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Guru Search Results: 206 matches were found

Tuesday, June 19, 2007 #7369
Adding onto a previous question: If you start from 0 awareness for a supermarket item, is there a formula for achieving a specified awareness level over a specified time? eg: 1000 GRPs yields 25% awareness in 6 months

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 21, 2007 ):
No specific formula, because awareness depends on much more than media weight, including media mix and creative. Click here to see past Guru responses about awareness.

Tuesday, June 12, 2007 #7363
A metrics-obsessed client has asked what it would take to move the needle of consumer awareness (on a particular issue) about 2%. They want to know literally how many impressions it would take. I've been told for paid media the answer is roughly 1000 GRPs over 2 weeks. But I'm at a loss to find the answer for earned media. I know this is a bit far afield, but do you know of where I might go to find this? Anyplace that's done this type research?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, June 13, 2007 ):
Hey! The Guru loves metrics, and it's a good question. Whether it can be answered as a media issue is quite another thing.

Saying that 1000 GRP will move consumer awareness 2% over 2 weeks is a ludicrous oversimplification. If current awareness is nil, 1000 GRP in 2 weeks will get you much more than 2% in, all probability. If awareness is already 90%, 1000 GRP might get you nothing in added awareness. Since you can't buy "earned" media, the question is pointless in the Guru's opinion. In any case, the Guru is not aware of any link between earned media and awareness impact. It's not an advertising question.

Wednesday, March 14, 2007 #7301
Hello Guro. I am struggling with the following: What is the residual effect of TV advertising? Meaning, if you are on for 6 weeks at a certain point level, and you go off, people will remember your message for x number of weeks later. I always thought it was about 2-3 weeks, but finding anything to support that is posing a challenge. Also, are people enerally claiming that advertising doesn’t affect them. Are they discrediting it? I feel like the answer is obvious, but finding any supporting documents is proving to be a difficult task. Any direction you could offer would be much appreciated. Thanks for all you do!

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 17, 2007 ):
The residual effects of advertising taper off. One very simple rule of thumb is that each week of no activity leads to a decrease of about 10% from the previous week's awareness. I.e. if awareness was 90% after a perios of advertsing, it will be 81% after a week's hiatus and 72.9% after another week's inactivity, etc.

It has long been a fashionable posture of sophistication to claim to be unaffected by advertising. Yet the people who make this claim are just as likely to use Brand name (advertised) products as other people. Correlating the market shares of brand names with ad budgets is one way to document this. Or consider brand name market shares vs generics or store brands.

Thursday, December 14, 2006 #7245
Our client was asking whether or not the current creative we are running for our trade effort has reached a point of wearout. Any advice on how to measure/address this very subjective question.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 14, 2006 ):
When it stops selling, it's worn out. If you have sales tracking showing a down-turn, that's the best guide. Otherwise old and current ad awareness data is good.

Simple rules of thumb, like "2000 GRP" are too simple.

Friday, November 03, 2006 #7221
Hi GR- I am working on an annual TV buy for a client and I have a few questions for you? What are good levels of GRPs, Frequency and Reach % to go by as guidelines/benchmarks? The client's target is basically everyone (A 25-54) in this market. This year (2006) he had light spot TV schedules on every major network in the market as well as some infomercial spots-all year, with no hiatus weeks. I feel like he can't be on every station with the given budget and make a impact. Please help me if you can--I just need some guidelines to consider. I have bought much more radio than TV and the TV I have bought has been very limited (small % of spot and majority cable). So this is somewhat new to me and I am beginning to panic because I am not sure I can make my budget work if I use the levels I think I need to make an impact. My client is somewhat well branded in this market but last year he pulled budget dollars from his primary market and put it in outer markets so he lost his awareness in this market. In 07 he wants to build his primary market back up, what levels do you recommend I try to work towards to refresh his awareness in this market? He also wants to break into a few new markets-what levels of GRPs do we need to break into a new market. Thank you advance for all your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 05, 2006 ):
  • In radio, people listen to stations; in TV people watch programs, so don't use the radio share of voice = impact approach to allocation of TV stations.
  • Start by thinking about what reach level you want to achieve. Reach does not neccessarily = awareness, but ad awareness will never exceed reach.
  • Put some frequency behind your reach to make sure the message is digested. How much depends on whether you have a point-in-time need for impact or you have a constant-purchase product where recency outweighs other factors.
  • Infomercials are aimed at immediate response so leave those out of your reach thinking.

Thursday, November 02, 2006 #7218
How much can you safely weight endorsement radio spots?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 05, 2006 ):
The question is very vague.
  • Weight for what? Attentivenenss, effectiveness, impact, awareness?
  • Weight GRP or another factor?
  • How relevant is your endorser? An expert in the field of your product, like a NASCAR driver endorsing your tires or merely a popular spokesperson, like Shakira endorsing your orange juice?
The simple answer might be 200%, but there are a lot of steps to get there.

