product categories ourselves (re-unvent the wheel), or use something standard. My question is: does the advertising industry have their own industry/product categories or do they use standards like NAICS/SIC? Thank you!!!

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 03, 2004 ):
As an example, looking at a portion of the NAICS/SIC codes for "drugs" (below, left) shows that they are much too broad for advertising competitive issues; virtually all use the same code number, and even the narrower index entries, such as "cosmetics" are over-broad. Compare the narrower codes on the right, a sampling of those used by industry-standard resource CMR (Competitive Media Reports) .These are more nearly reflective of what would be considered the range within which conflicts occur.


Wednesday, April 28, 2004 #6475
Dear Guru, Thank you for answering my question about traffic and stewardship. You replied in part: "Traffic" is the process of - Identifying which advertising materials will run in the time / space purchased - Ordering necessary duplicates of the materials - Shipping materials to the media vendor - Issuing instructions to the media vendor specifying the materials -- or pool of materials -- which will run in the time / space purchased Does this describe traffic on the agency side? Is there such thing as traffic on the media outlet side (newspaper, radio, TV)? From your answer I understood that stewardship is primarily a function of someone representing an advertiser. Is there a stewardship function on the media side? Thank you!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, April 28, 2004 ):
Loosely, "traffic" is about the movement of the advertsing materials through the necessary handling to get an ad before its audience, and stewardship is about managing the money and the media value.

Obviously there are elements of both of these functions on the media side; a station must log in receipt of the materials, and schedule it for airiing, these are "traffic" functions. Similary a station must track billing info.


Tuesday, April 27, 2004 #6472
Dear Guru, Could you please explain the terms: traffic and stewardship. Aren't they the same thing?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 27, 2004 ):
Not at all. Beginning from the point when time or space is purchased:
  • "Traffic" is the process of
    - Identifying which advertising materials will run in the time / space purchased
    - Ordering necessary duplicates of the materials
    - Shipping materials to the media vendor
    - Issuing instructions to the media vendor specifying the materials -- or pool of materials -- which will run in the time / space purchased
  • "Stewardship," on the other hand,
    - Tracks the dollars ordered,
    - The time / space units ordered and
    - Circulation / audience ordered
    - From the point of the purchase through post analysis
    - Including estimates, billing the client and
    - Verifying that the advertiser gets what was paid for or is compensated for under delivery
    - This should include verifying that the schedule ran the materials in compliance with the traffic instructions


Thursday, April 22, 2004 #6466
What are the key elements that make special features in dailies a good medium to invest for the advertisers?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, April 24, 2004 ):
There are two chief virtues of special sections:
  • They can stand out and generate more readership than ROS pages
  • Most important, they may be topically relevant to your ad, as a home-buying special for bank mortgage or moving company advertising.
Also see The Newspaper advertising Association


Monday, April 12, 2004 #6460
Can you tell me how to calculate newspaper costs? What does "per column inch" mean?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, April 12, 2004 ):
A broadsheet newspaper like the NY Times is 6 columns wide x 21 inches deep. Its full page of advertising is 126 column inches (6 X 21 = 126) . Such a newspaper specifies its ad charges as price per column inch and will provide information to translate a fractional ad like a quarter page into column inches. As an example, see the NY Times display ad specs.


Wednesday, April 07, 2004 #6454
Dear Guru, How've you been? Can political advertising pre-empt regular advertisers? If I end up paying higher rates for my spots in a market, can Bush's lower costing spots bump mine? Or, can he only bump me if I bought early but negotiated lower rates (at the time) than the politicians end up with? How does this work? They are predicting 17 battleground states (most are my markets)wher there will be very heavy political advertising. Thanks again.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 11, 2004 ):
Hi, Dopey!

A station can bump any advertising for any reason, especially if deemed to be in the public interest.

A station must sell candidates political advertising at the lowest rates charged within a given period.

A station will sell political campaigns pretty much as much advertising as they seek (they pay up front).

Now, who gets bumped is a separate issue. Probably the lowest paying commercial advertiser, unless that advertiser somehow negotiated low non-preemptible rates.


Tuesday, April 06, 2004 #6452
Dear Guru - We are pitching a new biz account. The past buying agency's demo was households in TV and radio instead of a specific demo. Reasoning was that it produced a lower CPP. We want to give rationale to the potential client that the media should be bought against a specific demo,not households. One answer is that "product is bought by people, not households". Can you help with other rationale why the client should be buying against a demo and not households? We need to support why the CPP will go up and that it will cost them more money for less.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 11, 2004 ):
The Guru responds, "oy!' That old clunker "product is bought by people not households" sounds so slick and is so silly. Household products are bought by the person -- of various descriptions -- who buys for the household, in many cases the "lady of the house."

The essential thought here is that if a primary purchaser/user with distinct demographic characteristics can be identified, then an effort should be made to assure that advertising concentrates on that person. Using a demographic target is one of these ways.

The idea that HH CPP is lower is illusory. HH appear cheaper to buy because they may or may not contain the right people.

By the way, housholds are not measured in radio ratings, anyway.


Tuesday, April 06, 2004 #6451
Dear Guru, Are there any examples of newspapers ads' effectiveness reducing due to their placement in a contradictory editorial context? (eg. say an oil company ad - placed next to an article on controversy at Shell)

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 06, 2004 ):
There might be such at The Newspaper advertising Association or The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Thursday, April 01, 2004 #6444
What percent increase over MMG forecasts do you expect Political advertising to have on Spot TV and spot radio in September

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 04, 2004 ):
Why do you assume forecasts haven't taken these regular factors into account?


Saturday, March 27, 2004 #6437
i need research on radio changes from 1950?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 27, 2004 ):
Go to The Radio advertising Bureau (RAB) and Arbitron


Friday, March 26, 2004 #6435
I am interested in the use of color in newspaper ads and what the reader retention rates are when using different colors. I have had trouble finding any numbers or research done on this. Do you have any information on what colours make readers remember more/less?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 26, 2004 ):
Try The Newspaper advertising Association


Thursday, March 25, 2004 #6434
How important are gross impressions to a media buy (specifically radio or traffic sponsorships)? Wouldn't eff. net reach be more important? How can I better explain the difference between gross impressions and frequency to a client that has these two efficiencies confused as the very same thing?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 26, 2004 ):
Firstly, a media buy must answer the specifications of the plan:

Do plan communication goals specify maximum weight or a focus on frequency over reach?

Frequency is linked to gross impressions but only through other factors and neither is an "efficiency." Budget divided by gross impressions is CPM, which is the classic measure of "efficiency" and no normal cost / frequency ratio with which the Guru is familiar is in use.

Gross impressions takes into account both frequency and reach. 1million gross impressions can be 1 million people each exposed to advertising once or 10,000 people each exposed 100 times. Radio is commonly considered a "frequency medium" but is capable of generating significant reach. Traffic radio is typically a frequency buy. Effective reach, i.e. reach at a specified minimum level of frequency is not the most likley goal for a traffic radio campaign.


Monday, March 22, 2004 #6426
What is the current, comprehensive definition of the term "advertising media"?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 22, 2004 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses defining and describing advertising media


Thursday, March 18, 2004 #6424
what is the difference between spot radio and traffic radio?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 21, 2004 ):
Spot radio is simply radio advertising purchased through individual local stations, rather than on a network or syndicated line-up.

Traffic radio is advertising placed in local traffic (commuter info) reports. It might be spot or unwired network.


Monday, March 15, 2004 #6421
What is the history and background of interactive media?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 17, 2004 ):
Start with The Internet advertising Bureau


Monday, March 15, 2004 #6420
I'm looking for advertising expenditures for industries as a whole over a period of time. Any suggestions?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 17, 2004 ):
CMR (Competitive Media Reports), NielsenMonitor Plus are the general sources.


Wednesday, March 10, 2004 #6413
How do I find media companies that will sell advertising for our newspaper in Ontario Canada

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 10, 2004 ):
Start with CARD


Monday, March 08, 2004 #6406
How does the internet works as a tool to mass media, advertising, sales promotion and PR?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 14, 2004 ):
See the Guru's media strengths page


Friday, March 05, 2004 #6401
How does advertising on Tivo work? Who is advertising on Tivo and how much does a spot cost?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 05, 2004 ):
The Guru has not heard of "advertising on Tivo." Tivo is a recorder, an advanced digital version of the VCR, in effect. It has no programming of its own. Perhaps a logo display on the program grid?


Thursday, February 26, 2004 #6395
is advertising manipulation

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 26, 2004 ):
In the sense of changing people's thinking about something, certainly. In the sense of doing something evil and underhanded, no. Everyone understands that the advertising they encounter is meant to do that.


Wednesday, February 18, 2004 #6388
I have no idea where to ask this question and am hoping you can tell me. How do I find out: 1. Which advertising agency was used to produce a certain television commercial? 2. The specific person responsible for the original idea of the commercial? 3. That person's business email address?, 4. The person from the company being advertised who chose to use that particular ad? and 5. their business email address? I want to be able to email nasty comments to the makers of idiot commercials and their idiot buyers and commend those responsible for some truly great ads. How do I do this? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 20, 2004 ):
The Guru began writing the answer to your question, and then considered two thing:
  1. The people involved do not want to hear from you; the Guru does not encourage unsolicited email, and
  2. This is not a media question


Tuesday, February 17, 2004 #6386
Guru: I have a spot TV plan to pull together for a client in Atlanta. Since this is a high ADS market, the question has been asked if one can buy ADS advertising on a local level. I'm receiving mixed responses. Can you tell me this is possible and who to turn to for cost info? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 20, 2004 ):
The Guru will assume that by "ADS" you mean satellite, such as DirecTV and DishNetwork. These systems deliver signals from an orbiting satellite to a footprint much larger than one DMA, probably closer to a broadcast network's regional feed. There is no analog to cable's local system operator who can send commercials down a relatively narrow pipe, generally covering an area smaller than a DMA.


Sunday, February 15, 2004 #6381
i want to know a2zabout advertising agency structure & detailed job discription about its employee e.g. creative art director, visualizer, account manager etc.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 15, 2004 ):
The Guru deals with Media planning/Media buying/Media research/Media department management questions.


Tuesday, February 03, 2004 #6375
Media Guru: Is there a correct % of sales that a retail client should spend on advertising for a G.O.B. campaign? If so, what is it?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 08, 2004 ):
The Guru doesn't think there's any "right" %. It would depend on selling prices and the need to clear merchandise at any cost versus maintain some level of profit.


Friday, January 30, 2004 #6371
Hi, I am conducting an academic research regarding the business climate in the US. I am an MBA student. I am trying to get a notion of the number of businesses in the US through the active advertising. I was wondering if you have data on the total number of advertisers conducting advertising in the US in all segments. If the data is available by segments it will be easier for me fine tune my research. Your kind help is highly appreciated. Best, Elazar.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 30, 2004 ):
The Guru doubts that the number of advertisers is a valid indicator of the number of businesses. Try CMR (Competitive Media Reports) to get numbers of advertisers, but try The State of the Nation Library for economic climate.


Tuesday, January 27, 2004 #6365
I've just recently started a media buying company. Do you know of a place I can get a sample agency/client contract?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 30, 2004 ):
Sources might include American Association of advertising Agencies and American advertising Federation


Saturday, January 24, 2004 #6360
What is the best form of advertising can I get information to the most people in the least amount of time, taking costs into consideration?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 25, 2004 ):
If you mean least amount of time from advertising start and lowest cpm (including production cost), then the answer is outdoor.

If you mean least amount of time from making the decision to advertise, then the answer is probably network radio.


Friday, January 23, 2004 #6354
Dear Guru: I have been studying the STAS index data which J.P.Jones analyzed from the 1995 Nielsen studies and which served as a foundation to recency. I am puzzled by one thing: out of 78 brands analyzed the sales of 16 brands stayed on the same level and the sales of another 15 brands dropped! This makes it 40% (forty!) where advertising had no effect at all! And no explanations. How can any strategy be based on such a poor foundation and still be taken seriously? R.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 23, 2004 ):
If 60% support the theory, that is worth considering. As to those that fell, how did that directionally track with advertising levels?


Thursday, January 22, 2004 #6353
do you have information regarding political advertising guidelines for broadcast?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 23, 2004 ):
Stations must offer political campaigns their lowest rates charged 45 days prior to a primary and 60 days prior to elections. Stations generally require cash in advance for politicals.


Tuesday, January 20, 2004 #6347
which day of the week, on average,excluding weekends, has highest readership for daily newspapers.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 22, 2004 ):
Visit The Newspaper advertising Association


Monday, January 19, 2004 #6344
Is it better to advertise in the same medium as your competitors or somewhere completely seperate, what factors would effect your decision?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, January 19, 2004 ):
  1. Is the medium in question the only one -- or one of the few -- that reaches your target or reaches it effectively? For some niche consumer targets or B2B targets choices are very limited.
  2. If choices are more open, then consider relative levels; you probably do not want to be a small advertiser where competitors will overwhelm you in weight or "quality" such as units size/coloration or subjective copy quality.
  3. Regardless of the first two points, can you somehow stand out; with break-through advertising, positioning or support from secondary media?


Thursday, January 15, 2004 #6342
Do you know if community access television stations accept advertising, or are they commercial free? Thanks again.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 15, 2004 ):
If the Guru understands your question (and since you are a regular, the Guru feels comfortable here), these "stations" are channels of local cable systems and each has its own rules. The Guru guesses few carry commercials, mostly because of lack of demand. The cable systems are probably willing. Whether they allow programmers on these access channels to sell time in their own programs is a different story, but unlikely.


Wednesday, January 14, 2004 #6339
What is considered effective for online advertising in terms of reach & frequency?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 18, 2004 ):
If you consider online advertsing by itself, why would it have a different effective R&F standard?

Realistically of course, it must. If only two-thirds of people are online, that sets an upper limit. With the millions of web sites fragmenting this audience, what portion of this universe0 can realistically be reached?

Even granting that giants like Yahoo may reach most internet users, what portion of Yahoo's reach can you afford to buy?

In the Guru's opinion, online is a tactical medium. It can reach key prospects in environmentally focused contexts with selectively delivered messsages. It can reach people or add frequency among people not otherwise accessible.


Saturday, January 10, 2004 #6336
Dear Guru: One of the cornerstones of recency is the idea that advertising works in a short period (up to 7 days). At the same time in his writings by Mr. Ephron always mentions 4-week reach and 13-week reach. Can you explain the reason for that. Thanks, R.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 10, 2004 ):
More important in recency is that the most recently seen ad is most effective.

4 week and 13 week reach are long-time industry standards, greatly predating recency theory. They are based on being able to combine media types in a common period of time and relate first, to the monthly cycle of many magazines, which were a much more dominant medium 60 or more yars ago, and second, to the common, quarterly (i.e. 13 week) planning / budgeting cycle.


Wednesday, January 07, 2004 #6334
We currently have spot fill radio slated for 2004 to make up for underdelivery of our Network Radio schedule in key markets. Of course we have recommended a :60 spot be created for the spot fill. Our account team does not want to produce a :60 spot and prefers to use two of the existing :30 spots back to back to fill the time. This would not be bookends within a pod, but two very similar commercials running together. Are there any exisiting white papers or support that demonstrates this is not the best use of the purchased time? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 09, 2004 ):
  1. The Guru presumes that you are spot filling for GRP underdelivery.
  2. Many stations charge the same for :30 or :60 units, so solo :30 might not save any money, nor would separating the :30/:30s add reach without adding to budget.
  3. The question then becomes a creative issue about what the is effect on the listener of hearing a given # of :60s versus an equal number of :30/:30

Try The Radio advertising Bureau (RAB) and The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Wednesday, January 07, 2004 #6333
Is there a general CPM for FSIs?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 09, 2004 ):
There is a lot of variation based on size, type, distribution, etc, Try The Newspaper advertising Association and SmartSource


Tuesday, January 06, 2004 #6331
Dear Media Guru, This is a followup to my previous question regarding direct response ads on satellite television. 1). Please elaborate on your statement "Top Tier may as well not be a consideration, since you are persuing minusucle audiences, at best." Are you saying I may not want to buy the most expensive (top tier) networks because satellite subscribers are more fragmented than cable subscribers (disregarding the the obvious difference in subscriber quantities). 2). Would it be safe to assume that one spot airing between 12 midnight and 6am on any given network would be seen by 1/10th of 1 percent of the total subscriber base? Would it be the same for either national satellite or national cable? 3). Is it a safe to assume a 60-second DRTV spot placed in first week of Feb 2004 on national cable on one of the larger networks in overnight (12AM - 6AM) will be twice the rate of a :30 and cost $500 each? Or, is $600 each more realistic? Other rate? 4). WIth a $30,000 budget I can buy 60 national cable spots @ $500 each or 200 spots @ $150 on satellite. Based on a .02% response rate, my media cost per order for cable is $3.31 compared to a $6.25 cost per order for satellite. Will 60 spots be enough for testing DRTV? My thinking is that satellite would be better since more spots will allow me to test more networks and daytime vs. overnight. (Also, I could test one offer on Direct TV Comedy Ch --11,850,000 subscribers -- and a second offer on Dish Comedy Ch -- 9,085,000 subscribers.) Then, I plan to apply response rates from satellite to national cable to determine if rollout is feasible. Does this sound right? How would you do it? 5). VERY IMPORTANT!!! How do I contact DirectTV and Dish to request rates? I can't find one bit of advertising sales info for either company on the internet.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 09, 2004 ):
  1. If a "top tier" network gets a rating of 0.5 to 1.0 and a satellite network has 8% U.S coverage, then a "top tier" spot might reach .04% to .08% of the target, and an average spot .01%. These audiences are too small to make price premium distinctions about, in the Guru's opinion. The Guru expects that satellite audiences are just slightly more fragmented than cable, due to greater numbers of choices, but it's a much smaller universe.
  2. 1/10th of 1% might be generous for an overnight estimate.
  3. The :30 / :60 ratio is right, but everything is negotiable and lower rates are probably possible. In DR, ratings never seem to matter as much as finding the "right" audience.
  4. If testing is the issue, then low out-of-pocket cost is a key consideration
  5. Dish ad sales contact is here. For DirecTV (note: just one "T"), the Guru would call any number listed on the page at this link and ask anyone you reach for an ad sales contact.


Monday, January 05, 2004 #6330
We need to call a salesperson to find out about advertising on school (K-12) book covers. Can you pls. help?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 07, 2004 ):
You could start with School Book Cover advertising


Monday, January 05, 2004 #6329
Dear Guru, 1. where does outdoor stand in terms of cost-efficiency compared to network TV, cable TV, radio and print? 2. Do you think it is true that outdoor advertising is benefiting from the fact that daily newspaper audiences are shrinking (are they really shrinking?)?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 07, 2004 ):
Outdoor is, by far, the most efficent of these.

Are outdoor audiences benefitting from newspapers' audience loss? Not likely and hard to prove. Are outdoor revenues benefitting? Also not likely in the Guru's opinion. Newspaper ads are heavily retial and promotional, outdoor's more about branding and long term concepts. Where they meet and trade revenues is most likely entertainment, e.g. movies and events.


Friday, January 02, 2004 #6326
I want to advertise a product via direct response TV featuring an 800 number. I plan to spend $30,000 for testing over a 10 day period in the U.S. market. I called this company I found online to inquire about the cheap TV spots offered on their site. They suggested I allocate the entire budget to air on cable networks via national satellite, which has a subscriber base of 8.6 million. They quoted the cost of a 30-second spot on a top tier network airing in overnight at $80 and in daytime between $175 and $225. Having never heard of national satellite advertising, I tried to investigate further on the web. The only info I found came from a discussion group upset about a TV show on Sci-fi being canceled back in February 2000. They were discussing how to place an ad during the show's last episode on satellite and had uncovered basically the same rates I was previously quoted. I also found your answer to a like question asked around the same time (Monday, April 24, 2000, #3415) in which you replied, "you may be looking for something that doesn't exist". You further explained that "national ads on cable networks are sold by the networks as national and run as the network is carried, whether the viewer receives the program through cable or a SATELLITE receiver. Local, cable-originated advertising runs in time slots reserved for local use. These "local" slots, about 2 minutes per hour, could theoretically be sold nationally by the SATELLITE carriers". You then, however, gave numerous reasons why even that wouldn't work. My question is this: Three+ years later, has anything changed? Is the media buy I described now a viable option? If it is, would this be the way to go or would I be better off putting it on national cable? I would appreciate any other information you care to share on this subject, be it advise or referrals. Thank You, Nicole Pellegrino

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 02, 2004 ):
Today, there are spots available on DirecTV and Dish Network. The prices you cite are about right (as one-time rates) for DirecTV, the larger one of the two, with about two-thirds of the satellite market.

From your question, you seem to be looking for the cheapest "national" spots you can buy, so Dish Network may be the better choice.

"Top Tier" may as well not be a consideration, since you are persuing minusucle audiences, at best.


Thursday, January 01, 2004 #6325
Guru, which advertising directory do you like better...Redbooks or AdWeeks?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 01, 2004 ):
Both are useful, but neither is a media research tool.


Monday, December 22, 2003 #6318
Do you have any research information about various consumer products/markets, and what percentage of their income is spent on advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, December 22, 2003 ):
The Bureau of Labor Statistics' Consumer Expenditure Reports has a great deal of such data.


Sunday, December 14, 2003 #6311
definition of media,

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, December 21, 2003 ):
The dictionary defines a medium as something which carries or transmits something else. In our case, the "something else" is advertising messages.


Wednesday, December 10, 2003 #6307
Dear Guru, 1. How do I determine impressions in the specific case of Airport digital sign advertising? Let's say, I have 200 displays playing loops of 10-sec ads installed in different areas (boarding lounges, baggage claim area, passport control, etc.) and the annual airport passenger traffic is 12 mln? 2. Are there any articles or studies about average rates for outdoor advertising and digital sign advertising? Thank you!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, December 14, 2003 ):
1. Assuming the signs are placed to cover all passengers, traffic passing the signs per year is 12 million x the number of these signs the average passenger will see for 10 seconds.

Divide this by the number of ads displayed, to get impressions per ad.

2. Try Outdoor advertising Association of America and The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Friday, December 05, 2003 #6300
Guru, I am responsible for national marketing programs for a chain of 1000 service/retailers. I am looking for trends on retailers shifting their advertising dollars from broadcast to direct. Our new president seems to think that many of the recent sucesses by companys like Home Depot and others have happened because of their shift in advertising spend. I always appreciate the information you are able to provide, I hope you can help me on this request or point me in the right direction. Thanks,

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, December 06, 2003 ):
Direct Marketing Association (DMA)


Friday, December 05, 2003 #6298
what is the meaning of advertising or in other words define advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, December 06, 2003 ):
One dictionary defines it as "the process of attracting public attention to a product or business though paid media." To "product or business" the Guru would add 'political candidate or idea' and add unpaid media.


Wednesday, December 03, 2003 #6297
I am working for a nonprofit that would like to purchase advertising. I am looking for A18-24 CPPs or CPMs for national and spot cable (looking at certain top 100 markets). I am not in an agency so I don't have access to SQAD or any of the other paid resources you mention on the site. I need something that's free, even they're just rough estimates. Thanks!!

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, December 06, 2003 ):
Try SpotCable


Tuesday, December 02, 2003 #6293
I am searching out any resources on the responsiveness of television viewers to a television series that is presented in consecutive nights, opposed to the traditional scheduling of one night a week for x number of weeks. Any ideas on research on this topic? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, December 05, 2003 ):
The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Monday, December 01, 2003 #6286
Where can I get info about revenue of classified ads. for newspapers?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, December 05, 2003 ):
Try The Newspaper advertising Association


Monday, December 01, 2003 #6285
info on frequency value planning

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, December 05, 2003 ):
Not exactly a standard concept, but see The Media Planning Paradox


Sunday, November 30, 2003 #6284
I am doing a paper and need to give approximate costs for advertising to a specfic target market in both magazines and TV. I can't find many prices, don't really know where to look, and the prices I have found I don't know if they are for a year or what. (They are for BHG magazine and they give different size ads, it does say "12 months average net paid, calendar year." Can you help me at all!? Please? Thanky you!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, December 05, 2003 ):
"12 months average net paid, calendar year." refers to circulation audit. Magazine and other ad prices are quotes per ad (or for broadcast) sometimes per rating point (CPP)>


Tuesday, November 25, 2003 #6274
If a rating point is the percentage of the audience that could see the message, then what is the difference from reach? I work at a small agency, and we have gotten rid of our software. I used to be able to plug a plan in, and it would compute my reach and frequency, based on the ratings. How can I figure this out without software, if I know the rating points and GRP's?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 28, 2003 ):
Each advertising exposure has certain rating points. For a single such exposure, Rating equals Reach.

For a Schedule, each of the various exposures will duplicate a portion of the audience of the other exposures. The sum of the ratings, less the Duplicated audience is the reach. The sum of the ratings is open-ended. Reach can approach - but not exceed - 100% of the target.

The calculation is complex, and software is worthwhile, especially pay-per-use software like our own eTelmar.

For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function. There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables.


Tuesday, November 25, 2003 #6273
I am trying to gather research on the topic "no impression is created equally." Specifically I'm looking for a ratio for TV impressions compared to a consumer magazine impressions and stadium signage impressions. In your archives, I have found where you reference going to The advertising Research Foundation Info Center (July 16th, 2001#4581). Do you have a current take on an impression weighting factor comparing TV to magazines and stadium signage? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 28, 2003 ):
Generally, advertisers develop thier own indices based on results they experience. Obviously print's strength vs TV's is very different for a women's fashion brand than for a beer.


Monday, November 24, 2003 #6270
I am finding it difficult to find information on LLoyds TSB media plan, where i can get his from? i am a PHD STUDENT, in desperate need of help.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 28, 2003 ):
If you mean to learn what media schedules have been running you need a media tracking service, such as Nielsen Media.

If you mean to learn their media plan for the immediate future, such information is considered a trade secret and should not be expected to be available.


Wednesday, November 19, 2003 #6260
How can I determine the response rate between web and call center when web address and 800 number are included in all advertising and communications?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 21, 2003 ):
Ask "how did you learn of this offer?"


Wednesday, November 19, 2003 #6259
Guru, you have no idea how happy I was to stumble on you through a browser. I have been tasked with researching and creating a media plan for a huge client in three regions of the country. I have the current media for newspapers in their markets purchsed but I have no idea if I am missing out on venuews and have no idea where to begin researching all of the resources. In addition to the print media, I have been tasked with guerilla tacktics, coffee sleeve vendors, pizza box toppers, Out door, Interior and Exterior posters and misc. alternative media. The client is requesting trending and ROI for their specific markets. Can you point me to a resource(s) that could help me or even an organization to join for future education on these things. My other option is to find a listing off all the providers for these types of advertising and PR. Thanks in advance for your help with this.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 20, 2003 ):
You need an ad agency or media service. You could identify vendors through Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS).


Tuesday, November 18, 2003 #6255
What is the CPM of internet advertising? What is on-line advertising rate?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 20, 2003 ):
CPM $1-$300. Rate of what?


Friday, November 07, 2003 #6235
Hi Guru Is there research on effectiveness of advertising in cinema's (i.e. compared to TV)? Do you know something about research on the relation between medium reach and advertising reach in cinema? Can you tell me about the effectiveness of the combination of cinema and TV, radio, print or outdoor? Can you tell me about the quality of the reach of a cinema commercial? What do you think of the future of the cinema as an advertising medium? I'm a media planner from the Netherlands Thanks a lot Kind regards Michiel Veugelers

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 09, 2003 ):
Cinema advertsing has not amounted to much in the US, where advertising is virtually everywhere. It has been more important in Europe. Perhaps ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization has some data.


Tuesday, November 04, 2003 #6231
Please explain the difference between a hard interconnect and a soft interconnect in regards to cable. Is there a resource online to look up a market and find out whether it is a hard or soft interconnect?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 09, 2003 ):
As the Guru understands the terms, they are analagous to wired vs unwired spot. "Hard interconnect" allows using a single tape to cover the market list. Soft is a sales arrangement, which might require trafficking multiple 'dubs' of the copy.

NCC may offer information, but "Hard interconnect" is likely to be a service of major cable MSO's like Comcast, TimeWarner and Cablevision, etc.


Monday, November 03, 2003 #6229
Dear Guru, please help. When can I discover some information about influence of clutter on outdoor advertising effectiveness? Or maybe You can send me some articles about this matter. Thank You in advance, Alexey

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 09, 2003 ):
You would need to define "clutter" in the outdoor context. Is it Multiple posters in one locations, along one street, in a metro area?

Try Outdoor advertising Association of America and The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Saturday, November 01, 2003 #6228
Hi media guru!i study advertising and marketing communications at bournemouth university, England and have been set a media planning assignment.I need detailed information about British Airways' current media strategy and their competitor's, any ideas where i can get this information from?Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, November 01, 2003 ):
If the advertising trade media such as Campaign Magazine have covered this, perhaps. Media strategies are usually treated as trade secrets.


Thursday, October 30, 2003 #6225
Dear Guru, We are installing a Digital Display network in a warehouse-type retail store chain. There will be 30 screens per store that will run loops of ad copies of vendor products and in-store services. All scheduling will be controlled remotely from one location. In your opinion, what will be the best way to measure the effectiveness of this type of advertising? Thank you!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 31, 2003 ):
Simple:

Ideally, track before and after purchase of the products and services advertised.

Or (less accurate, but not bad) compare to another store without screens.


Friday, October 24, 2003 #6218
Dear Guru, My company is planning to try out POP digital signage advertising. Could you recommend any Digital Signage networks in any big DMAs as well as who (agencies) should we approach to place ads?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 26, 2003 ):
Any agency should be able to handle placement. The Guru would begin by asking the store chains where your POP would be placed about who operates the digital signage in their locations.


Monday, October 20, 2003 #6213
Is there any research on the subject effective advertising for seasonal waterparks? What is the best media mix?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 26, 2003 ):
This seems a little narrow as a topic about which research might be published, but try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Sunday, October 19, 2003 #6211
Hello Guru. Regarding your answer of 4 October concerning my question about the difference between communication obj, ad. ob, and media obj. What do you think about next reflection concerning hierarchical steps to follow? step 1: Business obj. step 2: Marketing obj. step 3: Marketing strategy = how will the marketing obj. be achieved? Anwer: by Marketing MIX step 4: Communiction obj (which is one of the 4 P's) step 5: Communication strategy. How will the communication obj. be achieved? Answer: by communication MIX step 6: advertising obj step 7: advertising strategy. How will the advertising obj. be achieved? Answer: by advertising MIX step 8: Media obj. step 9 Media strategy It was in this context that I wanted to know what the difference is between communication, advertising and media objectives. What do you think? Thanks already!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 19, 2003 ):
As you state the question, everything before the media objectives is outside the Guru's sphere. For what it's worth, The Guru believes Communications strategy / mix are redundant in your heirarchy, and message is neglected.


Sunday, October 19, 2003 #6210
What is the total estimated profit the news industry made with its content and the advertising industry made so far in 2002-2003?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 19, 2003 ):
The news industry's content profit is based on advertising plus subscriptions. Neither the news industry nor the advertising industry publishes "profit" data, other than the publicly held companies within these industries. These largest public companies do not necessarily identify profit specifcally from these activities, e.g. AOL / Time Warner, which has many interests outside these areas (how much of AOL subsription revenue is attributable to news or advertising? How much of this is "profit?"

Examine trade articles such as those in Ad Age and WSJ, for indications.


Friday, October 17, 2003 #6207
I have an international planning question. In the US, a measure of advertising spend is GRPs. The UK uses the same, Australia uses TARPs. Where can I find information about other countries - how they measure ad spend and what the top mediums are to go into? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 19, 2003 ):
GRP, etc is a measure of communication weight, not of spending. You will have to survey trade media od the various nations to gain the understanding you seek.


Friday, October 17, 2003 #6206
Dear Guru, I've read Erwin Ephron's article on Adstock. Is Adstock widely used in the US? Also, other than reach/frequency goals, the Recency Theory and Adstock, are there other theories currently being used or debated? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, October 18, 2003 ):
As Efron himself says: "In the US most agencies schedule media without much regard to Adstock carry-over effects, because we have learned that immediate response to advertising dissipates rapidly."


Monday, October 13, 2003 #6203
advertising media in the philippines

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 13, 2003 ):
International Media Guide


Thursday, October 09, 2003 #6195
What is the correct process for analyzing comparable period retail sales? Specifically, we are working on a project that would not only compare comparable sales periods (year over year), but also compare a sale window to a pre-sale window. Thanks in advance for your feedback.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 13, 2003 ):
The Guru assumes you mean to compare advertising performance in these periods. The simplest approaches are comparing budgets or weight (GRP). Many refinements are possible as to media mix, reach. frequency, etc.


Wednesday, October 08, 2003 #6193
Dear Guru, I work for an up and coming Digital Signage aka narrowcasting company and I am attempting to approach media buying companies and advertising agencies with an opportunity to add my companies services to their portfolios. We already have thousands of locations carrying our displays. How receptive do you think these companies will be to what I have to offer and how should I approach these companies? Thanks. Anthony NAMCT

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 13, 2003 ):
In one sense, you are like any new magazine or tv outlet. You need to let media decision makers know that you exist, that you have a specific audience, and have a particular way of affecting that audience.

If you are a different kind of medium you also need to establish the benefits to the advertiser of the difference. Never make the mistake of assuming simply being different is enough.

Are you like outdoor, but animated? Or like in-store signage? Or are you TV that intercepts viewers in sales-advantageous locations?

Emphasize marketing reasons you should be bought, not the uniqueness. You are convincing communicators, not investors.


Tuesday, October 07, 2003 #6190
Hi Mr.Guru. May I ask Where I could find out some articles regarding to key challenges to advertising/media industry in recent years? Thanks a lot!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 10, 2003 ):
Ad Age, MediaWeek, Media Magazine.


Tuesday, October 07, 2003 #6189
Dear Guru, With all due respect, I had written you back in September about a situation I was encountering (below) and received a response that I found extrememly puzzling. You said that my question had to do with copy opposed to media. Guru, copy is a part of media and a vital one at that. You also sent me to a link where you mentioned wear out. I went to the link and didn't find much to answer my question. Being sincere with my next question, why do you spend time to respond in depth to people with ridiculous questions (How do I buy spot cable, what's a CPM, etc) from people who could find the simple answer in a "Media 101" book, while mine is a rationale, functioning question and concern? Product life (packaging influenced) is also part of media. Why blow all of this off? Thank you, CRH Previous question: Dear Guru, 2 Qs: 1.) My client created a TV ad campaign and RIGHT before we launched, a competitor with lower quality/lower price/larger packaging had close to the SAME TV ad campaign! I feel product confusion has happened between my client's premium brand and that of the less expensive "knock-off" product. Do you concur? Any research to back this theory? 2.) Because of my theory, I have advised my client to change ads IMMEDIATELY. They have agreed and we will begin to advertise our OLD ADS starting October. I feel "ad quality restoration" has been achieved through our previous ad's 6 month hiatus. My client and I find that our campaigns last for about 6 months before we experience ad wearout, based on copy and frequency wearout. However, returning to an OLD AD where we are basing campaign results on ad quality restoration, how long will our old ads last, given new ads burnout in 6 months? should we plan on only 3 months since the audience will quickly remember the ads again? Your thoughts? Any research to back this up? Please help! -Media guru grasshopper. The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, September 14, 2003 ): Much of this question is about copy and product, not media. Regarding the wearout issue, there will probably be quicker wearout than with a new ad, but that is hard to quantify.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 10, 2003 ):
1.) Regarding copy vs. media, quite simply, you are wrong.

advertising is two essential elements:
Copy (creative message or "the Ad," and
media, the vehicles (TV/Radio/Magazines/Outdoor/Online) which deliver the Ad to the audience.

The Guru deals with the planning, buying and analysis of media. This has nothing to do with copy, the advertising message itself except to decide whether the media is suitable to carry the message and communicate effectively with the target audience. Often, a media professional determines for which media copy should be created to best reach or influence the target, but this is far from deciding marketing or message strategy.

2.) The Guru's past responses about wearout include 50+ more or less detailed comments on the topic, which is a subjective concept at best. If you can define wear out, you can measure it.

3.) The Guru's stated purpose is to answer questions about media planning/buying/research. People who aske "media 101" questions didn't take the course, and the Guru would not accomplish much by telling half his users to look at a text book. Occasionally, that might be the only answer, but the Guru preferes to deal directly with media questions.

If you have signed up for a media position but have found yourself making copy decisions, that's a problem. But not a media problem. Luckily for you, AMIC offers a double-your-money-back on the fee for using the Guru, if you are not satisfied with the answers.


Thursday, October 02, 2003 #6184
Hello Guru, Could you tell me what's the difference between communication objectives, advertising objectives and media objectives? What's the difference between advertising mix and media mix? Thanks already.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, October 04, 2003 ):
To address these in a logical order:

  • advertising objectives are broader and will include such details as message content and strategy
  • Media objectives are more specific to media planning and buying, including media budget, target, seasonality, geography, ad environment.
  • Communications objectives are narrower stiil, addressing such issues as reach / frequency levels and flighting

advertising mix includes media plus direct mail, collateral materials, promotion, etc. Media mix is a narrowed focus encompassing items like TV, Radio, Print, Online.


Monday, September 29, 2003 #6180
Dear Guru, This is further to my question on having a classfieds section in a marketing magazine with a niche readers community (i.e specifically from advertising/media/marketing/PR). The reason I asked this question was regarding Classfieds section, the advertisers you would be targeting would be very low budgeted and it happens that they are not aware of your magazine and its readership, as a seller, you know that you are going to provide the right kind of audience, but these advertisers generally do not get convinced or at times doubtful about advertising in a classifieds section with a frequency of monthly! how do you suggest to market it? or your opinion to have a classfieds section in a monthly magazine where the readers take their own time to read?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, October 04, 2003 ):
You need to assume that potential classified advertisers are either
1) your readers or
2) are interested in your readers.

The first group will be reached by in-book advertising. The second perhaps by listings in Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) and the like.


Friday, September 26, 2003 #6178
Dear Guru, How do you see the future of Digital Signage aka narrowcasting industry? Will it be able to grab a significant segment of the advertising market? What parts of traditional advertising budgets will suffer as a result of budget reallocation in favor of digital signage? What are the main obstacles to its advance?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, September 28, 2003 ):
Digital signage is likely only to displace a portion of out-of-home. Installation may always be too expensive to make it a true mass medium, although the impact in certain high traffic locations can be great.


Friday, September 26, 2003 #6176
Good day! I'm a 3rd year IE student working on a project on ad agenies. We would like to know the standard rates for television and print advertising in the Philippines. We would really appreciate it if you can give us the needed demographics. Thank you and God bless!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, September 28, 2003 ):
Try International Media Guide


Friday, September 19, 2003 #6164
Hi- Who creates the official broadcast calendar? As always, I have recieve several from my well meaning stations, but for 2004 they vary. If I want to go to the source, who would it be? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 20, 2003 ):
The two rules of the broadcast calendar are well established, no one source needs to create it each year:
  • A broadcast week is Monday through Sunday
  • A broadcast month ends on the last Sunday of the calendar month
These two rules enable anyone to publish an "official" broadcast calendar.

The Radio advertising Bureau (RAB) maintains downloadable broadcast calendars.


Thursday, September 18, 2003 #6162
a media plan for budweiser, including facts about target audience, advertising expenditures, and stastical data

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 20, 2003 ):
Why do you imagine this would be public data? Perhaps ione of the trade media has covered the brand in this detail. Try MediaWeek.


Wednesday, September 17, 2003 #6159
Do the networks (ABC, NBC & CBS) still offer regional advertising? Do many advertisers take advantage of this? Is it cost viewed as cost effective?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 20, 2003 ):
  1. Yes
  2. Define "many"
  3. Compared to what?


Wednesday, September 17, 2003 #6158
Would you be so kind to comment the effectiveness of advertising in DVD/VHS - films or on the boxing of such films. Are there any survies about this subject?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, September 19, 2003 ):
Unless there is a very strong association with the video content, the Guru thinks effectiveness is limited.

Try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Thursday, September 11, 2003 #6151
hi guru, i am student of Mass Media and as a part of project i have to study on the costing of advertising in news paper with respect to its units and colours and position...etc... can u please help me to understand it in a better way?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 11, 2003 ):
Your question is puzzling. Generally a bigger ad costs more than a smaller ad. A color ad costs more than a black and white ad. Specified positons cost more than run-of-press. Certain specific positions judged to have better visibility cost more. All this seems obvious.


Wednesday, September 10, 2003 #6149
In regards to buying spot tv and spot cable tv - At what point is it more efficient to plan in network buys to either replace or compliment spot buying? Is it the number of markets client has locations? Our client who places spot buys in 55 DMA's, cannot grasp the benefit of a more efficient buy on network and is stuck on having, what he calls "waste" in markets with no locations. Please help!! You have a GREAT site!!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 11, 2003 ):
Assuming you have the same weight goal (GRPs) in all markets, when the combined cost of your selected markets exceeds the cost of that weight level in network, network is more efficent. On this basis, "the waste" just becomes free advertising that does not matter. It is not a matter of the number of markets. One advertiser might have a budget for 55 small markets that wouldn't cover 10 large markets. If there are no locations in the other markets, ill will might be a problem, especially in consideration of future growth. Efficiency is simply not the only consideration.


Wednesday, September 10, 2003 #6148
I am trying to locating a listing, by city and state, of all coupon mags or magnet-mailed programs or magnet-newspaper programs. Can you help?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 11, 2003 ):
Try Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS). Consider their Community Publication advertising Source


Wednesday, September 10, 2003 #6147
I was wondering if there is any research on the subject of the wear out effect with large out of home objects like signs along the highway.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 11, 2003 ):
Outdoor advertising Association of America is the most likely resource. Otherwise, The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Tuesday, September 02, 2003 #6144
What is the size/scope of the network radio landscape? Describe number of outlets, expenditure, and top syndicated shows. Who were the top 10 advertising spenders in network radio last year (2002)?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 06, 2003 ):
See the Radio Marketing Factbook of the Radio advertising Bureau


Tuesday, September 02, 2003 #6143
Is the internet invisible with regard to marketing and advertsing effectiveness ?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 06, 2003 ):
No. There is much discussion and data regarding interent effectiveness. Start with The Internet advertising Bureau and NUA Internet Surveys


Wednesday, August 27, 2003 #6141
Could you explain the difference between "Continuity" and "Recency".

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 29, 2003 ):
It is not a matter of difference, per se. Recency is about being the latest advertising exposure seen by the consumer at the time of a purchase decision. Typically, this calls for a continuous rather than flighted-for-frequency schedule.

Click here to see Guru discussion of recency and continuity


Wednesday, August 20, 2003 #6133
I am looking for information on newspaper recall studeis. Where can I find information to prove that running one half page ad in a newspaper will generate better results than running 4 1/16 of a page ads?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, August 20, 2003 ):
The Guru believes you are wrong. 4 one-sixteenth page ads should create better recall than one half. The Guru recalls one such test comparing a one page ad magazine to two one-third page ads (Starch metrics).

Research resources would be Starch and The Newspaper advertising Association


Wednesday, August 20, 2003 #6132
Dear Guru, Where can I find out the information refer to the salary benchmark of agency positions (account director, media director, planner...), I accessed Adage, but couldn't find the info. for specific Asian countries. Could you please help? Thanks!!

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, August 23, 2003 ):
Consult the advertising trade media of the Asian countries you wish to consider, such as Hong Kong's Media


Sunday, August 17, 2003 #6128
Guru, I am looking for some research that will show the effectiveness of advertising on a cover positon on a print publication. I have looked through the Cahners research site and have found nothing. Any other suggestions?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 17, 2003 ):
Try The Magazine Publishers' Association, Newsweek Media Research Index and The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Saturday, August 16, 2003 #6126
Dear Guru, could you give me the maximum information about the advertising effectiveness of the tv clutters? I really need your help!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 17, 2003 ):
Try TV Bureau of advertising and The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Wednesday, August 13, 2003 #6124
We are a small consumer products marketer and are interested in advertising in some national magazines, ie Better Homes & Gardens etc. What's the best way to get the costs of advertising in this magazine and others. Because we are a small company our budget is low and we plan on doing this ourselves.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, August 13, 2003 ):
Get open rates at MRI+


Monday, August 11, 2003 #6122
Good afternoon, my name is Marcela and Iam from Costa Rica Iám in charge of the customer service department in my company call Exactus Software Development ...I know about your great reputation and I will really appreciate if you can help me with this questions: 1-Can you please explain to me in Spanish (please if this is possible) what is, and what are the steps to take to make a media plan? 2-Can you please explain to me a little bit of the content on this media plan 3-And when do you use this media plan, for example how is this use by an advertising Agency,consumers, and media..... Thanks a lot... Regards, Marcela Herrera

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 17, 2003 ):
Unfortunately, the Guru's service is only available in English.

1 & 2. Please begin by visiting the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan and Media Terms.

3. An agency uses the plan to determine which media will be bought to carry the advertser's message. A media plan is not used by consumers or media, although it does control the communication to which the consumer is exposed and the time or space the media sell.


Wednesday, August 06, 2003 #6110
Are there any good recent studies of ad effectiveness and response for print, specifically weekly or daily newspapers?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 10, 2003 ):
Try The Newspaper advertising Association and The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Wednesday, August 06, 2003 #6109
Here is the situation: I will be meeting with the event-manager for a large labor-day event and I am proposing that my company provide a "free entertainment venue" in return for at-no-cost advertising and media placements. Do you have any suggestions on what questions I should ask the event planner that would help me obtain optimal placements? In general, when negotiating sponsorships, etc. what types of questions should I ask? And what types of advertising opportunities at an event are possible to negotiate? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 10, 2003 ):
This depends on the nature of the event. Will it have signage on stadium walls, the floor of a boxing ring or elsewhere? Will it buy or trade for media space in which you can participate. This is all a matter of negotiation if they want what you offer.


Tuesday, August 05, 2003 #6106
What would be the best way to convince advertisers try digital signage advertising: show them CPM, CPP or other parameters?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, August 06, 2003 ):
Give sales results, such as change in sales of advertised products in the place where advertised. If the signs are in something like stores, this should be fairly easy.


Sunday, August 03, 2003 #6100
I work with a small but well-established African American weekly newspaper. I am seeking to contact as many media planners and buyer as possible to increase ad insertion orders. What is the best way to identify as many buyers and planners who may have either a general or specific interest in advertising in an African American newspaper. Also, is there a way to identify the correct person within an agency who should be contact to increase the likelihood of success in this quest.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, August 06, 2003 ):
Of course, AMIC is the place to reach media planners and within AMIC, Abbott Wool's Market Segment Resources is the area for those interested in ethnic media.

At some agencies, such as the many specializing in African American or multicultural advertsing, any media planner might be appropriate. At others, some are better prospects, but unless you have contacts who can identify them, the Guru can't suggest a method. You might consider buying lists from publications with apporpriate targets such as Black Enterprise magazine


Tuesday, July 29, 2003 #6095
Is there a rule of thumb as to how much a company should spend on media. Example: 1% of sales should be spent on communications. Is there any place that I can research these types of statistics? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 31, 2003 ):
No rule. See The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. for experiences.


Friday, July 25, 2003 #6094
Dear Guru, I'm preparing an analysis of "going dark" aka taking a hiatus for an entire quarter for an insurance client who is typically on air 4 quarters/year. Can you site some sources (besides the ARF) that have data on taking a hiatus of this length and it's effect on awareness levels?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 27, 2003 ):
Try TV Bureau of advertising, The Magazine Publishers' Association, The Newspaper advertising Association and The Radio advertising Bureau (RAB)


Thursday, July 24, 2003 #6093
Where can I find percent cost (not spending) increases for TV, magazines, newspapers, radio, outdoor, internet for each year 1999 to 2003?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 27, 2003 ):
The media and advertising trade media cover these data. See Ad Age and MediaWeek


Monday, July 21, 2003 #6088
Hello! I would like to know where I can find information about media planning, research and effectiveness in Out-Of-Home marketing, especially concerning pubs. Thank you very much! kaik.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 27, 2003 ):
Try Outdoor advertising Association of America and AMIC Bookstore (in association with Amazon.com)


Wednesday, July 16, 2003 #6082
How do i make a good advertising presentation to a new client? what titles and descriptions do i make?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 19, 2003 ):
See the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan


Monday, July 14, 2003 #6076
Is In Store Media exist in media category? What is the main objective of In Store Media then?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 19, 2003 ):
In store media is point-of-sale media (see POPAI (Point of Purchase advertising International)). The general idea is to make the last impression on a consumer at the moment of purchase.


Thursday, July 10, 2003 #6071
how should we measure the effectiveness of a media campaign? and secondly what shouls we include in post by analysis?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 14, 2003 ):
Ultimately, sales is the true standard of success. Of course it is difficult to ascribe advertising success to media alone. In a controlled test, when copy is constant, one may then judge the effect of variation in media executions.

Post analysis needs to examine delivery of stated, negotiated buying goals. You will probably have bought a quantity of GRPs by daypart. You may have specified programming and want to verify that your spots ran in taose programs, or you may have specified horizontal (days) and vertical (times) rotation ranges. It is improtant NOT to post on non-negotiated details, for example average rating size, if not specification for that was agreed.


Wednesday, July 09, 2003 #6070
We have a new client on our business who is trying to "make his/her mark" on the brand. I work on a national packaged goods account and the client is questioning our use of primetime as part of the network TV daypart mix. The client's argument is that he/she can buy more points in cheaper dayparts, and therefore is wanting an explanation of what prime "does" for the plan. Beyond showing R/Fs (where the reach goes down and the frequency goes up once prime is taken out) is there anything else I should do? Our theory has always been that prime has a higher attentiveness level but the client wants proof that higher attentive means more sales. I have also championed the idea that people who are more passionate about a particular show are more likely to be more interested in the ads running during that show, but again I have no proof for this. Any help would be greatly appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 14, 2003 ):
This theory is popular. Try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Tuesday, July 08, 2003 #6068
who handles Putnam Investments advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 14, 2003 ):
See AdWeek Directories


Tuesday, July 08, 2003 #6066
Hello Guru, I am a student and have to do my dissertation on product placement in videogames. I am interested in finding out whether the perception of the target audience changes after playing with different brands available in a game (ie GranTurismo => different cars). Can you advise me on any books or web sites where I could develop a bit more on this topic?. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 14, 2003 ):
Try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Friday, July 04, 2003 #6064
what is the cost of a billboard in bandra??

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 07, 2003 ):
Contact the local billboard company. Start with The Indian Yellow Pages 'Bandra outdoor' listing


Friday, July 04, 2003 #6062
Do you have any suggestions of where I could find research information about who enters contests on the internet?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 07, 2003 ):
Try The Internet advertising Bureau


Thursday, July 03, 2003 #6060
Hi Guru, I'm running a direct response radio campaign and wanted to find out if there has been any studies regarding an average response rate on this type of campaign. I wanted to find out if let's say I ran an average of 5-10 spots per day in a mix of morning, afternoon, and evening dayparts, how many calls should i expect to see? Thanks in advance for your help! k

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 07, 2003 ):
Ratings, daypart, offer, and copy strength are all other important variables. Try Direct Marketing Association (DMA) or The Radio advertising Bureau (RAB).


Tuesday, July 01, 2003 #6054
Where can I find TV advertising impact information for the consumables industry in the United States?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 07, 2003 ):
Even were there a generally accepted definition of impact Guru does not think there is a generally available source.


Sunday, June 29, 2003 #6049
Do you have any information on the effectiveness of radio dj endoresements?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 07, 2003 ):
Try The Radio advertising Bureau (RAB)


Wednesday, June 25, 2003 #6040
hi, I need to find a table with information about estimated advertising prices on the leading tv programs in the US. How much is a 30 sec. spot on the top rated programs. I know such information can be found on the net I just couldn't find it. would you know where? thanks andy

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 30, 2003 ):
These data change continuously. The major trade publications are the best source: Ad Age or MediaWeek


Saturday, June 21, 2003 #6029
Dear Guru, Please help me to clarify these issues : - What CPT and CPM stand for ? - Are the formulas to calculate them as follows : CPT=(Costx1000)/Impression CPM=(Costx1000)/Reach(000) - Impression and Reach in thousand are not the same,are they? Impression include duplication but the reach in thousand does not. Impression = Reach(000)x OTS? - Therefore, there must be different b/w CPT & CPM. But it seems that most books consider them as the same. - GRP = OTS x Reach (%)or GRP = Frequency x Reach (%)? - Does OTS have some meaning of impression? Since these issue confuse me now so much and I current get a stuck in preparing a report. Pls do reply me as soon as possible. Many thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 21, 2003 ):
You have tangled up several ideas and defintions. In different countries, some of these terms are used differently or not used. For example, in the Guru's base of the U.S., we do not use "opportunities to see (OTS)," and though you may be in Thailand, the Guru will not assume so.

CPM stands for cost per thousand impressions; the "M" is the Roman numeral M, meaning one thousand. CPT is not familiar in the US, but is probably another indicator of Cost per Thousand impressions.

The Guru most often sees "OTS" used as equivalent to "impressions" but sometimes as a reference to average frequency, so here are the simplest definitions.

"Impressions" are the number of advertising exposures, i.e. the number of different people exposed to advertising times the average number of occasions on which they are exposed. Thus, duplication is included.

"number of different people exposed" is equivalent to "reach."

"Number of occasions on which they are exposed" is equivalent to "frequency."

CPM is cost of advertising divided by impressions in thousands. Reach is not involved.

When reach is expressed as a percentage of a target group, then reach x frequency = GRP.


Monday, June 16, 2003 #6019
Im trying to build an advertising media kit for potential advertisers. are there any websites that have templates? What are the key points that have to be included? Cheers.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 21, 2003 ):
The Guru is unaware of on-line "templates" for this specific purpose, but probably most media have a media have a kit online to examine.

Key points to cover are rates, ad units / sizes, audience, editorial mission / content, as well as key dates for orders materials, and on sale (or the equivalent availability if not print).

Click here to see past Guru responses about media kits.


Sunday, June 15, 2003 #6016
hi Guru...how can i get specific info on in-store media effectiveness( like shelf talkers, category banners, shelf edges, gondolas etc..), rational behind recommending the same to client given the evolution and mushrooming nowadays with cluttered activities in all big stores and hyper markets.. i really need supporting info as well as success models "case studies"...Thx

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 15, 2003 ):
Try POPAI (Point of Purchase advertising International)


Thursday, June 05, 2003 #5998
Hi Guru. I'm with a graphic design firm that has been asked to help with a media plan for a small children's museum with a limited budget. Even though we design print ads, we are not usually asked to help with the media selection. I'm looking for sources of cost effective local print media, internet and possibly outdoor advertising aimed at generating visits from schools, families and tourists. Also, if this process is too daunting for a non-media planner, how do you recommend finding and evaluating a freelance media planner or small firm that offers this service and is familiar with our local market?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 07, 2003 ):
This is the work of a professional planner. Possible, but tedious, for others. For the local market, the yellow pages may held find one who can answer e few quesitons on the phone and establish an ability to do the required work. If your AMIC registration is the up-to-date, you may get some suggestions by email.


Monday, June 02, 2003 #5990
Media Guru: What is the carryover of awareness from one flight to the next? (with relatively little time between) How does the first flight affect the level of support necessary for the second flight? For instance, if the first flight achieves a target reach of 80%, I assume that your second flight could acheive the same reach at a lighter media level. Do you have any research on this? Please help! Thank you, Brooke

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 07, 2003 ):
The reach of a flight relates to the GRP and program dispersion. Given the same schedule, the same reach is achieved.

Awareness is not the same as reach, but of course there is a relationship; only those reached will have ad awareness.

Once a level of awareness is established, less weight may be necessary to maintain that awareness. One rule of thumb is a 10% decline in awareness in each week without advertising. From this, levels of added support can be planned. Much depends on the levels achieved and desired.


Monday, June 02, 2003 #5988
Question wrote at Wednesday, May 21, 2003 #5979: We’ve done an AdAwareness modeling and planning for 8 markets. And we require to do projection for other dozens of markets. The objective is to define the budget setting of each market based on our models. What’s the best approach we should look at? The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 24, 2003 ): It is not clear what the result of your "Awareness modeling" is. Does your model give you the weight to deliver by medium? In that case, you just need access to media costs by market. If not, your query needs clarification. The Awareness Modeling gave us the response function and we can do prediction based on the parameters we found (short/long term effect, decay, etc.) Up to now the awareness planning will help us to identify how much weight we need to get certain level of adawareness, and vice versa, how much adawareness we can get with our media weight. We're still consentrating in the aided TV adawareness modeling. The question is, how can we apply our modeling (8 markets) to any other market. As far as we understand, the response function and awareness modeling itself are applied only for the tracked Market respectively. Is there any successful case study for applying awareness modeling into other market which has no historical awareness data?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 02, 2003 ):
If you define your model as not applicable to other markets, you leave yourself with no options.

Try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Monday, June 02, 2003 #5987
The brand I work on has been a market leader in consumer durables for the last 2 decades. The brand values are extremely strong and it enjoys good loyality from customers.This brand is also identified by its unique and memorable advertising thru these years. But in the last 3 years intense competition has hit us on both pricing as well as image front, resulting in loosing brand strength end eroding market share. I would like to know if there are cases of brands that have bounced back with help of brand campaign that is driving towards creating preference and retaining loyality for the brand. Is there any website/book that you can recommend? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 02, 2003 ):
The Guru deals with Media planning/Media buying/Media research/Media department managment questions.


Thursday, May 22, 2003 #5982
I'm not sure whether I'm in the proper forum, but here goes: Advertisers for our trade publication use "lack of leads" as a common objection. We use a reader response system that does not generate a lot of leads. Our recent reader survey shows that readers overwhelmingly go to the Web or call the company directly (more than 60%) vs. using the reader response (5%). Here's the question: How do we overcome the objection that advertising in our trade publication is not generating enough leads to warrant the expense? We are an unaudited monthly, circ. about 8,000. Thanks for your help in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 24, 2003 ):
  1. Arrange (wtih the advertisers) a test. Give something to any lead who mentions your book when contacting the advertiser
  2. Develop a system that supports lead generation: direct readers to a page on your web site that sends the inquiry to the advewrtsier and again, reward the inquirer, somehow, perhaps a contest entry


Thursday, May 22, 2003 #5980
Dear Guru, My Client insists on using celebrities in ad campaigns of his brands. The main objective is to encrease brand awareness significantly. How can we evaluate whether using celebrities is more cost effective than just investing into direct advertising. Not taking into consideration other celebrities values like distiction, trust etc. Thanks in advance

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 24, 2003 ):
Testing seems to be the answer. Try a campaign with no celebrity in a control market and compare results vs costs. If awareness (not sales) is your only standard, then a laboratory copy test shouyld be sufficient. Either way, this is not a media question.


Wednesday, May 21, 2003 #5978
Dear Guru, Iam doing an assignment on marketing just needed to know What media constitute 'main media advertising'? and what media constitutes 'direct and online marketing'? where I can find some info on main media advertising. Thanx heaps

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 24, 2003 ):
"Main media" may merely be a reference to the largest budgeted media of a plan. It is not a standard media term.

"Direct marketing" is messaging that may use direct mail or print or broadcast ads. In any case, the distinction is that the ad asks for audience response in the form of an immediate purchase or info request back to the advertiser by sending in an included reply form or calling a telephone number.

"Online marketing" relies on message delivery via the internet.


Saturday, May 17, 2003 #5975
Guru, I am currently completing a Masters degree in Communications. My major paper will explore the future of advertising. I am searching for research in relation to the impact Wireless marketing has had, and will have on the advertising industry. Moreover, where things are headed. The reshaping of Ad agencies and the new advertising mediums marketers will utilise in the future. Could you please advise if you could assist in locating such research? Thank you. Damian Creighton

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 18, 2003 ):
Start with The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Tuesday, May 13, 2003 #5972
Two questions: 1) WHere can I find information that lists the upcoming market research conferences/seminars/events, especially in terms of advertising or media industries. 2. Do you have a list of all the market research companies focusing on media (TV/Radio/)

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 15, 2003 ):
The Guru deals with Media planning/Media buying/Media research/Media department managment questions.

There are dozens of market research companies that deal with audience research and other media-related issues.

The NY AMA Greenbook is the best source of listings.


Tuesday, May 13, 2003 #5970
what is media advertising

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 17, 2003 ):
Assuming you know what "media" means and what "advertising" means, the Guru is at a loss to understand your question. Assuming you dont't know the definition of these two terms, the Guru wonders how you found your way here to ask your question. So perhaps a clarification of your question is needed, Possibly you want to know the distinction of "media advertising" from some related term?


Monday, May 12, 2003 #5969
Dear Guru, I need to know the costs for early evening and daytime television advertising costs and alos magazine ad costs

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 17, 2003 ):
See SQAD for TV costs. MRI+ is a good source of magazine rates.


Monday, May 12, 2003 #5968
I bought radio and TV for 2 years for an advertising agency but I'm brand new to media planning. I'm now a Media Director and responsible for the direction of our advertising campaign. What resources do you recommend using to figure out which mediums to buy based on our product and demo, and how much to spend in each medium? I have purchased "advertising Medium Planning" by Sissors and Baron. Is this a good book? What else do you recommend? I have to target an upscale, adults 35+ demographic audience. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 18, 2003 ):
MRI and Simmons are source of information about media audiences and product users. The Mendelsohn Media Research Affluent Study focuses similar data on the affluent market.

Communications strategy may come out of these data and experienced judgment. See also the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan and the Guru's media strengths page


Monday, May 12, 2003 #5967
Hi...our home improvement company advertises on TV, radio and newspaper in 9 markets. We include a phone number in all of our advertising for people to call if they're interested in our products. We track the advertising source for all incoming calls and make all advertising decisions based on which mediums (and individual stations/publications) are producing the phone calls. No annual media planning is done at all (we don't even have set budgets) and advertising is cancelled and ordered haphazardly on a weekly basis based on these numbers. I believe, however, that you can't accurately track this because 1) TV and radio take time to take effect with public 2) people may have seen the ad on 3 different TV stations or 3 different mediums but only report they saw it on one. Do you think there is any merit to this tracking system? I've never heard of any ad agencies doing this and wonder if it's a waste of time and effort, not to mention advertising dollars. Thank you!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 18, 2003 ):
The Guru agrees. At best you track the last ad people saw. Such tracking overstates the impact of Yellow Pages in many cases.


Friday, May 09, 2003 #5964
Dear Guru Would be interested in knowing if you have any info on online advertising models for financial clients. Any iformation pertaning to the approach for online advertising for financial clients would be welcome Thanks in Advance Johann

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 11, 2003 ):
Sometimes the Guru wonders at the use of the buzzword "model," apparently meant to make an approach seem formularized. A "reach model," for instance, is a mathematical formula meant to take variables and produce a reach number based on past variables that actually produced a measured reach result. The intended result of a media plan is not so quantifiable when you specify that it is for a particular category. The key is the result intended, this will change according to the narrow category as well as other factors.

A promotional plan to sell bonds to consumers would be quite different than a branding plan for a full service "big 5" accounting firm.

The "model" if any is based on consideration of goals and strategies such as target, and communication strategies. See the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan.


Tuesday, May 06, 2003 #5961
We've been given the opportunity to make a media proposal to put together the total advertising plan for a major motion picture. Can you help me understand what the most effective "model" for marketing a movie, including all of the different media which should be used? Help!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 11, 2003 ):
Unlike other products for which we do media planning, a nice thing about movies is that their success or failure is immediately, publicly and quantifiably known.

The Guru would examine the plans used by recent films, based on ad spend tracking resources such as CMR (Competitive Media Reports) and correlate these with published data on opening week box-office (after that, the "product qualiity" and reviews may be more of a factor thanb the advertsing). Of course other factors like star power come into it, but correcting for spending variance some rules of thumb could probably be set.


Monday, May 05, 2003 #5958
I would like to know the history of sandwich board advertising--what was the first message and when? Where was it used and where can I find a picture of it? I've searched the Internet and cannot find any information pertaining to the above. Thanks--KLS

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 06, 2003 ):
Hanging a sign out in front of or near the store is not quite media, even if it's two signs one on the fron and one on the back of a person in the street. There is probably history on this somewhere, but perhaps not as "advertising."


Thursday, May 01, 2003 #5955
I am in a marketing class at Legacy HIgh School. We are researching advertising on T.V. and cable. I was wondering if you knew the demographics of the media, the pro and cons, and the costs/rates/how it is sold?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 04, 2003 ):
You are asking for the world, which the Guru has covered in thousands of queries. Go to the Guru Archives Search Engine. Use your topics as your search terms.


Friday, April 25, 2003 #5952
I'm looking for any data about double spots in one break - if such startegy improves memorability and awareness

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, April 26, 2003 ):
Try TV Bureau of advertising aqnd The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Thursday, April 24, 2003 #5948
Dear Guru, I am curious about the impact & reliability of pricing in the network upfronts. I have heard that Wall Street tends to over focus on this metric, and the networks encourage this. Are there some reliable general trends in advertising that follow a strong/weak upfront season?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 24, 2003 ):
It's somewhat like the stock market. The upfront depends on what the players think will happen. They are sometimes right.


Tuesday, April 22, 2003 #5945
I am trying to convince a personal injury law firm that they have oversaturated daytime television (court & talk shows) with their advertising. They regularly run in the same broad time period on each station daily. I am recommending cutting back a small percentage and spend it else where to build their reach. They are afraid to loose their dominant position. My question is, how do you determine overkill?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 24, 2003 ):
How did they determine that people who have injuries will watch these programs? HAve they looked at / understood reach and frequency, IF this is the right programming?


Wednesday, April 16, 2003 #5939
i'm doing a paper on advertising media. what would you say are the main points to concisely include? cheers guru.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, April 21, 2003 ):
See the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan


Monday, April 14, 2003 #5934
Dear Guru: I am in "job transition" and am interested in attaining a job in Radio advertising Sales.I have 10 yrs. of outside sales experience in B2B sales and believe that I will be very effective, given an opportunity. Thanks for any inofrmation you can pass on to me.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, April 14, 2003 ):
NY TImes classified, Trade media classified.


Sunday, April 13, 2003 #5931
I am looking for information about various marketing strategies and medias. Specifically, I am interested in finding data on what percentage of companies adopt the giveaway and free sample marketing strategy? Is there any place I can view the breakdown of marketing (or advertising) by media (i.e. sponsorship, tv, etc.)?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, April 14, 2003 ):
See "Coen Report"


Wednesday, April 09, 2003 #5928
I am looking for articles appropriate for a high school class doing a promotional media project that will either present thought provoking or challenging ideas about promotional media. would such articles exist at their level?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 13, 2003 ):
It is not clear to the Guru what you mean by "promotional" media. If you mean what he would call advertising media, any of the industry trade publications like MediaWeek or Media ought to be readable by high school students. Articles written outside the trade are generally inaccurate or sensationalized.


Tuesday, April 08, 2003 #5922
Hey Guru, I'm doing a presentation on TV advertising. Where can I find some info on the history of TV advertising, specifically how it was planned, etc. My e-mail is kyle.myers@teamoneadv.com

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, April 11, 2003 ):
Look for old planning texts like the original Sissors book, in AMIC Bookstore (in association with Amazon.com)


Sunday, April 06, 2003 #5921
media guru i am trying to find information on magazine ad costs. i have enlisted the help of www.mriplus.com and that is the info i can find online. would you know of anywhere else online i can find valuable info concerning ad costs pertaining to specific magazines?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, April 07, 2003 ):
Try individual magazine's web sites. Most have a "media kit" or "advertising" area. The link is often tiny, at the bottom of the home page.


Wednesday, April 02, 2003 #5916
During the summmer months radio advertising picks up and becomes more effective compared to television advertising. Is this because more people are out of their homes driving their cars and listening to the radio? What is the number one reason that people listen to radio more in the summer months?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, April 02, 2003 ):
In fact, they don't.

This summer peak in radio listening behavior is a commonly believed myth. See Arbitron's 'Radio Today'


Thursday, March 27, 2003 #5909
Dear Guru, I'm curious, as a media planner, buyer, how can I utilize information about a radio stations P1s and P2s to produce a more efficient and effective buy. Also,is this info readily available? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 30, 2003 ):
P1 and P2 are Arbitron concepts and are available in Arbitron data.

If you have made a value judgement about P1 and P2 such as the idea that the people among listeners to a station for whom it is first preference (P1) are an advertising audience reached more effectively, then you can evaluate the station in an additional way regarding its efficiency in your buy and perhaps have an advantage if you can justify a lower priced station, not that the Guru endorses this approach.

For details about interpeting P1 / P2, see Arbitron's How to read a P1 report.


Tuesday, March 25, 2003 #5905
How would you define Network Radio?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 30, 2003 ):
Network radio is programming and advertising carried on a groups of affiliated stations which are "line connected," that is they recieve the material by wire systems or satellite signals. This is to be distinguished from "unwired network" or "rep network" which generally is simply a packaged advertsing buy on a large list of unaffiliated stations.


Monday, March 24, 2003 #5901
reagrding media directors....what are their responsiblities, what kind of education is needed for the position, what is the history of this career, what is the pay range?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 30, 2003 ):
The Media Director is the head of the agency department which is responsible for media planning, media research and media buying.

The Guru would guess that most in the US have a BA in arts of social sciences, nowadays including many who majored in advertising or communications, although the Guru himself, a media director for over 20 years, is a sociologist.

For salaries, see the annual salary survey in Ad Age.

Click here to see past Guru responses


Friday, March 21, 2003 #5895
What are the benefits of outdoor advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 22, 2003 ):
the Guru's media strengths page


Thursday, March 20, 2003 #5890
what is it?- Direct Respond advertising

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 22, 2003 ):
This is advertising such as Direct Mail with a response card or TV infomercials with a toll-free telephone ordering number, which asks the audience to immediately place an order when the see the ad. This is different from brand building, awareness building or retail promotion.


Sunday, March 16, 2003 #5880
What is Integrated Media Marketing? Can you give me articles on Integrated Media Marketing?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 16, 2003 ):
Try MediaPost or The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Saturday, March 15, 2003 #5879
Dear Mr. Guru, Which method is more effective? Should an advertiser change its advertising to gear more towards a segment of the demograph that is low in sales, or should they increase the number of ads geared towards the segment that is high? For example, if Company A is having low sales for the entire female demo, but the product is not male orientated. Should Company A try to stimulate the female demograph or increase advertising for male demo because they are buying and using the product. Thanks, Brad Maglinger

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 16, 2003 ):
The more common tactic is going after the high index segment. This might vary if a brand had 100% in the high user segment and need to look elsewhere for new users, or had some other reason that non-users were the best new prospects.


Saturday, March 15, 2003 #5877
Dear Guru: Can you tell me which advertising agencies handle ad placements for movies. Thanks you.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 16, 2003 ):
Any agency might do so if movies appeared to be the right vehicle; it's not a specialty.


Saturday, March 08, 2003 #5871
Dear Guru, I encounter some more questions which I am unsure. I learnt that we can calculate combined reach of different media vehicles in one medium and combined reach of different media (e.g. TV, Magazine etc.) and same for frequency. However, how can I applied tohse in an advertising flowchart? where I need to indicate monthly reach, monthly frequency and GRPs for different media vehicles+media (?) To do it manually, do we really calculate first combined reach and frequency of all media vehicles within 1 medium first than use the final combined reach % to calculate with other media to get the Montly reach & frequency & grps in the adv flowchart....it will be quite tedious....I am confused...please help!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 09, 2003 ):
The Guru does not understand your confusion. You say you understand how to calculate the reach of several vehicles in one medium and how to combine the reaches of several media.

One thing you must understand is that reach is always calculated over a specified period of time. The standard period is four weeks. Often, when print is the only medium involved, one month is used because this is virtually the same as four weeks and monthly magazines fit readily. However, it should be recognized that variations in issue dates muddy the time cycle, and that monthly magazines' audiences cume over a longer period than one month.

In any case, whether the flow chart is divided into 12 months or 13 four-week periods, the process is simply a matter of looking at the schedule that will run in each of these periods and calculating the R/F/GRP for each. The is not any kind of standard that establishes that a flow chart should show R&F for every month. When schedules are fairly consistent, it is probably more common to show the average 4-week R&F within each quarter, or whatever is needed to give a clear understanding of the plan's communications levels.

And yes, if you are doing the work manually, it is tedious.


Friday, February 28, 2003 #5861
Hi Guru, Our company is planning to launch an advertising vehicle whereby clients can have their messages inserted into e-mails that are distributed to the databases of radio & TV stations. Do you have any information on what an appropriate CPM would be to charge advertisers and to pay stations for this targeted delivery? Any information would be appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 02, 2003 ):
Sounds like spam to the Guru; the Guru does not support spamming.


Thursday, February 27, 2003 #5860
Dear Media Guru - My client has asked me to propose a media market test scenario. How should I go about selecting a test market and what is an acceptable heavy-up for media in the test market, assuming we would test the effectiveness of higher weight levels? What other factors should I consider? Is there any literature out there I should look at? Thanks! .d. Media Planner, Dallas, Texas

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 02, 2003 ):
Test markets traditionally reject the largest ands smallest 10 or som markets, because they are more atypical, and of courxe, the largest are more expensive to test. Nielsen and Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) have market guides. You will want to decide which factors matter. Is the market typical in presence of the media types you will use, such as # of tv or radio or cable or newspaper outlets? Is the age or econimic or ethnic mix typical of the US or your eventual marketing area?

The Guru recommends a one-third increment heavy-up as the minimum for testing.

There is extensive literature, try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. and Newsweek Media Research Index


Tuesday, February 25, 2003 #5855
What is know about advertising effectiveness during a wartime. Any suggestions on how to advise clients that have flights planned in the next 4-6 weeks?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 02, 2003 ):
First you are asking the Guru to predict when war might occur; as the govermnant folk would say, that responsibility is 'above the Guru's pay-grade."

No doubt any given ad campaign's effectiveness would vary in time of war. This does not mean that campaigns can not be adjusted to consider these changes. Some product types, e.g. the frivolous, might be inescapably less marketable, but that's not really about the effectivenss of advertising, is it?


Sunday, February 23, 2003 #5851
I have been asked to comment on the agency's performance on media buying and planning for their year end review. Can you provide hints on what I should look for or comment on for each discipline Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 02, 2003 ):
Are you commenting as a client or as an agency manager, it might change the questions or priorities? For buying, the issue is delivering the goals specified and measured. I.e.
  • GRP levels specified
  • Media mix specified
  • Pricing
. Media buying performance is driven by planning and the planners' ability to clearly convey goals. That is, don't fault your buyers if someone else claims to get better prices. Perhaps the planners specifications called for some schedule qualities that require higher-priced choices, or budgets were released to the buyers without enough time to negotiate or after the 'good stuff' was sold out.

In other words, look at the whole picture. Evaluate planners ability to translate advertising goals into specific media goals / strategies / tactics. The look at how this was translated into buying goals to assure the buyers delivered what was needed. If prices seem high, did the planners insist on / help buyers' estimating best prices.

If you are agency management, you may also be interested in how the planning and buying interfaces with account management, traffic and production.


Thursday, February 20, 2003 #5847
We are a small advertising agency in New York and would like to pitch some larger accounts. Is it possible to partner with larger media buying companies (like Interpublic or Mindshare) to help leverage purchasing clout for our clients? Also, how would we go about this? Thanks for you help.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 23, 2003 ):
Just call and ask. Keep in mind that "clout" is more than size


Thursday, February 13, 2003 #5831
Hi Media Guru. I find your website very helpful indeed. I have queries on special advertising supplements in Newspapers. If the supplement focus and topic is relevant to a Client's product. What are the considerations a planner need to justify Should or Should NOT advertise in the supplement. Would missing an ad in the supplement make any difference? Budget is not an issue. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 17, 2003 ):
Most importantly, will the supplement add audience? Will it self-select a better prospect? Will its editorial content make the ad more impactfuL?


Wednesday, February 12, 2003 #5829
Where can i find information and statistics regarding floor advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 17, 2003 ):
Start with SignPost


Wednesday, February 12, 2003 #5828
Guru, can you please advise me if you have any information as to impact of advertising based on position within television commercial break. I am looking for information that can be derived without paying for membership to an association or resource center.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 17, 2003 ):
Try trade publication archives or MediaPost


Tuesday, February 11, 2003 #5827
when should magazine advertising be used

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 17, 2003 ):
See the Guru's media strengths page


Saturday, February 08, 2003 #5818
Dear Guru: Is there any book or article that explain deeply the relation between sport lenght, media weight and advertising awareness? Thanks in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 17, 2003 ):
Any media planning book might touch upon this subject, See AMIC Bookstore (in association with Amazon.com)


Monday, February 03, 2003 #5797
Dear Guru: Need your opinion on the following real life problem. Let us say there are about 30 beer brands in my market with some advertising, and about 6 or 7 of them advertise very heavily (about 400 GRPs weekly for a 8-10 week flight). Their flights come one after another and cover the whole season, so that during the season at any time there are 2 heavy advertisers on air. Say I have a similar budget as any of the heavy advertisers. What will happen if I decide to use Recency and spread my 3600 GRPs evenly throughout the whole season? How in this case will my 133 weekly GRPs be able to compete with 800 weekly GRPs of my 2 competitors? I hope my message is not too confusing. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 03, 2003 ):
Just to speculate in the extreme:

Your brand might be #2 all year, while heavy advertiser A is #1 half the time and #20 when not advertising. Advertiser B will be #1 the rest of the time and #21 when not advertising. Who is best off? Perhaps #2 all the time? Realsitically, if you can average 133 while others are much higher, where are you in the competitive set, anyway?


Sunday, February 02, 2003 #5796
Dear Guru: A Recency question. Suppose I have 1 competitor. Suppose both of us use Recency for the advertising strategy at approximately the same level of, say, 35% weekly reach. What do you think is the effect of such strategy on the market? What if there are not 2 but 4 or 5 competitors using the same strategy? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 03, 2003 ):
Recency is just a communications strategy. Competitive environment is a separate issue. Recency theory may set a threshhold value of 35 reach, but the essence is in the continuity, not low levels. Competitive pressure may dictate a higher level.


Sunday, February 02, 2003 #5795
Dear Guru: I have seen the terms "adstock" and "half life" mentioned a number of times, but I did not find any staightforward definitions of these term. Will appreciate your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 03, 2003 ):
The Guru does not recognize either as media terms. The actual term "half life" refers to the time it takes half of the radioactivity in a radioactive object to decay. The Guru is not aware of this term as a standard media usage, though it might be applied to something like awareness decline after advertising stops.


Sunday, February 02, 2003 #5793
Who is the president of the Dentsu, Inc. advertising agency, located in Tokyo, and what is the agency's annual billings?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 03, 2003 ):
The Guru deals with Media planning/Media buying/Media research/Media department managment questions.


Sunday, February 02, 2003 #5792
How much money did AOL Time Warner spend on advertising in 2001?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 03, 2003 ):
Try CMR (Competitive Media Reports)


Sunday, February 02, 2003 #5791
I have to create a structured 52 week media plan for an online travel company. My main media objective is to generate traffic to the website. As this is an academic assignment I have to include media theory are there any articles on offline advertising to generate online response that you could recommend. Also in your experience what is the best media for generating online intrest offline. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 03, 2003 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses about traffic building. Generally, traditional media in the same category are best for bulding web traffic, in the Guru's opinion.


Wednesday, January 29, 2003 #5777
Where can I find information on the current media strategy for Buzz Airline? Also, what are Buzz's media objectives?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 01, 2003 ):
It takes considerable data gathering and analysis to determine the media strategy being used by an advertiser. For starters, one must be certain all advertising and geography is accounted for, which by itself is nearly impossible through published sources. Then there is the analytical work, which the Guru is simply not going to do every time someone asks about another one of the millions of possible advertisers worldwide.


Wednesday, January 29, 2003 #5776
how to analyse a media strategy

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 01, 2003 ):
It takes considerable data gathering and analysis to determine the media strategy being used by an advertiser, if that is what you mean. For starters, one must be certain all advertising and geography is accounted for, which by itself is nearly impossible through published sources.

Once you have complete details of all advertising run, you determine who is in the audience of this advertising to learn who the advertser wants to reach. It can be quite difficult. You won't at first know whether vehicles are chosen for age/gender appeal, income skew or efficiency of box-car numbers. Complete correlations are necessary. Then the relative spending and scheduling must be considered, as well as geographic allocation and competitive picture.


Wednesday, January 29, 2003 #5772
Dear Guru I work in the media department at Lowe in the Middle East. We are always looking for new research studies which can be used as a back up in presentations since the research available here is always dated. I was wondering if there is any research on press (Specifically newspapers) which would tell us something on left v/s right page, justification of premium for a front page solus v/s inside pages etc. Thanks for your help regards Deepak Gandhi

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 01, 2003 ):
The Newspaper advertising Association is one US source. Starch is another. This kind of data is likely to be somewhat culturally specific, however. The Guru imagaine that languages which are read left to right will have different results that languages read right to left.


Tuesday, January 28, 2003 #5767
What ismBlockbuster current media Strategy?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 01, 2003 ):
It takes considerable data gathering and analysis to determine the media strategy being used by an advertiser. For starters, one must be certain all advertising and geography is accounted for, which by itself is nearly impossible through published sources. Then there is the analytical work, which the Guru is simply not going to do every time someone asks about another one of the millions of possible advertisers worldwide.


Monday, January 27, 2003 #5766
What percentage of a furniture store's sales is used to determine advertising spending? I have seen it anywhere from 3% to 15%. Is there a standard or an average that is used?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 01, 2003 ):
Rather an obscure question, and not a media issue.


Monday, January 27, 2003 #5765
Could You tell, please, about ad in the lifts of the corporate buildings? How to estimate productivity of such ad? Thank You.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 01, 2003 ):
If the ad is highly targeted to denizens of the specific building, it might be quite productive. For example, for a retailer on the ground floor or the same block. For more general advertising, there are probably many, far better options.


Thursday, January 23, 2003 #5756
Dear Guru, I am urgently in need of some past advertising information for skoda. Could you please tell me where they have advertised in previous years and how their strategy has affected the recent turnaround of the brand's image and consumer perception. Many thanks in advance. Steve

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 26, 2003 ):
See CMR (Competitive Media Reports)


Thursday, January 23, 2003 #5754
are there any advertising agency in Kuwait? if yes which ones

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 26, 2003 ):
Click here for a list of agencies in Kuwait.


Wednesday, January 22, 2003 #5748
i am currently carrying out a project where we have to choose a particular industry where we disagree with their current media strategy. the industry i have chosen has very limited advertising and i was wondering if there are any relevant media theories that agree or disagree with this strategy?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 26, 2003 ):
It is not likley that there is a theory calling for limited advertising, per se, as an on-going practice. Theories about ROI or not spending more than can produce appropriate revenue might apply. Limited advertising is more likley to be a matter of marketing decisions made before media strategies come inot play.


Tuesday, January 21, 2003 #5747
Dear Guru, i understand that ROP means any ordinary position within a publication. Does this term also imply anything about the color in any markets? I ask this because someone in Japan told me that "in Japan and in the rest of world", ROP means the above meaning PLUS 2 colors. Can you settle our disagreement?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 26, 2003 ):
Newspapers in the US use the phrase "ROP color" for describing units including color and positioned as ROP the way you refer to it. ROP stands for Run of Press, meaning withing the ordinary pages of a paper. The color reproduciton quality possible by this method, whether two-color or four-color is less than what can be achieved on the slicker pages and diiffereing production methods of Sunday supplements or pre-print inserts. See the production specs of the Everett, WA Herald as an example.

"The rest of the world" is a bit too broad a scope for the Guru to know in all its details, but The TImes of London seems to eschew the term "ROP" and say "colour" when they mean colour.


Sunday, January 19, 2003 #5743
hi,i want some advertising research sites.can you help me? thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 19, 2003 ):
AMIC or A good resource is Cahners Business Information or Newsweek Media Research Index


Friday, January 17, 2003 #5742
Guru- In the trade magazine category, typically what percent coverge will the primary magazine provide, and what additional reach is provided by subsequent magazines? There used to be a study on this by CARR (Cahners advertising Research Reports), I can't seem to find them anymore. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 18, 2003 ):
One can't expect there to be a "typical" answer to such a question. If a category is large and highly competitive, there will be numerous magazines. If the category is small it will not support many. In the first case, such as computer industry publications, the largest may reach 20% and two dozen others range from 18% to half a percent.

A smaller category migh support only two publications, with one reaching 75% and the other adding another 15 or 20%.


Thursday, January 16, 2003 #5736
I'm an MBA student working on an independent study for a local publication. I'm wondering if there is either a free, or fee-based service/agency, that would provide a summary of dollars and pages of advertising in the Nashville market. My preference is that the information would be broken down by type of publication and by industry advertising trends over a couple of years. Thanks so much.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 18, 2003 ):
See CMR (Competitive Media Reports) or Nielsen MonitorPlus


Thursday, January 16, 2003 #5734
Last year i worked for a major outdoor contractor, however due to massive downfalls in the UK advertising market, I lost my job. Now, after a break, I am ready to go back into media but this time I want to be in media planning and buying rather than sales. I want to know Guru how creative scope is within these roles? Also, my mathamatical brain is not too hot! how badly will this affect my chances of landing a job?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 18, 2003 ):
Planning is primarily about ideas, buying about execution, so creativity would logically be more a part of planning.

Buying uses arithmetic, planning uses algebra and statistics, though both do it with computers these days. A good planner might be building models in spreadsheets, which call for some mathematical understanding. Mathematical ability is more likely to be an advancement problem issue than a hiring issue. In the Guru's opinion a seller negotiator migh be better suited to convert to buying than to planning.


Tuesday, January 14, 2003 #5731
i'm trying to find a source to provide specific information regarding national sales for exercise (specifically yoga) video sales by year, since 1999. i was told that you might be able to steer me in the right direction.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 18, 2003 ):
There was a 1996 estimate by the apparently now defunct "Special Interest Video Association of $1 billion annual sales for fitness/ aerobic, etc. videos. Though some may carry advertising, this is not really a media question.


Monday, January 06, 2003 #5718
what are the best and worst methods of advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 12, 2003 ):
The worst is easy: SPAM.

Best really depends on your goals. Some media are better for some target or message types or desired responses.

Begin at the Guru's media strengths page


Saturday, January 04, 2003 #5715
Dear Guru: Are there any studies showing the relationship between advertising exposure frequency and sales? Does the effective frequency theory deal with the exposure-sale relationship, or rather exposure-awareness relationship? And in the latter case, is there any study showing the connection between awareness and sales? Thanks, R.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 04, 2003 ):
Try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Friday, January 03, 2003 #5713
Looking for published reports, relative to effective frequency and effective messaging--need the third party validation--Help?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 03, 2003 ):
Go to the Guru Archives Search Engine. Use "effective frequency" and "effective messaging" as your search term.

The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter is always a good source. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656,


Friday, January 03, 2003 #5712
Dear Guru I am trying to find information on effective frequency and the 3+ frequency theory. Can you help? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 03, 2003 ):
Go to the Guru Archives Search Engine. Use "effective frequency" as your search term.

The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter is always a good source. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656,


Wednesday, January 01, 2003 #5711
what are the difference between tv, radio and prind advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 01, 2003 ):
See the Guru's media strengths page.


Tuesday, December 31, 2002 #5709
average CTRs for rich media

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 04, 2003 ):
Try The Internet advertising Bureau


Tuesday, December 31, 2002 #5708
Looking for published research on effective messaging, effective frequency--general, and medium specific.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, December 31, 2002 ):
Try the various associations, such as The Radio advertising Bureau (RAB), TV Bureau of advertising, as well as The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Monday, December 30, 2002 #5707
To set up a rough budget for a prospective client, I need to get adv. rates from 9 cable networks. This is my first pass at this, so I am only interested in 3 day parts-"run of show" (6A to 12A, Mon-Fri), 9A to 6P Sat.& Sun., 6P to 12A Mon. thru Sun. Are these day parts descriptions too vague to get a usefule response? Where do I find the phone #'s for the major cable networks to ask for this information?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, December 30, 2002 ):
The cable networks are likely not to have pricing set up according to your time parameters. However, they will certainly have hours or program unit prices as building blocks with which to construct the averages you want.

All the major cable nets have websites which should have advertising contact information, for example, ESPN, A & E or USA Network.

For some reason, "advertising info" is typically a link in tiny type at the bottom of a media vendor's home page.


Monday, December 30, 2002 #5706
In print advertising, when "cover 3" is referred to, is that the inside back cover or Page 3?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, December 30, 2002 ):
Inside back cover.


Monday, December 23, 2002 #5703
Do you have any articles on these medias planning theories: *treating on-line media in the same way (applying the same standards) as traditional media, *incorporating minority segments, and *optimization across media types. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, December 23, 2002 ):
For on-line media, see The Internet advertising Bureau and The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

For incorporating multicultural segments, trade media such as Black Enterprise and Hispanic Magazine have covered this extensively. For more media-specific data see our own publishers' Hispanic Market Weekly Media and Research articles.

For multimedia optimization, look at our sister company's eTelmar / IMC.


Thursday, December 19, 2002 #5698
Is there any industry research that looks at readership of newspapers during holiday weeks...specifically the week of Christmas and the Week of New Years?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, December 21, 2002 ):
Nothing standardized, but see Journal of advertising Research and The Newspaper advertising Association.


Wednesday, December 18, 2002 #5696
advertising rates for each media

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 19, 2002 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses about rates


Wednesday, December 18, 2002 #5692
Dear Guru: What is the correlation between ad awareness and brand awareness? Thanks, R.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 19, 2002 ):
That there is a correlation seems obvious, but there are many intervening variables for which to control.

Try Journal of advertising Research.


Sunday, December 15, 2002 #5684
Where can I find information regarding advertising research

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, December 15, 2002 ):
The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Wednesday, December 11, 2002 #5674
I am from India. Today the Conditional Access Bill was passed in India for pay channel. My questions are 1) How does a set top box to allow access to pay channels works, 2) Cost, 3) How measured ( sampling etc), and 4)Issues that might arise during the change over period. Your inputs will be very valuable.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, December 15, 2002 ):
These things work differently in different countries. Set top boxes are individually addressable and have circuitry that can be activated from the transmitting companies' "head end" to allow a pay channel to be viewed.

Measurement on a household basis is simple, since the computers have a record of exactly who ordered. It's a census, not a sample

Since these are not advertising-supported broadcasts, measurement details are not usually in great demand. Consumers' cost is market-based/ IN the US, packages or "tiers" of paid and free channels may cost form US$5.00 to US$50.00

The relevant key issue is drain on advertising supported programs audience. In the US, some programs on subscription-based, non-advertising-supported networks have outperformed any free program, for example the recent season-ending episode of HBO's The Sopranos.


Tuesday, December 10, 2002 #5670
What is MTV's past and present media strategy? What advertising have they done since they were launched in 1981?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, December 15, 2002 ):
See CMR (Competitive Media Reports)


Monday, December 02, 2002 #5652
Where can I find A-Z information on co operative advertising programs?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, December 02, 2002 ):
Click here to see Guru comment on Co-op


Wednesday, November 27, 2002 #5650
I'm trying to get a good comparison of competitive advertising spending programs- specifically CMR, Nielsen, Voicetrak, and Competitrak. Do you know of any comparison that can help me make a decision for one or the other? Thank you-

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, December 01, 2002 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses about competitive tracking.. Overall, you can get enough information to compare from the four resources' web sites.

Nielsen and CMR are the most similar, tracking across all media. Voicetrak specializes in local media and Competitrack, which began with financial advertising, still specializes in limited categories.


Wednesday, November 27, 2002 #5649
How can I optimize a media plan based on advertising response curve???

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, December 01, 2002 ):
If your advertising response curve is assumed to be "S" shaped (as in many published studies), this means there are diminshing returns as frequency (repeated exposure) is added after an optimal point.

One approach to optimization on this basis might be to begin building reach in the most effective medium, and add the next most effective medium at the point of diminishing returns of the first. Then, the added exposures would be more likely to hit a previously unexposed group of prospects.

This assumes you will base your judgement of "most effective medium" on the one which generates the most results (sales / awareness / perception change, etc.) per dollar. . . and track incremental results on the same basis.


Monday, November 25, 2002 #5645
Is thany research that shows the impact, audience recall and effectiveness of a series of 3 consecutive 1/3 pg ads versus the standard full page/spread? I've heard that Starch had done a study, but is there any info available that is free to the public?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 26, 2002 ):
One such study was conducted by Vitt Media International many years ago. If Starch doesn't have it, The Magazine Publishers' Association, Newsweek Media Research Index and The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. are other possibilities.


Monday, November 25, 2002 #5643
what is the "RAB Starch Slide Rule?" (I'm reviewing some newspaper research supplied by the RAB and can't get an anwer from RAB on this. Can you help

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 26, 2002 ):
Try The Newspaper advertising Association for newspaper data.


Monday, November 25, 2002 #5641
Q.1 In our country, T.V advertising prices have gone up and our CPRP too. What are the different alternatives I should look into to compensate the high price on T.V? Q.2 Please tell me some media workshops where I can get training on Advance Media Planning & Research? (preferrably in Asia Pacific)

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, November 25, 2002 ):
This TV pricing pattern is not unique to "your country." Without knowing which country is or what the pricing and availability of other media are, the Guru cannot do much with your question.

As a matter of policy, the Guru does not ever recommend specific media seminars.


Saturday, November 23, 2002 #5638
I need to provide my management with a brief discussion on how good quality information on advertising response curve together with frequency distribution data can be used to improve television planning / optimization.Can you help me, please...

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, November 23, 2002 ):
Journal of advertising Research will have considerable material on the topic.


Friday, November 22, 2002 #5635
What source would you recommend for information regarding the decline of newspaper readership in the US over the the last 5 years?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 22, 2002 ):
Data on the The Newspaper advertising Association site covers this.


Wednesday, November 20, 2002 #5633
I am in search for software to creat an advertising database. Where you are able to add all information on the paticular magazine in which you are advertising (meaning, circulation, trim, bleed closing date, cost per issue how may times running, etc.) do you have any suggestions for me

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 21, 2002 ):
What you describe can easily be done as a flat file database in a spreadsheet program, such as MS Excel.


Wednesday, November 20, 2002 #5632
Hi, I'm trying to find out advertising costs for both network and syndicated television shows. Is there any site where I can at least get an idea of these? I tried looking on AdAge but couldn't find any such information. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 21, 2002 ):
Ad Age and MediaPost will both have written articles on this. You may have to go to the library to consult archives. Some libraries offer online databases of print media.


Sunday, November 17, 2002 #5623
How can I get my foot in the door with an advertising firm when I have less than two years previous experience and no connections to the industry. I do have a a recent college degree and experience in advertising, marketing, and management, but none of the companies want entry level employee's. The future of the company is the youth with fresh and innovative concepts, but it seems we are overlooked at times??

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 17, 2002 ):
With some experience you're not entry level, just keep trying. Fish where the fish are: New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, etc.


Friday, November 15, 2002 #5620
Dear Guru I am a Media Planner in India and currently trying to assess the potential of the news channel business in India since there are 3 seperate news channel launching in the space of 3 months even though we already have 7 new channels in the country - inclusive of CNBC,CNN,Star News. The current percentage of advertising spend from news channels to total tv advertising spend is around 5% of 1.7 bn USD. What I would like to know is 1)What is the relevant ratio for the US/Europe/Asia 2)By any parameters known to you is the current ratio too high or too low - pls comment

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 17, 2002 ):
The Guru doesn't quite see
  • How projecting the share of advetising spending of news channels fits into media planning duties
  • How a too high or too low ratio would be determined

In the US, where three major cable news channels compete with news on broadcast networks as well as hundreds of local broadcast stations there is one situation which might have no bearing on what makes sense in Europe or India. The share of audience of the all-news cable networks rises when we go through "interesting times" such as wars, elections, etc and ad share will shift a bit.

There is likley to be some trade media reportage of this share in publications such as Ad Age.


Tuesday, November 12, 2002 #5610
Media Guru, How do I find the BDI/CDI and SOV for the retail industry. Specifically NIKE.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 12, 2002 ):
"Retail" usually means stores, so Footlocker is retail, Nike isn't.

BDI is calculated by comparing sales to population, e.g. if 15% of Nike revenues are generated in the NY DMA and NY DMA has 10% of the population, BDI is 150.

CDI is similar, but based on category, rather than individual brand.

The Guru doubts that these sales data are public.

SOV is Share of Voice, meaning the portion of category advertising dollars spent by the particular advertiser. CMR (Competitive Media Reports) is the data source you need for this.


Monday, November 11, 2002 #5605
How do you explain national public radio. I have never planned or purchased radio before. Please explain. thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, November 11, 2002 ):
NPR is public service radio, comparable to PBS in TV. Content is arts, news and public affairs. Like PBS, it does not carry ordinary advertising.