Tuesday, October 03, 2006 #7199
Can you provide a general statistic for awareness as a result of a stand-alone, postcard Direct Mail campaign? We're not looking for purchase, just awareness.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 04, 2006 ):
Check the Direct Marketing Association (DMA)

Wednesday, August 02, 2006 #7172
what is the industry average/standard CPC & CTR for an awareness (banner only) campaign?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 03, 2006 ):
The Guru does not think these data are available, but the best source of relevant information would be DoubleClick

Tuesday, July 04, 2006 #7158
What are basic key points on tv copy length influence on campaign effectiveness? Naturally, creation is crucial, as well, but - assuming that creative affairs are "stable" and cost aspects are also foreseen (shorter copy is nominal cheaper)- are any findings how copy length influences on pure media campaign effectiveness indicators? Could you give some short points on it, please? Thank you in advance, Cesear

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 07, 2006 ):
When you say "shorter copy is nominally cheaper," the Guru imagines you refer to production not media time costs.

Typically, longer copy has more impact, better recall and better awareness generation than shorter copy. . . on a unit-by-unit basis.

But typically the cost of shorter copy is also less than longer copy by a margin that exceeds the advantages above, and therefore, reach, frequency, awareness and other campaign metrics work out better for shorter copy.

Obviously, you should work out these numbers with specific reference to your own copy and media buys.

Tuesday, June 27, 2006 #7156
Hi guru, please i am working on an in-house presentation on creativity in media planning. the document is supposed to speak to qualitative issues outside of the regular Reach, frequency, GRP that we are familiar with. could you help with resources? Also help with definition of impact as a media term. thx.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 02, 2006 ):
Some other metrics and issues include
  • Engagement
  • Recency and
  • ROI
Look up each of these at the Go to the Guru Archives Search Engine. Use these as your search terms.

"Impact" is a term cients and account execs love to use without definition. Loosely, it means some sort of effectiveness. Measures that may relate include memoribility, recall, awareness, engagement, and of course, various sales measures.

Thursday, June 22, 2006 #7152
Hi Guru, I have two questions that are more marketing than planning based. The first is regarding setting targets. I have been responsible for setting global marketing/brand objectives for the past couple of years and I have used a competitive comparison model to zero in on a stretch to achieve a comparative top 3-4 level of awareness in each region (in general we significantly lagged behind peers). While it has worked to date, it feels pretty squishy. Our executive board has asked for a review of our marketing spend next month and I can imagine them asking, "How much awareness does a financial services brand like ours need to be successful?" Any thoughts? The second question is more about marketing mix. At a global level we typically use TV, print, outdoor, sponsorship and events/conferences. Are there any general rules or benchmarks for the mix share of these kinds of vehicles? For instance, Sponsorship shouldn’t typically be more than 25% of your total comms budget…. Your ideas are very much appreciated, and if you have any additional sources I could try that too would be great. Thanks much.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 29, 2006 ):
  1. Regarding "How much awareness?" the Guru thinks you need to build a simple model based on a correlation of the awareness various competitors have to the "success" they have, however you define that.
  2. As to mix, there are no hard and fast general rules, Certainly any such would depend in part on the marketing climate of the country and industry.
Visit our parent company's planning tools site for some helpful ideas.

Tuesday, June 20, 2006 #7150
Hi Guru. Do you know of any studies that show that continuity is important in building brand awareness?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 29, 2006 ):
Visit Ephron On Media

Monday, June 05, 2006 #7145
how do i calculate ROI on ad spend?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 06, 2006 ):
The key issue is defining your "return" metric; you know the spend.

Are you looking for sales, or awarenss growth or change in intent to purchase?

Then set a base level: what would sales or awareness, etc. be without the advertising?

This might come from sales trends or a pre-campaign survey of awareness.

Then you can show that the net change in sales or awareness is attributable to the advertising and is the Return On Investment.

Friday, May 12, 2006 #7135
When considering a TV advertising schedule, it seems logical to me that I should be looking at time slots with the lowest CPP for my target demographic. If this is true, why are advertisers willing to pay a much higher CPM for some spots than others? For example, the CPM during the local evening news is $2.98 but a local spot during the network evening news is $7.24. They both hit about 150K people, so would I choose the network news? Am I missing something? I am new to TV advertising, so any advice is appreciated. Thanks, Rich

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 14, 2006 ):
There are more considerations than cost per point. If only CPP mattered, thn radio would be more desireable than TV and outdoor would be the "best" medium.