According to NPR's website :

"NPR sponsors receive on-air acknowledgement for their financial support via ten second announcements that are broadcast during NPR programs."


Thursday, November 07, 2002 #5600
Guru Hi, Your answers are usually very brief but "right on the money". This time my request is for a longer and detailed answer if it is possible. I've been requested to evaluate two media buying & planning agencies, and help decide witch is the better one. Please sudgest the proper way to this. What are the paramaters to check (price, tools, experience etc.)? what weight to give the different parameters? and any other input you might have. It is important for me to do this properly and succeed in doing so. many thanks, ND

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 07, 2002 ):
Selecting a planning agency is different from selecting a buying service.

First, you must decide what are the most important factors for you. The Guru can't tell you what they are but here is list of suggested concerns.

INTERFACE

  • Who will be your everyday contact person? Will it be a senior person who can understand your needs or a junior order-taker?
  • Does the staffing seem reasonable for your business? A solo single person might be best for accounts of smaller size or using simple media, while complicated accounts need to have more people available if the needs are often large or have short lead time as might be the case in larger or multimarket retail accounts. A senior person, like the Guru, can handle 4 or 5 accounts of $5 million or so across a small market list. Generally, especially in planning, the more a single person or small hierarchical team handles one account the smoother it runs. On the buying side, more markets will need more people.
QUALIFICATIONS

BUYING

  • Have they handled the media types they will work on for you?
  • Do they currently work on the media and markets you need?
  • Are there account conflicts and does this matter?
  • Is cost your key consideration or do you have quality or other schedule-specific issues? Ask about approaches. Remember anyone can promise any cost, but what corners are cut?
PLANNING

  • How well do they listen?
  • Can they interpret advertising goals and turn them into media goals? - Ask for a hypothetical plan outline to see how they approach a plan
  • Do they ask good questions? - For the plan outline test, leave out a couple of key facts to see if they request the important info or rush blindly into the project
  • How do they handle the planning/buying interface themselves?
  • You can probably add to this list as you begin to think it through. Use an RFP / questionnaire to narrow the field to those with whoich you will meet.

In either case expect that they have some basic questions they ask to begin a plan or a buy, and a review process - find out how they do it.

You need to decide what is most important. If you have a small staff to oversee their work, you will probably emphasize chemistry and how smoothly it seems you will work together. If you need lowest cost or plans keyed to efficiency, then you will weight that more.

One approach is to find a consultant to control the review for you and later on to oversee the work of these firms on your behalf.


Wednesday, November 06, 2002 #5599
Hi, I wanted to find out if there is a resource that I can look up and find past advertising patterns for Oral-B. I want to be able to find out where they have advertised in the past and see copies of their creative. Thanks in advance for your help. ~K

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 06, 2002 ):
Try CMR (Competitive Media Reports) for spending and VMS (Video Monitoring Services) for creative.


Wednesday, November 06, 2002 #5598
I need a definition of the word media which can be used in a legal contract. Can you help?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 06, 2002 ):
The Guru does not give legal advice, but he would define media as any sign, publication or electronic communication which carries, displays or includes an advertising message.


Saturday, November 02, 2002 #5593
online ad rates

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 06, 2002 ):
Services like @ Plan can find you sites. Rates vary too much from site to site and from negotiablilty for any general guide to be really useful.

Ad Resource offers a somewhat outdated guide.


Friday, October 25, 2002 #5580
Where can I find case studies and/or info on successful "Grand Opening" promotions?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 27, 2002 ):
Try The Radio advertising Bureau (RAB), TV Bureau of advertising, The Newspaper advertising Association.


Wednesday, October 23, 2002 #5576
What is the role of advertising on media?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 27, 2002 ):
This question is in the "how high is up?" category. You need to ask a more specific question or you get an oversimplified answer like "Communication."


Wednesday, October 23, 2002 #5575
When communicating a branding message, what are the major benefits of using exterior bus advertising (mobile media) rather than bulletins and posters (stationary media)if both cover the geography relatively the same?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 27, 2002 ):
The Guru does not see any inherent advantage to one or the other if coverage is the same. But you may have issues other than coverage. Does the target ride buses or walk where the busses run? Or do they drive where the posters are.


Monday, October 14, 2002 #5560
Dear Guru, may be in many countries the CPP deals are the norm, but in my country we do not have enough experience in the negotiation process of CPP deals with the TV channels. For first time in 2002 we have the real opportunity to negotiate CPP deals with some of the TV channels. So, I would appreciate very much if you can give us more detailed information about the steps of doing CPP deal. How we can negotiate a good deal with the channels? What kind of criterion should be followed?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 18, 2002 ):
CPP = advertising cost ÷ rating

Set a goal cpp you want to achieve based on evaluation of pmarket ratings and your budget.
You control the deal if you are prepared to walk away from an offer that doesn't fit your needs.


Monday, October 07, 2002 #5549
I am an advertising major at Penn State University. I would like to know what my options will be once I have received a degree? (What possible jobs I could get within the field)

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 07, 2002 ):
Seems late in the game to think about this question. advertising agency jobs generally fall into three areas: Media, Account services, and creative. Media is the one adressed by the Guru. Entry level buying and planning positions exist, though the economy is not creating a lot of these currently.


Friday, October 04, 2002 #5545
Hi folks, Has anyone come across any research on reach R(1+,2+,...n+) and Brand Awareness. Idea is to understand whether there are some coefficients, that would allow to forecast Brand Awareness given a R(1+) dez

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 06, 2002 ):
Try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Thursday, October 03, 2002 #5542
Dear Guru, We are a company that specializes in large scale video displays, with our focus on the indoor/outdoor LED screen market. We currently provide our services for events and trade shows. We are developing advertising solutions for companies utilizing this LED Screen Technology. What kind of formula should we use to sell airtime? i.e 30-second spot an hour for seven days between the event hours....say 9am-8pm. There are ten sponsors of this event. The event will draw approximately 50,000 people over the seven days. Any help would be greatly appreciated. Regards, Darren

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 06, 2002 ):
Start with outdoor as a model. An average cpm might be $5.00. Perhaps that could double if you have full sound with animation. Perhaps it could double again if the event audience is highly desirable to the advertiser. That would make the price $1000 over the course of the event. Can you also charge for frequency, i.e. once per hour? Remember we just based the audience on the whole event. The audience of a show open 36 hours over three days will average perhaps 2-3000 at a time. Can they all see every commercial? Think about how long each visitor stays and how often they would pay attention to the commercial. An average frequency of two seems generous.


Tuesday, October 01, 2002 #5538
Can you suggest any sources of beer advertising case studies?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 01, 2002 ):
try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Thursday, September 26, 2002 #5531
is there a formula for figuring out what the % of advertising dollars should be compared to projected sales?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, September 29, 2002 ):
No.

There are too many factors: category markup, competition, product life cyle, etc, etc.


Tuesday, September 17, 2002 #5520
Dear Media Guru, 1) We represent a home services marketer that has a budget of $700,000 per year ($55K/month) and the goal is to raise BRAND AWARENESS in the US and Canada. What media would you recommend to obtain the greatest impact on a national level with this budget? The target is upscale working women 35-64, Household income $100,000+. 2) How do we go about securing partners for co-branding ... is there an agency that specializes in this, or a directory you know of? 3) Where can I find someone to help get this service placed in a tv show or movie? 4) What do you know about advertising in hotels, in their electronic on-screen check-out process? 5) Any other non-traditional avenues I might look in to? Thank you very much.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 17, 2002 ):
  1. Understand that $700,000 is a VERY LOW budget for a national campaign. It is the not even a strong budget for a major market. The Guru would begin with network radio and national cable for the target and brand you mention. The Guru would probably recommend not even being national, but selecting a few markets where the budget would have an impact.
  2. Co-branding is not a media issue
  3. Click here to see past Guru responses about in-film product placemnt
  4. Contact the hotel chains for their in-system ads
  5. Consider Welcome Wagon and Telephone company new customer packages.


Monday, September 16, 2002 #5517
mr. guru i am taking a class on advertising and i have to do research on a media planner...i have a coulple of questions i would love for you to answer for my research. a. what are some of the resposibilities and duties of a media planner. b. requirement you must meet to be employed in the chosen job (education, portfolio, etc.?) c. what is the salary range for this job? d. are jobs available? employment opportunites. e. level of difficulty in performing you job duties. if you could answer all or some of these questions would help me in my paper..you could e-mail me at genio77s@aol.com with the answers or i will check the website for answers

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 17, 2002 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses about the planner's role .

Click here to see past Guru responses about qualifications for a planner.

Jobs are available. Difficulty is in relation to your ability.


Wednesday, September 11, 2002 #5515
Do you have any case studies on the impact to sales for a first time television user?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 16, 2002 ):
Try TV Bureau of advertising and The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Wednesday, September 11, 2002 #5514
Our client uses TV, newspapers, direct mail and the yellow pages and measures each response (via an 800 number)separately for each medium. We have told them that all media is integrated and he can't look at individual responses and measure cost per response for each medium - that an integrated multi-media plan actually delivers better results and that you cann't look at individual medium cost-per-responses. Can you help substantiate this?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 16, 2002 ):
Obviously, previously established awareness of a brand makes it much more liklet that its Yellow Pages ad will be the one that gets a response. Try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Wednesday, September 11, 2002 #5513
Mr Guru!!! We need interesting theme for seminar for advertising agensies and radio staitions. Help please

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 16, 2002 ):
Without knowing what you are presenting about the question is meaningless. Generally, value and effectiveness are good themes.


Tuesday, September 10, 2002 #5512
I work for a radio station. I was wondering what would be a good website to see statistics why radio is better than T.V. thanks, Andrea

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 16, 2002 ):
The Guru does not think that radio's advantages over TV (or vice versa) are principally statistical.

See the Guru's media strengths page. Also visit The Radio advertising Bureau (RAB).


Tuesday, September 10, 2002 #5508
Where can I find a supplier that does FSI drops in Ohio, Indiana, &/or Illinois?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 12, 2002 ):
One resource is Newscorp. For small markets, try Pennysavers


Sunday, September 08, 2002 #5502
Concerning the Australian advertising Industry, could you please tell me about it's History, Economics and Legislation?????? Please. I am a student and can;t fine this information anywhere. Thanks..

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 09, 2002 ):
Try the Australian Federation of advertising


Wednesday, August 28, 2002 #5494
My Media Wizard says that Sunday newspapers now have below 50% coverage of HHs in the US. (She says some homes get multiple papers.) Has it really dropped that far?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, August 28, 2002 ):
According to data at The Newspaper advertising Association in their audience data area Sunday gross circulation would be about 58 million or about 55% gross houshold coverage. Some homes certainly do get multiple papers (the Guru gets 3 on Sunday), so it is readily imaginable that net HH coverage has fallen below 50%.

Other data on the site indicate that about 64% of Adults, net, read a Sunday paper and 54% read a paper on the average weekday.


Tuesday, August 27, 2002 #5491
mr media guru, i am new on this bussines. i just get a fax from an agency asking for avail request. what are they are asking "avail request" what this meaning.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 29, 2002 ):
An avail request means that the agency wants to know what advertising inventory you have available to sell them, at what price, and how these ad units you offer match their specifications. The avail request is appropriate to the media like broadcast and on-line. The agency's request should specify timing and target, at least. There may be other specifications desired as well. It calls for something like a proposal, and opens your negotiations.


Monday, August 26, 2002 #5485
What is the current pop up controversy? What is a pop ups industry average click-through rate? Why are sites looking into getting rid of this unit? Can you give me some reserach regarding pop us and effectiveness?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, August 28, 2002 ):
Pop-ups are annoying to internet users, because they are more intrusive. They show up over the desired content or if they are so-called pop-unders, remain on screen after the browser closes. They have higher click rates than banner ads, but this may be deceiving, because of the unexpacted, unwanted nature of the unit. Try The Internet advertising Bureau for research.


Thursday, August 22, 2002 #5480
Since the very beginning, the central dynamic in the evolution of advertising media is this: as new media forms are created, they almost never totally replace or render obsolete those that existed before them. The proof? In its broadest sense we all know that newspapers did not replace signs, magazines did not replace newspapers, radio did not replace magazines, TV did not replace radio, etc., etc., etc. Rather, much like in nature, as new media come into existence, those before them tended to evolve into a "better" more useable form by any number of measures. This has had the effect broadening the media choice spectrum for the advertiser and forcing each alternative into a more useful and cost efficient state in order to stay in existence. That said, do you know of any research piece, article, or book wherein this evolutionary process is discussed? While all this might be quite obvious to us, I have a client who'd be better convinced by way of third party confirmation. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, August 24, 2002 ):
The Guru hopes that as a third party, his general agreeemnet with your premise counts with your client. Another way to look at the situation is that when a new medium comes along, it adds something to communication, as in newspapers added personal portability and editorial environment to signs, magazines added color and reproduction quality, radio added sound, TV added moving pictures, the interent added two-way interactivity and the opportunity for endless hype and bankruptcy.

Naturally, as each new medium added something, the older medium found other things it could still do better.

The Guru suggests you look at the archives of the trade media at the time each new medium began to have momentum. I.e, not late 1994 when the interent was first noticed by the press, but mid to late 1995 when advertising was really taking notice. Looking backward, the cycle of "catching on" would be longer, the earlier one looks. Perhaps 4-5 years for TV versus radio in the late '40's to early 50's.


Thursday, August 22, 2002 #5478
can i get an advertising related job over here ..ineed job desperately...ican work online

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 22, 2002 ):
Over where? Try your local newspaper classifieds.


Monday, August 19, 2002 #5470
I've tried the Magazine Publishers Assoc. Would you know any research to support the effectiveness of inserts delivered in a poly bag with a magazine - not inserts in the actual magazine?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, August 20, 2002 ):
The Guru is surprised if MPA can't help. Try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Friday, August 16, 2002 #5468
I need to know, What is the data that I can use to calculate newspaper reach?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 16, 2002 ):
As in your adjacent query, you need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.

The calculation is extremely complex. As input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function. There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables.

Try The Newspaper advertising Association for some general estimates.


Thursday, August 15, 2002 #5466
Media Guru, Do you know of any place based media opportunities in pharmacies? We are specifically looking to advertise on prescription bags. Any help would be greatly appreciated...thanks in advance!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 15, 2002 ):
Your best bet is probably to contact the giant chains, such as CVS, Eckerd, Walgreens, which dominate the market and most likely control their own bags. Mass marketers who include pharmacy departments, like KMart and food/drug chains, like Pathmark are likely to account for most of the rest.

The Guru's best guess is that there is no major central pharmacy bag advertising resource.


Wednesday, August 14, 2002 #5464
Dear Guru, Thanks in advance for your assistance. I'm wondering if you could furnish me or point me in the right direction to come up with projections on advertising-related revenues attributable to streaming over the next 5 years. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 16, 2002 ):
Consider this CyberAtlas article and projections to 2005 from StreamingMediaLand.com of $3.1billion streaming ad revenue.


Wednesday, August 14, 2002 #5463
I would like to know if there is a general rule of thumb for R/F goals on political/issue advertising for local markets. Also, the politcal strategist running the campaign for which we are buying media has stipulated that we must place 1000 TRPs against each television spot. What are your thoughts on that?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, August 14, 2002 ):
No general rules. Levels should depend on competition, and other specific factors. Budget not least of all. Without knowing the rationale for the 1000 TRP, it is difficult to comment. 1000 does not seem at all excessive.


Monday, August 12, 2002 #5460
Could you please tell me the names of established firms that do advertising tracking, either by dollars spent or actual ads/commercials or both? I believe CMR and Nielson VNU tell clients how much was spent.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 12, 2002 ):
Yes, CMR an NIelsen do this dollar tracking. To capture actual ads in various media, try VMS (Video Monitoring Services).


Thursday, August 08, 2002 #5456
Do you know of any research that would show which is more effective in gaining audience attention: a medium length schedule with larger ads (6x with spread ads for example), or a longer schedule with smaller ads (12x with full page ads). Any insight is appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, August 10, 2002 ):
There will be many studies of this nature. The key is your definition of "audience attention." Reach will be greater with the greater number of ads. Recall or noting is likely to be greater with the spreads. Ad or brand awareness might be the more decisive difference.

Try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter,


Thursday, August 08, 2002 #5454
Guru, Can you direct me towards any studies that show what an effective frequency should in both Newspapers and Magazine? I'm trying to arm myself with some ammunition to prove what we think is too low a frequency in several major market papers. You help is appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, August 10, 2002 ):
Try The Magazine Publishers' Association and The Newspaper advertising Association


Tuesday, August 06, 2002 #5447
In your opinion, which advertising department should develop ad sizes? Do you think it is the responsibility of the media department to develop these? Especially if we do not have a marketing plan or a media budget? Please advise!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, August 07, 2002 ):
No, determining ad sizes or other copy issues is not a media responsibility. There are many elements of creative not within the media purview. The media department can however evaluate some of the pros and cons of various units. Account services and creative should make the decision based on communications needs and budget, etc.


Monday, July 29, 2002 #5440
Roughly how many companies and brands advertise in major meassured media. I have heard a figure of 7,000 companies and 20,000 brands in CMR. Is that close?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 29, 2002 ):
CMR (Competitive Media Reports)'s site claims:
"CMR tracks $100+ billion in advertising and more than 100 million advertising occurrences a year . . . covering more than 900,000 brands across 15 media"


Thursday, July 25, 2002 #5438
Hi Guru, I have a client who is trying their first shot at DTC advertising. Their market is women 40-60 with an income of $60k+. The product is actually a procedure that is competitive to Lasik. I'm put at a task to advertise to this audience within very niche markets: kansas city, north los angeles, tyler texas, new jersey, new orleans. I'm not sure what's the best medium. Whether it should be print, online, radio or tv or a combo of each. What do you think? Also, since I've never done tv buys, how can I contact these networks to do a regional buy? Also, are there shows such as finance and home and garden that have regional buys? Where can I learn more about broadcast advertising? Thanks so much! K

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 27, 2002 ):
Your targeting might call for print, but the highly local aspect suggests radio and selected cable.

Yes, networks have regional buys. However, you are talking of markets far smaller than "regions." For something like "North Los Angeles" you would buy local advertising through a cable system (not broadcast) on their financial or home and garden networks. Start by talking to SpotCable


Thursday, July 25, 2002 #5437
I would like to prepare a project to start a Information Center ( IC) which any departments could be consulting. It will be a "consultation bank", organized and speedy with information produced by conventional and specialized ( advertising) media. How could i start this project? Thanks a lot

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 27, 2002 ):
The Guru is not sure he understands your question. If you mean that you will compile a library of research which has been produced ny the media, that seems a simple enough defintion of a project. Begin by examining the workings of an existing example. The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter is probably the outstanding model.


Thursday, July 25, 2002 #5436
Do you think PR will kill advertising? What role will PR play in the coming years??

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 27, 2002 ):
No, why would that even be a question? PR and advertising have co-existed for over 100 years. The uses of the two evolve and the wise marketer combines them.


Thursday, July 25, 2002 #5435
Many years ago I used a formula to measure brand recall on TV. It was called the Zielski Study, and basically you applied a formula to the TV weekly TARP weightings when on air and another formula to current recall % achieved to measure the recall "drop off" factor when off air. You were then able to manage flighting of a TV schedule to either maintain a target recall %, or analyse exactly how many weeks you could be off air before dropping below a nominated recall % and then calculate how many TARPs were required to lift recall to the desired target. You wouldn't happen to have that algebraic formula would you?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 27, 2002 ):
You seem to be talking of awareness, an aspect of a brand or of advertising, rather than recall, a phenomenon usually attributed to an individual advertisement.

The kink in these formulae is that they seem to be keyed to 100 GRP per week for a brand with established awareness. Click here to see Guru discussion of awareness decline formulae.


Tuesday, July 23, 2002 #5430
Is there any research information available that explores a break-even analysis for local vs. national media (i.e. television). Evaluating how many local markets you could purchase before reaching a national CPP. Please explain why this type of analysis would be completed.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 27, 2002 ):
This is not so much "research" as a market place analysis. The answer changes over time, depending on economy, demographic, daypart and market rankings. It's a matter of comparing the specific costs you face. See past Guru responses.

Why do the analysis? If you are planning to buy advertising in a ranked list of markets for a national brand, and the do not need to vary levels by market, or need a given base level across markets, cost per rating point will eventually mount to a point where a network rating point is less expensive than the rating point purchased through the local media. At that point, you get the rest of the country "free" if you switch to network,


Monday, July 22, 2002 #5429
I am from the Philippines. We are bidding to get a bank as a client. They are relaunching their housing loan product. Their given budget is equivalent to twenty thousand dollars ($20,000.00) only. Size of the ad is 7 columns by 40 cms with long copy. A full color (launch) ad costs about $2,600 per newspaper. The sustaining black & white ad costs about $1,400 per newspaper. We plan to use the full color ad only for the first week, while the black and white ad would run from the second week up to the fifth week. This would be at the rate of 2 ads per week within three maor dailies. Is this right or should I use recency and just stretch the budget to 8 weeks at the rate of one ad per week? This is a relaunch and we want the ad to have impact in spite of the limited budget and the long copy of the print material.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 27, 2002 ):
Your answer depends on the reach of the newspapers used and the advertising climate for the industry. The Guru generally favors recency, but circumstances must be considered. You have not stated the relevant facts.


Monday, July 22, 2002 #5426
Hi, I work for Europes largest market research and analysis company. We are looking at selling sponsorships, advertising on our web site and in our 21 weekly newsletters as a new revenue stream. Who are the major players in interactive advertising sales? We are after sponsorship andbespoke solutions rather than CPC. If you could offer any help... Thanks, Rob

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 27, 2002 ):
Media Post's Media magazine regularly lists the players in the arena.


Friday, July 19, 2002 #5424
In your opinion, what are the key differences between direct marketing and media advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 20, 2002 ):
You don't seem to be contrasting actual dichotomies. Unless you mean to compare "direct mail" versus media?

Then there are the distinctions of simply measuring sales against the possibilites of brand building, awareness, imagery, etc


Friday, July 19, 2002 #5422
Do you know where I can find some samples of Agency of Record Letters?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 19, 2002 ):
Try American Association of advertising Agencies and American Advertsing Federation or any similar organization.


Thursday, July 18, 2002 #5419
I wanted to know how is Radio advertising monitored? While a TV monitoring service uses TV, VCR and a data entry module, press monitoring services use either scanners or physical scales, etc. Does Radio monitoring involve listening to 24x7 radio programs or are there other techniques?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 18, 2002 ):
Generally a sampling of major stations is tracked fully and others by request. Visit VMS as an example.


Wednesday, July 17, 2002 #5418
Guru ~ I am doing national newspaper recruitment advertising for a local company? As this is my first foray into recruitment advertising, what information should I be looking for to select newspapers in the best markets? Our client wants only three newspapers and has no regional restrictions to narrow the options. Thanks for any help on employee recruitment advertising!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 18, 2002 ):
Hopefully, there are some characteristics of the desired employees which can be matched to populations of markets. Otherwise, you'll hyave to look for leading employment advertising lineage carriers.


Monday, July 15, 2002 #5414
Are there any restrictions about advertising escort services on cable television? If so what where could I go to learn more about them. Also are there other sensitive industries that have barriers to mass communication?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 17, 2002 ):
There are no general restrictions. Non-explicit advertising of prostitution appears in many venues where the prostitution itself is illegal. Many cable systems have rules against such advertising, and some do not, sometimes by mistake.


Tuesday, July 09, 2002 #5404
I am a media professional who has dabbled with electronic media (web/email). I want to become more proficient in this area, do you know of any seminars or other sources that I might tap into? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 10, 2002 ):
The Guru never recommends seminars. The Internet advertising Bureau may have some useful resources.


Monday, July 08, 2002 #5402
Are there any studies that quantify the ability of TV to persuade better/faster than radio?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, July 09, 2002 ):
There are many. Try TV Bureau of advertising and The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Monday, July 08, 2002 #5401
Is retail advertising spending more or less volatile than general advertising during times of economic difficulty.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, July 09, 2002 ):
Retail follows different patterns and can be volatile without problems in the economy. Specific retail categories may follow divergent trends, e.g. low-end like groceries stay more stable than big-ticket cars, jewelry, etc.


Monday, July 01, 2002 #5392
What have been the effects of 9/11 and the recession on Hispanic advertising and Hispanic media spending?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 01, 2002 ):
Although the Hispanic arena slowed somewhat, there has still been spending growth while the rest of the advertising industry has been in decline.


Monday, July 01, 2002 #5388
Do you know if there is a list of advertising media representatives that would represent publishers and medical societies for the sale of advertising space in their journals. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 01, 2002 ):
In the front of each Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) media source book, there is a list of representatives for the media type covered by that book.


Sunday, June 30, 2002 #5387
I'm working in Japan this summer and trying to get as infomration on the effectiveness of advertising and using a mix of media vs. buying only Tv. Are there any statistics on reach and frequency measurements or can you suggest a simple way I can translate the information to my client without getting too technical? - Difficult to cross the language barrier.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 01, 2002 ):
Keep in mind that in different countries and cultures media behave differently, media mix differently and reach/frequency cumes differently. The U.S. Hispanic market's media are very different than U.S. general market media, for example. Therefore, it would be a mistake to think about simply translating U.S. concepts. Basic definitions such as rating or impressions should be safe, but mathematical relationships or impact measures can bne quite different.

Try Japan Marketing Association for some help.


Thursday, June 27, 2002 #5383
We have a client considering using 5 sec TVC's - probably multiple executions - multi-spotting commercial breaks. Putting aside the cost premiums for this TVC length, do you know of any research demonstrating the effectiveness (or otherwise) of this short length/multi-spot approach ? We have plenty of 15 sec research, but nothing I can find on 5secs. Thanks Greg

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 30, 2002 ):
Try TV Bureau of advertising


Thursday, June 27, 2002 #5380
Guru – Need some retail advertising research info. My partner and I operate a small ad agency and we’ve recently picked up a new client, an upscale women’s clothing store. The store’s owner, a former district manager for a large clothing store chain, insist that single-store retailers who are located in high-traffic malls don’t realize any measurable cost-benefits from advertising. She claims that small mall-based retailers generate far more sales due to their high-traffic mall locations than they do from newspaper, direct mail, TV or radio advertising. My question is this: Do you know of any credible research study that offers any facts to either prove or disprove our client’s claims? She says that she read a trade journal article back during the early 90s that cited a Harvard Business School study that concluded that somewhere around 60% of all retail advertising is wasted, whatever “wasted” may mean. I’ve looked for the Harvard study and for other studies that may deal with this issue, but haven’t found any, at least none that offer any meaningful insights about the overall cost effectiveness of retail advertising. Any research study source/reference info you could provide, Guru, would be much appreciated. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 30, 2002 ):
There is a classic advertising quote, attributed to George Washington Hill of American Tobacco, who said something like, "I know that half of all my advertising is wasted, but I don't know which half."

Your question is actually outside the Guru's arena, but try The Journal of Retailing, a research journal, or The Journal of Shopping Center Research.


Tuesday, June 25, 2002 #5378
Have you heard of anyone selling advertising on CD/DVD labels or the liners of CD's/DVD's? I have an opportunity to buy such and would like to know rate basis and rates, if there are any.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 30, 2002 ):
The Guru hasn't heard of it. Sounds comparable to outdoor, unless the product is closely linked by topic to the cd/dvd contents. Start with outdoor cpms, in the under $5 range.


Tuesday, June 25, 2002 #5377
Dear Guru, I want to thank you for your concise answer to my question regarding advertising abroad. However, you noted that I should contact an International media buyer like "Carat". I am not in the position to contract out work to other media buying facilities, nor do I feel my client's dollars should go to. . . other large agencies. We're the little guy, similar to the David & Goliath excerpt from the Bible. I'd love to literally throw a stone at someone from the larger agencies, but would probably be arrested. Anyway, is there a book similar to the SRDS which lists International Networks for buying/planning purposes in Television? Thank you very much, Guru. - The little engine that could.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 25, 2002 ):
While the Guru agrees with you in principal, there is value to expertise in unfamiliar waters. But try International Media Guide


Saturday, June 22, 2002 #5373
I am interested in recall norms for TV and radio commercials by length of commercial (60-30-20-15-10), and magazine & newspaper ads by size and coloration. Can you help? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 30, 2002 ):
Start with the relevant associations, TV Bureau of advertising, The Radio advertising Bureau (RAB) and The Newspaper advertising Association.

Then try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Saturday, June 22, 2002 #5372
I am a recent graduate and looking for a job in advertising. Do you have any suggestions as to how I should approach the task of job finding? I have tried calling people and faxing resumes, but nothing seems to be doing the trick.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 30, 2002 ):
Start with your newspaper classified. If you know any media salesman -- they often get asked if they know people for jobs -- ask them.

In either case, a search is more productive if you know where the need is.


Wednesday, June 19, 2002 #5367
Is there any data or research that supports the theory that daytime (Midday) radio has passive listeners? Are the mid day listeners less likely to act upon a message? Are they too distracted by work that they might not even hear the message? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 22, 2002 ):
The Guru has not encountered this specific theory. He has heard of radio listeners being passive generally -- isn't driving distracting, too?

For research start with The Radio advertising Bureau (RAB)


Wednesday, June 19, 2002 #5365
Dear Guru: Thanks to you, our media plans have become even the more focused and precise. For one particular client, we have utilized Syndicated Television and remnant print within the United States. Our planning has brought a 600% increase in sales over an 8 month period. Being an international client, they now want us to take over the International advertising. How do we buy in International markets? We've been mixing the TV with :10 Syndicated programming to increase frequency. Does this "wealth" of an inexpensive advertising method exist outside of the US? How are rating points calculated in Europe, Mexico, Canada? Who do I contact in Europe, Mexico, Canada to air my spots? Do they air "Everybody Loves Raymond", "Friends" and "Drew Carey"? How would I monitor delivery? Any unique advertising advice for the creative spots? Thank you Guru.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 22, 2002 ):
Thank you for the acknowledgement.

For Mexico, start with Televisa. For Canada, start with CBC. Europe is a mass of separate national markets, without consistency in programs available or sales practices.

Consider using a multinational media service like Carat.


Wednesday, June 19, 2002 #5364
What are advertising rates for local cable stations in New york

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 22, 2002 ):
What might "local cable stations" mean?

If it's channels programmed by the cable systems, like Time-Warner's NY1 or Cablevision's News 12 / Metro Channels contact them directly. If you mean placing ads market-wide to run in cable networks' local adjacencies, try SpotCable.


Tuesday, June 18, 2002 #5363
I was curious.... is there any correlation between recall of an ad and the context of the program? (I saw one recently... on Scrubs, for a J&J spot celebrating nurses)... but wondered if there is any higher recall.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 22, 2002 ):
There is a theory that a connection of ad to environment enhances communication, not necessarily recall versus other "impact" benefits. For research try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Monday, June 17, 2002 #5356
Have a recruitment client. They want to go on TV with full year support with limited funds. We suggested compression. Would you know anything about this? ie, advertising 3 days a week vs. 7, reducing dayparts, etc.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 18, 2002 ):
At its most simple, this sort of compression reduces reach and increase frequency. For those who follow the effective frequency style of thinking, this technique might add impact. For those oriented to recency, compression is counter-productive.

When funds are limited, the Guru would start with limited grography or timing and add funds if results warrant.


Monday, June 17, 2002 #5355
radio advertising cost

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 17, 2002 ):
SQAD


Monday, June 17, 2002 #5354
I'm not in an ad position, but I have to do a report for our Board about placing ads about our company targeted at Company CEOs, Owners, and top management. How do I find out what these top level executives reading habits are and the best publications to target them? The Board has a very limited budget so I'm trying to sway them towards PR instead of ad placements, but need some back up on my decision. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 17, 2002 ):
Your best resource might be The Mendelsohn Media Research Affluent Study. If you are in the technology arena, Intelliquest would be helpful.

PR and advertising serve different purposes, and should probably not be regarded as simple pricing alternatives.


Monday, June 17, 2002 #5353
Most of my clients ask the simple question " Why aren't my sales increasing through advertising?"....Please help me in the models used in planning to combat this question.....

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 17, 2002 ):
There are innumerable reasons why advertising might not generate increased sales which might have nothing to do with media --the Guru's area -- and some that do.

Within the media arena, the reasons include

  • advertising to the wrong target
  • Selecting media which do not support the message
  • advertising to briefly ar at levels too low.

Some non-media reasons which might apply include

  • Wrong price
  • Wrong product
  • Bad advertising copy


Friday, June 14, 2002 #5350
I'm going to buy some outdoor billboards in varies areas in the US and I don't have time or money to physically check on them. Is there a service that checks to make sure that the boards are up and in good shape? Thanks again.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 14, 2002 ):
Once upon a time, commission for outdoor was 16.67% to allow for the agency "riding the boards." If there is an available service such as you are seeking, Outdoor advertising Association of America would know about it.


Tuesday, June 11, 2002 #5345
Guru: I always appreciate your help. I'm curious as to what you think are the top 10 media trends for 2002-2003. Such as cross platform opportunities, product placement, etc. Could you list in order of what you think are important 1-10. Thanks for the input.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 15, 2002 ):
The importance of trends is very much a matter of opinion, of course. Should these be the importance in inflence on the lives of media planners or the potential to generate revenue or something else. In any case, and without any rela certainty about order, some of what the Guru sees as key trends for the year:
  1. Media mergers and acquisitions, e.g. Univision / HBC
  2. Resurgence of upfront revenue
  3. Resurgence of cable revenue
  4. Decline in hype of "cross platform." Is it only meaningful to giant advertisers?
  5. Increasing attention to the multicultural nature of our market
  6. Increasing decline in advertising sales' service as pressure on sales staff increases


Friday, June 07, 2002 #5338
What are the best publications for Media Planners to read? Also, what books/educational tools would you recommend?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 08, 2002 ):
The Guru reads Ad Age and Media Post's Media. He doesn't invariably find either knowledgeable or accurate, but they do indicate what the issues to think about are. The NY Times advertising column is a must-read.

See AMIC Bookstore (in association with Amazon.com) media books. Sissors and Bumba's advertising Media Planning is the standard, albeit a bit "ivory tower."


Friday, June 07, 2002 #5335
I'm looking for a resource that compares different mediums of advertising and their effectiveness in the market (cost vs.numbers reached/caipaign success rates), where could I find the name of such a publication the publication.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 08, 2002 ):
The problem is in defining "campaign success rates." One definition might work in direct response and quite another in a package goods awareness campaign or a political or corporate image campaign.

It is a mistake to compare without considering the standards of succes for the category or without considering the importance of factors beyon the medium itself, like creative, for example.

It is reasonable easy to find media efficiency comparisons, using sources like AMIC's Ad Data area.


Friday, June 07, 2002 #5333
Guru . . . Is there a source from which I can determine total advertising dollars investmed in all media by DMA market?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 07, 2002 ):
Totals come from CMR (Competitive Media Reports) and include local spending for top markets. If you want to attribute a portion of national spending to each market, there are two methods. In proportion to population See Nielsen DMAs or according to how the audience falls, based on ratings and circulation reports.


Thursday, June 06, 2002 #5330
Is there any data that supports the belief that it is best to advertise when sales are most likely to occur? For example, a restaurant advertising near the dinner hour, Wed-Sat, during peak months.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 08, 2002 ):
This is a commonly held belief among smaller retailers, and includes not advertising when the store is closed. The key to advertising timing is advertising when the decision is being made. If one thinks that persons are deciding what to have for dinner an hour before dinner and are likely to be using TV or radio then, there is some argument. But advertising works by creating an awareness and overall impression through campaigns, not by consumers reacting to one specific commercial that makes them turn the car around and head for a different restaurant.

For research, see The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Wednesday, June 05, 2002 #5327
Due to the successful broadcast upfronts, many are now prediciting that cable will follow suit. My question is this - while there remains only 5 or 6 broadcast networks, there are now hundreds of cable channels, and this number is constantly increasing. How can we expect advertising supported cable to remain if there continues to be more and more channels for advertisers to spend their money? Certainly, the money will not come out of thin air, but rather will have to come from somewhere.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 06, 2002 ):
The Guru does not see the logical connection between sucessful upfronts (if you believe the networks' Wall Street-oriented hype) and a growth in the number of ad-supported cable networks / or problem in ad dollars.

Assume there exist a finite number of national Television GRPS out there to be sold. Several years ago, the existing 3 broadcast networks owned 90+% of them Today, it is perhaps 50%. This, in part, explains inflation in cost-per-GRP. Networks need to be able to price their GRPs attractively for advertisers and adequately to provide sufficient operating revenue. One solution is apparently more commercial time per hour.

If they can't operate efficiently, they will not survive.


Wednesday, June 05, 2002 #5325
After selling internet advertising, what would be a likely next career step, with a goal to work on the strategic part of the business, and who would I want to talk with?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 06, 2002 ):
Selling traditional advertising seems the logical step.


Wednesday, June 05, 2002 #5324
I would like to know... How important, and how popular has internet advertising/internet listings become? Are companies, mainly small business, interested in being listed on the internet -- such as a local directory which would link consumers to their web sites? If I were to sell the listings, is a fee of 1500/yr. a reasonable fee to be a predominant listed company in a category?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 06, 2002 ):
It will depend on category and traffic. If the Guru were buying such a listing, he would expect at least 300,000 exposures for his listing at that price


Tuesday, June 04, 2002 #5323
Dear Guru, Is there a company like CMR that tracks newspaper insert spending by account? Or is this just tracked internally by each newspaper? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 06, 2002 ):
The Guru does not think there is such a service. Much of the spending on inserts is printing, which is done by the advertiser, unless they are just placing space within in an FSI.

Consult The Newspaper advertising Association


Tuesday, June 04, 2002 #5322
Hello Guru! As always a hearty thanks for your work on this fantastic site. I had a question on research options. Where can you find research on a companies competitors and their marketing strategies? Research on where they are advertising, what mediums and how much they are spending? I know there must be some research group that tracks this info so any direction from you on who it may be would be much appreciated!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 06, 2002 ):
You're welcome.

Spending data is available from CMR (Competitive Media Reports).

Companies do not genrally publicize their marketing strategies, nor can they necessarily be deduced fom their advertising spending alone. Trade media, such as Ad Age, sometimes write about them.


Tuesday, June 04, 2002 #5321
Dear Guru: Have you ever read a book entitled "The Ultimate Secrets of advertising"? If so, any thoughts?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 04, 2002 ):
The Guru has not read it, but he considers the author, John Philip Jones, one of the most knowledgable and clear writers on advertising research.


Tuesday, June 04, 2002 #5320
Guru: Is there research available that discusses if you are targeting too many segments (mulitple targets within the same brand). What is the correct or acceptable balance. And how will your communication goals change based on so many messages.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 06, 2002 ):
The Guru imagines that this is a rare case. Research might be available from The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Friday, May 31, 2002 #5316
I am working with a new client and need to do a presentation on media planning and buying. No problem. However, he also wants me to tell him "Why advertising Works." I am planning on looking at some sales reports and doing some case studies, as well as looking at competitive sales in his marketplace. Can you offer any other suggestions on where to start?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 02, 2002 ):
Remeber to focus on why. You seem to be thinking of "whether." Look into theory, perhaps through The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Thursday, May 30, 2002 #5312
Our agency has suggested moving away from a national cable buy and buying local cable instead. Our brand has franchises throughout the country, although there are certainly heavier pockets in some areas of the country - we are nationwide. The thought behind the switch is that we would be able to afford higher GRP levels if advertising is concentrated in top markets by franchisee. The agency believes that buying spot still engages a lot of waste, which is why they are recommending a time consuming, potentially more costly buy. They believe that matching cable systems to specific franchisees will produce better results. What, in your opinion, are the disadvantages to buying local cable? I know that we would lose rating guarantees, and sponsorships, but are there other issues as well? Thank you for assistance.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, May 31, 2002 ):
The chief disadvantage which the Guru sees, in addition to those you have mentioned, is inefficiency. Local cable bought system by system is probably the least efficient form of TV.

It's a matter of ratios, though, and probably should be considered market by market. For example:

  • In one market, perhaps you would only buy cable sytem "A," which covers 25% of the total DMA.
  • $10,000 buys you 100 GRP within that system
  • But $10,000 would buy you 150 GRP in the entire DMA (and equally within the system).
  • So even if 75% of the DMA-wide buy is "waste," it still delivers 50% more weight where it counts.

These are theoretical numbers and you have to look at the actual numbers for your market areas, including the comparison of a national buy to local cable. The Guru expects that local cable will be neither the most efficient nor lowest-cost choice.


Sunday, May 26, 2002 #5309
Our company has recently appointed a new media planning agency. Are there any standard parameters on which the performance of planning agency can be evaluated? Since the planning agency is different from buying agency, the performance can not be measured on CPRPs or cost/spot etc. Secondly, is there merit in having separate agencies for media planning and buying? Your views. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 26, 2002 ):
Assuming your communications and advertising goals are coming from yet another resource, you might set up some objective standards for how well your media plan answers these goals, translating into reach, frequency, impact, image building, etc.

The Guru believes that separating planning and buying somewhat limits the planning agency in the support it will get from the media sellers regarding packaging media deals.

There is some benefit in letting a good planner buy, but no inherent benefit in separating the processes.


Thursday, May 23, 2002 #5306
In my heavy spending media test, the control markets will not receive advertising. Therefore what should I look for in the control market results when we ultimately compare pre and post scores?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 23, 2002 ):
This does not seem to make sense. A "Heavy Spending Test" is a comparison to a normal spending plan. If there is NO advertising in the control market, you lose your comparison base.

In any case, pre and post would compare increases in the heavy market to the control. Are you trying to drive awareness? Is the percent lift comparable to the spending increase? Have you projected sales in relation to awareness? Recall?


Wednesday, May 22, 2002 #5303
Media Guru: Is there any research available that shows that a commercial running in a Network break receives more attention that a commercial running in a local break? Any thoughts would be appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 26, 2002 ):
To the extent that local breaks can be longer, some attention may be lost by later commercials. To the extent that local breaks may include more cheaply made, and lower quality local commercials, scores in those braks may be lower, but no because they are local breaks, Thre is no reason for the average consumer to be aware that a break is local.

For research, see The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Tuesday, May 21, 2002 #5299
I'm a webmaster with exclusive Hollywood content and a nice audience in the tens of thousands. The daily, weekly, and monthly numbers are good, and most importantly, they're real. The main site is part of a large network, but I don't make good money from this network, and a HUGE portion of my advertising is going unsold. (All of the new sites I'm creating are pay sites and have no ads....) What is the best way to move and sell the unsold ads. I think the best way is just to get on the phone myself and start making the calls. Where can a I get free lists of people to call and sell to? Where is a good resource or list of people or companies that buy internet advertising? What is the best way to reach these ad buyers and let them know I've got some places they might like to advertise?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 26, 2002 ):
First ask yourself, what is the value of "free" lists? "Tens of thousands" is not impressive to major advertisers looking for mass audiences, you need to find those whose message resonates with your content. If you want it "free" you need to do some legwork and identify advertisers who will most benefit by association with your content. Check other related sites and see who is advertising there.


Tuesday, May 21, 2002 #5295
Avoiding media jargon: provided client have 2 spot (each 30") and he would like to hear recommendation of rotation. Particularly he asked of any proven examples of tactics when one spot is placed 1st in commercial block and the second spot is placed last in block- he called it "top-&-tail" (any research saying it is more effective than random placing in block). The other side of the story is - I suggested to rotate as follows: 1 spot - any other commercial- 2nd spot- other commercials (I heard it is called "consecutive spots". Both spots are in form of reportage- this connects them and therefore I recommended such rotation. I read in couple of books that qualitatively placing 1st /last in break is more effective, as peaple switch to other stations after 1st spot and than come back likely at the end of the block, but it was not proved by any examples, case studies, which is requested by my client.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, May 22, 2002 ):
There is research showing first and last in break are more likely to be viewed. The alternate 'consecutive' might be more effective in awareness / recall building. among those who view the entire set.

So the first issue is to set a standard of "success." Is it most viewers or most recall? Or is it really sales in resonse to audience size versus audience impact?

Best research resources are ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization and The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Monday, May 20, 2002 #5292
We've just landed a new client who is interested in running DR TV. The client is a novice in DR advertising, and I'm a novice in the start-up of a DR campaign. My question is, how do I determine how much of the buget to use/put in each market?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 21, 2002 ):
Lacking all other information, begin with market population and efficiency within your target group, and adjust according to observed response.


Thursday, May 16, 2002 #5288
Hi, do You know of any publishing companies/print media which are using variable advertising pricing according to the reach of the media so that fixed CPT is offered instead of fixed rates? Are there any print media where You can buy GRP-s? If Yes; how is it done? Thanx, Marko!

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 18, 2002 ):
The physical form of print media don't really allow this. You may buy geographic pieces of circulation, demographic editions or A/B (every other copy) splits of the circulation. You seem to want a random placement akin to online.

You can evaluate print media by GRPs but not buy audience chunks this way.


Thursday, May 16, 2002 #5287
Dear Guru, I was presenting media new business pitch recently and an AE chimed in and said somehting that puzzled me. We were discussing buying power and clout and he said that smaller agencies (such as ours) are better at buying because larger agencies buy huge amounts and give the larger accounts the "better" spots and that smaller accounts at large agencies get the dregs. I have always ourchased space on a per account basis and never a bulk buy. Do large agencies just by a bunch of space and hope their accounts stay with them? Also, I always thought that it was illegal to make clients purchase through you in order to get rate deals. I thought that the whole issue of clout stayed with the client because it's their money. Any insight? I want to straighten him out if he's wrong. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 18, 2002 ):
  1. AE's should be told to shut up during media presentations, rather than relating their favorite old wives' tales
  2. No one should ever contradict a selling point being made by someone on their own team during a presentation
  3. The theory is ludicrous, because:

    *If a large agency had so much clout, maybe their worst spots would be better than a small agency's good spots

    *On a given network, particular spots are not essentially better or worse except by virtue of total audience; different advertisers want different targets and program types

    *Why would a big agency want to treat smaller clients that way, anyway?

  4. It is probably true that a smaller client will get better service at a smaller agency where they matter more, but if you extend this theory, then the smaller agency's smallest clients get dumped on too, and so on.
  5. Networks do sell spots to CLIENTS through the agency, not TO the agency. The agency does not have the right to resell or reassign the spots to another advertiser.
  6. Large agency buyers do have clout by virtue of the amount of business they do with a seller, but this does not neccessarily mean it shows in the schedules. A skilled buyer can outperform a less skilled buyer who has a larger budget
  7. Because pricing goes throughout a large advertiser's buy, the size can act aginst best pricing. Networks do fear that a great price may let too much inventory go at too low a price, so on any given day a smaller advertiser may get better pricing than a larger one.
  8. In spot advertising, there are some time banks available for resale, but forewarned is forearmed
  9. Tell your AE to go back to his used car lot.


Wednesday, May 15, 2002 #5286
Would you please tell me if PBS and NPR take sponsorships from citizen groups and/or political campaigns? I have been told by a local PBS station that they do not accept sponsorships of a political nature. Thank you, Susan McKay

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 18, 2002 ):
If someone you want to buy something from says they don't sell that, there's a pretty strong case to believe they don't sell it.

It is likley that PBS / NPR would avoid political sponsorship, but they may be under the same obligation as any licensed broadcaster to accept politicaladvertising. It is also possible that different Public stations have different policies.


Tuesday, May 14, 2002 #5284
Hello, I am looking for some help on determing ROI for a print media campaign I've had running for about 8 months. Unfortunately, I cannot include sales as we are a B2B company and our product is pricey (read millions of dollars). So advertising is not going to make the phone ring with sales but I would like to put something together to determine how effective the print campaign is at awareness/perception. Or at least reach/frequency. Is there any rules of thumb I can go by or incorporate besides just circulation and cost per pub? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 18, 2002 ):
Click here to see numerous past Guru responses, posted for your reference, regarding estimating reach and frequency.

Awareness / perception may be a useful metric in evaluating a plan, but unfortuately you really need to have a benchmark base level from before the campaign began.


Tuesday, May 14, 2002 #5282
what is the importance of advertising and public relations to a business?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 18, 2002 ):
Two key elements in business success are that the potential customer be aware of your service or product and that the potential customer believes your service or product answers a need or conveys a benefit.

At the pushcart-on-the-street level, these processes may be completed by a sign on an umbrella, and the look or smell of the merchandise. Most businesses have larger aspirations.


Tuesday, May 14, 2002 #5280
what is advertising media?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 18, 2002 ):
The definition would be any means of exposing an advertising message to an audience. The scope runs from TV to matchbook covers to paper cups and skywriting.


Tuesday, May 14, 2002 #5279
DEAR Guru, advertising a car model can you explain the connections between the target market, the product and the communictaions campiagn? also what are the ad/disadvantages of each method of media when preparing a media campiagn?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 18, 2002 ):
Most simply: Various brands of products have appeal to specific demographics. For existing brands, these ddemographics can be discerned by analyzing survey research, often syndicated studies such as MRI, Simmons and The Mendelsohn Media Research Affluent Study. Proprietary, "custom" research is also used.

The working theory is that the best advertising target is people similar to current purchasers. New models or programs aimed at changing the purchaser appeal may have variants based on the profile of competitive models, speculation or other research, including qualtitative types.

Communications is then planned to reach the same target, and to place advertising in a supportive environment, that relates to the product, target lifestyle, image goals of the brand, etc.

For some comparisons of media, see the Guru's media strengths page.


Thursday, May 09, 2002 #5274
If we are planning to introduce a new product to the mass market and want to achieve 30% awareness in the first year, What would be a good assumption in the planning budget for cost of advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 12, 2002 ):
There are too many variables to answer this simply. Assuming the right creative and media mix and target and product, $10 million might be enough. Or $50 million might not be. It's much more than a media question.


Wednesday, May 01, 2002 #5262
A four part question- It appears that except for premium & movie channels, that an "average" cable HH receives between 30 and 40 "normal" cable networks (A&E, FX, MSNBC, TNT, etc.) that are "ad insertable." Is that a fair assumption? Second part of the question... If the first part is true, then an "average cable HH" still has many additional "ad insertable" channels to watch. Of all these "ad insertable" alternatives, what % of them (Share?) do think you feel these 30 to 40 get? (Yes, I know that the strength of each network varies by day part. So the "load" carried by one of the 30 to 40 varies.) Third part, is this topic too esoteric when trying to understand the power of the normal cable network? And how it affects advertising rates, programming aside? Fourth, what other aspects of the power of "normal" cable networks should I consider when evaluating the ins and outs of investing advertising money on cable?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 05, 2002 ):
Taking your figure of 30-40 ad-insertable cable networks as correct, that only leaves a small handful of other ad supported channels available to the cable HH:
  • Local broadcast stations carried on the cable system, of which there might be an average of 5 or 6
  • Local cable origination channels with local news, weather, traffic, etc of which there might be 3 or 4.

Depending on daypart, without consulting the latest Nielsen, Guru belives that the 30 or 40 get about 50% of the ad-insertable audience.

THe power of the individual cable network is still small, except within a specific sphere. ESPN is a power in sports, CNN is a power in news.

This relevance to the advertiser and consumer is a key consideration.


Tuesday, April 30, 2002 #5258
Can you recommend an upcoming seminar to learn about evaluating and buying online advertising? I have 15 years experience buying 'traditional' media; but need to expand my knowledge to better serve my clients. Thank you

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 30, 2002 ):
The Guru does not recommend media schools or seminars. You should find several advertised in the trade media from time to time.


Tuesday, April 30, 2002 #5257
Where can I find out about advertising regulations for television, print, the internet, outdoor, and cinema?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 30, 2002 ):
"Regulations" is a vague term. In the US, there are few laws regarding advertising specifically, outside of fraud concerns, and the Guru does not give legal advice. The various media outlets make their own rules regarding business dealing for media sales and ad content.


Monday, April 29, 2002 #5256
For a class project,I am doing a marketing research and advertisment project for a local community college. I have a 650,000 budget for advertising. I am in search for accurate costs and figures. Sincerley Justin Roloff

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 30, 2002 ):
Start with SQAD


Friday, April 26, 2002 #5250
What is an "ad manifest" in newspaper advertising? Where can I find a sample of ad manifest?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 28, 2002 ):
According to Newspaper advertising Association:
"The Montana Standard of Butte is experimenting with a similar approach. Developed by Novus Print Media, its adPOP software uses a daily ad manifest to automatically generate PDFs of page images and e-mail them to advertisers."


Wednesday, April 24, 2002 #5246
effective internet advertising pro's and con's

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 28, 2002 ):
Start with the Guru's media strengths page.


Wednesday, April 24, 2002 #5245
how to go about planning effective enternet advertising

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 28, 2002 ):
Internet planning is not a well established art. Everyone doing it has a theory. You might find a useful book in AMIC Bookstore (in association with Amazon.com)


Sunday, April 21, 2002 #5235
Dear Guru, I'm trying to find out if there are any studies about ad placement in print and magazines. Is placement on the right better then the left? Is the begining of the magazine better then the end? etc. Thanks, ND

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 21, 2002 ):
Good sources include The Magazine Publishers' Association, Starch and The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Saturday, April 20, 2002 #5234
How much, in general, does internet advertising cost? Specifically, banners and intersitials. Also, how much is it, approximately, to create a web-site.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 21, 2002 ):
Currently the range is from a few cents per click to $200 per thousand impressions. $10-15 cpm might be an average for traditional advertisers on major sites.

The range to create web sites is even greater, depending on features. A one page display of good can be homemade for next to nothing using just your own time. A complex, ecommerce site, with audieo and video samples could cost upwards of $1 million to build and maintain.


Thursday, April 18, 2002 #5229
Dear Media Guru, Do you have any research or date that studied ideal budget allocation between main media and sub media? Or, How much of budget is good for sub media in order to maximize advertising impact?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, April 20, 2002 ):
One common rule of thumb is "use the primary medium up to the point where it becomes inefficient to add incremental reach." This rule works in reach oriented plans. Another might be ". . .until the submedium adds reach __% faster than more money in the main medium." A frequency or tonnage plan would have a different approach.

In any case, the rule will be based on media delivery measures, not some abstraction of budget percentage. The budget percentage split which results will vary greatly depending on the main and submedia involved, and the communication goals that define "impact".


Monday, April 15, 2002 #5222
What are the total advertising expenditures in Charlotte County, Floride

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, April 20, 2002 ):
The source to check, if such data is available is CMR (Competitive Media Reports). advertising appearing in Charlotte county is probably bought for Sarasota or Ft. Meyers. The Guru doubts such specific tracking is available. Ocal outdoor or cable providers and perhaps smaller radio stations might have such records.


Wednesday, April 10, 2002 #5216
Is it the same advertising in two totally different places? Where everything is different (culture, media, number of people etc.). Does the consumer react the same whoever he is?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, April 15, 2002 ):
Definitiely not. Take a simple example, such as US Hispanic advertising.

It is well established that advertising can not simply be translated and used otherwise unchanged. The cultural cues, and context, including everything from the look of sets and actors through how products are used, past consumer experience with the products, and flavor/scent prefernces make too many differences.

On the media side, reach levels of the various media are different, for instance Spanish TV has a four week potential below 70% of Hispanics for any reasonable schedule, radio has a higher potential, and magazines are not a strong medium at all, generally (with one or two exeptions) having circulation coverage only 10-25% as deep as the US general. market. Newspapers compare similarly, with 10% HH coverage of a market being almost unheard-of.

Taking advertising from country to country raises even more problems.


Tuesday, April 09, 2002 #5210
Guru . . . Is there a source for general, top-line numbers on day-after-recall scores on advertising for the various media?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, April 15, 2002 ):
The Guru doesn't think so, and it would be fairly useless. Day-after recall is really a measure of a piece of copy's ability to stand out from the surrounding media content.

Additionally, such measures have usually been done by such differing techniques that they never really described comparable results. One exception, perhaps 20 years ago. was a radio technique designed to closely replicate Burke's TV day after recall.

Even then each research vendor maintained and offered the norms only for their own technique, where comparison would have some validity. Some major advertisers which conducted many such tests might have had proprietary comparisons.

There might be some broad-strokes comparisons available through The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Tuesday, April 09, 2002 #5209
what influence has John Philip Jones had on the subject of studies(advertising)? What is the value of his theories for the adveritisement business?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, April 15, 2002 ):
There are two ways to look at this.

One that Jones' influence is enormous, because he has pioneered in many standard-setting techniques, widely accepted by the more technically oriented advertising practicioners. or

Unfortunately limited because the vast majority of advertising decisions are made by those uninterested in or unaware of such tools, albeit more dollars may be spent with use of the tools.


Saturday, April 06, 2002 #5204
Who does the advertising for nascar.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 07, 2002 ):
Consult AdWeek Directories.


Saturday, April 06, 2002 #5203
Dear Guru, Is there any data to suggest the affect of subtitles in viewerships of foreign films in a local territory? Thanks Deepender Sehajpal

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 07, 2002 ):
This has probably been researched. Try ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization or The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter.


Friday, April 05, 2002 #5200
Are there any advertising research studies on the effectiveness and recall of :60 spots vs. :30 spot lengths.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 07, 2002 ):
Yes. Try the The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Tuesday, April 02, 2002 #5187
Have you ever heard of the company audio track? Could be spelled audio trac or trak. We are stuck...we think it is an audio advertising tracker.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 02, 2002 ):
You may be thinking of Voicetrak


Tuesday, April 02, 2002 #5186
hi.Mr Guru, i'm a greenhand of ad sector, would you like tell me some ad institutes with some resource? many many thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 02, 2002 ):
Try ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization and The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Sunday, March 31, 2002 #5184
Hi! I am a student and I am working in a Marketing Project. This refers to develop an advertising plan for beer sell so, could you e-mail me information about what I have to consider and the cost of each publicity option that I could use? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 31, 2002 ):
See the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan and the Guru's media strengths page.


Saturday, March 30, 2002 #5183
What are the different types of advertising media and what factors affect the choice of media?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 30, 2002 ):
See the Guru's media strengths page


Thursday, March 28, 2002 #5180
Hey, Media Guru! You're the best. My question is this: what is a typical media rep commission for an advertising rep who sells ad space for a magazine (in other words the magazine doesn't employ its own ad sales people, but employs an outside media representation firm to sell their ads). What is a typical financial arrangement for this kind of thing?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 30, 2002 ):
It is probably 15-20%, on average, with infinite variation in deals and compensation rates.


Thursday, March 28, 2002 #5178
I am trying to find research companies doing modeling on what factors affect sales : considering everything from advertising, marketing, promotions, merchandising, the economy, etc..... for a particular client. What research companies can I contact?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 30, 2002 ):
Try A:S Link and BASES.


Wednesday, March 27, 2002 #5176
What does the term "half life" mean and how is it calculated?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 30, 2002 ):
The actual term "half life" refers to the time it takes half of the radioactivity in a radioactive object to decay. The Guru is not aware of this term as a standard media usage, though it might be applied to something like awareness decline after advertising stops.


Wednesday, March 27, 2002 #5175
What research is there available that discusses the link between media plans and brand awareness?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 27, 2002 ):
Try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Tuesday, March 26, 2002 #5174
I'm doing research who sells space on today's electronic media, how its sold and how much these salespersons get paid. Can you point me in some meaningful directions? The whole subject has become very overwhelming to me, especially in today's media conglomeration market. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 26, 2002 ):
Start with The Internet advertising Bureau


Tuesday, March 26, 2002 #5172
A frined of mine is looking to get into this crazy business and has been looking for some "white paper" as she puts it, on the organization of an advertising agency with some basic definitions of buying and planning. If you can recommend a resource, it would be greatly appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 26, 2002 ):
Try the American Association of advertising Agencies, as well as the Guru archive here.


Tuesday, March 26, 2002 #5171
Dear Guru, Can you help me with finding some researches of impact of different POS materials, which of them I should advise to my client? Many thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 26, 2002 ):
Consult the trade association, POPAI Point of Purchase advertising International.


Monday, March 25, 2002 #5170
My company is ready to sell advertising on its online vehicle. What's the best way to find the appropriate contacts for advertisers? How should I go about finding the folks who make buying decisions? And what are the immediate hurdles I'll be facing?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 26, 2002 ):
AdWeek Directories is a resource listing agencies of advertsers.

Your key hurdles should be proving you have an audience and how that audience or your content is right for a specific advertiser.


Monday, March 25, 2002 #5169
Where might I find a template or "standard" contract for advertising sales for online media? Specifically, I need a contract that would cover both HTML Email banners and banners on web sites.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 26, 2002 ):
You can probably find what you need through organizations such as American Association of advertising Agencies or The Internet advertising Bureau.


Friday, March 22, 2002 #5167
Do you know of a primer for understanding radio advertising and how it is purchased? I am trying to learn about terminology and the dynamics of the industry such as the different pricing methods (CPM/CPP, Direct Response, etc).

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 24, 2002 ):
This is a fairly narrow topic. Most likley the major rep firms, like Katz or Interep can provide useful guides.


Friday, March 15, 2002 #5153
what are the costs of advertising in media's such as television, radio, newspapers, banners in United Kingdom?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 17, 2002 ):
See International Media Guide


Thursday, March 14, 2002 #5151
how do i best explain reach and frequency to a new media student

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 17, 2002 ):
The Guru doesn't see the difficulty. Reach is the number of Different persons exposed to advertising, expressed in simple numbers or as a percentage of a target audience. Frequency is the number of exposures experienced by those who are reached.

Click here to see past Guru responses on the topic.


Monday, March 11, 2002 #5141
How exactly do advertisng agencies go about targeting thier audiences for the ads that they create?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 11, 2002 ):
As a broad generalization, information is compiled from various sources describing the prospective purchaser of the product or service.

When this information is understood, media planners match the natures of the audiences and environments of the various media to determine where the best fit exists for the advertising.


Thursday, March 07, 2002 #5140
what are the: (1)planning and strategy (2)objectives media (3)printed media (4)kinds of print advertising of advertising media???

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 11, 2002 ):
The Guru interprets your question to be about the campaigns used by the ad media for self promotion. Your best path is to search for this information in the trade media, such as Ad Age.


Tuesday, March 05, 2002 #5136
Thank you Media Guru for your response to my last question. Now I have a another one for you: A hypothetical advertising situation I'm working on involves a client who wants to invest in some specialty advertising, specifically pencils, coffee mugs, toy tractors and other things of that nature. Is it possible to determine the reach and frequency of such a medium?...or are reach and frequency better left to descriptions of broadcast, print, and other media

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 05, 2002 ):
The first step in measuring reach and frequency is defining the target so that you can eventually say that "X" number or "Z" percent of this target has been reached. In your hypothetical, the number might be the quantity distributed, but it will depend on how well the distribution is controlled to go to the target and to prevent duplication.

Direct mail is not a good analogy, because that depends on percent who open/read to filter the reach.


Tuesday, March 05, 2002 #5135
Dear guru: I'm seeking some guidance on planning and buying local cable tv advertising and how it relates to local network tv placement. For example, many of the smaller markets we are researching do not have cable ratings available. Is it safe to use the nearest DMA available cable ratings as a guideline? Also, does Nielsen offer cable ratings, and if so, is it standard practice to post cable networks against these projections? Also, does a national guide of cable providers exist, that enable you to look up a specific geographic region and identify cable providers in the area? Is there any type of reference guide of sorts that could assist me in cable tv planning in general? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 11, 2002 ):
  • The Guru would not base cable ratings on a nearby DMA. This situation implies you would use the ratings data of a larger, urbanized market to judge a smaller, suburban or rural market where tastes might differ greatly. Similarly, cable penetration might be very different in a rural market, and most importantly the competitive picture as far as networks and local stations available will likely be different.
  • Yes, Nielsen offer cable ratings and where available, are appropriate for posting. Nielsen reporting standards are based on audience size, not on the type of signal.
  • You will probably find SRDS' Broadcast and Cable Source useful.
  • Also, try the national spot cable reps like NCS


Saturday, March 02, 2002 #5130
Media Guru - if you are already using SOV and SOD models, is there a way to determine share of EFFECTIVE voice? And How does inflation/deflation effect SOV?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 04, 2002 ):
When you use possibly idiosyncratic terms, the Guru is less certain that his response addresses your actual query.

The Guru will assume for the sake of this answer that by "SOV", you mean share of messages/ GRP/impresions being delivered in the category and by "SOD" you mean share of advertising dollars being spent in the category.

Therefore to compare effective SOV you must begin by assigning relative weights to messages depending on the media type and ad unit, so that if a TV :30 has an index of 100, perhaps a TV :10 has a value of 70, a Radio :60 has a value of 80, A newspaper full page has value of 90, a magazine 4 color spread has a value of 120, etc. (these are NOT recommended values, just for the sake of example).

Then by applying these indices to impressions measured in each medium and unit, you can calculate a Share of Effective Voice.

Since SOV is calculated for a specific, measured period of time, inflation/delation shouldn't be a factor.


Friday, March 01, 2002 #5128
What would you call the advertising technique whereby a manufacturer creates a character to sell a product, i.e. Madge for Palmolive, Mr. Wipple for Charmin, or the teenage boy recently used in Dell commercials? Can you think of any more examples of such characters?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 01, 2002 ):
Not a media question, but the Guru says "what the heck:"

Product spokeperson / mascot perhaps. Distinct from celebrity spokeperson. Including

  • The lonely Maytag repairman
  • The 7-Up Yours guy (Orlando Jones)
  • The new 7-Up-Yours guy
  • The Dr Pepper "I'm a Pepper" guy (David Naughton)
  • Tony the Tiger
  • Wendy's "Where's the beef?" lady
  • Ronald McDonald
  • The Nescafé romantic neighbors (Buffy's Anthony Stuart Head and some woman)
  • Mrs. Olsen for Folger's Coffee
  • Frito Bandito
  • Taco Bell Chihuahua
  • Budweiser frogs


Friday, March 01, 2002 #5127
I am a student trying to target the affluent for radio advertising. Is it possible to obtain reach and frequency when I don't know exactly how may individuals are in this market. Thank you. Looking forward to hearing from you soon.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 04, 2002 ):
If you think of reach and gross impressions in thousands, then there is no problem; if you want Percent reach, then obviously you need to have an estimate of the size of your target universe.

Scarborough is a resource which can provide universes and percent reach estimates for an affluent audience, if you can define affluent in concrete terms, e.g. HH income over $100K.


Thursday, February 28, 2002 #5125
I need the GRP (gross rating points) for a national ad. Im talking about advertising a commercial nation wide. I need the national rate at which the cost would be

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 04, 2002 ):
A national ad must be defined further for a specific answer.

The Guru will assume you are talking about television. But the specific demographic is important. Whether your ad runs on cable or network and in what daypart is also crucial.

A national ad could have a rating of less than 0.1 or over 20.0. The cost could range from a few hundred dollars to a few hundred thousand dollars.


Thursday, February 28, 2002 #5124
where can I get an education in online advertising in the NY area?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 04, 2002 ):
The Guru never recommends media schools. Your particular interests might be addressed by NewSchool University or other resources recommended by The Internet advertising Bureau.


Tuesday, February 26, 2002 #5121
If an advertiser cuts their typical TV schedule in half for three months, can we guage any residual effect in the following three months even if they return to normal levels.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 27, 2002 ):
One old rule of thumb was that about 10% of the previous week's awareness is lost each week without advertising. A collateral rule was that about 10% of the GRPs were added back to reach if some advertisng ran.

So, if awareness was 80% and you had been running 100 GRP per week, after one week without advertisng, awareness would fall to 72%. But if you ran 50 GRP instead of nothing, you could gain back 5 points.

Obviously, this scenario will always show an awareness loss in any week with less than 100 GRP, no mattere the ratio to prior weeks GRPs. It is overly simplistic, but may be directionally useful.


Tuesday, February 26, 2002 #5117
Dear Guru! Sorry for unclear question about media mix. I would like to know is it a possibility to estimate the whole advertising campaign in different media by using common indexes (GRPs, frequency, reach etc) if there are no data from the same source - people-meters (TV), diary (press and radio)?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 27, 2002 ):
Yes. It is a standard procedure to combine media and has been for decades. There are some basic assumptions of statistical overlap, making a crude combination through probability arithmetic fairly indicative, and making modern media software, such as that offered by Telmar, reasonably specific.


Monday, February 25, 2002 #5115
Guru - I have a client who wants to move the needle with product sales via a newspaper only campaign? Is there a suggested frequency/times per week/campaign length for this single medium campaign to generate sales? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 27, 2002 ):
The answers will vary by ad size, product category and many other elements. Consult The Newspaper advertising Association


Sunday, February 24, 2002 #5111
What is the most effective advertising to reach a Senior Target - Adults 55 and over with Income under $17,000/yr. The product is apartments, the market is Greenville County, South Carolina. The budget is only $10,000. What do you recommend other than Sunday Real Estate Newspaper Ads that will be efficient and effective?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 25, 2002 ):
Even assuming that your prospects are all local, the budget doesn't seem serious. You might afford 200 GRP of radio or a similalry indeaquate local cable scehdule. If your prospects might be northerners looking for retirement homes, which seems unlikely at that income level, small space national magazine ads in smaller, senior-oriented magazines might be effective.

Bottom line, you need a real budget, or you're stuck in the real estate section and maybe pennysavers.


Friday, February 22, 2002 #5110
I am doing a paper for school on Nintendo Gamecube and I need to report the amounts spent on each advertising medium, ie. television, magazines... Where would I find this type of data? Brianna

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 22, 2002 ):
CMR (Competitive Media Reports)


Friday, February 22, 2002 #5109
Is there a software program for print media buying equivalent to TapScan? We are a small advertising agency that currently buys media in sevarl local markets around the country. We are looking for software that would provide us: 1. a listing of all available print media in each market. 2. the data so that we can compare what is best suited for our clients 3. an actual print buying placement component. Is there such an animal? and if so, owuld appreciate the name(s) and contact info.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 23, 2002 ):
You want a listing of all media, audience data for the media and issuance / maintenance of buying records.

Sone suppliers with portions of what you want include DDS, Strata for traffic and buying maintenance and Telmar for audience analysis. Telmar and Strata have some useful links.

One obstacle you will face is that, just like Tapscan, these systems depend on media being listed in syndicated data which you must buy the rights to use, otherwise the systems only process media information which you input yourself. Local print media audience data do not genrally include "all" options. Particulary for weekly, pennysaver and alternative print, data collections can be quite spotty, but developments are constant, so contact these suppliers.


Friday, February 22, 2002 #5108
I need to find a company who will try to sell my idea and product and also take a commision from the profit. How can I find these companies?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 23, 2002 ):
There are media which sell advertising on a "per-inquiry" basis. This means that they will carry your ad for a fee based on how many calls are generated. Most often this is strictly based on the calls, not the sales or profit. The rest of your question goes well outside the bounds of media.


Friday, February 22, 2002 #5107
What is media effeciency rate in terms of buying time for infomercials? I've been told the goal is to achieve a rate of 1.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 23, 2002 ):
The Guru wonders, "1 what?"

Infomercials are relatively expensive, because they are longer in format than ordinary commercials, even if traditionally priced at "half the rate" of non-direct advertising. Because the lengths vary and demand pricing plus preemtability are factors, the Guru does not recall having found pricing standards for this form.


Wednesday, February 20, 2002 #5103
I am doing a paper for school, and need an A to S ratio for Clairol Herbal Essenses. Also, I need to find out how much of their sales is due to advertising. Where would I be able to get this info, or would you be able to provide it for me? Thank you MeL E

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 21, 2002 ):
Trade media occasionally report A:S ratios. Otherwise there are often trade media reports regarding sales and ad spend, from which you can make your own calculation.

The Guru doubts that any marketer can specifically and validly attribute a portion of sales to advertising (except in the case of Direct Response). As George Washington Hill of American Tobacco is reputed to have quipped:

"I know half of my advertising is wasted, I just don't know which half"


Tuesday, February 19, 2002 #5097
Dear Guru, why are the ad sizes for newspapers so different and confusing? What are the most popular ad size standards for weekly newspapers? Thank you

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 20, 2002 ):
Most daily newspapers have standardized on a few sizes, described at the Newspaper advertising Association site. The Guru finds that many weeklies follow these standards.


Sunday, February 17, 2002 #5090
As a student I have really enjoyed the media planning aspects of advertising. I will graduate soon but have never had an internship. As is, do I stand a chance of finding a job in media planning without intern experience?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 18, 2002 ):
The Guru is confident that most planners never had an internship. Many didn't even study media planning in college.


Saturday, February 16, 2002 #5089
I am currently work as a Media Planner in the US and looking to relocate to London to get some media experience abroad. I would like to research the advertising market conditions in London before I decide to move there, can you please tell me the names of some UK or London advertising & Media Trade Publications & Websites. Can you also tell me the best way to go about finding a Media Planner job in London. Thank you, bjp100275@hotmail.com

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 18, 2002 ):
See Campaign Magazine (there are links to several UK trades here). The best way to get a London job may be to contact the US office of an agency with a London office; still better if the agency where you now work has such an affiliation.


Thursday, February 14, 2002 #5084
Blade worldwide is one of the top monitoring agencies for outdoor advertising based in UK. I could not find any URL on the internet for this company. Does it operate under a different name. Or else could you tell me the names & urls of outdoor monitoring services in UK

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 14, 2002 ):
Try contacting Outdoor advertising Association of the UK


Wednesday, February 13, 2002 #5083
I am an advertising student and I have to do a media plan for Crayola, which media would you suggest I use?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 13, 2002 ):
What's your target? What's your budget? What are your goals? You won't learn much if the Guru does everything.


Sunday, February 10, 2002 #5075
Dear Guru. I'm looking for some information about the impact of an "encart" (=leaflet) in a magazine versus an A4 insertion in a magazine. Can you help me on this one? Kind regards.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 10, 2002 ):
Try The Newspaper advertising Association or The Magazine Publishers' Association. There are also Eurpoean equivalents to these. Consult ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization


Thursday, February 07, 2002 #5069
Guru - I need to price the sale of advertising on Wireless phones? Are there any benchmarks for the service when X number of subscribers have agreed to recieve X number of messages per day? Thanks for any and all help!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 10, 2002 ):
Pricing sould be based on cost per thousand messages delivered. Other advertising is priced from under $1 to over $200 per thousand depending on the audience's desirability to the advertiser or the difficulty of reaching it.


Thursday, February 07, 2002 #5068
In Theatre advertising

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 10, 2002 ):
Click here to see Guru responses about theater advertising


Thursday, February 07, 2002 #5064
I need to find out market forces affecting outdoor advertising at present. Any other relevent information.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 10, 2002 ):
This is a bit unclear. If you mean how the economy affects sales of outdoor advertising, try trade journals like Ad Age or the Outdoor advertising Association of America


Wednesday, February 06, 2002 #5061
I'm looking for some research/formula that will help with determining communications budgets between mass media and direct efforts based on where products are within their lifecycle.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 10, 2002 ):
Try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Wednesday, February 06, 2002 #5060
Creating a media campaign. Target group: Children from 3 to 7 years. Budget is not sufficient for the whole year advertising. What would be the best period of the year for advertising then?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 10, 2002 ):
The advertising season will depend on the selling season in your category. If you adrfe selling ice cream, it's summer, soup in winter. Short pants in summer, snow suits in winter.


Sunday, February 03, 2002 #5046
How do I start placing my web page banner on web sites? I know nothing about web advertising. obviously.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 10, 2002 ):
Try 24/7Media or DoubleClick.


Thursday, January 31, 2002 #5044
Is there a source on the internet that allows you to search & find internet advertising opportunities that match company profiles? Is there a resource site that lists all (or most) banner advertising opportunities? I'm putting together a media plan - both e-mail marketing & banner advertising. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 03, 2002 ):
There are several that offer such a service; one is eMedia Resources. The internet is too vast for any service to come near listing most. Some that purport to offer the service only list sites whose ad space they themeselves sell.


Thursday, January 31, 2002 #5042
Do you have any case studies on how to increase attendance at an event?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 03, 2002 ):
Try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Thursday, January 31, 2002 #5041
I am creating a television show in Telemundo Int, one of the largest hispanic media organizations in the world. I have purchased a 30 minute space from them and I now need sponsors and would like to know if there is a site that I could go to that will tell me about media marketing/advertising companies? Furthermore, I would like to know if I should go with a media marketing company or an advertising agency? If so, where can I find companies that strictly sell a show to potential sponsors? What name are they under? I appreciate your help Thak you, Milton

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 03, 2002 ):
You want "media sales representatives." The type you want (for Latin America) are mostly based in Miami.


Thursday, January 31, 2002 #5038
Dear Guru, i would appreciate if you gave me as much information as possible regarding ''cluster analysis''. Thanks in advance

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 31, 2002 ):
Cluster analysis is a way to build a new multi-variate definition of a target and then use that definition in further media comparisons. For details, try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Wednesday, January 30, 2002 #5037
Is there any research I can access showing difference in response between stand-alone letterbox delivered catalogues, and those catalogues also promoted on another medium eg. Television ? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 31, 2002 ):
Try Direct Marketing Association (DMA) and The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Thursday, January 24, 2002 #5033
Is there any data out there that provides ROI information on Radio/Print/TV/Cable Schedules. Just some basic numbers. For example, we mostly know that direct mail averages about a 2% response. Is there a formula or somewhere I can go to get info for Radio or TV? For example #2 My client is placing a certain number of grps on Radio and wants to know of the people reached, how many will attend the event advertised (like a one day seminar). What they want to know is on average how many people reached respond to an ad (Print/Radio/cable/TV). Any where I can find a rough estimate or some research- This is kind of like the "Ad Effectiveness Lab" that Arbitron is working on , but is not finished with.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 31, 2002 ):
There are too many variables to generalize. It depends much, much more on the message and product than on the medium. An event is different than a movie, which is different than an inexpensive household product which is purchased frequently, which is different than a big-ticket item bought every few years.

One good resource is an article, "advertising Wearin and Wearout" in the September/October 1998 Journal of Advertisng Research.

For much more try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Monday, January 21, 2002 #5024
Hello Guru -- Do you have information on newspaper ad wearout? I have a client who wants to increase their newspaper advertising frequency without changing their creative ... what guidelines should be used for a branding campaign? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 31, 2002 ):
This is not really a media question. It's a matter of copy effectiveness. The answer will depend on category interest as well as the size and impact of the ad. For Branding, there may be an arguemnt to stay with a simple effective message. On the other hand, in newspaper, production is relatively inexpensive in comparison to media costs.

Click here to see past Guru comment on wear out.


Monday, January 21, 2002 #5018
Dear Guru, Am looking for the starch study which outlines the differences in effectiveness of advertising on right hand side vs left hand side of a newspaper, top vs bottom, colour vs b&w. etc. It would be great if you could tell me where I could get hold of this study - Ajay

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, January 21, 2002 ):
Visit Starch


Sunday, January 20, 2002 #5017
We are web marketers with several sites that average about 3000 to 6000 hits per day. We wish to sell advertising banners on these sites, and are not sure how to approach accomplishing this objective. Can you refer us to anyone or make any suggestions. Thank you Guru.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, January 21, 2002 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses about various aspects of selling banners


Wednesday, January 16, 2002 #5012
I am in high school, and i have to teach a class period on the topic of advertising. What are some good websites to go to just to find the basics of advertising? or statistics of advertising? (ex. what were the top 10 television commercials for 2001?) ...Thank you!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 17, 2002 ):
Try The U of Texas, Austin.

"Top 10 commericials" is not an 'advertising basic'. How would you define "top?" Most often seen? Most watched? Best remembered? Most award-winning? Most expensive to produce? Biggest media budget?


Wednesday, January 16, 2002 #5010
WHAT IS RAINBOW MEDIA? AND WHAT IS RASCO MEDIA SALES?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 17, 2002 ):
Rainbow Media is the media ownership division of Long Island-based Cablevsion Systems. Properties include Bravo, AMC, News 12, MSG, etc.

According to Rainbow Media:

Established in 1984, Rainbow advertising Sales Corporation (RASCO), the advertising subsidiary of Rainbow Media Holdings, Inc., is now the cable industry's largest and most diverse advertising representation firm.


Tuesday, January 15, 2002 #5006
I have been asked to provide the impact of advertising by medium, for a multi-media retail plan. The advertising consists of TV, Radio and Outdoor. The percentages are: TV 80%, Radio 14% and Outdoor 6%. The communication is both branding and price/item. During the TV campaigns the creative split is 60% branding/40% price & item. The radio is almost exclusively price and item and the outdoor is 100% branding.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 17, 2002 ):
First you need to define the 'civilian' term 'impact'. Is it
  • Sales contribution
  • recall
  • awareness
  • or something else?

    Are the percentages Budget, impressiosn, reach contribution or . . .?

    This is not a reasonable question.


Friday, January 11, 2002 #4997
Where can I find average responses/summary numbers for advertising print readship tests (such as Starch) and television recall (such as Burke)? All I need are average responses over the period tests have been given with (1) recognize, (2) advertizer associated and (3) Read most, for print; and Recall commercial and recall advertizer for television. Thank you for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, January 14, 2002 ):
See Starch, Newsweek Media Research Index and The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Friday, January 11, 2002 #4996
do you know of any theories relating to consumer liking and trust for different media, and how this results on their effectiveness?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, January 15, 2002 ):
There was a ratings service, TAA (?) built around this theory in the '80's, but it never caught on. For other thoughts, try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Thursday, January 10, 2002 #4994
When calculating the CPM for magazine advertising there is a formua to compensate between a full page cost and a partial page cost. It has to do with readership differences between the sizes of ads. the second part of my question is how do I compare cost efficiency in terms of CPM between magazine and television broadcast.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, January 14, 2002 ):
CPM = Ad Cost ÷ audience (in 000)
If you wish to adjust this calculation using Starch or other adjustments based on relative readership it's easy:

1. Use the appropriate cost for the unit.
2. Create the ratio of readership scores of the; two units, for example if a full page has a score of 60 and a half page has a score of 48, the ratio is 48 ÷ 60 or 0.80
3. Multiply the actual audience by this ratio.

4. Divide this adjusted audience into the correct cost for the page unit.


Monday, January 07, 2002 #4982
Have you heard of the Ethnic Council and does it still exist? Had related information for marketing research and various interviewing concerns/techniques for different ethnic groups.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, January 07, 2002 ):
The Guru believes you mean the Ethnic Reseach Steering Committee of the The advertising Research Foundation.

This council appears to have become dormant, but you may contact ARF for further information.


Sunday, January 06, 2002 #4980
What is the total dollars spent, or budget, for advertising by the Information Technology sector? Broken down by media type?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 06, 2002 ):
See CMR (Competitive Media Reports)


Friday, January 04, 2002 #4977
Guru Do you know the specifics of US Government Regulations/Restrictions concerning tobacco advertising on TV? What can and cannot be said or shown? Thanks for any help you can give, tvscriptwriter

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 04, 2002 ):
See the Federal Trade Commission search page and use tobacco as your search term.


Friday, January 04, 2002 #4976
Where can I find a list of advertising agencies in a particular state or region? (Looking for a job!)

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 04, 2002 ):
See AdWeek Directories.


Thursday, December 27, 2001 #4965
Is there any resource/company to find the number of pages of advertising per issue for a specific publication? I'm looking for business-to-business publications focusing on government, such as Governing or Roll Call. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 27, 2001 ):
CMR's (Competitive Media Reports) Business 1200 might address this question. The individual magazines can ususally give you this info for thier own pages.


Thursday, December 27, 2001 #4964
Can you tell me of any research comparing loose inserts [FSI's in US?] with advertising placed in the body of a newspaper or magazine? — Nick Holdsworth

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 27, 2001 ):
Try The Newspaper advertising Association


Wednesday, December 26, 2001 #4963
Is there an association of Independent advertising Sales Representatives and if not how would I go about locating some?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 26, 2001 ):
You will find many small reps listed in the front sections of the various Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) resources.


Wednesday, December 19, 2001 #4955
Dear Guru. Can you give me some exemples of contracts between a media planning bureau and an agency. Or perhaps an enumeration of the different subjects a contract should contain. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, December 21, 2001 ):
Any contract for services needs to specify the services to be performed, the price and time period of the contract. Beyond that, it's specific to the case. American Association of advertising Agencies would have samples.


Tuesday, December 18, 2001 #4954
Greetings Guru. I am not in the advertising industry but doing some research on advertising effectiveness. Can you help me find (preferably free) regional Newspaper, Radio and TV advertising costs and audience sizes for the state of PA. For example, is there some sort of directory or rate cards that list the different newspapers in PA, what it costs to place an ad., and how many subscribers they have. Thanks a million!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, December 21, 2001 ):
For free, best bet is MediaFinder in print and AMIC's Ad Data area for broadcast. In broadcast, listings are not typically organized by state, but by metro area or DMA.


Monday, December 17, 2001 #4952
I was curious if there is a website you could recommend for marketing or advertising news that's a bit strange or out of the ordinary? Thanks, Brad

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, December 21, 2001 ):
"News" and "strange" is a tough combination. AdCritic may be temporarily inactive.


Thursday, December 13, 2001 #4945
Greetings, Guru. Can you point me to research studies that deal with effectiveness of advertising in free publications vs. paid ones?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 13, 2001 ):
Try Association of Alternative Weeklies and The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Thursday, December 13, 2001 #4944
We have a client that insists on running :30 LOCAL radio spots instead of :60 spots. We have done a significant amount of network radio, where the "standard" unit is, in fact, :30. Standard units for local buys on the other hand are :60s. The client still challenges our recommendation for :60s in LOCAL markets. Do you have an opinion on this subject, or can you tell me where to find some independent research that addresses the topic?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 13, 2001 ):
Today, not only is the local standard :60's, but most stations sell "units" meaning their charge is the same for :60 or :30. In this situation, there seems to be no reason to use a :30 unless specific copy research proves that the 30 is more effective.

In other cases, where :30's cost 80% of :60's, the added reach and frequency achievable trhough :30's may be worthwhile.

For research, try The Radio advertising Bureau (RAB)


Thursday, December 13, 2001 #4942
Hi, Media Guru.I am looking for a place were I can be specialized in media field, an university an institute something like that. The location must be in Canada or in Italy. Can you help me with this? I working already in this field, in Romania, with Mindshare (in the last two years), but I feel is necessary to do much more than a training inside the agency.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, December 14, 2001 ):
Most universities which teach "Communications" teach advertising, with more or less emphasis on media. Your question is one for the educational guides for the relevant countries, comparable to US News more than it is for a media specialist. In the US, it is rare for a media professional to have specialized in media in college.


Wednesday, December 12, 2001 #4940
Do you know who keeps internet ads? I'm looking for an ad that was on priceline.com in 1998...jpg Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 12, 2001 ):
Start with The Internet advertising Bureau.


Monday, December 10, 2001 #4937
Hi Guru, What are the best resources to find out what the leading advertising agencies for radio are, as well as who their key clients are? Also, are you aware of a resource that lists category rankings for the various major media? Thank You!!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 12, 2001 ):
The Standard Directories of advertising Agencies and Advertisers ('The Redbook') for major radio advertising agencies and their client lists.

CMR (Competitive Media Reports) for spending details.


Monday, December 10, 2001 #4936
Is there any research on the effectiveness of running a newspaper schedule(for a retail client) for 52 weeks? I am looking to scale back my newspaper schedule and need some rationale to support reducing the number of insertions on the buy. thanx

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, December 10, 2001 ):
Try The Newspaper advertising Association


Monday, December 10, 2001 #4935
I am the webmaster of Undergrounds.com. I am interested in finding a website agent to take charge of all the banner advertising and promotion that will take place on Undergrounds.com. My questions are: 1. Are there such agents out there? If so, how can I find them? 2. What sort of percentage breakdowns should I expect in sharing profit with such an agent? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, December 10, 2001 ):
MediaPost.com's Media magazine carries listings of these services in every issue.


Friday, December 07, 2001 #4933
Is there an industry standard for the ratio between the Media Budget and the advertising Production Budget (Creative & Production). I'm specifically interested in this ratio for a B2B client who is proposing a $1 million budget spilt 50/50 between media placement and ad creation.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, December 08, 2001 ):
No standard, there are too many variants. A $10 million national budget might be sepnt in radio with $20,000 production, or network TV with $1 million procution or local print with a middle amount. Small buget magazines have a relatively high ratio in porduction. Clients rarley seem willing to balance ad qualitiy ( size ) against the capacity to communicate the ad to targets.


Wednesday, December 05, 2001 #4928
Guru, how do I calculate a full page ad price if the directory only gives a column inch price? Thank you

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 05, 2001 ):
The direcory should also give number of column inches or inches and columns per page. Then you can mulitply, but pages are usually priced at some discount vs their column-inch multiple.

It sounds as if you are looking at classified rates, when you want to buy display advertising.


Tuesday, December 04, 2001 #4921
Reach

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 05, 2001 ):
Reach is the number of Different people (net) exposed to a campaign or schedule. It may be expressed in numbers of unduplicated impressions or as a percentage of the relevant target audience.

Reach is sometimes carlessly (and inaccurately) used in reference to the potential audience of a cable network, i.e. subscribers, when it should only be used to refern to an audience exposed to advertising.


Monday, December 03, 2001 #4919
I am researching some advertising opportunities for a medical device manufacturer. I have been told there is advertising avialable in hospitals via televisions in the waiting rooms. I think it is called Accent Health Network. Do you know of anything like this?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, December 04, 2001 ):
Visit Accent Health.com


Monday, December 03, 2001 #4918
My client is a medical device manufacturer. They currently do some trade show advertising in the on-site programs/exhibit guides, etc. We are trying to convince them to enhance this on-site advertising with advertising in the official trade show journals affliated with the trade shows. However, they question the effectiveness of trade journal advertising. Do you have an data on the value or effectiveness of trade journal advertising for health related clients - or b2b clients in general? I've tried a couple of research sources, but am seeking a FREE source of this research, if available. Any insight you could provide would be appreciated. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 05, 2001 ):
A good resource is Cahners Business Information


Tuesday, November 27, 2001 #4912
Dear Guru, Could you please clarify this for me: 1) is the ad production cost included in the 15% agency commision or it it charged on top of that? 2) the usual 5% for media buying, is it paid out of the 15%agency commission or in addition to that? 3) Is there any approximate scale to calculate how agency commission increases or decreases depending on the overall media cost volume? Thank you very much

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 27, 2001 ):
The traditional 15% is the agency's commission on any outlay made on the clients' behalf, whether media purchase or production cost.

One difference is that media costs are usually quoted by the media at "gross" which includes 15% commission, while the agency needs to "gross up" production, by adding 17.65%, creating a number that is then 85% cost and 15% commission.

That is, when media has a gross cost of $1000, the agency gets $150 commission and the media vendor nets $850. When there is a production expense of $850, the agency grosses it up by 17.65%, or $150, for a total of $1000.

While 5% is a common talking number for media services, it is not a standard. It is part of the 15%.

Fees other than the traditional 15% are a matter of negotiation. They may be more than 15 on low-billing accounts and considerably less on large accounts. They may be something completely different than percentage-based. The American Association of advertising Agencies is likely to have a reoprt on averages and ratios.


Tuesday, November 27, 2001 #4911
Guru, I need to find information about ethnically focussed advertising campaigns for beverages and what makes these campaigns successful/unsuccessful? Thanks in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 28, 2001 ):
Start with the ethnic-specific trade media, such as Target Market News (African American) and Hispanic Business. There are few cases where reports identify what makes campaigns successful, because it is only speculation.


Tuesday, November 27, 2001 #4910
What are the advertising rates for magazines?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 27, 2001 ):
All 11,000?

For a good guide see AMIC's Ad Data area


Monday, November 26, 2001 #4907
Are there any industry averages for a) click throughs from banners, etc; b) click throughs from ads in opt in e-mail news letters, etc.; and c) conversion rates for users who have clicked through on one of the above proceeding to buy/request/etc (ie to take the action proposed by the original advertisement that was clicked). I realise that there are very many variables, but I'm hoping there are some metrics to help guide a media planning exercise. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 28, 2001 ):
Consult The Internet advertising Bureau


Saturday, November 24, 2001 #4906
Dear Guru, We are working for a big car brand. For the moment we are working out the whole media plan for the year 2002. Can you advise me with some subjects that we surely should treat? For example with the launching of a new model, advertising for the whole scale, promo-advertising... Thanks already!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 25, 2001 ):
This appears to be a school project, not a real work assignment. In the real world, a media planner would receive marketing input with budgets and strategies delineating which of these areas must be addressed.


Wednesday, November 21, 2001 #4903
What is the typical number of advertising exposures the average person receives during the course of a day?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 21, 2001 ):
A Guru oldie, from 1997:

The Guru has seen estimates from a few hundred to many thousands. The Guru tends to go along with one of the best accepted estimates, that there are about 245 ad exposures daily, 108 from TV, 34 radio and 112 print.

Others estimate 3000, 5000 or more. Even the 245 is "potential" and perhaps only half are real exposures.

The higher estimates probably include all marketing exposure including being in the vicinity of product labels or actual products with trademarks visible, such as your car, computer, fax, phone, shirt, pencil, paper towel in the bathroom, etc.

Just think, if we were really exposed to 3000 advertising messages per day, at an average of just 10 seconds apiece (accounting for radio :60's and brief exposure to billboards), these exposures would consume 8.33 hours out of our 16 waking hours per day.

The Guru is skeptical.


Wednesday, November 21, 2001 #4901
I am considering selling a simple, novel, kitchen handtool using national newspaper advertising to reach an audience of several million potential purchasors. The advert will have a black and white photo of the handtool with a simple, clear selling message and call to action (telephone orderline to place credit card payment). Assuming my product is correctly priced and has reasonable appeal and my advert is reasonably well constructed and effective, what range of order response rate can I reasonably expect to see (i.e. what percentage of the newspaper readership could reasonably be expected to order based on experience of similar advertising campaigns?). A percentage range (low to high) would be a useful answer rather. Many thanks for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 21, 2001 ):
There is not really enough information for an accurate projection. The results might be anywhere from 0.1% to 3% of persons reached.

Try Direct Marketing Association (DMA) and The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Monday, November 19, 2001 #4898
I'm writing a point-of-view paper on suggestive sexuality in advertising. For this paper we have to use advertising journals. Could you reccommend a website for this?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 21, 2001 ):
Try Journal of advertising Research


Sunday, November 18, 2001 #4897
i want to make my career in advertising because of my creative and good business aptitude,but have no formal degree in it.how can i do it.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 18, 2001 ):
Generally speaking, media jobs have no specific demands in terms of educational background. Seek out entry-level jobs and sell yourself.


Wednesday, November 14, 2001 #4889
Hello Guru I am interested in finding out which ad agencies are the i.e. top ten buyers of _billboard advertising space_ in Toronto. Also interested in any resource available for those who intend to erect a billboard in Toronto and sell the space - information about buyers of advertising, city regulations concerning billboards, etc. Thank you! Nikku

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 18, 2001 ):
Try the directories of AdWeek


Tuesday, November 13, 2001 #4888
Where can I find free information about the effectiveness of newspaper pre-prints, for example Sunday retail sales circulars?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 14, 2001 ):
Try The Newspaper advertising Association or the vendors.


Tuesday, November 13, 2001 #4885
We're attempting a TV DR campaign. Our DR company is a little nervous about giving any hard facts and I was hoping you could help. (1)What is the life cycle of a typical direct response campaign for unsuccesful, moderately successful and highly successful products? 2) what type of results are considered successful to unsuccessful? (3) Typically, how much as a percentage of revenues are spent on the media buys? This is the best way for us to estimate promotional expenses. It is easiest to benchmark it according to sales revenue. (best case, worst case etc??) Thanks for any help in advance!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 14, 2001 ):
  1. The beauty of DR is that you immediately know what is or isn't working. Life cycle is therefore directly dependent on "success."
  2. Successful = profitable ROI. The variables are advertising expediture and selling price versus cost of goods. The same advertisng budget might be put behind a $29 item that cost $10 to make and sells in enromous volume or a $290 item that costs $225 to make and sells many fewer units.
  3. Similar variables apply to the revenue/media spending ratio. It's all a crap-shoot and you rely on the expereience of your DR people. If they have the experience, they will show you case studies, but possibly not rules-of-thumb

Try Direct Marketing Association (DMA).


Sunday, November 11, 2001 #4875
is there any research or study about advertising on big outdoor led or plasma display? is it a good medium in your opinion? thank you

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, November 12, 2001 ):
Many times the impact of the traffic is more overstated than other out-of-home, because of ther clutter of the location, as in New York's Times Square. But, granting that, the vendor should be able to offer some relevant research.


Saturday, November 10, 2001 #4874
I need pricing on internet advertising, where do I find it? -messenger

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, November 12, 2001 ):
Ad Resource has some year-old rates, The largest, most general sites' have probably dropped by at least half.


Tuesday, November 06, 2001 #4868
ADBUZZ IS THE WEBSITE THAT I NORMALLY USE TO STUDY FOR MY INTO TO advertising CLASS. CURRENTLY IT IS UNDER CONSTRUCTION, CAN YOU GIVE ME AN ALTERNATE WEB SITE TO USE?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 06, 2001 ):
The Guru finds AdBuzz to be operating normally. For alternates, try MarketingNorthAmerica.com


Monday, November 05, 2001 #4863
Our agency sell advertising and sponsorship for the Mille Miglia (www.millemiglia.com), one of the main international event for classic car amateurs: how can we effectively reach our focus target (affluent classic car amateur) in Usa? Thank you

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 07, 2001 ):
There are magazines aimed at this audience (see PubList) and there may be some ESPN programs worth using.


Monday, November 05, 2001 #4862
What was advertising spending in the year 2000 by media type?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, November 05, 2001 ):
Visit McCann


Monday, November 05, 2001 #4861
My client is requesting a media cost idex in order to compare costs of advertising in one market vs. markets where our competition is. I was puling CPPs for each market. How do I create and index for them. For example: If New Orleans's CPP is $76 and Denvers is $282, and Baltimore is $214, the client wants me to use N.O. as 100 on the index and index the rest against it. How do I do this?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, November 05, 2001 ):
The sensible way to do this is by comparing cpm, not cpp. To create an index divide each market's cpm by the cpm in New Orleans. Move the decimal 2 places to the right.


Friday, November 02, 2001 #4860
Is there a logical way to evaluate the media value of sponsor logos that appear in advertising (i.e. an event sponsored by 4-6 brands, each with logo recognition - often squeezed in very small)? It's obviously not as effective as a stand alone ad, but is there any evidence of brand value?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, November 05, 2001 ):
"Logically," the approach is to start with an estimate of the proportion versus the paid media. Does your logo occupy one 10% of a page? 5%? The value relationship is probably less than the percentage of the rteal estate, because there is no accompanying message.


Sunday, October 28, 2001 #4839
I'm the author of a new book on investing called "If It's Raining in Brazil, Buy Starbucks" Please suggest an advertising strategy to reach active traders and investors on the net

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 28, 2001 ):
The Guru would advertsise on stock price or stock trading sites, like Morningstar or Nasdaq.


Sunday, October 28, 2001 #4837
Can I place a small ad free in your news groups section? How or where do I go to do this?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 28, 2001 ):
We don't have a news groups section.

We charge for advertising. See the advertisng information page


Friday, October 26, 2001 #4834
Can you give me a neat, layman's, "advertising For Dummies" explanation of Media Quintles and how they can help determine media usage in a market like Washington, DC?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 26, 2001 ):
Click here to see the Guru's take on quintiles.


Thursday, October 25, 2001 #4831
Do you know who to contact for advertising on street-vendor umbrellas? Are there any national rep firms handling this type of outdoor media?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 25, 2001 ):
The Guru believes that these umbrellas are POP (point-of-purchase) materials provided by the vendors' suppliers. Visit P.O.P.A.I.


Thursday, October 25, 2001 #4830
Guru, We work with several healthcare & medical product related clients. In planning for next year and allocating advertising/marketing budgets, we are seeking a documented source that details "general guidelines" on advertising/marketing budgets for healthcare facilities? We have first-hand knowledge indicating the 3-5% range from our particular health clients, but would prefer some documented info. Any insight you could provide would be appreciated. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 25, 2001 ):
The trade media for the industry is likley to have discussed this. Or the industry associations may have data. Try Healthcare Industry and Management Systems Society


Thursday, October 25, 2001 #4829
what are the different sizes avaialbe for banner advertising

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 25, 2001 ):
Refer to IAB's banner sizes page.


Thursday, October 25, 2001 #4828
hi guru, can u tell me a difference between reach & impression?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 25, 2001 ):
Every time a person is exposed to an advertisement, an impression is created. One person exposed twice = 2 impressions. Two people each exposed once = 2 impressions. Reach is the number of different persons exposed to advertising. Reach is often expressed as a percentage of the target population.


Wednesday, October 24, 2001 #4827
I have a few questions regarding advertising to children between the ages of 9 and 12. I am a Xavier University student working on a project for my Media Planning class and would really appreciate it if you could answer any of the following questions or if not, please direct me to someone who can. 1) What options are available for advertising to children between the ages of 9 and 12? I'm looking for creative ideas as well as anything that may be considered standard. 2) How do these options work and who do they reach? Are there any internet sites that may be helpful in locating this information? 3) What are the strengths and weaknesses of these options? Are any better than others at reaching this specific target? What would you recommend as far as frequency is concerned? 4) Hold are these options sold? Monthly, weekly, daily, etc.? On a spot by spot basis? Where could I get quotes for these to include in my presentation? 5) How much do they cost? 6) How are these mediums measured? Who provides measurement? For example, Arbitron measures radio in average quarter hour ratings. Do you know where I can go to find statistics on these? How many people are reached over what time span etc.? 7) Lastly, who should use these mediums? Is it better for one industry/company than another? Why? If it is easier to respond to me directly to my e-mail account please do. I would really appreciate this. leakey22@hotmail.com Thank you VERY much.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 25, 2001 ):
The Guru thanks you for the opportunity to do your class project.
  1. There are numerous TV shows on the broadcast networks, as well as Nickelodeon and other cable networks. There are publications from Scholastic Magazines and Radio Disney and many more
  2. These work pretty much as do comparable media for other ages. Visit the sites.
  3. Strengths and weaknesses generally parallel the same media for all ages. See the Guru's media strengths page. Broadcast tv will have the greatest reach, others may be more targeted or efficient. The Guru imagines frequency will be more important for this age group.
  4. Timing and pricing varies, visit the sites. Request kits. You may have to talk to vendors for realistic pricing. You will encounter varying willingness to help a student.
  5. See #4
  6. Nielsen measures the tv options. Print and radio are not measured by the standard sources such as MRI and Arbitron, except on rare occasion. The vendors will have some proprietary studies, possibly online.
  7. Who should use them depends on the marketing strategy. No doubt figuring this out is the point of your learning.


Wednesday, October 24, 2001 #4826
I know there's a study out there on the effect of frequency on click-throughs. I even found reference to a study in an answer you, the great Guru, provided in January 2000. However, the textlink to Doubleclick you provided on that answer no longer works, and after hours of searching online (doubleclick, iab, clickz, etc.) I have been unable to locate any official studies. Can you point me in the right direction of a current study? Thanks Guru!!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 25, 2001 ):
If the sources you've tried don't have anything, try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Wednesday, October 24, 2001 #4823
We are a new online business devoted to selling information about hockey. We would like to request information on how to affectively advertise our information and create an affective website. How can we make our information easily accesible to the public as well as appealing? We want as many people as possible to learn about us and what we have to offer so we want to learn what the most effective and inexpensive way of online advertisement is. We trust that we will receive answers to our inquiries soon and we thank you for your time. Sincerely, HOW2HOCKEY.COM

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 24, 2001 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses about advertising a website.


Wednesday, October 24, 2001 #4820
What are the "guerilla" type of media vehicles available in the Hispanic market or General market?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 24, 2001 ):
"Guerilla" is an adjective usually applied to marketing techniques which use approaches other than mass media. Painting logos on big rocks or train trestles, are examples equally applicable to the Hispanic or General Markets. "Wildposting," those small posters seen on construction sites, advertising night club appearances or a carnival, are perhaps more familiar examples. One thing all these have in common is being slightly or very illegal.


Wednesday, October 24, 2001 #4818
Have you ever heard the term "social capital" used in relation to advertising or marketing objectives? I have a client that uses this term often, and although he uses it in a branding context, I want to make sure I'm not missing out on a new, or not so new, concept or theory. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 24, 2001 ):
According to Civic Practices Network:
"Social capital refers to those stocks of social trust,in norms and networks that people can draw upon to solve common problems. Networks of civic engagement, such as neighborhood associations, sports clubs, and cooperatives, are an essential form of social capital, and the denser these networks, the more likely that members of a community will cooperate for mutual benefit."

This sociological concept may apply well to public relations or corporate imaging, particularly if it is important to the advertiser to appear public spirited. Oil companies, hospitals and political parties / candidates may find this reference appropriate. Or it may merely be a pretentious way of phrasing image goals in the case of consumer products.


Wednesday, October 24, 2001 #4816
Where can I find standard advertising forms for a small ad agency to use? For example...contracts, estimates, terms etc. I'm looking for free stuff!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 24, 2001 ):
American Association of advertising Agencies or other ad agency associations can supply these. Membership is generally required.


Friday, October 19, 2001 #4809
Dear Guru, We are searching for expected direct mail response rates, along with a validated research source of this information. Realizing that there are many variables with a particular direct mailing, do you have any recent "general guideline" statistics that reference 1)an expected standard response rate for a mailing to current long-term customers, and 2)a "mass" (slightly larger quantity) mailing to potential customers? We have checked with the DMA, which only provides this research to non-members at a relatively high expense. We have also checked the guru archives, and not found the exact answers to this question. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 19, 2001 ):
For this type of question, the Guru always refers to Direct Marketing Association (DMA) or The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Both are for members or fee.

A DM house sucas ADVO or Madison might have something.


Friday, October 19, 2001 #4804
I wanted to know the return on investment for print advertising - specifically consumer magazines

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 19, 2001 ):
There is no simple, sensible answer. It will vary according to magazine category, ad unit, product category, marketing goals (e.g. image vs direct response) etc.

But if you were absolutely specific, and asked "what is the R.O.I. of page, 4 color direct response ads for do-it-yourself books in news weeklies" only an advertiser with that specific experience would have an answer for you, and would probably consider it proprietary info.


Wednesday, October 17, 2001 #4800
what is the law regarding political advertising rates for local spot cable tv. i've heard: 1. lowest published rate on the rate card 2.lowest prevailing rate ie rate offered to other advertisers during that period of time.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 18, 2001 ):
In broadcast, it's the lowest rate sold in the past year. Cable may have different regulations than broadcast. Contact a single rep or vendor whom you might deal with and request a citation of the relvant law.


Monday, October 15, 2001 #4796
Is there any information on audience conversion rates from televison to Internet through advertising or programming methods

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 16, 2001 ):
Try The Internet advertising Bureau and TV Bureau of advertising


Friday, October 12, 2001 #4787
I was reading through MediaWeek.com and saw a note saying "due to no barter in the mix, there are no current national ratings for X syndicated show". What does this mean?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 15, 2001 ):
Without seeing the specific article, the Guru offers the following:

There are two principal syndication scenarios.

  • Barter Syndication, in which the syndicator sells some 'national advertising' spots to be carried in the program wherever it clears. The the syndicator offers the program to local station with these spots built in and some other advertising time reservered for the station to sell locally.

    Because there has been national advertising sales in this process, the syndicator will arrange that there is national ratings measurement by Nielsen.

  • In the second scenario, the program is simply sold to staions with no natioanl advertising, for the stations to sell locally only. National ratings are not needed in this process, and not relevant in advertising terms.


Friday, October 12, 2001 #4783
I used the archives to look up a question concerning the use of celebrity endorsements. Both of the responses in the archives referred to the advertising Research Foundation. I called the number, and was told that information is only available to paid members. You should note this when you refer people to that organization.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 12, 2001 ):
The Guru does not purport to provide, primarily, links to free data. Most of the sources cited, Nielsen, Arbitron, MRI, Direct Marketing Association (DMA), , CMR (Competitive Media Reports) etc., have membership fees, subscription fees, or data charges.

The user must decide whether the need justifies the cost.

It doesn't cost any more than a phone call or email to learn there is a charge.

Personally, the Guru feels that ARF membership is justified by access to the library alone.


Thursday, October 11, 2001 #4781
Dear Guru, In testing DM/OTM only versus the impact of mass media with a call-to-action on the response to DM/OTM, have you ever seen an instance in which the introduction of mass media actually depressed the response to the DM/OTM due to the introduction of other response options? Thanks in advance for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 15, 2001 ):
It seems possible. Try Direct Marketing Association (DMA) and The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Thursday, October 11, 2001 #4780
I am gathering information on direct mail, more specifically, its current status and forecasts for its future as an advertising technique. Any information you have or could direct me to would be appreciated. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 15, 2001 ):
Contact Direct Marketing Association (DMA)


Thursday, October 11, 2001 #4779
I need to find information about costs in Spot-tv advertising. I foun all kind of rates and expenditures, but I would like to know how much would it cost me, to place an ad on spot tv. Need information for different geographic areas.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 15, 2001 ):
We offer sample spot costs per point for all 200+ market areas in AMIC's Ad Data area.


Thursday, October 11, 2001 #4776
Dear Media Guru, You have been so incredibly helpful in the past, I hope to have the same luck this time. Can you give me some background information about the Direct-to-Consumer (DTC) marketplace in the U.S.? For example, the size and growth of the market over the last three years, media used, and effectiveness of the advertising. Also, do you know of a source to find case studies for DTC advertising -- this would be helpful as well. Thanks in advance for any help you could give -- I know this is quite a broad question!

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 15, 2001 ):
The Guru presumes you mean the prescription pharmaceutical 'DTC.' When the category was born about 15 years ago an association was formed, but the Guru doesn't find it reeadinly now.

Find Articles.com has some archives in this area.


Wednesday, October 10, 2001 #4774
I'm a graduate student in integrated marketing communication. One of my professors asked me to write a white paper on business publications -- their history of development, pros and cons in using business publications in advertising, and what's the strategy in buying business publications. Can you tell me how to find materials in this field? Thanks so much in advance for your help. Suzie

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 15, 2001 ):
A good resource is Cahners Business Information


Wednesday, October 10, 2001 #4771
How can I pursue clients in need of a print advertising company? How do I find companies/clients in need of print advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, October 13, 2001 ):
The Guru is not clear about your question. By "print advertising company" do you mean a media buying firm specializing in print or a creative shop that does print ads or a publisher of some sort?

In any of these cases, the best approach would be to observe what companies are currently using print advertising.


Tuesday, October 09, 2001 #4769
Dear Guru, where can I find some general information about catalogs as a medium? I need information about current trends, price, strengths and weaknesses, etc. all that in relation to catalogs. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, October 13, 2001 ):
Catalogs are "collateral material" or perhaps direct mail pieces and do not fit into "advertising media."

Price would be production costs.


Tuesday, October 09, 2001 #4768
I am looking for informations about effectiveness of adverting on trolleys in supermarkets. Do you know of a research regarding that? Thank you

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 09, 2001 ):
Ask the vendor and check The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Tuesday, October 09, 2001 #4767
Are there any studies on the effectiveness or radio as well as radio ad recall vs. television. All studies seem to favor television. Is this a correct statement.. Can you please share you thoughts?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 09, 2001 ):
The trouble with such studies, when done from a certain angle is they compare and ad to an ad. It should be apparent that an ad with 'sight sound and motion' would outperform an ad with only sound. However, in the real worls, a radio campaing for X dollars includes more units than a TV campaign for the same budget, all else being equal. The comparison needs to be equal dollars in each medium, and radio can win in such as scenario.

For research, try The Radio advertising Bureau (RAB) and The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Tuesday, October 09, 2001 #4765
Dear Guru, As per your knowledge, is there any proved correlation between the share of voice and the share of market for a FMCG or/or durable goods ?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 10, 2001 ):
Directionality seems well accepted.

See The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Tuesday, October 09, 2001 #4764
Dear Guru, what is "egg advertising" and what is "guerilla marketing"

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 09, 2001 ):
Egg advertsing is ads on eggs. Guerilla marketing is use of various non-traditional means of communication, and not truly a media issue.


Friday, October 05, 2001 #4756
my client (a bicycle manufacturer) wants to change their regular campaign of brochures and :25 radio commercials to brochures and :5 radio commercials, involving just the jingle. their goal is to increase awareness. their current awareness level is 40%. we would like to advise them to stick with the longer commercials, as we believe you need to inform the consumer to build brand awareness, image, purchase intent etc. the jingle alone, we think, will only produce short term effects. do you know of any research that supports this? thank you!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 05, 2001 ):
The Guru agrees with you overall and presumes you are now running :25s with a :05 dealer tag. Also that you mean to swaitch to putting a :05 tag on a dealer commercial you are buying on behalf of the dealers. Surely no one will sell you stand alone :05s. It seems wasteful and lacking in brand sell to do this :05 thing.

Try The Radio advertising Bureau (RAB) for research.


Monday, October 01, 2001 #4745
Dear Guru, I am a student in Media and was asked to cost out radio stations. I have come across one that does not specify it's day rotations (how many days of the week the classification accounts for). I cannot call the sales rep so I am wondering if I would just assume that the classification was based on a 7 day rotation? Thanks advertising Student

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 02, 2001 ):
Without knowing the context in which you found the rate, the Guru has no opinion. Some stations more often quote M-F and others M-Su. Call the rep. That's the real world solution.


Monday, September 24, 2001 #4732
What is PIB

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 24, 2001 ):
"Publishers' Information Bureau," a service which tracked consumer magazine advertising. See CMR (Competitive Media Reports)


Friday, September 21, 2001 #4727
Hi Guru, I am looking for a resource that provides the amount of marketing and advertising dollars spent on various demographic segments. Any ideas?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 24, 2001 ):
No, the Guru has never a source toalling spending by dempographic. How would an outside source know the demographic target of an ad in broad reach vehicles like People Magazine or on Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? Such vehicles account for a lot of the spending. If an advertiser spent only in similar niche media, a conclusion might be drawn, but the lion's share of dollars would go unaccounted for.


Friday, September 21, 2001 #4726
Dear Guru, I couldn't find an advertising sales representation agreement form between an ad placement agency and a newspaper. Where can I possibly find such a form? There's lots of agency - advertiser forms, but not the agency - newspaper ones. Thank you

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 24, 2001 ):
See American Association of advertising Agencies.


Wednesday, September 19, 2001 #4723
Hi. I have to create a media plan using Tv spot as my main media. I do not even understand what it is. What is the trend in this media? Is it "popular"? How do you best incorporate it in your media plan? what are the benefits? Could you give me an example of how can I use Tv Spot as the part of the media plan?Where can i find more information about it? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, September 19, 2001 ):
Spot TV means local tv. That is, commericials aired within local markets, the coverage areas of individula stations rather than networks. Spot is used when the geographic marketing needs of the advertiser call for a local focus.

Visit TV Bureau of advertising


Tuesday, September 18, 2001 #4721
I'm looking for a good overview of how ads are delivered over Broadcast and Cable networks. Specifically, I am interested in the value chain and the technical specs on how the advertising campaigns are managed and transmitted through this system.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, September 19, 2001 ):
The Guru isn't entirely clear about your terminology, such as 'value chain.' A simple overview, when an agency is involved, would be
  • Agency: Media Plan
  • Agency: Media Buy / place order / allocate 15% commission on gross media price
  • Broadcaster: Book order
  • Agency: Traffic commercial (ship tape and instructions for airing)
  • Broadcaster: Integrate and schedule commercial
  • Broadcaster: Air commercial
  • Broadcaster: Bill Agency at gross price, indicating allowance of 15% commission
  • Agency: Bill advertiser
  • Agency: pay broadcaster less 15% commission (may or may not wait to receive advertiser's remittance)

Various sales people or outside sales organizations will earn various commissions in the chain between agency and broadcaster.


Friday, September 14, 2001 #4717
Media Guru, First thanks for a great service - I am an experienced broadcast and interactive services executive and I continued to learn new things from this site. Question - I am helping roll-out a new service based on kiosks with high speed Internet connection which combines Point of Sale display, on screen advertising (both full screen and interactive) and consumer data collection, analysis and report generation. How best to develop wholesale costs for the media space? I'm assuming it is most like alternative out of home and should be looked at as a cross between outdoor, interactive and tradtional spot. Any ideas where to start or other media that might be comparable for analysis? Thanks and keep up the great work.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 15, 2001 ):
Thank you for the kind words.

The Guru isn't sure he understands your term "wholesale" in this context. However, based on outdoor and current generic internet pricing, a cpm well under $5 is reasonable.

You will find some media cost data in AMIC's Ad Data area.


Thursday, September 13, 2001 #4713
We are trying to gain information on the advantage of annual issues, i.e. the shelf life advantages and time spent reading over standard monthly issues.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 15, 2001 ):
Surely it depends greatly on the nature of the annual issue. A consumer buying guide might be acquired when a purchase is under consideration and discarded soon after. A B2B guide-to-suppliers might be treated as having more lasting value. In either case, these are not the sort of content which is "read," but rather is "referred to", so the exposure opportunity for a given ad is reduced, albeit the impact -- by virtue of exposure at a time of purchase decision -- is enhanced. Other annuals will vary according to their nature.

Research on this might be available from Cahners Business Information, The Magazine Publishers' Association or The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Wednesday, September 12, 2001 #4710
How would you define 'Media Planning'? What si the best way of defining what Media Planners do?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, September 12, 2001 ):
A media planner evaluates advertising goals to determine media objectives and strategies. These may include market specifics, media environments and communication levels. Then the planner recommends specific vehicles and schedules to best execute these strategies.


Sunday, September 09, 2001 #4707
What factors should I take into consideration for pricing in-store advertising eg. ads with price-stickers,displays etc? I would of course need to compare it with other media to show the cost-effectiveness but how do I adjust the pricing downwards for the lack of visual impact (as compared to TV) or adjust it upwards for the better recency effect?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, September 09, 2001 ):
POP signage is a different area than traditional media. Use your own judgement.


Sunday, September 09, 2001 #4706
Dear Guru Which universties in the US have the best graduate programs in advertising? Preferably with special emphasis on media planning. Thank you in advance

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, September 09, 2001 ):
Try the US News Grad School Rankings. The Guru would be surprised to find a graduate program with 'emphasis on media planning.'


Friday, September 07, 2001 #4704
How to effectevely by out of home media

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, September 07, 2001 ):
Consult Outdoor advertising Association of America


Friday, September 07, 2001 #4702
I am looking for info on awareness decline to defend continuity scheduling. I have found in the archives your reference to 5-10% decline per week of no advertising and would like a bit more meat than the rule of thumb. Can you tell me more about it? And how does the 5-10% decline come off of the awareness: 60% *.95 or .9 = 54-57% or 60% -5 or 10% = 50-55%? I'm also referencing recency. These questions are to help me build a model of some sort. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, September 07, 2001 ):
The meaning is 60*.95 or *.9. This way it's asymtotic, like reach. The other way, no awareness would remain from any starting level after 10 to 20 weeks.


Friday, September 07, 2001 #4701
IS THERE RESEARCH THAT PROVES INTERNET RESPONSES BEING ON THE RISE AND PUBLICATIONS RESPONSES ON THE DOWN FALL?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, September 09, 2001 ):
The Guru doubts there is research which finds this. Every source the Guru sees reports declining internet response. If there is any research supporting the finding you wish, it would be available through The Internet advertising Bureau.


Friday, September 07, 2001 #4700
How can I measure the effects of media PLANNING and isolate them from total advertising effects, so as to minimise the effect of the creative? For example how can you tell the consumer has a high recognition level of a brand thanks to good time-, medium-, frequency- (etc.) decisions and not just because the ad was a creative success?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, September 09, 2001 ):
The only reasonable method is to comapre the same copy in different media vehicles. You need isolated markets or a laboratory environment to do such testing.

Roslow Research has a persuasion test that has been used in similar situations.


Thursday, September 06, 2001 #4699
Do you have any information comparing the effectiveness of banner advertising vs. content/text link advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, September 07, 2001 ):
Try The Internet advertising Bureau and The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Wednesday, September 05, 2001 #4697
Is there any marketplace for adds in different media? A digital place to buy and sell advertising space?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, September 07, 2001 ):
Visit AMIC's MediaQuote


Tuesday, September 04, 2001 #4695
I am doing a research paper for my graduation and need a comparison between different media advertising rates. I need to know cost of advertising per prospect/viewer for Radio/TV/Newspapers/Internet if possible.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, September 07, 2001 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses regarding rates.


Tuesday, September 04, 2001 #4693
I have a fairly new client who needs to be educated on television post analysis. Recently, one of the markets we buy for this client posted at 85% due primarily to a drop in PUT levels. We requested make-up weight from all the station and got it. I would also like to note that my client's sales are up in this market. My client is upset because their last agency "always posted." It sounds like some numbers massaging to me. Are there any white papers on television post analysis? I would like to use this as a teaching moment for my client as they keep bringing it up. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 04, 2001 ):
There are so-called "push button" posts where every spot is rated according to the tiome period bought in the books closest to air date. There are posts with adjustments reflecting specific programming and situations. Agencies are quick to challenge buying services for adjusting posts, treating "push button" as somehow more honest. But just as an example, if you bought time in the World Series (October) should it be rated according to the July book, the November book, or some intelligent estimate of true audience? Some buying services or the TV Bureau of advertising might have a white paper published.


Friday, August 31, 2001 #4689
I have a client who will only advertise to the vertical audience about specific products. We believe that they should be advertising the breadth of products to CEOs and Wall Street because they are limiting their potential. Are there any resources/articles out there that demonstrate the advantage of marketing to a broader audience on a company level vs. targeted marketing to vertical (technical) people on specific products?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 04, 2001 ):
A good resource is Cahners Business Information, or try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Thursday, August 30, 2001 #4686
I am responsible for advertising strategy planning for an online advertiser. We are in a very competitive market and it would be useful to be able to keep an eye on competitors' ads. Is there are any way to find out what *new* ads have been published on the web each day/week/other period (either by industry segment or just all ads)? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 04, 2001 ):
There are too many web sites to truly track thoroughly. But try AdZone Interactive


Friday, August 24, 2001 #4678
What is the marketshare of PC versus MAC users in the industry?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 24, 2001 ):
Total universe is about 90/10. According to the Guru's colleague, who is publisher of a Mac magazine, in advertising creative the balance goes the other way, perhaps 40/60. On media professional's desks it is could be 80/20, because agencies may standardize on Macs, even when they would not be chosen except for the creative needs. However, AMIC can determine the operating systems used by our visitors, who should be representative of media professionals:
  • Windows 78%
  • Mac 3%
  • None 18%


Wednesday, August 22, 2001 #4672
I have been asked by a client how they would establish advertising rates to charge companies foradvertising on their website. Can you give me any info? Where should I go to get this information? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 26, 2001 ):
Marketplace rates have sharply decline in the past year or so. Start with something less than half of the rates listed at Ad Resource


Monday, August 20, 2001 #4665
Dear Guru, Am trying to work out some recommendations for a client (an auction dotcom)which involves exploiting existing TV programing to direct traffic to the site - either through in-programme innovations which would link up to the brand, or by creating properties. One of the ways we are doing this is by auctioning memorabilia from popular soaps on the site. Could you direct me to any source which will have illustrations or examples of this kind of stuff. Thanx. S. Nagesh, Mumbai, India.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 26, 2001 ):
This is not quite a media question, but try The Internet advertising Bureau


Thursday, August 16, 2001 #4662
What do you know about co-op advertising on television?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 16, 2001 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses about co-op.


Thursday, August 16, 2001 #4661
Dear Guru, I hope that you are able to help me with the following, I am looking for definitions of common media terms such as clutter, SOV, etc. Are you aware of a good source that will have an overview of media definitions. Thanks beforehand

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 16, 2001 ):
Try our own Media Terms or a very good but simplified simplified resource at The University of Texas (Austin) School of advertising.


Tuesday, August 14, 2001 #4656
Need outdoor advertsing showing and rate information for the state of South Carolina.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, August 14, 2001 ):
Visit Outdoor advertising Association of America


Tuesday, August 14, 2001 #4655
We are about to launch a project entitled The Greatest Pyramid. It will be the nations first national cemetery, mausoleum, and it will contain a World of religion and Science. It will offer high tech memorials for the living and dead. Our intent is to transform the "death care" industry into a Life Care industry. Our market research/surveys predict billions of $ income. My questions: 1)What is appropriate advertising/sales ratio? 2) What kind of advertising is best (TV,Radio/Newspapers)3) What kind of advertising marketing firms should we interview? 4) Any other ideas?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, August 14, 2001 ):
As far as the media portions of your question:
  1. A:S ration for a category with no parallels can't be determined. But you could compare to smaller scale cemeteries' history
  2. Without knowing your marketing approach, media can't be chosen, but editorial / programming environment would be paramount if dignity or taste figure into your communcation at all.


Friday, August 10, 2001 #4649
hello sir,myself prasad is a student of advertising & public relations management student i am at my initial stage..so plz tell me wht is exactly media planning is..? wht is ad budget..?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, August 11, 2001 ):
Ad budget is the amount of marketing money allocated to create and place advertising within the advertsing objectives.

Media planning is deciding where to place it to best achieve the advertising objectives.


Thursday, August 09, 2001 #4646
Dear Guru: I am trying to track the advertising revenues (through 2nd Qtr 01) for Los Angeles media, specifically spot radio. Do you know any companies that compile this info? Are any of them free? Thanks,

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, August 11, 2001 ):
CMR (Competitive Media Reports); no freebies.


Thursday, August 09, 2001 #4643
Can you provide the names of the companies that provide proprietary, custom reports of competitive advertising spending. I've worked with companies in the past that specialize in high tech, finance, and healthcare, and provide the information on a market-by-market basis.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, August 11, 2001 ):
Start with CMR (Competitive Media Reports).


Tuesday, August 07, 2001 #4636
I am trying to locate trade magazines for a client who is advertising a new hand cleaner product. The client wants to advertise in trade magazines for the following catagories: industrial, construction and automotive. Any suggestions on trade magazines in these catagories. We sell direct to commercial industries and do not want to advertise in a magazine for distributors. Thank you for any assitance you can give me!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, August 08, 2001 ):
Try PubList.


Monday, July 30, 2001 #4618
Is there a study on the effectivity of commercial break positioning in television? Is the first commercial of the gap always the most effective?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, July 31, 2001 ):
Try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Monday, July 30, 2001 #4617
1.)How well developed is Ambient Media in the USA markets and how is it used? 2.)How does it tend to fit in with the overall media strategy? 3.)Is there any research to suggest whether it is effective or not?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 30, 2001 ):
Ambient media is called "out-of-home" media in the US. It is available everywhere in multiple forms, and particularly strong with restricted categories of advertising such as alcohol. There are hundreds of vendors.

Visit Outdoor advertising Association of America and Click here to see past Guru responses about out-of-home.


Friday, July 27, 2001 #4612
Please explain what exactly is a "customer magazine"!! Is it sold or it's distributed for free? And if it's distributed for free, where does the profit comes from?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 27, 2001 ):
The term is not standard, but the Guru imagines it's something like Costco Connection magazine, distributed free to Costco members. Costco might consider that profit is not an issue since the magazine supports customer realtions and promotes available products.

But, just like ordinary paid circulation magazines, paid advertising is the key revenue stream.


Wednesday, July 25, 2001 #4607
Hi ! Two questions 1. how do you decide which cume (1wk or 13 wk or 52 wk etc) to choose. 2. where can I find the details of the ostrows grid actual one with the scales etc. Thanks and regards

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 25, 2001 ):
1. Four week R&F is standard. Otherwise, if you need to examine a specific time period related to your marketing, use the closest cume.

2. The Ostrow model aims at establishing the minimum level of frequency to be deemed effective so that the plan can maximize reach at that level of frequency. The model can be traced back to his speech, "Effective Frequency" at an advertising Research Foundation Key Issues workshop, June 4, 1982.

Typically, the model involves evaluating a series of relevant factors on a scale of say, 2 to 6, and averaging the factors to determine the appropriate level of frequency to set as effective.

In the 1982 speech the factors discussed were of three kinds: marketing, message / creative and media.

Marketing

  • Established brand vs new entry
  • Brand share
  • Brand loyalty
  • Purchase cycle
  • Usage cycle
  • Share of voice
  • Target group learning capacity

Message / Creative

  • Complexity
  • Uniqueness
  • New vs continuing campaign
  • Image building vs specific sell
  • Message variation (copy pool)
  • Wear out
  • Copy unit size/length

Media

  • Clutter
  • Editorial / program environment
  • Attentiveness
  • Continuity vs flighting
  • Number of different media
  • Repeat exposure opportunities
.

For the full speech, the transcript proceedings of the workshop are available from the advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Tuesday, July 24, 2001 #4605
Dear MG, Can you please suggest a resource where I can find average CPM for each medium (ie average CPM across the board for all newspapers is $x, average for all internet is $x, etc)? I found this data on amic.com, but it was from 1996. Thank you!

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, July 24, 2001 ):
In additon to AMIC's Ad Data area, see SQAD, Ad Resource (overstated) and The Newspaper advertising Association. Your biggest probelm, beside the bottom falling out of internet rates since whatever was posted, is the lack of standard deographics to compare.


Tuesday, July 24, 2001 #4603
I was wondering if you have any ideas were I may be able to find some sort of template for RFPs that involve media buying like requesting C.P.P. or reach & frequency? We have been working on many media bids for a department of the state and they do not request specific media numbers so the media buyers are only submitting the information that makes their plan look the most favorable. We wanted to reccommend something to them so the comparison of the different agency plans would be more like comparing apples to apples. Thank you for any help

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, July 24, 2001 ):
First we need to distinguish between requesting plans and requesting buy proposals.

A media plan is a document that details what media should be used at what budgets, to accomplich sets of objectives and strategies which meet advertsing objectives set for the planners. If you are soliciting media paln proposals, you should be setting advertising objectives and asking for plans to meet them. Some judgement in addition to quantitative comparison will be appropriate. You could use the relevant portion of the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan as an outline of what is to be included in proposals reveived.

If, however, the media plan is completed and you are taking proposals on media buys, that is what stations, newspapers, magazines, etc fulfil the plan, that the analysis might be simply numerical, as long as all meet the plan's specs, which should be in your rfp.

Beware of comparing reach and frequency analyses that have been created by different software, and are not therefore comparable.


Friday, July 20, 2001 #4597
Is there any information available about Effectiveness of Television advertising.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 22, 2001 ):
Try TV Bureau of advertising and The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Thursday, July 19, 2001 #4594
Hi Guru, I have a set of queries: 1. What is the difference between program reach and program TVR. 2.How can reach curves be used in planning media 3.What skills apart from negotiation does a media buyer need 4. The gross weight of a tv plan can be a. sum of all spot tvrs b. product of 1+ reach and average ots of the entire plan These values for the same plan are not always equal- why? 5. Why dont u allow advertising on your site? How do you make money from your website currently Please let me know Thanks Ajit

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 19, 2001 ):
Your terminology is a bit different from US usage, but with given assumptions the Guru's answers are as follows:
  1. Assuming "TVR" is rating, program reach and rating are identical for a single ad unit. Reach and ratings accumulate differently because reach discounts audience duplication from one ad unit to the next.
  2. As an example, reach curves show where the reach added by additional advertising in the same medium diminishes and a new medium should be added to the mix to optimize the effect of more spending.
  3. Aside from negotiating skills, a buyer needs good communication skills to convey the benefits of his buys. Otherwise, the skills are the same as any for business, perhaps emphasizing math.
  4. Assuming again that "TVR" is ratings and that "average ots" is average frequeuncy of exposure, then the sum of tvrs must equal the product of 1+ reach and average ots. Any tiny difference will be rounding.
  5. Of course AMIC accepts advertising! Ads do not appear on the Guru's "current answers" page, because it is dynamically generated by scripts, from a data base.


Thursday, July 19, 2001 #4593
Guru, is there a way one can measure fatigue levels of online advertising typically banners i.e.. in terms of number of impressions and no. of clicks , please help thanx

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 19, 2001 ):
There have been various studies. Visit The Internet advertising Bureau


Wednesday, July 18, 2001 #4590
I know there comes a point of diminishing return on advertising investment. What is the maximum reach you can obtain through media advertising considering that some people may be out of the country or unreachable do to unfortunate health issues?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 18, 2001 ):
The Guru has always made it a policy not to report reaches higher than 98%.


Tuesday, July 17, 2001 #4589
If you are given a total advertising budget what is the average industry "rule of thumb" for what percentage should be delagated to the media buy, creative, production and administration? In other words what is an average ratio?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 18, 2001 ):
It varies all over the place depending on geography, category and target.

For example, direct reponse commercials are obviously very cheaply made and have low production ratios.

A national luxuery brand will have a high quality proudction budget, but may buy so much media that the porduction percentage seems small comapre to a regional advertiser needing to project the same quality.

An advertiser needing to project quality in an ethnic market may spend the saem production budget as in the genreal market (think premium beers) even thought the smaller ethnic market doesn't demand nearly the same media budget.

Each must be decided according to needs, not rules of thumb. Averages might be calculable, but would be meaningless as planning tools.


Monday, July 16, 2001 #4581
I have found research that indicates that the ad impressions generated from arena signage are not as effective as other kinds of media impressions. A ratio is given (1/4 to 1/5) that says it takes four "sponsorship impressions" to equal one radio or TV spot. Are you aware of any research that can substantiate this?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 16, 2001 ):
The ratio sounds right; after all it's typically just a brand logo, not a message. For research try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Monday, July 16, 2001 #4580
Where can I get information about newspaper readership? Demogaphics...time spent...etc.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 16, 2001 ):
Visit The Newspaper advertising Association


Friday, July 13, 2001 #4578
strengths of interactive media

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, July 17, 2001 ):
Capture audience in the act of shopping (Search engines)
Narrowly select target by site appeal
Instant interaction / order taking
Instant copy change
Customer relationship building
Target customer / deliver ad variant based on customer profile or past action
Powerful environment for computer-related advertising
Streaming allows TV-like audio video within above advantages


Thursday, July 12, 2001 #4574
What proportion of UK press advertising space (including business, consumer, national press, regional press) is sold at discounted rates because of short lead time to publication deadline ?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 16, 2001 ):
The Guru's UK sources report:
" we don't have a handle on how much space is being sold at short term rates.

In my days as a buyer, it was clear that it varied enormously by title and even section within that title, as well as the status of the economic cycle. Right now there is masses of space being traded at last minute rates!"


Wednesday, July 11, 2001 #4572
Hello Media Guru, I am preparing a presentation on Alternative forms of advertising for my company. Is there any website(s) you can suggest where I could find this information? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 11, 2001 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses about alternative media.


Wednesday, July 11, 2001 #4571
Guru, Thank you for all the help you've given so far. Just two questions this time: Do you know what the first television commercial was? Can you suggest a good on-line source for TV and Print historical info?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 11, 2001 ):
You'll probably like the The Museum of Broadcast Communications, whose "Encyclopedia of TV Online" tells us

"In 1941 . . . Bulova Watches spent $9 to buy time on the first advertising spot offered by NBC's fledgling New York station"

You may also find the The Magazine Publishers' Association site helpful.


Tuesday, July 10, 2001 #4569
Can you recommend any resources for gathering information on how media buyers use/don't use media kits. I'm doing a search to determine the validaty of this basic marketing tool and would appreciate any suggestions of where to start. If there are any actual studies or polls that have been done, perhaps articles that you have published or if you could point me in the right direction of where to search, I'd greatly appreciate it.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 11, 2001 ):
It's possible that there is some published research at Newsweek Media Research Index, The Magazine Publishers' Association or The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Most likely, custom research will be needed.


Tuesday, July 10, 2001 #4567
I'm trying to buy network radio advertising. What is the current range of CPM and CPP averages for network radio at this time? Also, where can I find information on current rates for network radio and syndicated radio programs so I can effectively comparison shop?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, July 17, 2001 ):
There are few enough suppliers that a few calls will do the trick. You will need to be specific about your demographic target.

Start with ABC, Westwood One / CBS, Radio Unica, Premiere Network and Sheridan (212-883-2110).


Tuesday, July 10, 2001 #4564
Hi Guru! I am looking for any statistics on the use of piggybacked :30s (to make one :60) in radio and :15s (to make one :30) in TV to increase awareness/ effectiveness. Does this technique help?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 11, 2001 ):
The Guru doesn't follow your reasoning. Are you expecting that repeating a :15 twice in thirty seconds will have more effectiveness ore build more awarness than stand-alone :15s at the same budget or more than whole :30s at that budget?

Pairs of piggy-backed :15s in TV will no doubt yield less awareness than stand-alone :15s, because the reach will be less. As to effectiveness, you need to define that in terms of awareness, intent to purchase, sales results etc. Pairs of piggy backed :15s versus whole :30's would yield the same reach. There might be more awareness because of the apparent error, but there will be reduced message content.

For research try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Monday, July 09, 2001 #4563
Increasing Budget and Web Response: Is there research showing that if I double (triple, whatever) an overall promotion budget to drive click-throughs on a Web site, I'll double--or more than double -- the rate? Is there a formula that can be presented to the client. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 11, 2001 ):
Like the reach curve, "response" functions are typically curvilinear, that is, once they reach a threshold level, each added dollar adds less return than the prior efforts.

As far as research that might yield a formula, try The Internet advertising Bureau or The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Monday, July 09, 2001 #4562
Dear Guru, Our client has asked me to produce a "payout scenario" that they would be able to expect in sales based on a national plan that I have done for them. I don't know what the creative will look like because it is done in house. How can I calculate the sales potential of a media plan? Thanks again.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 11, 2001 ):
Except in direct reposnse scenarios with considerable past history, this can only be very approximate. Try the following steps:
  • What percent of the target will buy the product over the period of the plan if there is no plan?
  • What percent of persons will you reach at effective levels during the plan?
  • What percent of non-target persons will buy the product over the period of the plan if there is no plan?
  • What percent of non-target persons will you reach at effective levels during the plan?
  • Can you assume that current non-users will be moved to purchase by exposure to the plan?

Of course a lot depends on whether the advertising is aimed at new-user trial, increasing use among currentusers, using up, etc.

Once you have all these assumptions organized, then comparing the value of projected added sales to the cost of advertising leads to payout estimates.


Friday, July 06, 2001 #4557
Do you know where I might find information on movie theater adverttising? Thanks for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 06, 2001 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses about theater advertising


Thursday, July 05, 2001 #4549
Guru, wanted to get information on the response rate for e-mail advertising. Do you have any sites or articles that can provided information on this? I have been quoting 5-10% as an average. I do understand that it can be higher or lower depending on some variables. Thanks for your help in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 06, 2001 ):
The Guru does not believe the reponse rate is as much as 1%, if you mean orders as a percentage of mail sent. Try the Direct Marketing Association (DMA)


Thursday, July 05, 2001 #4548
Do you have any knowledge as to the long-term impact of radio. For example, we ran 8 weeks of traffic radio; how long can we expect this to have an impact on sales?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 06, 2001 ):
If the campaign was aimed at awareness building, rather than a promotion, and it was the only advertising for something new, whatver "impact" might last a few weeks. It depends more on the uniqueness of the product and the creative. Consult The Radio advertising Bureau (RAB).


Thursday, July 05, 2001 #4547
How do advertising agencies traditionally make money from their clients? Is this business model changing? (eg. are the market leaders such as Omnicom finding new ways to bill clients?)

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 05, 2001 ):
"Traditionally" 15% commisson on gross media and other expenditures is the way. In recent years, there are fees and performance based compensation methods.


Thursday, July 05, 2001 #4545
Dear Guru: I have an advertising plan for a new product launch that has a substantial reach and frequency for the first quarter of the launch. I have been asked to look at taking the second quarter down to 50% of the spending at launch, and 3rd and 4th quarters to 25% of that spending. Is there any rule of thumb that I could use to translate the relative reach and frequency at the reduced levels? For example, if I have a 90% R&F at 100%, could I assume 90% and 5 at a 50% spending level?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 05, 2001 ):
If you have the reach curves of the media you are using, you could find the coordinates for 50% or 25% of the dollars or weight vs a new reach easily.

However, different media elements, mixes and schedules develop differently. In one plan, say radio, where a heavy budget is generating added frequency for the last 50% of weight, a 50% reduction might reduce reach only 5%. In a lighter plan, or in a higher turnover medium, 50% reduction might mean 40% loss of reach.


Tuesday, July 03, 2001 #4542
Dear Guru : There is any criteria, research or rate that could help us to say that a media has a better behavior in obtain more or less awarennes than other one. thank you

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 05, 2001 ):
Numerous studies have measured the attentiveness of media audiences. Try Newsweek Media Research Index or The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Monday, July 02, 2001 #4541
I am looking for a video called "A Day in the Life" - it deals with the clutter in advertising. Any ideas of where I can find this video? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, July 03, 2001 ):
It sounds anti-advertising, so rather than TV Bureau of advertising or American Association of advertising Agencies, try FTC


Friday, June 29, 2001 #4536
HOW TO JUDGE A GOOD MEDIA PLANNING

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 29, 2001 ):
Please begin by reviewing the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan.

A good media plan

  1. Sets Media Objectives to answer the marketing or advertising strategies that have been given as input
  2. Logically connects Objectives to Strategies to tactics and execution (media selections).

This means that any marketing/advertising objectives mentioned in the backgroun for the plan must be addressed by media objectives and/or strategies in the plan. Some plans go wrong by reviewing too much marketing background that isn't relative to the media decisions.

Every stated media objective must be answered by strategies aimed at meeting that objective. By the same token, every stated strategy must related to soem stated objective. For example if a strategy is to concentrate advertising in the southwest, there should be an objective to build sales in weak areas or support sales in strong areas or some such. This strategy should also be suported by sales data for regions, or whatever is relevant to the point.

Similarly, media selections should be supported by their relationship to strategies. For instance, media should not be included to "reach working women" unless some objective or strategy calls for this emphasis and shows why this is a segment meriting special support.

Reach or efficiency of media or combinations should be demonstrated, if asserted, but neither should be a decison factor unless a strategy calls for it.


Thursday, June 28, 2001 #4534
The advertising agency I work for has recently aquired a new local television station as a client. I am in charge of putting together a media plan. In the past, this client has used mostly radio and runs only during sweeps. We have considered recommending cable and billboards and some advertising prior to sweeps. Do you have any suggestions or media strategies that could help us? Is there a place (source) where I can see what has worked well for other tv stations? Thanks for your help

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 01, 2001 ):
The Guru can't suggest strategies without knowing your goals. For examples, try TV Bureau of advertising.


Wednesday, June 27, 2001 #4528
the impact of advertising on the media

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 28, 2001 ):
All media claim to totally separate the advertising sales from the content.


Wednesday, June 27, 2001 #4526
Please tell me what is the way for calculating the media commission for a client for media planning, media buying... How are calculated the 2,5%, the 5% etc.? Thank you

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, June 27, 2001 ):
Usually the percentage is based on gross media cost. Gross media cost is the "commissionable" rate established by the media vendor to be charged to advertising agencies. This rate is structured so that 15% of it is the commission and 85% is the "net" to the medium. If the gross rate is $100, then 5% commission for media buying is $5 or 0.05 x $100.


Tuesday, June 26, 2001 #4524
Guru, I going into a presentation where I'm recommending a corporate sponsorship for a branding campaign. The thing is, i'm not sure how to define it to make it simple for the client to understand and powerful enough to sell the idea. Can you help?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, June 27, 2001 ):
What are you trying to define: "corporate sponsorship" or "branding campaign?"

Corporate sponsorship definitions should come from the media vendor. If there is to be a "branding campaign" the Guru would expect that concept to be defined in advertising Objectives, prior to media planning entering the picture. Something is wrong if the media department is dertermining that there is to be a branding campaign in the absence of marketing direction.


Friday, June 22, 2001 #4513
Recent articles about advertising internet sites have been extremely negative on media advertising for these business' Horror stories of wasteful purchases i.e The Superbowl etc. Where can I get a copy of such an article?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 23, 2001 ):
Try eLibrary


Thursday, June 21, 2001 #4511
What percent of daily and Sunday newspaper readers read the first page? If not available, what percent of daily and Sunday newspaper readers read their papers' main news section?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 21, 2001 ):
Visit the research area at The Newspaper advertising Association.


Thursday, June 21, 2001 #4508
Dear guru, Is there any different to make a media plan at segmented television than general television?. (sport television vs entertainment television). should i make a media plan separately for each television?. this because i believe that there is different audience for each television. Thanks/ AM-Indonesia

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 23, 2001 ):
A media plan is aimed at investing the advertising budget to best accomplish goals expressed in terms of the target consumer. What kind of televison to use is merely tactics.

The Guru does not believe these segments can be separated before the plan is assembled. Part of the plan might be devoted to determining how much to invest in each segment.


Wednesday, June 20, 2001 #4505
I am attempting to project advertising revenues for a media company who will have approximately 600k to 700k subscribers on Digital Cable. Do you have an estimate of the advertising sales per spot ad per subscriber? I have heard a rate of 1 cent per sub per spot ad. Is this reasonable and realistic? What references are available to check this rate? Thanks Michael Jordan

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 22, 2001 ):
One cent per sub, or $10 cost per thousand households is about right, based on spot TV cost estimates published bySQAD. This is actually based on Audience, not suscribers. Advertisers are interested in how many see their commercials, not how many are able to see them if they choose to. Viewing to any given ad-supported cable channel at a point in time averages less than 1% of subscribers. These are the ESPN, CNN, Fishing Channel, and Animal Planet sort, not the HBO type (pay cable) or broadcast networks.

If an ad can charge 1 cent per actual viewing household, then its price might be 1 cent per 100 subscribers, or less.


Wednesday, June 20, 2001 #4504
can you name any companies that handle shopping cart advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, June 20, 2001 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses about shopping cart advertising


Wednesday, June 20, 2001 #4500
Dear Guru, Where can I find the report from Ron Lawrence,"Uniform Target Delivery:An Illusion,"Marketing and Media Decision,Desember 1987,in the internet?. The definition of target audience is still too vague for me because of some reason. An example : if i have a product with target audience ABC15+, and I want to find the best possible TV program to get higher Reach and optimal GRP for my campaign at this target audience. Should I go directly to ABC15+ program or I go to A program first, second to B program and third to C program?. If I go to A program first, should I divided it again to Male and Female program?. This is very 'crucial' because most media planner in my country usually go directly to target audience ABC15+. Is it right or wrong?, what is strong and weakness for each methods?, where is the best methods? (go directly to ABC15+ or go to each segment first).thank/ AM-Indonesia

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, June 20, 2001 ):
Assuming no part of the target is more important than the rest, you will most likely buy more efficiently on the specific target. It should not be difficult to examine different scenarios. Marketing and Media Decisions has been out of business for years, but back issues might be on file at The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. or ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization, or universities.


Tuesday, June 19, 2001 #4499
Dear Guru, I am doing some research on the effectiveness of television advertorials. Can you point me in the right direction? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 19, 2001 ):
Start with The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Monday, June 18, 2001 #4497
which are the most important media planning specialists in the United States?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 19, 2001 ):
The Guru doesn't know what makes a media planning specialist "important." The Standard Directories of advertising Agencies and Advertisers ('The Redbook')

If it's published thinkers then you might mean people like AMIC's own Irwin Ephron and Abbott Wool.


Monday, June 18, 2001 #4496
While the numbers show a TRP as a TRP, there is no doubt in my mind that a :60TV ad (for example) creates more "impact" than a 1/2 page black and white print ad (for example). Have you seen any data/studies that account for this difference in impact by medium (specifically print vs. TV vs. TV billboard)?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 19, 2001 ):
The problem is to find comparable aspects of the media to measure. Recall is one. Try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Friday, June 15, 2001 #4490
How is targeting done in online advertising? Is IP address based targeting more accurate than all other forms? What is cookie based targeting?Thanks for the help

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 17, 2001 ):
A web server can detect the IP address of a visitor. The IP address reveals of the visitor's Internet Service Provider. This can provide very narrow geographic targeting if it's a small, local ISP or very little information if it's company like AOL, all of whose users appear to be in Virginia.

Cookies are small codes left on users own computers when they visit a site. If the user has registered at the site, and given personal information then the user can be recognized and associated with this information on return visits through the cookie. In either of these cases, the information can be used to decide what ad to serve to the visitor.

In other cases targeting is done by advertisng on sites with measured user profiles.


Wednesday, June 13, 2001 #4482
what is a media planner?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 17, 2001 ):
A media planner evaluates advertising goals to determine media objectives and strategies. These may include market specifics, media environments and communication levels. Then the planner recommends specific vehicles and schedules to best execute these strategies.


Tuesday, June 12, 2001 #4479
I'm confused about the difference between buying Network vs. spot television. Is there a rule of thumb that says "past a certain number of markets, it's less expensive to run nationally vs. spot". Also, I've been told by a Network that certain programming is "controlled nationally" and that I can't buy some programming on a spot market basis. How can this be? Thanks for this service it's great. Any insight is greatly appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, June 13, 2001 ):
1. The rule of thumb can't be based on the number of markets. For different dayparts and demographic groups, the costs or cost per point of spot will mount up differently. Usually the break even comes between 35 and 50% of U.S., buying from the top down.

2. Like broadcast, cable networks' advertising is sold either at the national level or by local cable systems, often consolidated into market-wide "interconnects" by spot cable reps. Just as with broadcast networks, the national sellers have nothing to do with the local sales and may therefore not encourage you to think in that direction. The Guru does not know of any ad-supported cable networks that don't allow breaks for local sale.


Monday, June 11, 2001 #4472
We have twenty-three auto glass stores in twenty-three different markets. Our target audience is anyone owning a car 18+. Historically, this industry does very little advertising, relying on the insurance agents to refer their insureds to glass shops. Now they are using third-party billing systems and sending insureds to a rotation system. What mediums would be most effective to begin building awareness and telling the consumer why they should come to us?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 16, 2001 ):
With only these details to go on, Primetime TV.


Monday, June 11, 2001 #4470
I am looking for a complete liste of newspapers for advertising in the US. Online version prefered!

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 11, 2001 ):
Unlike most European countries, the U.S. has thousands of newpspapers including several hundred dailies, so "complete lists" can cover sevral volumes of over 1000 pages each.

One good online resource is Media Passage, which lists 349 papers just in the New York Metro area, for example, and over 6000 in total.


Thursday, June 07, 2001 #4462
I need to locate several good archives of print advertising. I am doing a research study and need to have access to an archival resource of print ads. Do you have any suggestions?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 07, 2001 ):
Archives like this are kept by the publications or the creators. It's not exactly a Media planning/buying issue.


Thursday, June 07, 2001 #4460
Hi, I was wondering if you hace any informationa about the effectiveness of running ads - on tv screens- in supermarkets and fast food restaurants. My client would like to explore this way, in regards to reaching people in a new way, but we suffer from the lack of information in this area.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 07, 2001 ):
These concepts have been around for 25 years or more without becoming established,

Try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Wednesday, June 06, 2001 #4458
I'm working on a plan that includes cable and network television. I have been asked to present a rational for different schedules on three levels of spending. If i know the programs rating point, the average CPP and the cost per spot, how can I use this information to put together the total reach/frequency of sample schedules. I'm trying to get general information at this point without contacting reps to run several schedules. I need to know how to do the math by hand without a program if it's possible. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, June 06, 2001 ):
It's no longer really reasonable to do the math by hand. The Guru has described calculating reach by "Random probability" in the past. But the unique duplication patterns within tv schedules need to be accounted for either with tables reflecting many schedules' reaches or computer models.

Our own eTelmar offers low cost, single use, online reach calcuation.

You might try the R&F generator at U. Texas .


Tuesday, June 05, 2001 #4457
Can you please tell me what is meant by cross-media advertising packages?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 05, 2001 ):
Generally, this refers to advertising media sold across the various properties of media mega conglomerates, like AOL Time-Warner, combining online, print and broadcast vehicles.


Monday, June 04, 2001 #4453
dear guru i am looking for a researchqor any information that refering to the reach levels needed by advertising in newspapers to diffrent categories of brands like fmcg, convenience goods, and so on , i am intresting especialy at the real estate market. thank you

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 04, 2001 ):
Visit The Newspaper advertising Association and The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Friday, June 01, 2001 #4451
Hi Guru. I've read through your responses to questions relating to "reach and frequency" and "awareness", but haven't found exactly what I'm looking for. In setting up goals for a new product launch media plan, we've determined that the overall goal is to generate awareness. What we don't know is the correlation between r/f and awareness. In other words, if we know that we're gong to have an effective (3+) reach of 82.85% and a frequency of 8.63, what % of unaided awareness could we expect to achieve? Will Ostrow's effective frequency model help in this case? Is there a model / matrix used to determine awareness levels? Thanks so much.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 01, 2001 ):
Awareness does not correlate absolutely with reach. There are too many other factors, like the quality and memorability of the creative and the advertising environment. Obviously only those reached by the advertising will be aware of the advertising. But there can be wide variance in how many of those reach a given number of times can report awarness in research. Even if awareness corresponded well with reach, there could be varying results due to differences in awareness research technique. Advertisers who do a lot of awarness tracking can build reliable models for thier own use, by tracking results of comparable research studies against known R&F. Similarly, research houses which frequently field awareness studies could get reach and frequencies, for the campaigns tested, and build a model.


Thursday, May 31, 2001 #4444
Guru, Can you tell me the market size for each of the advertising medium (ie internet, newspaper, indoor, outdoor, etc) for the year 2000. Thank you

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 31, 2001 ):
See the "Coen Report"


Wednesday, May 30, 2001 #4441
This is in regard to automotive advertising. A schedule is bought for each franchise/product. Let's use 3 products for this question. Each schedule is a modest R/F of 65% / 3.5. The creative is one spot for each product, a "donut", the open and close are identical or have the same theme but with a different product in each of the 3 spots. All three spots run within the same flight dates. Is the reach and frequency actually greater on each product because of the "common" open and close or does the common open/close just build the "brand"?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, May 30, 2001 ):
Though there may be some synergy in brand awareness, "reach" is simple statistics. The middle of the donut reaches only those who see it.


Monday, May 28, 2001 #4432
Hi, Can you give me some guidance and resources about film/movie/cinema advertising market- the size, trends, the media planning for a product category like this and the key unique variables that need to be considered while planning media for them Thanks Abc

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, May 30, 2001 ):
You must first understand your target audience: who goes to movies?

And then the marketing scenario: In the U.S., the opening weeks' are considered crucial to a film's success and thus advertising efforts are scheduled around that.

Movies are reated to culture. Every country will have different trends. Try local resources such as Indiamovies


Sunday, May 27, 2001 #4429
I am trying to understand the total annual advertising spending against consumers (2000 is fine). I have found some conflicting sources--one says $134.3B and one says $170B. Can you help? Thanks, Guru!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 27, 2001 ):
Both numbers seem low. Consult CMR (Competitive Media Reports) and the archives of Ad Age. As of September 25, 2000, Ad Age had reported $215Billion McCann's Bob Coen Report, a primary Ad Age source, has estimated $233B for 2000. The Ad Age and Coen estimates both include almost equal amounts of "measured" and "unmeasured" media.


Tuesday, May 22, 2001 #4422
How can I find competitors advertising numbers and publications in Trade Magazines? Also, There are a large number of competitors for what is being pitched, so if there is something (other than the Rhome Reports) can it be easily saved as a spreadsheet?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, May 25, 2001 ):
The Guru doesn't know of anything other than Rome which meets your specifications.


Monday, May 21, 2001 #4418
I am just starting a job dealing with Direct Response Television advertising. Seeing that traditional TV media rates are valued based on ratings points. How do stations develop their rates for Direct Response Television? Is Cost per Thousand a measure which can be used in Direct Response Television analysis or is the measure just Cost per Order? I have a client which swears that I need to give him in depth Cost per Thousand numbers but our agency owner says that is ludicrous in DRTV. Thanks for any info.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 22, 2001 ):
Cost per thousand (cpm) is mereley the cost of a spot divided by its audience. All station inventory is essentially priced at least partially based on a cost/audience ratio, which determines the value of the spot to the station.

However, the value to a DR advertiser is based on cost per response, whether that is measured in inquiries or orders. Most DR practicioners have learned that there is little relationship between audience size and response. It is not unusual to get more orders from a low-rated late fringe program than a prime time program.

So, while it is possible to calculate cpm in a DR buy, and inherently harmless to report cpms, it would be wrong to judge a buy on this standard. If your owner objects to the waste of your time and the client's, he is justified in his objections.


Friday, May 18, 2001 #4415
I want to have some information about the history of advertising in US media

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 21, 2001 ):
Print: as far back as the existence of the country, ie 17th Century.

Radio: early 20th Century.

TV: Mid 20th Century.

Commerical CableTV: Late 1970's / early 80's

Commerical Internet: Late 1994 / early 1995.

For more details, see books in the AMIC Bookstore (in association with Amazon.com)


Thursday, May 17, 2001 #4413
Hello M.G.-- I'm looking for an "unbiased" source correlating ad spending with sales success and/or decreasing an established brands media budgets and getting diminished results. Is there a 3rd party resource or study I can use to help a client justify maintaining existing budgets which have consistently yielded successful results before the "big corporate bean counter" slices and dices advertising budgets? Thank you for your help!

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 21, 2001 ):
Unbiased research is unlikely in this case. Try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Thursday, May 17, 2001 #4411
Dear Guru. Is there any research telling that to build a product SBA 30 seconds formats are better than shorter ones (20-10 seconds)?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 17, 2001 ):
See ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization or The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Tuesday, May 15, 2001 #4408
How does seasonality effect radio advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 21, 2001 ):
Check The Radio advertising Bureau (RAB).


Tuesday, May 15, 2001 #4407
How does seasonality effect radio advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 21, 2001 ):
Check The Radio advertising Bureau (RAB).


Tuesday, May 15, 2001 #4405
Dear Guru, I am working on a research, "How long does advertising continue to influence consumer's purchase decisions after it has been seen." Where can I get the relevent info? Thx.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 21, 2001 ):
Try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Tuesday, May 15, 2001 #4404
I am an a media planner, looking for opportunities to sponsor various web site opportunties for OTC brands interested in reachng MDs. I have been looking at Medscape - a pharmaceutical consumer portal. They sell advertising space and sponsorships on their site. When we look at Media Metrix data to see traffic, and determine whether we want to advertise with them, we see a fairly low number of visitors. We are told that that is because Medscape has an alliance with AOL, and when members go through AOL to Medscape, these visitors are not included in Medscape traffic counts. Rather, they are counted towards AOL traffic. We're talking about over 1 million visitors. Is this true? How can this be addressed? Is it possible to change the way Media metrix counts these visitors or is this standard. I have asked Media Metrix for a response as well, but have not heard back from them yet. What do you think and how would you proceed to address? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 21, 2001 ):
AOL, per se, is not on the internet, it is a bulletin board service that predates the popularization of the 'net. Most members dial up directly into the AOL system. AOL provides a gateway out to the 'net for its members and there is also an aol.com site which is part of the net.

MediaMetrix, which measures internet behavior, might well be unable to track areas within the AOL system. However, it appears that when an AOL user accesses Medscape, the user is taken to the internet, to Medscape.com. Therefore, the MediaMetrix traffic for Medscape would be complete.

With a total universe of under one million MDs in the US, traffic of one million visitors seems quite high.


Tuesday, May 15, 2001 #4401
Hi Guru - how is outdoor media measured? I see a lot of high audience numbers, but I'm not sure where they come from. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 20, 2001 ):
Outdoor is quantified as "Daily Effective Circulation (DEC), based on measuring traffic past the point of the display. According to the Outdoor advertising Association of America:

"Daily Effective Circulation. The average number of persons passing and potentially exposed to an advertising display for either 12 hours (unilluminated – 6:00am to 6:00pm) or 18 hours (illuminated – 6:00am to 12:00 midnight)."

This is generally a # of cars multiplied by an average number of passengers, approximately 1.9. This may overstate the number actually noticing the sign, just as TV program rating may overstate the number viewing or paying attention to a commercial.


Monday, May 14, 2001 #4399
Hi Guru...I am looking for research/info on seasonality and how it effects TV viewership and radio listening. I know that TV viewership goes down in the summer months and radio listening goes up but I was wondering if there were any articles/research that I can use as backup. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 20, 2001 ):
See TV Bureaus of advertising/a>, The Radio advertising Bureau (RAB) and The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Monday, May 14, 2001 #4398
I am working on a project to determine how much ad revenue is typically generated by newspapers - i.e. monthlies, weeklies and dailies. Are there books/web-sites with this information? - Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 20, 2001 ):
Try The Newspaper advertising Association


Monday, May 14, 2001 #4395
dear guru ' Could I get information on the followings : 1. Is there any Indian Bureau from where we can obtain information regarding advertisement charges in Internet/online. 2 : What are strategic issues involved in internet/online advertising ? As well as how should i go about collecting information to conduct a market survey ?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 20, 2001 ):
The Guru does not know of any specifically Indian internet ad rate resource.

The strategic issues for online are the same as all advertising. The tactics and approaches used to answer the issues are where the differences occur.


Monday, May 14, 2001 #4394
Dear Guru, where I can find ad rates specifically meant for Internet/online advertising, and also are there any standards followed like what we have in press/TV advertising.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 20, 2001 ):
See The Industry Standard and Ad Resource for rates.

See The Internet advertising Bureau for standards.


Monday, May 14, 2001 #4392
Media Guru: Looking for research on newspaper ROP vs. premium position. Any differences ? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 14, 2001 ):
See The Newspaper advertising Association


Sunday, May 13, 2001 #4390
I'm doing a research project on restroom advertising. How do I get the latests revenue figures for InSite advertising, Zoom Media and AJ Outdoors?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 13, 2001 ):
Perhaps they are public companies which publish annual reports.


Saturday, May 12, 2001 #4389
What would be an acceptable rate to charge for TV advertising during a horse racing simulcast? The signal reaches 255 betting locations including racetracks, casinos, and off track betting parlors.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 12, 2001 ):
You need to know the audience size. If you have advertisers who particularly want to reach bettors, perhaps a cost per thousand of $30-$40 could be charged. If the average audience per location, per commercial is 10 people or a total of 2550 people, then the cost per ad unit would be about $75 to $100. If the audience is bigger, then a proportionately higher rate is reasonable.


Saturday, May 12, 2001 #4388
dear sir, may i know what are the limitations of internet advertising!

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 12, 2001 ):
Different ad units will have specific limits, but as a medium, some key limitations are:
  • Total reach: only 50% or so of any population are internet users, some groups much less, some a bit more.
  • Individual ads on specific sites have very low reach potential; a high reach schedule can be very expensive
  • Click rates are vanishly low; a problem if generating traffic, rather than awareness/branding is your goal
  • Acceptance of internet advertisng is controversial, many consumers seem to object to its presence.


Friday, May 11, 2001 #4386
Guru, can you please point me towards research on the effect of pay/cable TV in the home on channel zapping ? Specifically do more channels reduce the amount of advertising viewed ? Have you heard of an Equalisation model to account for this in reach and frequency calculations. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 12, 2001 ):
It should be simple enough to directly reduce GRPs according to any measured reduction of ad viewing versus program viewing.

For research try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Tuesday, May 08, 2001 #4381
Dear Guru: I have read a lot about the Jone's & Reichel's results about recency but I would like to know how was the research. How was exactly the way in which the found the recency value. Could you help me? Thanks in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 12, 2001 ):
Try Journal of advertising Research and The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Tuesday, May 08, 2001 #4379
Dear Media Guru: Are there any "magic" formulas regarding advertising levels/weights and retail traffic pull through? Please advise. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 08, 2001 ):
There is no general magic. Individual experience will tell how it works in specific advertisers cases. There may be some ability to generalize within categories, as broad as "upscale restaurant in the NY metro area."


Tuesday, May 08, 2001 #4378
Hi Guru, I wanted to know if radio clutter is currently increasing or decreasing. Also, how can I get information on a stations amount of airtime that they curently sell. For example, if I ask a station how much of an hour they sell for space will I get a truthful answer? (Or do I need to ckeck something). Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 12, 2001 ):
The Guru would expect stations to be honest about commercial time. It's a matter of record if you should choose to investigate.

Try The Radio advertising Bureau (RAB) for trends.


Monday, May 07, 2001 #4374
Is it possible to buy taxi cab voice overs as an ad unit or are they all PSAs? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 12, 2001 ):
The Guru doesn't think it's available, but if it is it's most likely sold by a company that sells other taxi advertising, like Vector Media.


Saturday, May 05, 2001 #4370
can you think of any media related theory to user's (negative or positive) attitudes to internet advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 06, 2001 ):
Attitudes may relate to placement, load time and relvance of the site, etc. These all might be considered media related.

Try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Saturday, May 05, 2001 #4369
Dear sir, i am new to internet field, may i know is there any difference between internet advertising and online advertising, secondly I would like to know about the scope of Internet advertising in Indian context as well as where can i get database (statistical information) regarding advantages/disadvantages regarding internet advertising ? email - sganesh@ndb.vsnl.net.in

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 06, 2001 ):
Generally, "internet" and "online" are equivalent terms in this context. To be quite strict, advertising within bulletin board sytems like AOL is not "internet advertising" while it is "online."

Statistical info regarding advantages/disadvantages would need to be assembled. Statisics for various media are usually found or developed for that medium alone. There is a good internet piece at IAB


Thursday, May 03, 2001 #4358
Can you give me or point me to advertising revenue statistics comparing network tv, radio, print, cable and interactive mediums?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 05, 2001 ):
Consult the archives of Ad Age


Wednesday, May 02, 2001 #4355
I have developed a new product for the Golf Industry that will be with the golfer as they play their round. What is the best way to contact potential National coporate sponsors/advertizers like Buick, Nike, Callaway etc? How do I locate their individual advertizing agencies? Thank You

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, May 02, 2001 ):
You need the The Standard Directories of advertising Agencies and Advertisers ('The Redbook')


Wednesday, May 02, 2001 #4354
I noticed in the media strengths sections you don't include Internet advertising. Why is that? Also, have you seen any best practices in how media people compare tradtional advertising with Internet advertising. For example, how can a media planner compare reach frequency in broadcast with impressions and unique audience in Internet? Any insight would be helpful. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, May 02, 2001 ):
The actual reason is that the media strengths page goes back to AMIC's earliest days, late 1994 / early 1995, before the internet was being taken seriously as a medium. But the Guru will now add the following to that page:

Internet

Capture audience in the act of shopping (Search engines)
Narrowly select target by site appeal
Instant interaction / order taking
Instant copy change
Customer relationship building
Target customer / deliver ad variant based on customer profile or past action
Powerful environment for computer-related advertising
Streaming allows TV-like audio video within above advantages

Regarding comparing to other media, the differences are no greater than between Radio and outdoor or TV and newspaper. If you compare numbers, it's a clean comparison. If you need to explain communications impact and other differences, it's more complex, but merely a matter of choosing the right words.


Wednesday, May 02, 2001 #4353
I have a client that is interested in the "dreaded" bathroom stall advertising (back of door). Do you know where I can find any information on how effective this kind of advertising is? I would think people in that personal environment are not thinking about buying things. Please advise

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, May 02, 2001 ):
The sellers, such as California Indoor advertising, Sit&Watch, ToilAd/European Network of Indoor advertising and AdVantage Indoor advertising should have research to support their medium.


Wednesday, May 02, 2001 #4352
Dear Guru, what do you see as the 'killer' type of advertising for interactive television? Will the banner ad win out like it has on the web, will the enhanced program be the winner or will the 30 second spot make its return?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, May 02, 2001 ):
The Guru clings to his doubts about the viability of interactive television. It has been "around the corner" for twenty years, without successful trials.

If it arrives, the banner is least likely to be the key ad form; since TV is linear, while the web is static, users are less likely to to follow a trail to an ad while their program continues without them. Granted, TiVo and other such devices could get around that problem, but that category has been failing as well.


Tuesday, May 01, 2001 #4349
I would like to know, if there are any other (main) media strategies, apart from recency, effective frequency and dripping. If so, under what name can I find research and guidelines about them?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 01, 2001 ):
These are scheduling / communications strategies. Advertisng can be continuous activity, or non-continuous (flights / waves / pulses). Tactics within activity can be same level at each period of activity or different level at each priod of activity. Within periods of activity, levels can be stable, rising or falling.

Recency argues for continuity; effective frequency argues for minimum effective levels during any activity.

Other scheduling approaches may be merely spreading it around at a level that experience has shown to be effective for the advertiser.

The best repository of research on such topics is The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Monday, April 30, 2001 #4348
Have a client that questioned the use of Recency planning for a packaged goods product launch in spot market television. I've read all questions/answers from 2000 in the archives and found it curious that no one questioned the fact that the levels used for standard recency planning of 60-80 TRPs per week refer to MEDIUM EXPOSURE not advertising EXPOSURE. Considering that probably only 40% of the commercial message will even register, aren't these levels low (clutter factor), even if they are spread across multiple weeks (in this case 9)?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 01, 2001 ):
A: Medium exposure is the readily available planning metric.

B: Recency has been keyed to measured results from media exposure levels.

C: The media exposure levels referenced in Recency are -- and this is important -- REACH, not GRP. The reach threshhold is thought to be about 30 - 35, which might tie to various GRP levels, depending on media mix.

D: If best sales success is tied to sustained reach minima of 35, then that is the metric to connect with. The fact that the less readily available ad exposure or attentiveness-weighted GRPs are some other number is an artifact of the process, not a contradiction to the theory.


Thursday, April 26, 2001 #4345
Are there any accessable studies showing the enhanced reach and frequency by using a media mix of direct mail in conjunction with targeted b-to-b print advertising, rather than direct mail and email only?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, April 27, 2001 ):
Obviously email has a limited audience potential and many business people have developed filters to avoid such spam.

For studies, try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Thursday, April 26, 2001 #4344
I have a b2b client who is reluctant to advertise in the media. Do you have research that indicates why it is important for a client to advertise?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, April 27, 2001 ):
Try the The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Visit Cahners Business Information.


Thursday, April 26, 2001 #4343
Good morning - I'm doing research on the effects of advertising in trade/vertical publications. Can you recommend where to begin my search on research studies and/or articles? Thank you!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 26, 2001 ):
A good resource is Cahners Business Information


Wednesday, April 25, 2001 #4341
I work for a major newspaper, and we are considering making changes to our TV listing book, as well as our daily in-paper listings. Most cable and satellite services publish their own listings,and/or offer listings on-screen. Has anyone done a study on usage of TV listings, i.e. how often viewers refer to them, are onscreen listings preferred to in-paper or cable/satellite listing books,etc. Any help on this would be appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, April 25, 2001 ):
The Newspaper advertising Association would be most likely to have this kind of information.


Tuesday, April 24, 2001 #4340
What is the Best advertsing method for the country of Irland? I need information on Irland's advertising expenditures thank you

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, April 27, 2001 ):
There is no one best advertising method anywhere where ther are tow methods. It always depends on goals. One medium might have the best reach, another the best efficiency and still another some required format or flexibility.

MediaMonitoring offers ad expenditure info.


Friday, April 20, 2001 #4331
Where can we find information about advertising expenditures, by market and by individual medium. For example, how much was spent on television advertising in the Quad Cities DMA in 2000 (or by month)?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, April 20, 2001 ):
See CMR (Competitive Media Reports).


Thursday, April 12, 2001 #4325
Regarding online yellowpages: I am trying to find out how much more effective a top-ranked display listing is compared to a later text listing. Can you suggest any sources that have information on this topic?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 15, 2001 ):
Try the yellowpages sites, themselves. Also, The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Wednesday, April 11, 2001 #4321
I was wondering could help me in finding advantages and disadvantages of different types of advertising media i.e television, radio and newspapers. This would be of great help to me. thanxs

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, April 11, 2001 ):
See The Guru's Media Strengths


Friday, April 06, 2001 #4316
Is there a source that reports advertising spending by market? If so, do they distinguish between "national" and "local/regional" ad spending on a market level?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, April 09, 2001 ):
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) local media reports distinguish between advertising placed with the stations from advertising running on the network.

But if you mean local placement distinguishing money controlled by a national agency vs a regional marketing office, that isn't likely unless there is a difference in copy.


Thursday, April 05, 2001 #4314
what are the major strengths of cross-media planning?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, April 09, 2001 ):
This question is unclear. A media plan is a process in which one determines which media in what mix best answer advertising goals. Thus one can't really effectively consider anything but "cross-media planning."

But perhaps the term means something different to you?


Tuesday, April 03, 2001 #4307
Is there a list of top 10 marketing/advertising test markets in the US?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 03, 2001 ):
If you mean the 10 markets most commonly used for tests, American Demographics may have written about this.

If you mean the "best" test markets, Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) and Nielsen have data to help you chose, but what is actually "best" is a matter of your criteria.


Monday, April 02, 2001 #4304
Dear Guru, I want to locate the media planning&buyig companies who are specialised in radio advertising. Do you know any of them? How can I contact them online. Thanks, Muammer Oztat

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, April 02, 2001 ):
In a US context at least, it would make no sense to have a "media planning company specialized in radio planning." How would a client expect to get a plan that considered all the options to best communicate its messages from such a company.

A radio buying service is feasible, but the Guru has not heard of one which limits itself that way.


Sunday, April 01, 2001 #4301
What is the role of marketing mix in media planning? Sarwar-Lintas

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 01, 2001 ):
Advertsing is one element of marketing mix. Media planning is an element of advertising. More often than not, the media paln is constructed in the absence of knowledge of other elements of the marketing mix, except perhaps sampling and promotional programs.


Thursday, March 29, 2001 #4294
I'm doing a project on television and print advertising. I would like to know where I can find some televsion commercial rates, as well as some print ad rates. thank you!!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, March 29, 2001 ):
SQAD

MediaStart

Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS)


Monday, March 26, 2001 #4290
Would you help me to find out advertising media course that I may apply, if possible through e-mail?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, March 29, 2001 ):
The Guru would not recommend any e-mail based courses.


Wednesday, March 21, 2001 #4282
I am looking for a directory for listings of advertising Agencies in the US. I am in particular looking for ones that handle Television.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, March 22, 2001 ):
The Standard Directories of advertising Agencies and Advertisers ('The Redbook') has what you want.


Wednesday, March 21, 2001 #4278
Do you have any reserach/learning on response rate for newspaper advertising between: 1)B&W vs. One (Spot)color 2)B&W vs. 4-Color 3)4-Color vs. One (Spot) color

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 21, 2001 ):
See Starch


Wednesday, March 21, 2001 #4277
Dear guru, Is there any way to assess the value of a nielsen ratings point? For example, if you could increase viewership by x, it is worth y in additional advertising dollars? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 21, 2001 ):
This is very simple. All you need to know is the average selling cost per point of the time period, available from resources such as SQAD


Tuesday, March 20, 2001 #4275
How can I find research regarding historical analysis of R/F trend on television. Specifically, I am looking to find out for example: if you looked at a generic demo maybe W18-49, and wanted to find out the difference between the number of spots in Primetime TV it took to reach 80% of W18-49 in 1970-1980-1990-2000. So basically, the idea is that today it takes more commercials to reach the same % of the population. I just need help finding actual numbers to support that concept. Would know where to find that information?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 20, 2001 ):
Since today's average primetime ratings are perhaps half of what they were in 1970, it certainly will take at least twice as many spots for the same reach.

R&F systems have changed over that time, too, so you should really compare the schedule a planner thought necessary in 1970 to the one considered necessary today. Planners will have been more likely to work with GRP than number of commercials, though.

Perhaps there is such a retrospective available from The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Monday, March 19, 2001 #4270
How can I find information on advertising media (tv, radio, billboard)rates within the West Virgina market?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 21, 2001 ):
TV and radio rates can be found in SQAD.

Billboard rates generally require inquiries to the vendors, such as Vista Media or Eller Media.


Monday, March 19, 2001 #4269
How can I find information on advertising media (tv, radio, billboard)rates within the Virgina market?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 21, 2001 ):
TV and radio rates can be found in SQAD.

Billboard rates generally require inquiries to the vendors, such as Vista Media or Eller Media.


Friday, March 16, 2001 #4261
I am working as a marketing consultant for an eBusiness/solutions provider. One of our clients is a government entity. We are writing a marketing and communications plan to promote awareness of their new brand image. Do you have any suggestions of materials I could use for reference?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 20, 2001 ):
Try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Friday, March 16, 2001 #4260
Do you have any info on tourist use of radio? The specific market is Orlando, but the info does not have to be limited to that market.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 16, 2001 ):
"Tourists" is an audience almost impossible to survey. But The Radio advertising Bureau (RAB) might have some info.


Thursday, March 15, 2001 #4256
Need Radio & TV CPP's for Toronto, Canada. Can you help.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, March 15, 2001 ):
CARD (Canadian advertising Rates and Data)


Thursday, March 08, 2001 #4248
Where can I find information about the cost of print and broadcast advertising in Detroit?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 13, 2001 ):
See SQAD for broadcast and Media Passage for print.


Thursday, March 08, 2001 #4247
Dear Media Guru, I have a client who is interested in an advertising campaign to change the public's opinion of them. I would like to know what would be more effective, a sustained low frequency campaign over an 18 month period or a short 3 month flight with both high reach and high frequency. The budget level is the same either way. The goal is at the end of the 18 month period, the target market should have a MUCH better opinion of the the client. I revere your expertise and look forward to your answer.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 13, 2001 ):
The simplest answer is that if you run a heavy, three month schedule, and then measure target opinion 15 months later, your message is likely to be all but forgotten.

If you spread your schedule over the entire 18 months then you will probably be in a better position at month 18.

A good compromise is probably a brief -- possibly one month -- schedule to establish presence and sustaining spread over the 18 months. Since you appear to be focused solely on image rather than sales, some flighting should not be a problem.


Thursday, March 08, 2001 #4246
What are the basic steps of creating and running an Online advertising Campaign?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 13, 2001 ):
  1. Translate advertising goals into media objectives and strategies
  2. Evaluate potential media against these strategies
  3. Negotiate the right deal with the vendors
  4. Order and maintain stewardship of your schedules


Wednesday, March 07, 2001 #4244
Do u know what VELOCITY MARKETING is ?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 13, 2001 ):
This appears to be someone's proprietary term for some sort of advertising program. It is not a standard media term.


Wednesday, March 07, 2001 #4243
Media guru, hopefully you can help me. I am trying to obtain definitions for the following. These phrases get thrown around so often here, but I am not completely sure what they mean; 1) Media strategy? 2) Communications strategy - how does it differ from media strategy? 3) Brand communications as opposed to advertising? Appreciate the help.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 13, 2001 ):
You are right that these phrases get thrown around loosely. Part of the problem is that they have common English meanings and another is that, like many advertising terms, they have different meanings in various English speaking countries.

Looking "from the top down" may help understanding. First of all, generally "strategies" are courses of action designed to meet objectives.

  • Marketing objectives are big overall goals like increasing sales 10% per year.
  • A marketing strategy aimed at meeting this objective this objective might be to use consumer advertising.
  • An advertising objective within this marketing strategy could be to increase trial of the brand.
  • An advertising strategy within this could be a budget for consumer media.
  • A media objective under this strategy could call for building awareness among a new target segment.
  • Media strategies to achieve this objective might include a communications strategy of achieving X% reach in each four week period at a minium of Y average frequency

Brand communications is a broad concept including all messages delivered to consumers and trade via advertising, promotion, public relations, etc.


Wednesday, March 07, 2001 #4242
How would I find out about advertising rates for the New York City Transit Authority Metrocard? I went to their website but could not find any references Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 07, 2001 ):
NY City Transit advertising is sold by TDI. The Guru (a Metrocard carrying NY Transit rider) has not heard that ads were being placed on Metrocards.


Tuesday, March 06, 2001 #4238
What is Microvision?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 13, 2001 ):
This appears to be someone's proprietary term for some sort of advertising program. It is not a standard media term.


Monday, March 05, 2001 #4231
I would like to know about bartering for media services. As a media planner, what do I need to know about barter deals? What are the benefits/pitfalls for an advertising agency that is bartering with a corporate client? What kind of commissions/fees are typically involved in these type of transactions?, etc. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 05, 2001 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses about barter


Friday, March 02, 2001 #4225
I am currently writing a paper on consumer resistance to advertising. Other that Naomi Klein's 'No Logo', various papers by Pollay and Holbrook and afew basic entries in text books are there any journal articles or resources you can think of that I should look for? Specifically, what are the (numerous!) root causes of consumer resistance to advertising? Thanks! Rory James Duff

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 02, 2001 ):
Consult The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Thursday, March 01, 2001 #4223
I am trying to find out whether US marketers are returning or have returned to spot advertising on broadcast networks?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 02, 2001 ):
"Spot advertising" usually refers to local market advertising, as opposed to network advertising. Perhaps you mean "scatter" versus "upfront" network buying. In either case, there has not been a broadscale retreat from, nor therefore, a return to either practice.


Wednesday, February 28, 2001 #4222
Is there any research available on the quality of readership for the magazine purchaser vs the pass on readers

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 02, 2001 ):
Consult The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Wednesday, February 28, 2001 #4221
I am about to graduate with a B.S advertising and want to go into media planning, media research. I want to stay in the Pittsburgh area. Do you have any suggestions on companies, best places to go etc.?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 02, 2001 ):
Check Pittsburgh local newspaper classifed to see who's advertising for these positions.


Wednesday, February 28, 2001 #4220
Dear Guru,do you have any information about the keyfactors of the succes of a women vortal site? How whas/where these women vortal sites launched? Thank you!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 02, 2001 ):
There are vanishingly few sites of any sort that can be considered successful. Vortals generally rely on advertising for revenue. So audience flow and revisits are critical. Thus, frequently updated information which is interesting to women will be the focus. This information might include uniquely focused, women-oriented web search features.


Tuesday, February 27, 2001 #4217
Is there any researach or study regarding the effectiveness of long duration commercial on TV (e.g. 60 or 120 seconds)? thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 02, 2001 ):
The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Tuesday, February 27, 2001 #4214
what should one consider when carrying out an audience analysis before running an advertising campaign

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 02, 2001 ):
The key aspects of audience are coverage and composition. Yet the Guru suspects you have a more than simple English meaning in mind when you use the phrase "audience analysis." Please feel free to follow up with a more specific question.


Tuesday, February 27, 2001 #4213
Do you have any data or can you recommend a data source that provides me with costs on buying television time in the New York Area, and any articles on how many people really watch a tv commercial, versus what percent get up during commercials to get something to eat, or pay no attention, or change channels to avoid commercials, I am trying to compare purchasing tv time in cpm cost per thousand, and assess the media's effectiveness. Bob Nathan

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, February 27, 2001 ):
Cost data: see SQAD

Articles of the sort you want may be in the archives of trade media, but are most plentiful at The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Monday, February 26, 2001 #4210
I need to find out the total advertising dollars spent in Washington, DC on radio and tv. Thanks in advance for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 26, 2001 ):
Consult CMR (Competitive Media Reports).


Monday, February 26, 2001 #4208
I am trying to come up with an estimate of the number of advertising messages the average adult is exposed to in the average day. I remember seeing something on this somewhere, and I seem to recall a debate on the issue, but I can't find my source. Any suggestions?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 26, 2001 ):
It depends upon what you consider "advertising messages". If you mean TV / radio commericals, print and out-of-home ads, then the common estimates you see in the thousands are ludicrous. If yoiu assume a person is awake 16 hours per day and does nothing but consume media all day, the answer will be several hundred. Just think about TV and Radio's 20 or so per hour, or the number of ads you would see in an hour of reading newspaper and magazines.

The higher numbers are typically based on counting ecvery exposury to product names, logos and labels, as one might experience shopping in a store.

An issue of Consumer Reports is the most recent place the Guru has seen such estimates.


Sunday, February 25, 2001 #4206
what is the importance of advertising in small business should there be motivation for them to advertise and in what forms and how to measure it?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 25, 2001 ):
advertising is a means of generating awareness and sales. Ways and means vary according to each business' needs, customers and opportunities.

A chain of beauty salons will face very different challenges than a small electronics manufacturer.


Sunday, February 25, 2001 #4205
what are the main issues and challenges currently facing the advertising insdustry in south africa?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 26, 2001 ):
According to the Guru's correspondent in South Africa:

"Research - the main challenge is to fund the research requirements 
of the industry bearing in mind the increasing fragmentation of 
media such as radio and print media. Also the addition of new 
media such as the internet. To do this within the SAARF levy and 
make the data available to all will be a major challenge which we 
expect not to meet. Already ACNielsen plan to measure the 
internet and sell the data outside of the Saarf remit.

Measuring the satellite channels via the people meter is also a major undertaking planned for this year. The accurate measurement of channels within a satellite decoder is still in its infancy.

Economic issues are creating pressures on the very survival of advertising agencies and already several agencies have gone into liquidation. Media owners and others, like Telmar, take huge losses when agencies cannot meet their financial commitments.

Consolidation of media buying into independent media buying points are making the big guys bigger reducing the advertisers choice and creating a commodity of the media planning/buying business."


Monday, February 19, 2001 #4196
Do you have any statistics concerning the effects that adding color to an ad, increasing ad size, and/or increasing the frequency of an ad run on sales and recall of consumers? Could you please back these statistics up with studies and dates that these studies were conducted?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 22, 2001 ):
Visit Starch.

Also consult The Newspaper advertising Association and The Magazine Publishers' Association.


Monday, February 19, 2001 #4194
Dear Guru, what is "cost per aquisition" and what do you believe is the most acceptable way to count the effectiveness of a web site? Impressions or unique visitors? This is a huge problem in Greece right now. Every site has it's own general overview of it's performance and visitor's behavior so things are confused. Thanks in advance

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 19, 2001 ):
"Cost per acquistion" may refer to the marketing spending required to bring a new visitor to a site, ot the cost of generating a subscriber, or the cost of making whatever sale a site aime at.

Sites have different goals, missions and standards of success. A site might be designed to sell retail products such as books, vdeos, muic, food, cars, etc. These sites may need repeat customers, who buy music every month or more often. A site selling automobiles will probably not see the saem customer more than once in three years once sale is made.

Other sites generate revenue via advertising, still others from subscriptions, and some by conveying information to support corporate image, with a one-time message. If you are evaluating sites as advertising vehicles, and seeking reach, then unique vistors will be the key. >"Brand Visibilty Index" is not a standardized media term. It might be a term invented by one agency or advertsing school to indicate a specific concept they use in describing some situation. It might be an index of Brand GRP versus category average GRP. Or it might be something else based on awareness, clutter, etc.

What may seem important to a site, like building impressions so that it has ad inventory to sell, may be relatively meaningless to an advertiser. Sites with a million unique visitors may be able to sell you as many unique visitors as a site with 10 million, because your needs only call for 200,000 unique audience. Evaluate according to your plan's needs, not the site's claims of success.


Saturday, February 17, 2001 #4189
what is the changing role of media planners today?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 19, 2001 ):
For the most part the role is not changing: it is recommending media approaches that best meet the given advertising objectives. In the best cser, planners are becomeing respected consultant to the whole advertsing process. Changes in which media exist or are popular do not and should not change the planners' role, only the recommendations.


Friday, February 16, 2001 #4187
Dear GURU.... I am in the process of developing a business plan for a start-up internet company. I have reached a bit of a wall... I am trying to find a way to put together an est. budget for on-line advertising as a liability and also as a source of revenue... Any ideas where I can get some ideas? Or do you have any numbers in mind... what is costs to advertise, and what to expect to earn. Thank you, Joe R.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 19, 2001 ):
Visit Ad Resource


Thursday, February 15, 2001 #4186
Do you know of any sources for advertising on gasoline pump tops?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 19, 2001 ):
Companies that offer video screens in waiting-in-line situations such as gas pumps include e-billboards and Billboard Video.


Wednesday, February 14, 2001 #4181
I'm looking for information on what companies charge other companies to advertise with them.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 18, 2001 ):
The Guru presumes you are referring to "co-op" advertising. Click here to see past Guru discussion of co-op.


Wednesday, February 14, 2001 #4180
Hi! Dear Guru thank you for your last ansewrs! How do You think is it possible to estimate budget/GRP limit with wich there is no sence to advertise on TV (ad. cmp. will be lost in ad.clutter). Or there is no any limits at all? For instance could 10 spots placed in prime-time on national channel(with av. rating 10%)give some results? Spasibo!(means thank you in russian).

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 14, 2001 ):
Any advertising has some effect. There is a threshhold of awareness where a noticable difference in consumer response occurs.

Some say those exposed more than three times respond noticably more. Others speculate that once the three exposure threshold is past, continuous exposure wit a reach of 30+ per week is the key to sales.

Your 100 GRP schedule is a good starting point.


Thursday, February 08, 2001 #4172
Hello Guru:A national client of ours was asked by his regional counterpart how much money he should allocate for advertising spending in his region of No.California. How do I begin the process of figuring this out? Thanks in advance for any information you can provide.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 11, 2001 ):
Begin with these considerations:
  • Is the regional a schedule to run on top of national?
  • What is the competitive advertising level in the category?
  • What share of "voice," adding together nartional and regional activity, is desired by the regional person?


Thursday, February 08, 2001 #4171
Is there a rule of thumb on what do professional service firms spend on advertising versus consumer products?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 11, 2001 ):
No. There may be averages, but not rules of thumb, because organizational structure and profit margins diifer too much. See trade articles from Ad Age, etc. for averages.


Thursday, February 08, 2001 #4170
Many experts are warning advertisers that cutting advertising during a soft economy could be harmful...however I'm finding it difficult to find current research to support this fact. Any suggestions?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 11, 2001 ):
Research like this can only really be done when an advertiser sees a "soft economy" coming, cuts ads and measures before and after. Since it's been nearly eight years since the economy last went soft, research won't be too current. It's also more likely you'll find historical perspective than research.

It is however axiomatic that when one advertiser cuts spending in such times, the ones who do not will gain market share. The one who cuts may never regain the ground. Classic case: Lucky Strike cigarrettes, which were #1 before wartime ad cuts, and never returned to former strength.

Check The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Wednesday, February 07, 2001 #4168
Guru help! I have an offer from a traditional agency. i am currently at an interactive planning shop. They have matched my salary, and I have been told I am on the higher end of the range from many people. I don't know whether to go. I want to know what you think about the future of Internet only web/media shops, and if you think it is smart for me to go back to a big traditional shop at this point. Do you think these intenet only shops are in danger becasue of the state of the marketplace? What is the best decision? Thanks for your advice.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 07, 2001 ):
If a traditonal agency tells you that matching your salary from an interactive shop puts you at the top of the range, that says interactive pays better. Of course, that might be just a negotiating posture on their part.

The Guru sees two possible scenarios:

either the internet advertising arena fades and the future of internet shops is limited or

the internet advertising arena becomes very important and traditional shops incorporate the skills set.

In either case, the future of internet specialist shops seems limited. For some time already, there has been accelerating consolidation of internet shops and/or acquisition of them by the traditionals.

Since you are considering a switch for a matching salary, the Guru imagines you are experiencing some dissatisfaction at present. Most signs point toward making a move.


Wednesday, February 07, 2001 #4167
Dear Media Guru, My client is looking for information on the Hispanic viewership of general market cable networks. Without buying the entire Nielsen Hispanic ratings service, is there a way to find out this information? Thanks for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 07, 2001 ):
According to Telemundo's STRETCH2 system, on average, 100 A18-49 GRP of general market cable generates 50.5 Hispanic Adult GRP.

With cable ratings averaging in the range of 0.5 or less, this does not leave much room to measure variance in Hisapanic audience.

Depending on the reason for asking the question, one should also consider the far lower effectiveness of advertising in English to Hispanics, roughly 5 to 20% that of Spanish advertising to Hispanics.

Your best source for Nielsen Hispanic data, if not Nielsen is one of the cable networks you ordinarily buy.


Tuesday, February 06, 2001 #4166
I need some information on pricing of advertising on airline ticket jackets? Do you know of any companies that sell this space?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 07, 2001 ):
The Guru believes the individual airlines sell the space. You might try the sales people of the in-flight magazines.


Tuesday, February 06, 2001 #4161
Dear Guru: Where could I find a complete explanation about the Sainsbury Method? Thanks in advance

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, February 06, 2001 ):
Sainsbury was a media researcher in England. The "Sainsbury method" you refer to was probably his adjustment to TV reach to acount for understatement of duplication between TV dayparts in the basic statistical procedure used 30 years ago.

More detail should be available from The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Friday, February 02, 2001 #4153
Dear Guru- What is the best way to Geo target online? The client wants to do a test in two markets, and he wants it to be translatable nationally. He does not want to buy any local or newspaper sites. Geo-targeting through doubleclick seems to have problems becasue of the AOL situation. Do you have any suggestions? Are there any other web-based ways I can reach a specific market (e.g., advertising in downloaded software geo-targeting by product registration?) Thanks for your help as always.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 03, 2001 ):
Broadly, there are only two web-based ways to geo-target.

1. The site somehow detects the location of the visitor, for example by registration records or IP address. Or

2. You advertise on sites with a local appeal.

You have acknowledged the problem with #1, and ruled out #2. Your though about advertising in downloaded software (PKZip, Eudora, or Infogate perhaps?) would possibly have too small an audience.

The AOL problem is that sites' servers don't recognize the specific user's geography for AOL's Virginia-based internet entry points. So you would miss out on advertising to the many AOL users. But the Guru believes that AOL can sell you advertising to their userswithin their system, based on user geography. This would fill your AOL user gap.


Friday, February 02, 2001 #4149
what is cost per page?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 03, 2001 ):
If you mean the definiton of the term, "cost per page" is the cost of an average page of advertising as defined in the context, e.g. average cost of a four-color page ad among a specified list of magazines.

If you mean where can you find page rates, try MediaStart.


Thursday, February 01, 2001 #4145
Is there a tool or a formula that can effectively guestimate the number of leads expected from an advertising campaign?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 03, 2001 ):
The only valid tool is past experience with similar campaigns. In direct response the importance of the content (offer, price and pitch) means that media factors are outweighted as predictability issues.


Wednesday, January 31, 2001 #4143
Dear Guru: Where could I go to get information on spending for old advertising campaigns? Is there someone who tracks this (e.g. the long distance spending wars with MCI, AT&T, and Sprint) Thank you

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 31, 2001 ):
CMR (Competitive Media Reports)


Wednesday, January 31, 2001 #4142
Dear guru, Is there a rule of thumb as to what percent of a total advertising budget should be spent on agency fee, production, and other "non-media" activities vs. the actual media buy? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 31, 2001 ):
No. There are too many variables based on overall budget, target, media types, etc.


Wednesday, January 31, 2001 #4141
Where can I find pricing for out of home advertising including printed signage, kiosks, and video advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 31, 2001 ):
Use Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) or find resources through Outdoor advertising Association of America.


Tuesday, January 30, 2001 #4138
Hi, Currently I'm preparing a business plan for a startup. I'm considering radio and print advertising in the top 50 markets. I will eventually hire an agency to work out all the math. But for the sake of projecting marketing expense, is there a way I can show "so many spots/print ads in so many main stations/magazines in the top 50 markets for a total budget of $500,000? I'll be happy as long as I can quote average rates for radio spots and print ads from reliable sources.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 31, 2001 ):
It's easier if you think of radio in GRP terms. Then you can look at average rates in SQAD and do your calculations.

The Guru does not think you will find local magazines, other than Sunday newspaper supplements, in most of those markets.

Newspaper rates can be found at Media Passage.


Sunday, January 28, 2001 #4130
Guru, I would like to further my education in media. Do you know of any colleges that offer Masters program in Media Planning?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 28, 2001 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses about advertising education. The GUru would be surprised if Media Planning per se was a masters program somewhere.


Friday, January 26, 2001 #4126
Have you heard of the term a "Media Metrix" online buy that basically defines a driving traffic/unique user strategy so that the site rises in the ranks of its Media Metrix number? Please advise. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 26, 2001 ):
There's nothing unique about a site's advertising being aimed at attracting traffic. If the site wants more unique visitors it would presumably buy for the greatest reach dispersion instead of merely big boxcar impressions. The Guru has not heard the specific term "Media Metrix buy."


Thursday, January 25, 2001 #4125
Dear Guru, Where can I find market size estimation, spending, and employment and segmentation for the film and production industry? Thanks, Sara

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 26, 2001 ):
If you mean advertising spending, then see CMR (Competitive Media Reports).

The rest of your questions are not media questiosn, but might be answered in film industry trade pubs.


Wednesday, January 24, 2001 #4122
Where can I find a list of the major media companies (i.e. Time Warner, Disney, GE) and their subsidiaries?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 24, 2001 ):
The Standard Directories of advertising Agencies and Advertisers ('The Redbook')


Wednesday, January 24, 2001 #4121
Hi, I'm in the research stage and need some advice- do you know where I can find abundant info. on media available in Vancouver and British Columbia? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 26, 2001 ):
CARD (Canadian advertising Rates and Data)


Tuesday, January 23, 2001 #4119
Guru, I am in the process of planning for the entertainment/film industry. How do I go about targeting this audience (filmmakers, cinematographers, VFX, etc) within radio advertising? Also, what are some good pubs and sites? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 25, 2001 ):
Radio would be quite inefficient in targeting such a narrow audience. Possibly some Los Angeles stations have programs aimed at the film industry.

Find publications by topic at PubList.

Use a search engine to find sites referencing cinematography, etc


Friday, January 19, 2001 #4111
Hi! When I was a sales manager for a cable advertising company, we were approached by a company called voicetrak, which, in return for our reporting dollars invested in our system, would have provided us with information on the total dollars in the market... and they have a website... www.voicetrak.com. Do you have any opinions about them? Thanks! Kathy

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 21, 2001 ):
No specific opinions about Voicetrak, but the guru is hesitant to trust services based on self reporting by the media versus third party tracking.


Thursday, January 18, 2001 #4109
I WOULD LIKE TO KNOW IF THERE ARE ANY PROGRAMS IN MEDIA MANAGEMENT, advertising RESEARCH IN SOME GOOD UNIVERSITY

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 18, 2001 ):
Universities wth various advertising and mass communications courses can be found at U.S News & World Report. Various additional qualites of the scholls can be specifed as search criteria.

The list is by no means complete. For example, the well regarded media program at The U of Texas, Austin is not apparently listed for this area of study.


Thursday, January 18, 2001 #4108
I do patent research for attorneys who represent other attorneys who in turn represent inventors.As a start up business, I am looking to contact the inventors and their primary attorneys through some form of media advertising. Would you be so kind as to point me in the right direction?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 21, 2001 ):
A search at Publist for the keywords "patent," "invention" or "inventor" will give you numerous titles aimed at your targets, some legally oriented and ohter more to the inventor "business."


Wednesday, January 17, 2001 #4105
Hello Guru, What is the total audience (universe)of Media Director/planners and buyers?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 17, 2001 ):
One resource would be The Standard Directories of advertising Agencies and Advertisers ('The Redbook').

The Guru's guess would be about 30,000 in the U.S.


Wednesday, January 17, 2001 #4104
Dear Guru- I am trying to sell in the value of an online media presence form a 360 degree branding perspective. THe client is jaded becasue of poor click throughs. We want to present that we are so integrated with the other offline agencies (events mktg, tradiditonal media) that they cant refuse to fund our programs. What do you think is the best way to approach this slide? What can I talk about? So far I have Joint proposals,Cross over creative Power in rate negotiation. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 21, 2001 ):
Overall the Guru does not believe in concepte like "360 degree branding," "Surround strategy," nor McMann and Tate's "saturation campaign."

Putting advertising everywhere simply because the opportunity exists, indicates to the Guru a lack of strategy.

The Guru does not see a marketing advantage in joint proposals, nor that there is particular cross over in rate negotiations for events or traditional media.

Perhaps a better approach would be to focus on something other than click thrus, such as branding and consumer relationships.


Monday, January 15, 2001 #4100
Dear Guru: I am trying to understand the pros and cons of buying media in April for a September launch vs. June for a September launch of a product. The media plan includeds spot/local TV, newspaper, radio and outdoor advertising.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, January 15, 2001 ):
The Guru would estimate that either timing is far enough in advance that there would be little difference, unless you intend to include a special event or unique medium with very limited inventory. Some outdoor sells out far in advance.

There is alweays a small chance that by June, sales people are getting a bit hungrier about meeting their quarterly goals if the quarter has been soft.


Friday, January 12, 2001 #4098
hi guru! how does job/career web sites earn money. thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 13, 2001 ):
Monster.com charges employers for job postings. Some sites have advertising.


Thursday, January 11, 2001 #4091
Dear Guru, The info on Ad Data is great. Do you know where I can get similar data (radio CPP) on Canadian markets?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 11, 2001 ):
The closest is CARD (Canadian advertising Rates and Data)


Thursday, January 11, 2001 #4090
I am working on a new product introduction and was wondering if any information is available that would allow me to see the GRP levels used by some major companies as well as unknown companies as they launched new products. What I am trying to do is benchmark reasonable GRP levels for successful product launches in order to gauge the appropriateness of our current media plan. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 11, 2001 ):
The Guru does not believe that there is any such public listing. Nor would these facts generalize well across different categories. There will be anecdotal reports at The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Thursday, January 11, 2001 #4089
Dear Guru, Do you know where I could find some theoretical information about different types of advertising on the radio?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 11, 2001 ):
Visit The Radio advertising Bureau (RAB)


Monday, January 08, 2001 #4087
Guru, First off, just wanted to let you know that I find this to be one of the most usefull sites on the web - as a management consultant in need of a crash course on media planning, the information found in these pages has proven invaluable...Now, on to my question: I am working on the launch of a branded consumer services play (auto related), and am trying to build a marketing budget from the bottom up, rather than as a strict % of sales. I have modeled an overly simplified media plan, and am looking for guidance on placeholders to use for weights (TRP) for TV and Radio, # of weekly inserts for newspaper, and showing level for outdoor. I know there are numerous factors and considerations I am leaving out (I know the GURU doesn't like sweeping generalizations), but I need a place to start. Goal: generate "substantial awareness" (think Midas, Maaco). Thanks for your insights.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 11, 2001 ):
The Guru thanks you for the compliments.

Keep in mind that while "substantial awareness" may be a snappy phrase for discussion of plans, you need to quantify such a term in order to quantify the building blocks of getting there.

Let's suppose we decide the goal is 80% ad awareness among the target within a given campaign period. Therefore, your advertising must reach at least 80% of the target in that period, with enough frequency for the message to penetrate and stick, let's say at least three times.

Now, you can calculate that generating that reach in TV will call for a certain number of TRP (you can use the media software at eTelmar for calculations). Or you can examine getting that reach with radio or a combination of TV and radio.

Outdoor will generate high reach more efficiently than either, with a #25 showing, but outdoor's necessary simplicity of message may not stand alone in filling your needs.

Newspaper has its own contribution and you need to judge from a marketing perspective whther you need a small store-locator ad every day, a full page branding message once a week, or some other approach, if any.


Thursday, January 04, 2001 #4078
Within the plethora of recency documents you've reviewed, have you found any that plot effectiveness based on timing prior to the purchase decision? Phrased differently, if you have a leisure product for which the purchase decision is time-sensitive (e.g., a television show or movie with limited release dates), how much more effective are ad exposures immediately prior to air time vs. 1 day out, 1 week out, etc.?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 05, 2001 ):
Recency is about continuity and non-time-sensitive purchases. No doubt there are studies which have genrated scales base on time elapsed between exposure and purchase.

Try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Thursday, January 04, 2001 #4077
Can you recommend any sources for articles on aperture theory?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 05, 2001 ):
The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Tuesday, December 26, 2000 #4066
Dear Guru, We have a national client that has primarily used newspaper inserts and direct mail for their advertising efforts. We will be planning broadcast to build awareness for this client. My questions is: does it makes sense to buy spot cable in the markets (over 100) or to buy national cable in these markets? They have over 100 franchisees operating in major metro areas, but may not operate in the entire market - just a few zip codes. Also, any idea on cost? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, December 29, 2000 ):
Because of the high premium typically charged for local cable buys, a national buy for such a large area will almost certainly be more efficient.This would mean buying directly from national networks.

Alternatively, one of the national cable reps like National Cable Communications may be able to customize a "national" buy around your geographic needs.


Monday, December 25, 2000 #4065
I'm hoping to find a publication that deals with the needs of small, or medium sized businesses that may do a substantial amount of advertising in a particular area -- for example a funiture chain with locations in two counties. These businesses may have marketing people dedicated to advertising and may or may not have an agency -- but advertising Age and Adweek don't provide them with useful help. I think a trade magazine for local advertiers makes sense -- covering many of the issues you deal with on your website, but packaged for the person who is more concerned with pizzas than rating points. Before I go out and invent something, I want to find out if it already exists, and I figured you might know. Thank you for your help!!!

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, December 25, 2000 ):
This is a tough one: an ad publication for people who do advertising, but aren't really interested in it, just in their own businesses. There are local business newspapers, such as the Long Island (NY) Business News, and publications of local ad clubs, but the Guru doesn't know of any national publication with similar content.

It seems like your intended audience would have inherently local interests.


Saturday, December 23, 2000 #4064
Can you furnish me with current network advertisng rates: prime and local access time and cost of 30 second spot on Super Bowl? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, December 25, 2000 ):
SQAD is one pricing source. For up-to-date Superbowl pricing watch the trades, like Ad Age and other news resources covering business and advertising, like the NY Times.


Wednesday, December 20, 2000 #4058
What is net reach?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 21, 2000 ):
Net reach is the number of different people exposed to the advertising.

I.e. Your first commercial may have a target rating of 10, which means it reaches 10% of the target. The second commercial might have a rating of 8, reaching 8% of the target. But some of the people reached by the second commercial will duplicate some of those reached by the first. If half of the 8% in the second commercial duplicate people reached by the first, then the net reach is 14%; the first 10% plus the unduplicated 4% in the second.


Wednesday, December 13, 2000 #4042
Hi Guru A.S.A.P....Please can you tell me what should a Brand Review presentation contains? what are the steps for preparing such presentaion? Thanks for your help in Advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, December 17, 2000 ):
The Guru must presume you are referrring to a Brand review from the media perspective. Therefore, without anyother specifications than "brand review" the Guru would put together:
  1. For whatever period of years is specified, the marketing and advertising strategies which guided the media plan
    Target
    geography
    budget, etc
    emphasizing all changes in any of these
  2. Summary descriptions of the plans by year, i.e.
    objectives and strategies,
    Media Allocation, e.g.: "Primary Medium: Network TV 50%,
    Spot TV 10%,
    Spot Radio 10%,
    National Magazines 30%" or wahtever other media (newspaper, interactive, etc) were used
  3. Learning regarding sales response, ad awareness changes, etc. and media responses to that learning
  4. Plans for next year with alternates considered
  5. As back-up, flow charts, research supporting targeting and media selection, particulars of programming or magazine title selection, spot market selection, sales or awareness research, measurement of any other goals


Wednesday, December 13, 2000 #4039
Hi Guru. I work for a small agency that deals heavily with print. When we do handle broadcast buys, my resources are limited (as I've complained to you about before). I recently put together a modest cable buy for Lexington, MA - enlisting Cablevision as the cable system of choice. I found that Cablevision handles the Lexington area through their media kit (Media One, the other system that I knew of, does not handle this area). Well, the campaign has been underway for about a week. I recently received an email from the CLIENT that she heard that 60% of the Lexington audience uses RCN cable, not Cablevision (no clue where stat. came from). I have had the hardest time trying to locate the advertising sales dept. of RCN. There are no numbers on their website and everyone I speak to is in Marketing and not advertising sales. Can you direct me to a site which lists cable advertising contacts? I've already tried a number of resources with no luck. Any advice would, as always, be greatly appreciated. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, December 17, 2000 ):
Try the cable reps of Katz Media Sales


Wednesday, December 13, 2000 #4038
what parameters exist for determining how much to spend in advertising (dollars)--or what is an effective weight level (GRP's) for a given brand/marketing situation?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, December 17, 2000 ):
There are many. Click here to see past Guru responses about setting levels.


Wednesday, December 13, 2000 #4036
I have a opt-in email list over 150,000 that I send a weekly newsletter. I am interested in selling advertising or renting the list or even selling the list. Where can I find a authority/expert or broker that can advise me on this project? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 13, 2000 ):
Several such services are decribed in an article in The Industry Standard


Sunday, December 10, 2000 #4031
Dear Guru, Do you know where I could find information about qualitative rating, I mean to someting that can't be measured and refer to the involvement of the viewers? or abuot the "context effect" theory. Thank you in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, December 10, 2000 ):
Measuring or rating "something that can't be measured" is quite a challenge. Some have used regularity of viewing episodes as an involvement measure. For the most comprehensive answer, see The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Saturday, December 09, 2000 #4030
where can I source data on the U.A.E advertising market? - Spends related

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, December 09, 2000 ):
Try A.C. Nielsen


Thursday, December 07, 2000 #4022
Dear Guru, Do you know where I could find information about the level of attentiveness to different genres of advertising during any genres of TV programs. In addition where I could find information on the "Quad Analysis" study, and generally on qualitative Rating. Thank you in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 07, 2000 ):
The Guru is not familiar with any studies of attentiveness within advertising genre within programming genre. If such exists, The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter will probably have cataloged it.

"Quad Analysis" is from Nielsen. Qualitative ratings, in the sense of audience size adjusted by attentiveness or interest etc, seems to be an abandoned concept as far as syndicated studies. A company called TAA tried it in the 80's. Again, the best reference source will be the advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Wednesday, December 06, 2000 #4020
I gave a client a R&F for two years of advertising plus the cume. They asked me if the cume is an average of both years. I know its not but I really couldn't explain it so they would understand. Can you simply an answer.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 06, 2000 ):
The term "cume" refers to audience accumulation over a specified period of time. A two year cume should be the net audeince reached over the entire two years of campaign. The Guru doesn't see why anyone should confuse that with an average of two years' cumes.

Perhaps the confusion occurs when you say "R&F for two years of advertising plus the cume." Presumably the "R&F for two years of advertising" is the average 4-week R&F over the two year period and the cume is the total over the two years?


Tuesday, December 05, 2000 #4018
What are the pros/cons of 30 minute infomercial-type spots compared to :15, :30, or :60 spots with respect to production, unit cost, response, reach/frequency, target audience, etc.? Would the type of product be a factor in deciding whether to run :30 minute spots? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 06, 2000 ):
The questions are essentially direct marketing issues, but as to the media points included:
  • Unit cost: In the same time periods, :30s cost about half of :60s. :15s cost 50-75% as much as :30s. Half hours cost much more but not proportionatly more. This become tricky, because half hours are usually only sold at less popular, lowere price tiems so comparisons to standard, ROS commercials are decieving. Similarly short commercials bought at direct response rates are supposedly priced at half of normal rates but run in less desirable times and are highly pre-emptible.
  • Reach/frequency: A :15 spot has the same reeach as a 30 minute program at the same time. Since there will be many more different announcements with short commercials than half hours, for a given budget, the short commercials have better R&F, the shorter the better on this score. But direct response isn't usually evaluated on an R&F basis.
  • Target audience depends on time slot and not advertising length.
  • Response varies, based more on offer and execution than on format.


Tuesday, December 05, 2000 #4016
Hollow, Dear Guru! Can You help me please to clearify, is it possible to predict sales if we know expected advertising campaign effectivness? I mean can we somehow correlate pre-campaign analysys data with data we get from the client about the product? Is there any formulas and methods and what information about advertised product do I need?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 06, 2000 ):
A.C. Nielsens' BASES is a system for this sort of analysis.


Monday, December 04, 2000 #4015
Please help! I am currently marketing mobile billboards (Billboard trucks) to Advertisers and thier Agencies. 95% of those I contact seem to tell me flat out (before I even make a pitch) that they don't do mobile advertising. Is there a bad impression towards Mobile Billboards among media planners? Or Am I just not communicating with them in the right way? Thank you for your help!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 06, 2000 ):
If you are contacting people who are buying outdoor, then the Guru would expect price or audience documentation to be the main issue.


Monday, December 04, 2000 #4013
Dear Media Guru, I've read all articles about recency planning written by E.Ephrone and i still have a question - can You say for what product categories or marketing goals(like product launch)it is better to use recency or effective frequency planning strategy?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 06, 2000 ):
Recency is based on the idea that the advertising exposure closest to the time of purchase is most effective. Therefore, when products are purchased continuously across time, continuous advertising gives the best chance of exposure to a consumer clost to the time of a purchase.

At times when other issues than maximizing sales over time are dominant, scuh as short term promotions or building awareness of a new product, other scheduling is more appropriate


Thursday, November 30, 2000 #4006
Guru--Can you please provide a suggested percentage of bonus spots for radio stations to include in annual negotiations to meet CPP goals? Also, do you have any suggested resources for more information on annual radio negotiations? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, December 02, 2000 ):
The Guru would anwser differently to a buyer or a seller. If you want to make na assumption of how far below the estimated rating things might get, that answers your question. Since it's an annual negotiation, you need to determine at what points goals are evaluated, against what ratigns reports, and probably shouldn't see these as "bonus" if they are part of a goal.

In syndicated TV, these are called "recaps" which are spots reserved for the advertiser in case audience efficiency is not meeting the guarantee, but are recaptured by the syndicator if delivery meets projections.

If the marketplace is not unusually volatile, and the estimates are sensible, a very small percentage should be safe The Radio advertising Bureau (RAB) may have further advice.


Thursday, November 30, 2000 #4003
What are the shares of various media in advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 30, 2000 ):
The "Coen Report" from McCann is a good resource for this information.


Wednesday, November 29, 2000 #4002
I am looking for information regarding the benefits of 30 versus 60 second commercials in radio. Anything measuring media effectiveness, notability, creative attentiveness etc. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 30, 2000 ):
Try The Radio advertising Bureau (RAB) and The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Wednesday, November 29, 2000 #3998
Where can i find the costs for staduim advertising (signage) baseball stadiums around the U.S.--specifically Atlanta, LA and houston?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 29, 2000 ):
Generally these are sold directly by the individual teams.


Tuesday, November 28, 2000 #3994
I'm trying to find out how much money DaimlerChrysler has spent on their "Five Star" advertising campaign. What sources are available to provide this information?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 28, 2000 ):
CMR (Competitive Media Reports)


Monday, November 27, 2000 #3993
A client has asked for information pertaining to the level of advertising required to increase awareness and positively affect the perception of their company on an on-going basis. Is there a source for information regarding required grp levels for radio and television to maximize awareness. Our client is based in Phoenix, Arizona, with an interest in statewide coverage?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 29, 2000 ):
Awareness relates most to the reach and frequency of a plan. You must reach more people more often to increase awareness. You must reach more people than are currently aware.

Click here to see past Guru responses about awareness and levels

For research, try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Monday, November 27, 2000 #3988
Hi, I am working on a toothpaste brand in India which is a national brand and has limited market share . It faces competition from Levers and Colgate Palmolive who spend many times more. The sensitivity analysis says that for 1% increase in trial, there is a 4% increase in volume. Need to know if u could advice me some models on GRPs to awareness and awareness to trial correlations Many many thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 29, 2000 ):
Awareness relates more to the reach of a plan than GRP. You must reach more people more often to increase awareness.

Click here to see past Guru responses about awareness and GRP

For research, try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Friday, November 24, 2000 #3986
What are the average advertising costs for a national magazine ad?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, November 25, 2000 ):
There is no useful answer to this question. There are thousands of National magazines, and many ad usits. Just considering the top several hundred or so, the range is from about $4300 for a black and white page in Modern Baking with a circulation of 27,000 to $266,400 for a 4 color page in Modern Maturity with a circulation of 20 million.

Saying that magazines with circulations around 4 million have page-4-color rates around $150,000 is not much more useful, nor accurate, in the Guru's opinion.


Friday, November 24, 2000 #3983
I am constantly being told that the banner is dead and that clients are moving away from banners to e-mail marketing. Do you think that this demise has been due to lack of targeting and hence ineffective campaigns. Shouldn't the Internet be able to provide one to one advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 24, 2000 ):
The Guru doesn't believe the banner is dead. The Guru doesn't see an upsurge in email marketing.

lack of targetting would be a failing of the online planner, more than the internet. Possibly the appeal of big sites over well focused site is a drawback. Or the pursuit of reach and frequency which are not the best use of internet media. "one to one" advertising sounds more like an email than web function. The Guru believes that anti-spam feeling continues to grow. Email "advertising" offers far more annoyance than sales power. In email, like banners, a fraction of one percent reponse rate is all that can be expected. When goals are not realistic, this rate of return is more likely to to be acceptable in email than banners, given the ad rates.


Monday, November 20, 2000 #3976
We have as a client a national family style restaurant chain. Our TV media is based on impressions with 25% running in prime, 25% fringe and the rest is daytime. Many of our spots are falling in the court shows which deliver well; however, the client feels the environment of these court shows will downgrade their image because of overall program content and other advertisers in these types of programs. Seems they are full of TV lawyers, etc. Are their any studies that agree or disagree with this?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 24, 2000 ):
First the Guru's theories:

1. When people like a program, they don't think badly of advertisers who support it, even if many other people do not respect the program.

2. Guilt by association with other advertisers is certainly possible, but again, if people like these sleazy court programs why would they attach negative connotations based on other, highly relevant advertisers?

For real research on the point, if the syndicator isn't helpful, try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Friday, November 17, 2000 #3974
Guru- I posted a question on Tuesday, October 24, 2000 #3907 about Cable advertising and you told me to: "Make sure you buy the cable outlets which duplicate least with your broadcast buys." What do you mean by this? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 19, 2000 ):
In that query, you asked about justifying buying cable because of the concern that the broadcast networks undedelivered cable HH. So presumably your desire is to assure that your advertising schedule covers the cable homes which are not reached or exposed to adeqate message frequency through broadcast. Some cable networks tend to be more viewed by ("duplicate with") the same homes which are heavy viewers of broadcast tv and others attract viewers more different ("less duplicated") from the broadcast network viewer. These latter cable outlets better serve your purposes in considering cable.

When going from a plan to a buy, you move from the general (broadcast underdelivers) to the specific (cable network "A" or "B" delivers) to accomplish your goals.


Friday, November 17, 2000 #3973
What is cost per miller? What is rating point? What is efective frecuency?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 17, 2000 ):
  • The Guru has never encountered "cost per miller." Perhaps you mean "cost per mille" which is how some people interpret "CPM," which actually means cost per thousand, based on the Roman numeral "M."

    This in turn means cost per thousand impressions delivered by the medium. An impression is one exposure of advertising to one single member of the target audience.

  • Rating point is audience expressed as a ratio. Target impressions divided by target universe or "base". Thus, if the medium delivers 1,000 impressions and the population universe is 5,000, there are 20 rating points.
  • Effective frequency is a number of exposures judhged sufficient to effectively communicate a message. Therefore a plan may be judged according to the reach at this level of frequency or above. 3 is a commonly set level. The concept is going out of favor.


Wednesday, November 15, 2000 #3972
I'm a newcomer to the site and I very much enjoy your bright responses. Re recency, you write >a core concept of recency is that once the third exposure is delivered, all additonal exposures are at 3+.< That concept belongs to Herb Krugman, ("Why Three Exposures May Be Enough.")whose work was misread as supporting effective frequency. The corresponding core concept of recency is a single exposure within a short planning interval is most cost-effective. These results in moderate TRP's and more weeks of advertising. When heavier weight is called for (i.e., new product introductions), instead of accepting random frequency, recency shortens the planning interval and maintains a solus reach goal. Planning for continuous reach produces a better distribution of frequency. My apology for this somewhat truncated explanation. I can provide greater detail if you'd like. Erwin

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 16, 2000 ):
Erwin;

As the leading industry writer on the topic, your comments are greatly appreciated, and you'll have to excuse the Guru for using your own writings in his reply.

Maybe "seminal" concept would be a better term than "core" concept when the Guru cites this Krugman principal, since it is more part of the evolution than structure of recency.

Perhaps connecting the concepts himself, but gathering them from your own articles, such as Learned Any Ads Lately?, the Guru sees the concept that all additional exposure are at 3+, as part of the underpinnings of Recency. Because this idea gets us past the effective frequency issue, the -- superior, in the Guru's opinion -- Recency theory surmounts objections from the effective frequency camp.


Tuesday, November 14, 2000 #3967
Is there an online directory where I can get a list of advertising and marketing industry trade periodicals?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 14, 2000 ):
Publist.


Monday, November 13, 2000 #3964
Dear Guru, I'm trying to understand the internet advertising terms and find it a bit difficult since in my country New Media is still taking it's first steps. There are some terms i often find in magazines and newsletters which i don't understand such as ''click-through rates'', ''interstitials'' and ''vortal''. I know that vortal is a vertical portal and I know what a portal is but can you give an example of a vortal? I am also a bit confused about the effectiveness of a banner. Should a banner be animated-entertaining or just serve the purpose of broadcasting a company's name? Thanks in advance

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 16, 2000 ):
  • "Click-through rate" is the percentage of people who click on the banner out of all those who see the banner (see = browser "requests" the banner's graphic file)
  • The word "interstitial" means something that comes between other things. The internet usage has come to mean an advertising element that comes between the banner or other clickable material and the target site of the advertiser. Most commonly the interstitial is multimedia material.
  • A vortal is a portal which links many different sites or information sources within a particular category. Instead of giving a mix of general news, sport news, financial news, shopping guides, telephone listings and general internet search as the traditional portal does, a vortal might be solely concerned with financial information, like CBS Marketwatch or about Spanish / Hispanic interests, like QuePasa


Thursday, November 09, 2000 #3957
Dear Media Guru, Do you know if any research has been done on the effectiveness of trade advertising in consumer media? Any help with this would be greatly appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 12, 2000 ):
Try Starch and The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Wednesday, November 08, 2000 #3955
Dear Guru, I'm looking for the most up-to-date total annual advertising revenues from IN HOUSE agencies in the US. I've checked AdAge, and CMR. While I'm at it, any thoughts on how I would find the same #'s for small/independent media planning agencies?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 12, 2000 ):
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) is the only likely source. But your quest may be fruitless, because of terminology. In house agencies might show up undistinguished from advertiser direct, if the purchaser is recorded at all. "Small" and "independent" are hardley synonymous in media shops, nor likley to be grouped together.


Wednesday, November 08, 2000 #3954
Hello Media Guru, I work for a franchise organization that purchases general market network radio. A small percentage of the stations on the radio networks are Hispanic. Our creative is, naturally, intended for the general market and thus does not air in Spanish. We have had several complaints from our field offices that this offensive to our Spanish-speaking consumers. I have heard that there is a way to "block" those stations from airing our message. However, I need to first verify that this is truly considered offensive, as some believe that it can't hurt and just adds exposure of our message. I have reveiwed sources that show a language preference, but do you know where I can find information that might support the argument that the field offices make? Thank you for your help!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 12, 2000 ):
There are numerous sources which demonstrate that Spanish advertising is more effective than English advertisng among Hispanics, but the situation you describe is a bit odd.

The Guru wonders why a general market radio network would have Spanish language stations in its lineup? And why would Spanish language stations carry an English language network? But if that situation existed, and Spanish speaking consumers were hearing English language programming, it is not likely that they would be "offended" by English language commercials within that programming.

And, if you are making an "un-wired" buy, that is merely time on stations with no programming involved, then you should be able to substitute Spanish copy on the relevant stations.


Thursday, November 02, 2000 #3940
How much money has been spent on radio advertising during the first half of this year?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 07, 2000 ):
Consult CMR (Competitive Media Reports)


Thursday, November 02, 2000 #3939
I know it varies but what is the average amount of commercials per hour on radio?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 07, 2000 ):
Try The Radio advertising Bureau (RAB).


Thursday, November 02, 2000 #3937
What research is available on the effectiveness of trade magazine advertising versus other mediums?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, November 06, 2000 ):
Try Cahners


Wednesday, November 01, 2000 #3936
This is a little convoluted and I apologize, but my question is: In the world of internet advertising are there such a thing as an ad reseller? I am working on a business plan for my CEO and he seems to think that there will be an opportunity to add to our basic service by securing advertising for our website clients. If there is such an animal what typically is the comission, for lack of a better term.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, November 06, 2000 ):
There are several internet ad sales reps. Click here to see past Guru responses about internet sales reps.


Tuesday, October 31, 2000 #3933
What is the total U.S. advertising by year for all products?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, November 06, 2000 ):
See the archives of Ad Age.


Monday, October 30, 2000 #3928
What is the typical awareness decay when advertising goes off air? Specifically, we have been running a campaign since April, 2000 consisting of Cable TV, Print, Internet, and some guerilla media. The current total plan delivers 75/15.2/1138 against A12-24.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 02, 2000 ):
One theory says each weeks awarness is about 90% of the prior weeks' when there is no advertising. Of course one would expect this to vary depending on other advertising in the market, how high awareness had risen, current share of market, etc.


Monday, October 30, 2000 #3927
Guru - are you aware of any print research regading the use of snipes on print ads? We have a client who's asking for justification (beyond the common-sense reasons).

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 02, 2000 ):
Most likely resource is Starch. Other data will be available through The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Monday, October 30, 2000 #3924
I am looking for a source of average agency charges.. 15% yes--I would like to know what is the average for a press release-What is the average for a display ad layout--What is the average to prepare and send out a public service announcement for a non-profit organization-What is the average for a television commercial-What is the average for a radio commercial. Is there any source for this???

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 30, 2000 ):
The American Association of advertising Agencies would compile typical agency charges for services.


Friday, October 27, 2000 #3922
Can you clarify the difference between a pulsing strategy and a burst stratgey? And are either one contradictory to or in support of the recency theory?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 30, 2000 ):
As the Guru sees it, "pulsing" refers to alternating, short and equal flights of advertising and periods of hitaus. Burst refers to sporadic higher levels, with no particular flight vs hiatus rhtym, nor equality of levels.

Pulsing is clearly contrary to recency. Bursts, if they are sporadic higher levels within lower level, continuous activity are not totally at odds with recency.


Friday, October 27, 2000 #3921
Dear Guru - I work in a vacuum. Do you have any suggestions for associations/forums that are useful for media planners/buyers? I used to be a research manager and was a member of the MPA and found that to be helpful.I just don't know of any for media planning. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 30, 2000 ):
The Guru has encountered general advertising organizations, like "The Ad Club" and media research oriented groups like the Media Research Club of Chicago, but never a media planning organization. You will find relevant working groups within The advertising Research Foundation, AAF, anf American Association of advertising Agencies.


Friday, October 27, 2000 #3920
Guru- Is this any information to reference why it is better to flight a radio schedule instead of running 52 weeks beside it being cheaper?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 30, 2000 ):
When you refer to "cheaper" it implies that you are talking about running less advertising in your flighted schedule than in your 52 week schedule. Generally, this would not be better in any way other than being cheaper. If you wanted to compare 52 weeks at 100 GRP per weeks versus running flights of 4 weeks on / 4 weeks off at 200 GRP per week, then there could be pros and cons on both sides.


Friday, October 27, 2000 #3919
Do you know of a theory that analyzes when it is ok for an advertiser to go dark with advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 30, 2000 ):
Assuming sales occur constantly, going dark is never "ok." There are many theories about when it is les of problem. And known times to be quiet, such as following particularly bad publicity, like airlines after a plane crash.


Wednesday, October 25, 2000 #3912
How effective is direct response advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 30, 2000 ):
It depends on how you define "effective."

Typical DR return might be 1-2%. If that produces profit in excess of cost, it is effective. Since DR is the one advertising form best able to evaluate its own effectiveness, and we see the same advertisers repeating time after time, one presumes it is effective.

Experience teaches DR advertisers what are the most effective offers, copy and targets.


Tuesday, October 24, 2000 #3907
I sat through a compelling "why cable advertising" presentation and while I buy into the fact that Cable HH's index higher qualitatively, I was really interested in the Nielsen Audience Diversion data they presented. It showed the local affiliates under delivering in the cable HH and Over delivering in the non cable HH. This looks like some real justification for buying cable. Any thoughts?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 25, 2000 ):
Let's break it down:

The basic Nielsen HH rating is the average of program delivery in cable homes and non-cable homes.

Naturally the non-cable homes, with only a small handful of viewing choices, will be more likely to watch broadcast programs and cable homes, with three or four or ten times as many options, will have a lower rating for any of the boradcast options.

If your target is the kind of somewhat upscale HH that has cable, there may be some reason to buy cable. Upscale HH are not better unless they are better users of your product.

Make sure you buy the cable outlets which duplicate least with your broadcast buys.


Tuesday, October 24, 2000 #3905
Dear Guru, I would like to know where I can go to see a rating of web sites per visitors, ad expending, etc. Also where I can find out about competitors online ad plans, case studies, etc. I am currently planning for next year.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 25, 2000 ):
MediaMetrix, Nielsen//Netratings, AdZoneInteractive.

Current plans are usually treated as confidential. Case sutudeis may be found at The Internet advertising Bureau among others.


Tuesday, October 24, 2000 #3904
dear guru im studying gender sterotyping in advertising is there any place or websites recommended with this topicm or are there other members who i should talk to

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 25, 2000 ):
There is likley to be material on this at The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Friday, October 20, 2000 #3900
Rome 20 October, 2000 . Dear Guru , I am thinking to planning an Ad campaign on Restaurants placemats. I would like know something about "the timing of exposure of Ads to gain the best effectiveness : in the case , I would like to know the effectivness of 3 or more exposures in 1 or 2 hours . Thanks Daniele Giacobbe

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 22, 2000 ):
This doesn't seem to relate to placemats. There have been experiments with multiple commercials in one pod, multiple ads in one program and multiple ads in one issue on magazines and newspapers. Probably even consecutive highway billboards. Generally these put a premium on frequency. For the ultimate collection of relevant research, see The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Thursday, October 19, 2000 #3897
Dear Guru: My events department asked my how to estimate the "media value" of a product metion during the lead story of a primetime show like entertainment tonight. I told them that this was a very broad question, and it would vary depending on who the target was, what the ratings were, and what value really meant (i.e, dollars? contirbution to product sales? % contribution to frequency of a campaign, etc. They didn't know. Can you confirm how to go about this? What info do I really need? Am I on the right track? Do you have any math formulas to estimate this? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 19, 2000 ):
Your thinking is exactly right. The Guru kows you as a regular and recognizes that you have followed his thinking from replies to past queries.

In terms of "media value" you would best stick to media metrics, like dollars, reach, frequency, etc. In considering dollars, you can relate the length of the metion --full context, not just brand name mention -- to price of commercials.

If thinking about impact, the Guru believes such a mention, is worth twice as much as advertising because of its implied indorsement. This of course assumes it's a positive mention, not something like "the strangler's weapon was a pair of Donna Karan pantyhose."


Tuesday, October 17, 2000 #3893
could you explain 1st, 2nd, and 3rd tier advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 17, 2000 ):
The Guru needs a context for the terms. They are not standard, and may be someone's particular way of thinking about advertising.


Friday, October 13, 2000 #3888
what is the difference in media planning to a FMCG product and a dot com portal

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, October 14, 2000 ):
The difference in media planning between any two categories is about the markleting situation.

Fast Moving Consumer Goods need continuous presence in highly competitive marketplaces which generally rely on retail outlets to complet the circle with consumers.

Dot-coms have different targets, have an end goal of communication alone and will best rely on differnet media.

The planning process, however is essentially the same: turning marketing goals into advertising goals, advertising goals into media goals and answering the goals with the media which best deliver them.


Friday, October 06, 2000 #3874
Dear Mr. G. I am interviewing for a job at a major search engine for a position in international sales. The position would be selling the sites international properties to U.S based clients. I would like to show some inititive and come in with some sort of plan.Is there an easy way to track down agencies that buy interactive internationally? Thanks for your help. Best, WJF

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 08, 2000 ):
Observe the advertisers on international sites and find trheir agencies via The Standard Directories of advertising Agencies and Advertisers ('The Redbook')


Friday, October 06, 2000 #3870
HI... Looking to get figures on radio advertising. Specifically, I need radio revenues for the last 3-5 years, plus any projections for the next 3that may have been published somewhere. Inquiries to the RAB have not yet been answered, so here I am... thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 08, 2000 ):
Consult M Street Journal.


Tuesday, October 03, 2000 #3863
I have heard there is a company that places magnets on the side of cars and sells that as advertising space. Do you know the name of any such company, and do you think that would be a comparable advertising tool to say outdoor billboards? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 08, 2000 ):
You have probably heard about FreeCar Media of Los Angeles, though the Guru believes they use all-over paint. The best comparison would be outdoor, but there will be some special applications.


Tuesday, October 03, 2000 #3860
Is the 153 billion spent on promotional campaigns in the U.S. part of the total(230 billion) advertising/marketing dollars spent or is that 153 billion dollar amount in addition to the 230 billion?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 08, 2000 ):
advertising alone is $230 billion.


Tuesday, October 03, 2000 #3859
Of the approx 230 billion dollars spent by advertisers in the U.S., how much of that amount is spent to reach the teen market?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 08, 2000 ):
It is not really possible to identify advertising targeted to teens other than ads placed in teen-specific media, like certain magazines.


Monday, October 02, 2000 #3858
I am looking for a good internet school that will teach me basic planning and buying "internet 101".

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 08, 2000 ):
The Guru has never encountered such a school that he can recommend. C.A.S.I.E. (The Coalition for advertising Supported Interactive Entertainment) might offer useful training materials.


Monday, October 02, 2000 #3857
What methods can be used to measure television viewing? i.e. Respondant Level Data, and Personal Probablity Model. Can you provide information about each?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 08, 2000 ):
You seem to be speaking of ways to use measurements, not methods of measurement.

Best to consult a compilation of such applicatiosn such as Journal of advertising Research


Monday, October 02, 2000 #3855
Do you know of any recent studies done on the use of larger (i.e. 4-page) magazine inserts versus smaller P4CB and spreads? Where is this information published/available? (We already have some stuff from MPA).

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 05, 2000 ):
Try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Friday, September 29, 2000 #3852
A client asked us to find out about "Direct Satellite TV advertising." Even if a home has a satellite dish, don't they receive regular plus additional signals with commercials already? Or is there a separate way of buying commercials that go only to satellite TV homes? If so any names of comapnies that sell this kind of advertising would be helpful.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, September 29, 2000 ):
Click here to see the past Guru explanation about satellite TV advertising. For the latest satellite TV penetration, see SkyReport


Wednesday, September 27, 2000 #3845
I am launching a publisher site next month. What is the best way to prepare to be able to sell my media ASAP? Many ad agencies, like engage, doubleclick, etc. won't look at you until you're big. Are there ways to generate advertising revenues during the first month after launch?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, September 29, 2000 ):
There are smaller reps who'll take on anyone for a large majority of the revenue. Best bet is to advertise, hire a salesman or both.


Wednesday, September 27, 2000 #3844
Dear Media Guru, Off the top of your head, what would you say are consumer "target groups" that are the most difficult to reach through television advertising. In other words, what are "target groups" that marketers of consumer packaged goods companies would like to more effectively reach?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 28, 2000 ):
"Off the top of the Guru's head" the most difficult targets to reach are not neccessarily the targets for consumer package goods. The toughest ones are probably young men and male teens.

Thinking more broadly, there is the Hispanic market, which is highly desirable to package goods marketers, and not reached effectively by general market TV nor at high reach levels in Spanish language TV.


Tuesday, September 26, 2000 #3840
Where can I find data on online advertising costs in the UK.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 26, 2000 ):
Consult a UK ad trade pulication like Campaign or an international rep tha works in the UK, such as DoubleClick .


Monday, September 25, 2000 #3837
newspaper unduplicated reach

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 26, 2000 ):
The Newspaper advertising Association


Sunday, September 24, 2000 #3833
How do I found out information on Polish advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, September 24, 2000 ):
Try International Media Guide or ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization.


Sunday, September 24, 2000 #3832
which are the best mediums to advertise for a insurance client

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, September 24, 2000 ):
Any can work, think through your marketing goals and advertising goals and the capabilities of the various media.


Thursday, September 21, 2000 #3824
You have stated in the past that "it has been demonstrated... that two, consecutive, one-third page ads on the outside column or right hand pages will do far better in awareness, recall, etc. than one full page." Will you please tell me where to find a source that will support this statement? Thank you!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 21, 2000 ):
The testing which the Guru has seen was done by Starch on a comissioned basis, but there should be some comparable public data, if nat at STARCH, then The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Wednesday, September 20, 2000 #3814
I know this isn't a media question and thought you could lead me to the right source. Are there any recent studies/surveys tracking the popularity of broadcast commercials?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 23, 2000 ):
Best source would be The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Wednesday, September 20, 2000 #3813
What is the advertising to sales ratio for an "average" company? For a tech company? For a start up tech company establishing a brand?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 23, 2000 ):
Annual articles in trade publications such as Ad Age cover this data


Tuesday, September 19, 2000 #3810
What do you think the minimal amount of market coverage a business should have to consider advertising in a market? For examply, in the retail business, how many retail outlets do I need to have in a market before it makes sense to advertise with broad reach mediums (radio, outdoor)? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 23, 2000 ):
It's not simply a matter of number of outlets, it also involves competiton and desirability. For example there may be only one BWM or Hatteras Yacht dealer in a metro area, becasue the number of sales, while high-ticket are few and people will travel some distance for a unique product. If you have a restaurant or hardware stoer where choices are many, then it's more about dispersion across the market than pure numer of outlets. You need to decide how far people will go for what you're selling and compare that to coverage of the media considered. IN some parts of the country, people will drive 2 hours for dinner.

Keep in mind that there's a big difference between 'broad coverage" media and big reach media. For example, outdoor can be readily purchased to have a very high reach of a small area, like a single store's 3-mile trading circle. In some situations, local suburban radio can match a single store's trading area as well.


Tuesday, September 19, 2000 #3809
Dear Guru I am a media planner who is of late being asked to construct lot of net media plans. My problem is that I at times am at loss as what all (in terms of advertising) can be done on this versatile medium?? I am looking for something more than banner ad campaign. Is there an account of what all has been done on this medium in terms of innovation by various advertisers or even various things possible on this medium. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 23, 2000 ):
All the ideas for the net have yet to be fully realized. Visit Ad Resource and The Industry Standard for some ideas.


Friday, September 15, 2000 #3800
Hi Guru. Can you direct me to resources that deal with "making the case" for NOT reducing ad budgets...those non-advertising agency/assoc. resources that won't appear so self-serving. Dig?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 18, 2000 ):
The Guru imagines that almost anyone who compiles such data will be doing it for self-serving reasons, whether an association or a medium. However, the material compiled, such as the classic wartime "Lucky Strike" story may come directly from advertisers.

The closest to an independent source might be the University advertising schools, like U. Texas at Austin.


Friday, September 15, 2000 #3799
Hi Guru - Hope you are well. I am taking on a side project and would love to get your input on how to go about it. A prosthetic parts manufacturing company is looking to increase sales. They primarily sell direct to doctors who then sell to patients and the bills are paid by insurance. The market is very small, and to date they have gotten their awareness from trade shows and trade journals. Do you have any ideas on how to develop a marketing strategy for a product like this? WOuld looking a prescription drug advertising help give me some direction? Do you think there is an opportunity to reach customers after surgery in hospitals? Any input you have would be helpful. Do you know of any research shources for this type of thing? Market size, etc.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 18, 2000 ):
Why not create a "gift pack" for post surgical patients, like those typically given to post natal patients? It could include care instructions, dressing changes, antibiotic cream samples, etc.

Contact the maternity gift pack distibutors.


Thursday, September 14, 2000 #3796
Is there a metric for evaluating the performance of online advertising (Internet), print, radio and tv advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 18, 2000 ):
The absolute metric is sales. Short of that there is ad awareness or recall. Otherwise there are audience measures; impressions, or reach.


Tuesday, September 12, 2000 #3792
Dear Guru : Topic : TV advertising Awarenness I would like to know that if it is a factor or rate, that afect the ad position in the comercial break thanks :

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 16, 2000 ):
Ad awareness is a broad measure, taken against full schedules of advertising. With the variance in positions experienced over a schedule, among som many othter factors, it seems unlikely that awareness could be attached ot pod-position.

There probably have been tests of day-after-recall for this, however. Check The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Tuesday, September 12, 2000 #3791
Can website banner advertising be bought on a regional basis, such as by telephone area code or Postal ZIP code? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 23, 2000 ):
Yes, to an extent. Web servers can identify the IP address of a visitor. When the IP address is identified as having a specific location within a zip code or area code then a choice can be made to serve an ad. BUT, most visitors to general sites come from AOL or other national ISPs so that their invidual users appear to come from one central location.


Tuesday, September 12, 2000 #3789
Dear Guru, Where can I find data on luxury brand advertising on US National Cable? Thanx

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 16, 2000 ):
CMR (Competitive Media Reports)


Saturday, September 09, 2000 #3787
Dear Guru, I'm comparing print and web advertising for my diploma project. Where can find online forums with business people talking about their media choices and preferences?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 09, 2000 ):
AMIC's MediaPlanning and Market-L forums.


Friday, September 08, 2000 #3784
What are the best sites (metrix and satisfied customers) for content and job/career information in the marketing/advertising industry?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 09, 2000 ):
The Guru recommends AMIC .


Tuesday, September 05, 2000 #3777
I have recently joined Angryman.comas VP of marketing. Being new to advertising industry, I need to contact advertising network service providers for publishers. I know of doubleclick and engage. Are there others you could identify, preferably in the metro NY area, but include the major players as well. Thank you for your prompt attention to this matter since there is an urgency to seek sales representation.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 09, 2000 ):
See AMIC's "web sites" area.


Monday, September 04, 2000 #3775
Are there any practice of the radio advertising trading by GRPs as it is for TV? If yes, where in the WWW I can find something about this?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 09, 2000 ):
In the U.S this is standard practice and has been for at least 30 years. The Guru doesn't think there will be any data on this, because it is simply the assumed method of business. Perhaps in some country where radio ratings research is new, this woould be a topic to discuss.


Wednesday, August 30, 2000 #3771
Where can i find/Subscribe to: 1- Marketer's Guide to Media 2- MEDIAWEEK's Guide to Media and are there other publications which provides data on advertising media? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, September 03, 2000 ):
"Markweter's Guide to Media was published by Mediaweek."

The current version is The Mediaweek Directory.

The other major resource, in hard copy, and online, is Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS).


Wednesday, August 30, 2000 #3767
Dear Guru, we are getting into awareness based media planning which means objective will be set on awareness scores, rather than GRP, R&F. Please tell me the factors which are required and procedure for setting awareness objectives.Thank you

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, September 01, 2000 ):
Very theoretical. There is no specific rule of thumb equating awareness to GRP. There will be a big difference in saying the objective is to achieve 30% brand awareness versus increasing an existing awarness of 30% by 30 points.

You should think about:

  • What percent of "aware" persons will be purchasers?
  • What number of purchases is the pay-out level of your advertising?
  • How often does the aware person make a purchase decision?
  • Assuming awareness never exceeds reach, what reach must you acheive and what decay rate can your afford to maintain the awareness that will drive sales?

Frankly the Guru believes that saying "awareness based media planning" is just putting a marketing spin on the media plan. Ultimately a media plan sophisticated enought to have objectives almost invariably has some awareness objective mentioned. And ultimately, media must be bought in terms of GRP or impressions or insertions; the media vendors do not sell quantities of awareness. So either you have a formula which equates awareness numbers to media units or you do not. The Guru does not.


Wednesday, August 30, 2000 #3766
Dear Mr. Media, I would have a question regarding the theory and research about positions in TV commercial breaks. Is it worth paying the premium for 1st in break... When it is worth paying... Thank you, MissM

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, September 01, 2000 ):
The only advantage would be catching the viewwer before their attention goes elsewhere. This can be the difference between your commercial being seen and not seen, but for what portion of users?

Research on the topic would be available thorugh The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Sunday, August 27, 2000 #3754
Dear Guru, I am new here, after long time of searching i found this site & it looks that this is a great site i still have more to check in. I just would appreciate it, if you could tell me how can i become a professional Media Planner? in our country we have a lack of books related to Strategic Media Planning or else. I have a BA. degree in Psychology but never studied advertising or Business Mang. I have good knowledege of Adv. field. And i am working as a Media Planner for 2 years. I read books, but still feel this isn't enough, i tried to search on the internet in Distance learning, and others but no luck I just need to know what i can do to become a Professional Media Planner. Can you help me. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, August 30, 2000 ):
In the U.S. it is not difficult to get an entry level media planning job in the major advertising cities like New York or Chicago, if you have a B.A.

You say you are working as a media planner now, so the Guru is somewhat unclear.


Friday, August 25, 2000 #3747
can you please explain various tools through which one can determine the efficieny of a TV plan

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 28, 2000 ):
"Efficiency" has a standard definition, so it is subject to arithmetic formulas rather than tools. Efficiency is defined as cost per unit of audience. "Audience" might be expressed as impressions or rating points.

So "efficiency" usually means, CPM (Cost per Thousand), which is the cost of a schedule or advertising unit ÷ the sum audiences of the ad units (in thousands) and CPP (Cost per Point) is the cost of a schedule or advertising units ÷ the sum of the ratingss of the ad units.


Thursday, August 24, 2000 #3744
Guru...I need to price the sale of advertising space on a time and temperature recorded message. I was considering using Internet CPM since I do have the call volume per month. Are there any benchmarks specifically for this time and temp service? I appreciate any insight you have -- thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 28, 2000 ):
This seems to be a unique service for any given area, so competitive benchmarks aren't likely to be relevant. Like the internet, your message gets in the way of very specific information that the consumer is sseking, but even more so. Radio is probably a better comparison, unless you are selling to someone who can really capitalize on a time or weather environment.


Thursday, August 24, 2000 #3741
In an article I recently read about Internet advertising... the term "Viral advertising" was used. What does this mean? For Example: "Advertisers should adopt multiple-ad delivery strategies, including cross-promotions, sponsorship, email marketing and viral campaigns."

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 28, 2000 ):
Viral is trendy newspeak for "word-of-mouth," in other words, messages passed directly from consumer to consumer.


Wednesday, August 23, 2000 #3736
what is ment by B2B advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, August 23, 2000 ):
Business to Business. The target customer is businesses rather than individual consumers.


Wednesday, August 23, 2000 #3735
I have a question regarding banner advertising servers. Do all banner ad servers allow the use of buyer side banner monitoring, like AdForce, or are there certain compality issues, ie. Doubleclick.net seller side ad server only works with this other buyer side banner advertisment monitoring software. Also.. is it pretty much the industry standard that all sellers ALLOW the use of these advertising buyer side softwares to monitor the banner flights.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 27, 2000 ):
Most commercial sites accept banners from adservers. Adservers monitor their own serving activity. The Guru is not clear on what you mean by "buyer-side" software. If the software can do its task without the cooperation of the site displaying the banner, then permission is irrelevant. The Guru doubts that most commercial sites would actively cooperate in allowing buyers sotware access to thier servers.


Tuesday, August 22, 2000 #3734
I am trying to do research on internet audio advertising. I would like to set up an audio ad campaign, but I do not know what companies deal with the technology and sales, and how much I should pay.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 27, 2000 ):
Start with AudioBase.


Tuesday, August 22, 2000 #3732
Where can I find stats on how people find web sites. That is, search engine, offline ad, etc.?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 27, 2000 ):
This would be survey research. The range of answers would differ considerably for different types of sites. Try C.A.S.I.E. (The Coalition for advertising Supported Interactive Entertainment).


Monday, August 21, 2000 #3730
what is the difference between a media advertising firm and a regular full service ad agency

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 27, 2000 ):
A media services firm offers primarily or exclusively media buying and planning and media research. It does not typically offer market research nor the creative services offered by full service agencies.


Monday, August 21, 2000 #3729
can you fill me in on zenith media's role in the advertising world?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 27, 2000 ):
Zenith Media is a media planning / buying service operated by the agency groups of Cordiant and Saatchi & Saatchi. It is comparable to the "ala carte" media operations of other agency giants.


Sunday, August 20, 2000 #3725
Guru - I went to the mediaquote.com linked to AMIC, and I was going through all the online advertising marketplace links. I personally am involved in one of these such media marketplaces.. What challeneges do you think an online advertising marketplace faces? and what benefits can an online advertising marketplace truly bring to media buyers and sellers?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 21, 2000 ):
The benefits and challenges are summed up in the Guru's prior comments:

"What these exchanges need to keep buyers is the capability to complete transactions on line plus having whatever inventory a buyer might need. Otherwise it will be about buyers' remembering to check for 'fire sales.'"


Friday, August 18, 2000 #3718
I am new in the field of internet advertising sales, and I have never sold ads for the media before. Are there any web based pricing charts or formulas to use for calculating conversion rates, cpm, cpc and cpa?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, August 19, 2000 ):
Sample pricing and a cpm calculator can be found at Ad Resource.

"CP_" anything means "cost per" whatever. It's simply cost divided by thousands of ad impressions or clicks or anything.


Friday, August 18, 2000 #3717
Guru - I am new to the internet advertising arena. I find myself confused about the relationship between advertising server softwaress such as doubleclick, advertiser campaingn reporting softwares such as Ad Inelligence, 3rd party internet advertising auditors such as ABC. Can you describe how all these softwares interact, what purpose advertisers and advertising sellers use them for and who is using them... Also, do you know of any website that lists all of these companies categorically?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, August 19, 2000 ):
  • Ad server software causes the ad to appear on a web page. Companies like DoubleClick work for advertisers, putting their ad on the various sites bought for the campaign. Of course, server can tell the advertisers how may times each ad was served on which sites, and according to whatever standards of geography or demographics or content was planned. This is an "ad-centric" measure.
  • There are various modes of campaing tracking, but these tell the advertiser how many and/or what kind of people have seen the ad. This is a "user-centric" measure
  • Auditors like ABC Interactive describe the proces as
    Verifying that the data recorded in the access log is authentic (i.e., that it actually occurred). and
    Verifying that the data in the access log supports the activity claims of the Web site and that those claims are reported in accordance with the industry standards.
    This is the "site-centric" measure.
The Guru doesn't think there is any one list of all these services.

A pretty good cross section could be found by searching The Industry Standard site for terms like "metrics," "server software" and "auditor."


Thursday, August 17, 2000 #3715
Explain cost per point in television advertising sales

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, August 19, 2000 ):
A radio or tv advertising slot has a rating: the percent of the target group which is in the audience.

When the slot's cost is divided by its rating (rating points) the result is Cost per point. This ratio is a handy way to compare the "efficiency" of spots being sold.


Thursday, August 17, 2000 #3713
We are investigating advertising to hotel guests. We already have information on hotel in room mags. Do you know of any additional opportunities we should be exploring? Thanks for your help!!

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, August 19, 2000 ):
The hotel tv system should be an opportunity. You would probably need to place thise though each chain.


Thursday, August 17, 2000 #3711
Dear Guru, I'm a member of a company operating an internet portal. We are planning on making an ad for Television but I would like to know if there are any studies or research that will show how a coming out TV ad could directly affect the hits a website would get. Basically, we want information on how TV ad expenditure translates to click-throughs. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, August 19, 2000 ):
It depends on many things:
  • How good is the creative
  • How well the ad is placed relative to the sites' audience appeal
  • How broad is the appeal of the site and its offerings.
In a NY Times article this past January, a variety of sites' ad campaigns were evaluated. The ratios of ad impressions to site visits ranged from 150:1 to 1:5.

C.A.S.I.E. (The Coalition for advertising Supported Interactive Entertainment) might have studies, but the Guru doubts that generalizations will be useful.


Wednesday, August 16, 2000 #3710
I run a educational website with variable traffice (about 150,000 page views per month in July; about 500,000 in February). My ad rep is Burst! (burstmedia.com), and right now (first two weeks of Aug.) Burst is serving 90% default (non-paying) banners. Burst says this is due to market conditions. Are they right? Will it get better? Should I be looking for another ad rep.?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, August 16, 2000 ):
August is a traditional slow period in advertising. Also, for the same reason that your traffic lags in August, so might the activity level of advertisers who target teachers or specific types of students or school-related anything. If your rep was doing well for you in February, this might be the case. But there is no harm in having a converation with another rep or two.


Wednesday, August 16, 2000 #3709
Guru, Are you aware of any documentation on the "insert" methdology of readership research for publications? What about the "in-survey" methodology where the survey is actually part of the publication and respondents tear it out for completion and return?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, August 19, 2000 ):
These approaches have well known problems:
  • Respondents genrally are all subscribers or primary purchasers, thus not representative of typical the full readership ofconsumer publications which may have 4 or more readers-per-copy
  • The respondents are self-selected and thus probably not even typical of the primary purchaser group.
Actual research on these approaches can be found at The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Wednesday, August 16, 2000 #3708
Do you have any research on trends in media compensation? Trends towards in-house media buying?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, August 19, 2000 ):
The archives of trade publications like Ad Age are the best resource for this. The American Association of advertising Agencies tracks these trends, too.


Tuesday, August 15, 2000 #3707
I am looking for information on rates currently being charged for sponsorship as opposed to advertising rates. We hope to recruit a number companies who would sponsor specific sections of our website. Companies would sponsor a section of the site that would be relevnt to their business i.e. travel information - travel agency. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, August 19, 2000 ):
A cross section of various rates is at Ad Resource. "Sponsorship" can have a very broad range of meanigs, though.


Tuesday, August 15, 2000 #3706
I know that CMR can produce (and Charge) me for a report on advertising Expenditures by brand by medium, but I am looking for something FREE. I have searched the web over and over, any ideas?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, August 15, 2000 ):
There are some abbreviated reports of online ad dspend, such as those by AdZone interactive in our AMIC's Ad Data area.

The Guru gets a lot of this sort of question, but companies which are in the business of generating data in exchange for revenue have figured out that if they give it all away, noone will pay then for it. Thus audeince research companies like Nielsen, Arbitron, MRI, Simmons, and data companies like CMR only release a narorw slice of data, such as Top 10 spenders or Household ratings or 12+ share to illustrate what they do. And they are strongly opposed to anyone giving away what they are in the business of selling.


Monday, August 14, 2000 #3703
Do you know where I can find some published articles about how to determine the media investment base on Optimal reach & frequency level ?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 18, 2000 ):
This is a very basic aspect of media planning. Probably the most common approach to formal media planning is setting a communications goal in reach and frequency terms and then examining the reach delivered by various plan options.

The richest source of articles might be Journal of advertising Research.


Sunday, August 13, 2000 #3702
Guru- I am trying to find annual B2B advertising expenditures, and annual internet B2B expenditures. Would you know the information, or where I could find this information? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 18, 2000 ):
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) tracks B2B competitive, and internet competitive. AdZone Interactive tracks internet.


Friday, August 11, 2000 #3700
Dear Guru, Can you direct me to effectiveness studies of internet ads? I'm specifically looking for streaming audio ads versus banner advertising online. Thanks for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 13, 2000 ):
Try C.A.S.I.E. (The Coalition for advertising Supported Interactive Entertainment)


Friday, August 11, 2000 #3697
Dear Media Guru: Typically, how is the money I spend on broadcast (e.g. TV) advertising sliced? ie. Which player gets approximately how much of the pie? I dont need exact figures - since that would vary by actual agency, objectives etc. but just good ball-parks. How much does the agency keep as commision? How much is spent on the creative portion? How much on the media itself? Are there other charges? Are there any other stake-holders? If the agency is not full-service, what commision/fee is given to the media-buyer? If you must need more specifics: Lets consider 2 scenarios: - Lets say my company is General Motors and my annual budget is $100 Million. - Lets say I am a .com. My budget is $2 Million. Thank you much!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 13, 2000 ):
Of course, there are many deals that vary from the traditional commission structure, and the bigger the budget the more likley there is a deal below the tradtional standard. But traditionally: On a broadcast media bill to an advertiser, the agency gets 15% commission against the gross media cost. If a sales representative not an employee of the media owner has made the deal, the rep gets about 15% of the remaining net media cost. The rest belongs to the medium.

Out of the agency's 15%, it is being compensated for it's creative and marketing thinking. Actuall creation of the advertising materials, i.e. production of commercials is typically charged at out-of-pocket costs plus a mark-up of 17.65% (which is equal to 15% of the out of pocket + commission total).

If an agency uses an outside media buyer, the fee is usually 5% or less of the gross media costs, but there is a greater variation in these deals.


Friday, August 11, 2000 #3696
In dailies, for inter vehicular cost efficiency comparisons, are there any recent studies that compare ad. visibility for top of fold vs. bottom of fold or for odd vs. even..... For inter media cost efficiency comparison, Is there a way where size of a magazine ad. can be compared with an ad. in newspapers? Any research reports thanx Sandeep

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 13, 2000 ):
Regarding above / below the fold, see The Newspaper advertising Association.

It is always a challenge when comparing efficiencies between media to decide which unit will be compared. Depending on the purpose, possible approaches include:

  • If creating a general package of information about media, compare the most common ad unit used by general advertisers in each medium: Perhaps TV :30, Radio :60, magazine Page 4 color, Newspaper full page, etc
    These "standards may differ from country to country or between market segments.
  • If making a rationale-supporting exhibit in a media plan, compare the creative units under consideration for the plan.

See Starch for research on print ad units.


Thursday, August 10, 2000 #3694
Dear Guru, Have you heard of online ad agencies charging a bad debt provision to owners of inventory to share the risk that media buyers don't settle their accounts?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 11, 2000 ):
It's possible. The Guru assumes that by "online ad agencies" you are referring to ad sales representatives, since media buyers are typically employees of advertising agencies (companies that create and buy space for ads).

At the enormously high commission rates ad sales reps often charge (40%+), the Guru would expect them to absorb this risk. At ordinary commission rates, such as 15-20%, the inventory owners might share the risk on non-payment, but certainly not reimburse the representatives.


Thursday, August 10, 2000 #3692
Dear Guru, What levels of commission are paid to third party agencies selling advertising inventory on behalf of websites?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 11, 2000 ):
The Guru has seen figures from 30 to 85%. Naturally, the biggest sites get better deals.


Monday, August 07, 2000 #3682
Dear Guru, I have been challenged with justifying to agency management the addition of a new media planner. We are primarily a b-2-b agency. Is there an industry standard, or any resourse you can recommend that compares annual media billings vs. number of media department employees (ex: for every $1,000,000 in media billings, you need "x" number of media planner/buyers). I am sure that there is probably no absolute rule for hiring new employees in a media department, however I am looking for some ideas (above and beyone hours worked by current employees) to justify my request. Thanks in advance for your insight.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, August 08, 2000 ):
People per million is a dynamically changing concept. It takes the same number of people today to plan $10 million as it took for $1 million a few years ago. It takes fewer people to paln $10million when it's the budget of a single brand than when it's the budget of 10 unrelated brands.

The American Association of advertising Agencies is probably the best source of this kind of staffing data on a current basis and addresssing the variables.


Monday, August 07, 2000 #3679
How do I find a list of companies that are involved in restroom billboard advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, August 08, 2000 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses about restroom advertising


Friday, August 04, 2000 #3676
Do you have any research that shows how using multiple advertising medium (e.g. using radio plus outdoor) can increase effectiveness?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, August 08, 2000 ):
The first purpose of multiple media is to improve reach / frequency for the dollar. Otherwise, there can be many definitions of "effectiveness," such as brand awarenss, ad awareness, sales, etc.

For a range of research, try The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Friday, August 04, 2000 #3674
How do ad servers like double click work - and which are the top 10 ad servers by continent and market

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 06, 2000 ):
Without getting very technical, the site showing the advertising has a link with an image source referencing the url of the banner at the server site. The reference may actually be to programming scripts which then pick the appropriate banner to serve based on various specifications.

According to MediaPost's July 2000 issue of Media magazine, the top 10 ad sellers, ranked by monthly impressions sold, are

  • DoubleClick
  • 24/7
  • Engage Media
  • Real Media
  • L90
  • WinStar Interactive
  • advertising.com
  • ClearBlueMedia
  • AdFlight and
  • Cybereps
.

Because of the nature of the internet, the geographic location of the server or ad served is hardly relevant or discernable.


Thursday, August 03, 2000 #3673
Dear Guru, I'm trying to find ways to reach the travel trade on-line. I've checked with most of the travel agent magazine web sites, but most do not offer any advertising at this time. I've also checked web sites that are "tools" for the travel agent, but those sites do not allow on line advertising unless you are an agent. Is there anywhere I can look to try to reach the travel trade on line? Your help would be appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 06, 2000 ):
If all the travel agent magazines and "tools" sites that traget travel agents are unavailable, the next best idea would be to buy keyword on search engines. The trick will be to imagine keyowrds that are specific to travel agents versus other users, such as travelers. Presumably that is your area of expertise.


Thursday, August 03, 2000 #3668
Dear Guru, where can I get information about STAS and the last news in this problem?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 06, 2000 ):
We have a recent paper written for us by Professor J.P. Jones, the originator of STAS.

The fullest source of info would be The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Wednesday, August 02, 2000 #3666
Ref. question 3663 Thanx for answering my question. I buy slots with high eff. index when my objective is to accumulate GRP's and drill my message into my consumers mind. This is the secondary stage where after creating the initial reach i focus on accumulating greatest total number of impressions (Funnel Treatment). As for the decay factor it reflects the decrease in the recall leval when advertising is reduced or stoped. I normally use 10% decay level in IMphase(IM horizontal planning technologies) The question that i want to ask you is what is the better way of flighting. There is a 70's 3+ eff frequency model by Prof. MacDonald which says that brusting is a better flighting patteren.On the other hand there is more recent Recency concept championed by Prof. JP Jones of Syracuse university of NY which says that as far as FMCG goods are concerned people are in the market every week and infect only needs one OTS to stimulate purchase.Please comment MY second question is how do you calculate Eff Frequency. Normally i use Eff frequency model where i calculate the eff frequency by applying judgement and common sence in a disciplined manner using Marketing, advertising and competitive factors Thanx Sarwar Khan Media Manager R-Lintas Lahore,Pakistan

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 06, 2000 ):
1. In regard to 3+ effective frequency versus recency, the Guru tends to favor recency for "Fast Moving Consumer Goods." Recency is not really a contrast to the 3+ frequency theory, but an extension. As championed by Erwin Ephron, a core concept of recency is that once the third exposure is delivered, all additional exposures are at 3+.

2. Once again, there seems to be a semantic issue when you say "calculate" effective frequency. If you mean setting the frequency level to be considered effective, then your "judgment and common sence in a disciplined manner using Marketing, advertising and competitive factors are the right approach, and the Ostrow Model will be helpful.

If instead, you mean to calculate the effective frequency delivered by your schedule, this has absolutely nothing to do with the subjective factors you have listed. A reach model determines how many persons are exposed to each discrete number of ad units in the schedule. That is if your reach is 75%, that means, explicitly, that 75% of the target has experienced one or more ad exposures. Within this, perhaps 70% of the target has been exposed to 2 or more, 66% to 3 or more, etc, up to the full number of units in the schedule. Reach models allow for expressing all of these levels. "Effective reach" mean those reached at least the minimum number of times established as effective, most typically 3.


Saturday, July 29, 2000 #3664
Do you know where I may find research of the impact or effectiveness of bookend :15's or airing 2 spots in 1 commercial pod. Thank-you

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 29, 2000 ):
The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Friday, July 28, 2000 #3662
Where do I look for advertising in the "welcome kits" for neighborhoods in the Baltimore and Washington DC areas?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 28, 2000 ):
The "classic" is Welcome Wagon


Thursday, July 27, 2000 #3658
Do you have any (or know where I can find) research that supports the use of Traffic Report sponsorships as a support-medium.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 29, 2000 ):
The vendors should have the research.

The best resource, in general, is The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Wednesday, July 26, 2000 #3653
Hi Guru, I'm working at a media independent in South Africa. A lot of our newspapers like to run special surveys or supplements and are constantly asking for advertising support for these. For example, our daily business newspaper will run surveys and/or supplements on things like unit trusts, wrap funds, insurance etc. My feeling is that they are largely just money spinners, but I guess there is a market for them. Is there any research that looks at features and supplements rather than the main body of a publication? Thank you

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 29, 2000 ):
Associations such as the U.S.' The Newspaper advertising Association should have research on the question, but there are cultural imperatives involved, so it would be best to find a comparable South African resource.

The concept of these sections appears to be that they will especially attract readers with an interest in their topic and so are ideal environments for related advertisers.


Tuesday, July 25, 2000 #3651
What are current advertising rates for Internet Kiosks: gui's, portal affilite fees, billboard, stored access cards, etc.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, July 25, 2000 ):
A good cross-section of rates is found at Ad Resource


Monday, July 24, 2000 #3647
Whatis the correct mix between on -line and aff-line for a vertical internet site, particularly in the start-up phase.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 29, 2000 ):
There is no such thing as a "correct mix" for all occasions. Considerations include

  • Is your target currently more reachable online or offline?
  • Are the best sites to reach your target mostly competive verticals which wouldn't take your advertising?
  • To whay extent does your budget allow for completely free choice of (typically) far less efficient online opportunities?


Monday, July 24, 2000 #3645
Dear Guru, Where can I find information about the attitude of Internet users towards Internet advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 24, 2000 ):
C.A.S.I.E. (The Coalition for advertising Supported Interactive Entertainment) compiles such research. NUA Internet Surveys mostly compiles more quantitatively oriented information.


Monday, July 24, 2000 #3642
What are the advantage/disadvantages for local websites vs. national websites? Ex: washingtonpost.com vs. msnbc.com

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 24, 2000 ):
If you are advertising a locally-oriented product or service, then a connection with local media can be beneficial. If you are merely targeting in people in a certain geography, large websites can usually select visitors by their location, leaving the comparison the usual one of reach, efficiency, positioning, etc.


Monday, July 24, 2000 #3641
Where can I find figures on rates and revenues for billboard advertising in major sports facilities in Los Angeles?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 24, 2000 ):
Generally, these are sold either directly by the facility (e.g Doger Stadium) or in conjunction with broadcast media sponsorships (e.g. the Lakers).


Monday, July 24, 2000 #3640
Where could I find a list of companies that provide restroom advertising?... and how do I find out their annual revenues?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 24, 2000 ):
Two resources are Ultramedia WorldWide and Johnny advertising. For revenues of publicly held companies, request their annual reports.

For other sellers, use "restroom advertising" as your search term on a search engine like Google


Saturday, July 22, 2000 #3639
Dear media guru I am in need of list of top publications with their rates of advertising in Gulf, Dubai and South East Asia?? Mediatrek is not able to provide me that. Please help??

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 23, 2000 ):
PubList is a good place to find publications. International Media Guide offers rates for various regions of the world.


Thursday, July 20, 2000 #3635
Dear Guru, Is there any fast way of getting display ad rates for Yellow Pages advertising without having to call each directory? I'm with an agency and have found YP reps a little uncooperative with agencies. All I need are ball park figures. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 23, 2000 ):
The Guru agrees that Yellow Pages sellers relatively aloof and disinterested. They tend to be order takers, not media salespeople. This is probably why Yellow Pages specialist agencies are successful. "The idea of ballpark" figures is fairly meaningless, since there are few comparisons between competing directories where they exist, nor complete standardization of geographies.


Wednesday, July 19, 2000 #3633
Guru, is there a source for cost per point averages by market for cable tv advertising? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 23, 2000 ):
The few reps in the spot cable arena, such as National Cable Communications are your best source.


Monday, July 17, 2000 #3622
Where can I get articles that evaluate press advertising versus television advertising? Can I get the articles which specifically focus on the consumables category (like cheese or fruit juice) ?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 23, 2000 ):
Sources include ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization, Newsweek Media Research Index and The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Friday, July 14, 2000 #3619
Hi Guru, I'm writing from India.One of our clients related to the travel industry is interested in advertising to Indians in the US and UK.The client feels that print is a good option to get conversions.The client wants to use ethnic publications targetted towards Indians in US & UK. Could you please let me know which are the publications one could use along with reach numbers if possible? Thanx in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 21, 2000 ):
Some U.S. Indian publications are listed at Abbott Wool's Market Segment Resource Locator. One source in the U.K. might be the Indian embassy.


Thursday, July 13, 2000 #3618
On July 5 you responded to a question regarding the decline of brand awareness due to reduced advertising activity. You indicated that the "formula predicts that a brand running low GRPs per week loses awareness and a brand with no activity loses 5-10% of the previous week's awareness each week." I would love to pass this information along to some clients. Is there a source I can quote?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 13, 2000 ):
"5-10%" is a general summary of experience with various estimates the Guru has found over many years.

The Guru has been told that some people are quite comfortable citing the
"AMIC Media Guru, http://www.amic.com/guru/index.html"
as an information source.

It shouldn't need documentation to understand that awarenness will decline when there is no advertising. It also seems easy to assume that it will be like an inverse reach curve:
constantly approaching 0% in constantly decreasing increments.

No doubt many supporting studies are available through The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Thursday, July 13, 2000 #3617
Is there a resource that lists agencies that specialize in sports and entertainment advertising, listed by city or state? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 13, 2000 ):
The Standard Directories of advertising Agencies and Advertisers ('The Redbook')


Tuesday, July 11, 2000 #3613
Hi Guru. I am working for software company. We are developing applications for analyzing data for advertising agencies. Basically, we are working in Germany and processing following sources of data: respondent level TV viewing data from GFK, spot level AdEx Data from A.C. Nielsen Germany, spot level data from TV-Spotcontrol, print media data, Internet data and so on. We intend to adapt our software for American advertising market. Can anyone advise some American companies or institutes, which publish any advertising data for demo targets? I am new to this list, so my apology if this has come up before. Thanks for your participation. Vladimir Titov,

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, July 11, 2000 ):
Nielsen, Arbitron, Scarborough, Simmons, MRI, The Mendelsohn Media Research Affluent Study, MediaMetrix and Nielsen//Netratings are major, general sources. There are others, specialized in specific industries, such as technology buyers.


Monday, July 10, 2000 #3610
I am currently involved in a market research project. I am wondering which websites AMIC has sponsorships with for banner advertising? I am doing a project on college students therefore I was wondering if you would also suggest websites that will have a high traffic of college students. Can you also tell me approximately what those costs would be?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, July 11, 2000 ):
AMIC is not currently running banners on any other website.

You would probably find a high college student traffic at music download related sites like Napster and MP3, graduate school listings like US News and college text book discounters like Varsity Books.


Monday, July 10, 2000 #3608
hi where can i find researches or information about drugs advertising? which media have the best influence on patients? t.v? press? Radio? which reach & frequency levels are recommended ? thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 10, 2000 ):
The answers will vary depending on typical media planning / marketing issues.
  • Who is the target?
  • What is the competitive situation?
  • What are the legal restrictions
For example, in the U.S., there is one set of rules that applies when you are marketing prescription drugs and another set for "over the counter" pharmaceuticals.

For prescription drugs, you can mention a drug name without discussing the problems it treats or its results, or you can mention a problem to treat without mentioning a drug name. In these cases there are fewer rules to observe. When you mention a drug along with its disease or results, you must also provide the "patient information" (PI) which is all the side effects warnings, counterindications, etc. This typically means broadcast advertising must be accompanied by print to carry the PI. Or that print must devote a portion of space to this detailed information.


Monday, July 10, 2000 #3607
Hi - Super urgent - I am a new comer in the .com world in India - need to have a fix on how one designs a revenue model - what are the key elements ?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 10, 2000 ):
The key elements of a revenue model are
  • Who are the prospective customers?
  • How will you attract them? and
  • What will be the basis of revenue, e.g.
    advertising sales
    Ecommerce transactions
    Membership subscriptions
. Since this isn't really a media question, the Guru can't offer more detail.


Sunday, July 09, 2000 #3606
Did you know of any book dedicated to cinema as a media vehicle? I'm aware that advertising expenditures compared to other media is minimal also that audience numbers are not available. In my country usage of the media has been growing for certain categories . I would like to find any available tools to evaluated.Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 10, 2000 ):
The Guru thinks cinema advertising a a media vehicle is a pretty narrow topic to merit an entire book. For more information about the concept, visit Screenvision.


Thursday, July 06, 2000 #3604
I've mostly handled print and DM advertising and am trying to master radio. If a client is saying that their optimum TRP level is 175, what does that mean?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 10, 2000 ):
Click here for a definition of TRP .

Presumably, the client would be speaking of the TRP level which has produced nest results for the budget.


Thursday, July 06, 2000 #3600
Can you suggest some sites/links which contain articles regarding the comparative analysis of various mediums viz. TV vs. Press etc.?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 10, 2000 ):
Aside from the various discussions here at AMIC, in the Guru Archives Search Engine. Use various media as your search terms, media comparisons online are rare.

The Guru has found some at The Small Business Administration site, and at college ad department sites like U. Texas School of advertising


Thursday, July 06, 2000 #3599
what are the methods of pricing that most sites use for advertising? Is there any differences in ad. pricing methodolgies between targeted sites vis a vis large network sites Cud you also direct me to some sites that cud give me more info?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 06, 2000 ):
The most common method of pricing is cost-per-thousand advertising impressions.This methodology works across all types of sites.

Ad Resource has a lot of pricing information.


Wednesday, July 05, 2000 #3598
lets assume that a company has been running a branding and image campaign for 12 months at 800points a month. If the company goes completely dark for 6 months what are the expected effects on awareness and branding. The negative effects of going dark at then end of a branding campaign have been taught to me during several courses I cannot remember nor find a formula or case study which proves this point. Where can I go to find statistics or case studies to support your answer. Thank you again for you help.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 05, 2000 ):
The Guru can consider this in terms of ad awareness, since brand awareness is subject to so many more outside factors.

Whatever the level of advertising, awareness can never be more than 100%. One very simple formula the Guru has seen predicts awareness as a high percentage the previous week's awareness plus a small percentage of the current week's GRPs.

As will be obvious, this formula predicts that a brand running low GRP per week loses awarness. A brand with no activity loses 5-10% of the previous week's awareness each week.

Of course this is all general. One classic case is the old Certs "two, two, two mints in one" copy which had good awareness as a "current commercial" ten years after it last aired.


Tuesday, July 04, 2000 #3594
I am planning for an ad campaign that targets the advertising community worldwide with an special emphasis on Asia. I find that there is a complete lack of information on the industry, its size, number of employees, avergae salary, consumption patterns and generally the sort of demographics easily available on most other segments - finance professionals for example. Any idea where I can access this sort of info?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 06, 2000 ):
Perhaps it is because there is really no international advertising community, as almost all media have no more than than national coverage - internet aside.

Though there are many giant international agencies, there is no one with an essential intertest in compiling worldwide data like this.

The most likely source for parts of this data would be Ad Age.


Sunday, July 02, 2000 #3589
what are the advertising creative opportunities on the web? Example banner ads./ click thru..... sandeep. india

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 03, 2000 ):
The beauty of the web is that imagination offers unlimited possibilities. However, since it all must come down to something which can be "served" through a browser, there are essentially just variations of banners, pop-ups and interstitials.

By banners,the Guru refers to a static or animated piece of graphic material displayed on a web page.

By "pop-up," the Guru means graphic or text advertising material displayed because of user interaction with the web site, such as clicking a menu choice or entering a search term.

By "interstitial" the Guru refers to graphic, text or multimedia advertising content served because of a click on a banner or pop-up, prior to the user seeing whatever destination was expected to be the target of the click.

Otherwise, there is the most basic click target, a promotional web site.


Wednesday, June 28, 2000 #3587
Where can I find trend analysis on research on advertising by small to medium size businesses. In particular, I am interested in HOW they buy their advertising CREATIVE (i.e., through an agency, develop it in-house, through their media outlet, etc.), and how they buy their MEDIA (i.e., through their agency, media planner/buyer, media outlet, etc.). I am looking for a credible source - research or industry analysis would be great.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 03, 2000 ):
"Small-to-medium" is too vague a term for any standard data compilations. For instance, one government definition of small business is "less than 500 employees." This may be far larger than what you are thinking of. It also may take in range of buinesess not applicable to your needs, from multimillion dollar law firms with two dozen employees and no advertisng at all, to small retail chains doing a loot of radio and newspaper business.

Some useful advertising Guidelines are available from the Small Business Administration . Even if you refined your question to a more workable definition, like "advertisers spending $1million or less annually" there is no doubt a wide range of answers. Even if you went to an association like AAF you would likely get answers skewed to an agency perspective.

Ordinarily, for general research, the Guru points people to the The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter, but this question need to be refined first.


Tuesday, June 27, 2000 #3585
Hey Guru! Your information is Great! I am looking for statistical information of the small - mid size business advertising expenditures in Small local newspapers and "shopping guides". Can you help?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 03, 2000 ):
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) products include newspaper tracking. The Guru doubts that there is a category summary by advertisers' business size.


Monday, June 26, 2000 #3581
Is there a website that will give me an idea of what agencies charge for media planning and buying services? Thanks,

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 26, 2000 ):
The Guru doubts the information is online. American Association of advertising Agencies probably has the information, but not online.


Monday, June 26, 2000 #3580
what, if any studies have been done analysing spill from the American market into Canada - TV specifically?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 26, 2000 ):
Nielsen will have done this, as may BBM . There are numerous legal issues involved, to.

Try the TV Bureaus of advertising and The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Monday, June 26, 2000 #3579
1 : How many people are surfing on the internet in the US country ? 2- How many online buyers (e-commerce) are accounted for ? 3- advertising Expenditure 1999 for e-commerce in U.S?. 4- Flower Market : Number of buyers ? 5- Number of buyers online ? 6- advertising Expenditures of the flower market ?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 26, 2000 ):


Sunday, June 25, 2000 #3574
When planning an integrated campaign involving both online and offline advertising (print, press, billboards, radio etc.) how do you track the effectiveness of those advertising activities back to the traffic on the website. (other than asking them) How do you measure the effectiveness of the individual offline campaign components against one another in order to know which of the offline components is pulling more than the others?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 26, 2000 ):
The Guru can only think of one possibilities other than "asking them" either online or offline: In each ad use a variant of the URL so that you can measure traffic to each variant page.


Thursday, June 22, 2000 #3571
What is the difference between: advertising objective vs. media objective vs. communication objective? What is the best way to do an online branding campaing for a car manufacturer? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 25, 2000 ):
advertising objectives are a broad set of goals which include media opbectives. Media Objectives are a broad set of goals for a media plan, which include a communications objective.

For example, advertising objectives may include a brand image to establish or a specific level of brand awareness to achieve. Neither of these are media objectives.

Media objectives may include a media target, a media budget, a region of the country or sales index standard for geographic concentration. These are not communications objectives.

Communications objectives may be such goals as minimum average four week reach, frequency, effective frequency, etc.

There are many ways to do any sort of online branding campaign. There is no "one size fits all" best solution. A branding campaing for "the safest car" would certainly differ from one for the car whic is the "best value for a family." It is important to have firmly in mind what "branding" means:

According to marketing consultant Rob Frankel, "Branding is not about getting your prospects to choose you over your competition; it's about getting your prospects to see you as the only solution to their problem." (sm)

This means that most of what makes a campaign a "branding" campaign is outside of the domain of media. Study the marketing elements of the campaign and judge how you can make the media plan support it.


Thursday, June 22, 2000 #3570
Dear Guru, I'm the Media Director of a 3 person department with currently 8 accounts to handle and a ton of new business. Unfortunately, all three of us have traditional media backgrounds with virtually no online planning/buying experience. Up until now, our clients had no interest in advertising online. Now, many of our clients are requesting online media plans. Although we're trying to learn this new media as quickly as possible, we can not develop online plans quick enough nor can we go to our clients at this time with a true sense of expertise. Do you think at this point working with an independant online rep would be valuable. Any advice would be appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 25, 2000 ):
The Guru's perception of the "planning" services offered by online reps is that

  1. You are most likely to get proposed buys rather than proper plans
  2. The buys will probably only consider sites which are sold by the rep. This is not likely to have the best interests of your client at heart.


Wednesday, June 21, 2000 #3566
Dear Guru, I've heard about buying space on Fruit Labels - bananas, apples etc. What company sells this? I'd like to contact them. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 25, 2000 ):
From a Yahoo search:

Fruit label advertising was created in 1997 by Tarzana, Calif.-based The Fruit Label Company. According to Irv Weinhaus, chief executive officer of The Fruit Label Company, this innovative medium provides a two-fold service. ``The labels work for the advertiser who is looking for a unique and informative way to reach consumers, and the PLU (price look-up) labels are used by the retailer to accurately charge for the produce. Our labels eliminate the need for two individual stickers, one of which has to be on the fruit regardless if there is advertising on the fruit or not.''


Wednesday, June 21, 2000 #3564
We are establishing a membership, where each member will provide their unique demographic information ie name, age, income etc They will also advise us of what purchases they intend to make over the next 12 months ie insurance, cars, homes etc. We will therefore act as their trusted agent directing the appropriate advertising and sponsership to them over the internet. Therefore we will be in a position to sell to advertisers the individual demographic data of our members. And for our members direct to them the information/sponsership that they request. So the question is what is the value(in $) to the advertisers for this specific information?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 25, 2000 ):
Your question appears to confuse the sale of information with the sale of targeted impressions.

Lists of people with known demographics who are planning to make specific purchases arfe fairly common options sold by direct mail list houses. You can check prices of some of these, but the Guru estimates value at about $US75 - $US 150 per thoussand.

Selling targeted impressions against people of known demographics interested in particular purchases, and probably nearer the purchase decision is an option of various search engines or shopping sites like MySimon or AutoByTel, where impressions sell in the neighborhood of $60 per thousand.


Tuesday, June 20, 2000 #3562
I would like to know which reports as to my web advertising I should except from the web site I advertise on. If you have any examples of empty reports as to the traffic in my web page/banner clicking figures - that would be great thanks ifat

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 20, 2000 ):
The miniumum basic report expected from any commerical web site would be banner exposures and click rates. Typical frequency is monthly. Sites could also break down exposures and clicks by pages associated with the exposures and clicks and the geography of the persons exposed and clicking.

Other than the basic exposure (impressions) and click count nothing is truly expected unless part of the deal. If you are buying a flat advertising rate, without cpm or audience guarantees, even that data may not be assured.

In any case, this basic data is too simple to need standardized reports. How many ways are there to arrange two numbers?


Monday, June 19, 2000 #3559
Hi Guru, I need information on the subject: Management of the Media Department. Can you give me any sources where I can learn this? (Seminars, offices, books, etc.) Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 19, 2000 ):
There are several books in the AMIC Bookstore (in association with Amazon.com) about media planning and buying. Managing a department is more about managing than about media. The most likely place to find material on this topic is through the American Association of advertising Agencies.


Thursday, June 15, 2000 #3553
Hello Guru, how can I define the competitors for local portals? Is it based on advertising spending or the statistics report?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 18, 2000 ):
This a decision you must make based on what is happening in your specifc case. Local portals may face competition from giant sites which offer to sell impressions targeted by DMA or other detectable locality. These sites may well deliver more localized impressions than a purely "local" portal.


Thursday, June 15, 2000 #3552
Hi Guru, Iam repeating qn. 3546. You havent clarified my answer. From ARF, will I get the info or not? If yes will there be any charge attached? Pls clarify the queries. Gyan

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 15, 2000 ):
In all likelihood, you will find the kind of information you want at the The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter.

The Guru is not going to visit or contact the information center on your behalf to see whether it can satisfy you.

The Guru provides guidance, not legwork. ARF provides its information at no charge to members and any one can join for a fee. It is far more efficient to contact the resource the Guru recommends than to simply repeat your question here.


Wednesday, June 14, 2000 #3551
Where I can find statistics on effective and usage of advertising medium?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 15, 2000 ):
This is a very broad question. The biggest compilations are at The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter, and ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization


Saturday, June 10, 2000 #3546
Guru, Is there any published papers that tell us the efficacy (in terms of quantitative analysis)of "out of home options" with respect to measurable media like TV/Print? Basically the "impact scores" of mass measurable media versus the consumer's out of home options- any type of outdoor media. Would really appreciate if you could provide some light in this area. Thanks Gyan

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 11, 2000 ):
There should be comparisons of sales response, recall, etc in the materials at the The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Friday, June 09, 2000 #3545
Are there any industry "benchmarks" for response rates or cost per response for driving traffic to web sites through ads in tradional "offline" media? For example, if you run a print ad for a dot-com, what response rate should you be able to expect in terms of people visiting the site?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 11, 2000 ):
The Guru hasn't seen "benchmarks" for print ads' reposnse as web visits.

A lot of variables effect ad response. There is some data on print ads for web sites at Cahner's and in the The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Thursday, June 08, 2000 #3540
Question: Dear Guru, In the course of my work, I need to evaluate many media (mainly print)proposals for advertising. What are the parameters I should look out for and points to consider if the publication is suitable to advertise in

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 08, 2000 ):
The basic points in comparing print vehicles are
  • coverage (percent of your target that reads the publication
  • composition (percent of publication's readers who are within your target audience) and
  • environment:
    whether the publication is authoritative in the area relevant to your advertiser or
    offers supporting editorial regarding your category or message, etc.


Thursday, June 08, 2000 #3539
There are a lot of new Internet appliances coming out on the market with built-in browsers. The display is always on. How or where can I determine the value of an icon/banner button for advertising on this display screen?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 11, 2000 ):
The Guru would count the times the machine goes through a fresh "on-cycle" or newly dislays the banner. The apply a web cpm.


Tuesday, June 06, 2000 #3536
How real are the rate cards that websites post for their online advertising? I see rate cards that say $30 or $40 CPM, such as for the individual sites represented by DoubleClick. Yet DoubleClick's own statistics show they are averaging only about $1 CPM overall. Are the rate cards only the starting point for negotiating very deeply discounted negotiated actual rates? Does anyone ever pay the stated rate card price? From: Sbernold@aol.com

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 11, 2000 ):
Just as in all other media, on-line sales at rate card prices are rare. Those that occur are most liley at powerful B2B sites where the desirability of a unique audeince is well understood and rate cards are more closely observed, even at cpms over $150.

Comparing individual sites' rate cards to actual cales across large networks is unrealistic. While a single site buy may be pricesd at $30, there is likely also a "Channel buy" of sevetral $30 sites at a $15 channel cpm, and also a full network published rate below that. The Guru would be surprised to see the actual average of sales across DoubleClick sites as low as $1 or to see DoubleClick publishing any such statistic.

But, yes, rate cards are only a starting points for general audience sites.


Tuesday, June 06, 2000 #3533
Can you give me any advice on how to proceed selling space for two mobile billboards which I own. I am not a member of the 4A's so research information is scarce for me. Are their any directories or Associations I should speak with or you would suggest I be a member of? Are their any independant outdoor operators I can speak with? Your advice and expertise would greatly be appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 11, 2000 ):
The best compilation of advertising research, which includes all 4A's and ANA material, is the The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter.

advertising Research Foundation membership is open to any organization.

Find local, independent out-of-home operators in your yellow pages.


Monday, June 05, 2000 #3531
I am the media director at a small, full service ad agency. Most of our clients are b-to-b advertising in trade journals. More and more we are finding that clients and prospective clients want to bring their media placement in-house for the most part in order to keep the media commission themselves. How do we convey the value of having their ad agency handle the placement? We are running out of ideas!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 11, 2000 ):
At his most cynical, the Guru wonders how much value there is if you can't convey it.

Theoretically, you bring professional experience to the table which the client doesn't have on hand.

You should be able to say and to demonstrate that you get better rates, better positioning and better value-added. The only other benefit that occurs to the Guru is if the client needs to compare the cost of an on-staff media professional to the agency fees for that stand-alone servce.

And media commission compensates an agency for much more than media placement itself, unless there are specific itemized fees for placement versus agency creative and other services.


Sunday, June 04, 2000 #3528
Do you know where I could find some media statistics about online usage and habits? I am looking for any research, studies, etc. that can provide how consumers are using this medium, specifically how Corporate Management is using the interenet. After exhausting the "usual" sources (i.e. syndicated studies MRI, IQ, etc) I have reached a dead end. Please if possible, could you provide some insight to this area? thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 08, 2000 ):
You haven't mentioned MediaMetrix and Nielsen//Netratings, which are probably your best syndicated resources.

Beyond that, The advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. will have a compilation of assorted material.


Friday, June 02, 2000 #3524
Dear Guru, In the course of my work, I need to evaluate many media (mainly print)proposals for advertising. What are the parameters I should look out for and points to consider if the publication is suitable to advertise in? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, June 07, 2000 ):
Visit Starch


Thursday, June 01, 2000 #3522
Dear Guru, I teach my university's ad media course. In an effort to make it as useful and "real world" as possible, I want to know what topics/ideas/concepts you feel are absolutely critical to include. Also, we do use software designed for the college classroom to simulate buys. I would rather use the actual software buys. Suggestions on "real world" software we could purchase to utilize instead? Thanks, AdMedia Prof

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 01, 2000 ):
The Guru believes the most important concepts are
  • Turning marketing / advertising strategies into media objectives
  • Turning media objectives into media strategies and tactics
  • They ways in which different media can support different strategies
  • Basic media math and statistical definitions
. Of course, these are broad concepts which encompass a lot of detail. A person should come out of an advertising media cousre equipped, for example, to
  • recommend radio when it's more appropriate than TV
  • Demonstrate how internet advertising is often more sizzle than steak, but has its place in some plans.
  • Make media plans address the fact that the U.S. is presently about 30% African American, Hispanic or Asian American, that this proportion is growing rapidly and already 40-50% in the "major markets" that will come up on many brands' key market lists
.

Learning the audience data comes with the job and changes too fast for details learned in college to retain validity very long into real world jobs.

As for buying software Donovan Data Systems is the "mother of all" buying software.


Thursday, June 01, 2000 #3521
Hi Guru, I am trying to quantify the value of leveraging a consumer DB for a targeted sports marketing campaign via the internet but am unsure where to begin. Any ideas as to how I might figure out what the ad space on our web site is worth? (be it real as in banner, or virtual as in e-mail). This web site will allow our clients to promote their products to their own customers (we are merely an ASP). Moreover, we will have a DB of email addresses of our client's customers and can implement a limited direct marketing campaign. How much will this DB be worth to our cl