Higher rated spots have higher CPPs. Planners place value on ratings size, for example, for various good or bad reasons, including:

  • Reach
  • ratings stability
  • higher ratings theoretically equals popularity equals engagement

More realistically, we have to consider that mere impressions weight is not always the key goal, but that's all you get buying lowest CPPs. A mix of programs, dayparts or stations yields more reach which might be the true goal, in pursuit of awareness, for example. Finding program environments which are more supportive of the message also leads to selections for reasons other than simple CPP. A good understanding of plan goals is the first step in making the best buy.

Friday, March 24, 2006 #7118
I'm planning media for a reputed airline brand in a market that has the competition dominated by about 4 key players - 3 general (premium) airline brands & 1 LCC's (Low Cost Carriers). Whilst my brand’s media spends has been a low constant over the years, they are very keen to sponsor day parts (morning drive-time, evening drive-time & mid-day day parts) on radio as almost all competition dominate these day-parts in form of sponsorships. Some competitors carry on-air calling promos regularly to attract listeners to the station/ promo. Sponsoring the entire day-parts such as 0600 to 1000hrs in the morning is an expensive proposition hence a two-week on air call-in promo was looked at in a station not having a major reach in listenership figures – where two air tickets with accommodation was the prize offered. Client was not too happy with the outcome but the actual response for the promo was higher than the usual response for the station. Client is very keen to how best to use radio in this context. Personally I feel based on the inherent attributes of Radio such as passiveness of the media, perish ability of the media that radio is best used for tactical activities such as promotions & competitions perhaps but not for strategic usage – which is what most of the competition here is using radio for (except for the on-air or calling-in promo they do once-in-a-way). Please advice in a context like this what are the kind-of tools or ways we could best use radio – creatively?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 26, 2006 ):
The Guru believes the question is not how to use radio, but what medium to use to achieve goals. But your goal is not clear. Is it simply to sell air tickets? Many direct response media options might do this effectively. Is it to build awareness? Other media and mixes might be best, with a reach emphasis.

Wednesday, March 08, 2006 #7107
When category share of voice is known, is there a formula that can be applied to a television flight plan to determine the level of exposure necessary to increase brand awareness by x%?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 08, 2006 ):
There are many other factors you haven't considered, including:
  • Current brand awareness
  • Ad awareness
  • Media mix
  • Competitors' media mix
  • Schedule duration
In short, the Guru does not envision a usable formula based on the facts you posit. Nor, for that matter does he have one to offer even with all the other facts. A multibrand advertiser could concievably develop a model which works for its category based on all the experience of all its brands over some extended period of time.

Saturday, January 28, 2006 #7085
I have a national client that wants to generate national news media attention to help promote awarness of their charity to raise money for Dialysis and sell tickets on thier cruise. This is their 4th annual cruise (one to Alaska and one to the Caribbean). Last year I ran a 15min segment on Speed Channel and I saturated cable in several target DMA's. Speed did okay but cable bombed. I had the proper amount of GRIPS reach and freq reaching the right demo with no results. How can I expose this client to the news media nationally without having to spend a ton of money. Would you suggest USA Today or Washington Post or should I create a Press Release along with a media kit and send it to all the major news networks and talk shows?? Your thoughts. Its a big client for a great cause.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 28, 2006 ):
The Guru doesn't deal with PR, but as media, doing a direct mail piece (press release) to an audience in the business of reading press releases seems sensible.

awareness isn't your problem, persuasion is.

You refer to a demo, but your target, the news media, is much more specific than any demo; the Guru would be interested in knowing how you calculated GRP against news media.

Monday, January 23, 2006 #7078
A co-worker mention last week that 50% of the advertising budget of the automobile industry in US goes to tv when recent data appoints that most people use newspaper and internet to make their desicion.He understands that the television budget must be lowered and used more on internet and print. Please comment.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, January 23, 2006 ):
Considering the auto industry as a whole is somewhat misleading.

One must consider the message, the target and the specific marketer: In the big-ticket, "considered-purchase" sphere, there are distinct phases for the buyer. We can think of them as awareness, consideration and "shopping."

During the awareness phase, consumers are learning about the available brands / products / features that could meet their needs or even learning that they have needs, based upon information presented in ads. These are messages from auto makers, dramatizing and romanticizing cars, with some detail about capabilities and features. Image and awareness are typical goals. Budgets are big and TV carries the burden. This awareness / image building phase can occur over years, leading consumers to establish general attitudes towards auto brands.

When consumers have an awareness of the brands, they begin to form a consideration set, focusing on the choices which will meet their needs. More detail regarding product capability and features is sought. Magazine and online ads can serve these messages, better targeted to the likely buyer of specific models, based on age, income, family size, interests, etc. These are also big budget, manufacturer, ads.

The consumer next reaches the shopping stage, where pricing and deals become key issues. At this point, local dealer ads and newspapers are more relevant. Yet, this decision is being made among brand choices stemming from the big budget advertsing that we discussed first.

Of course, none of these stages are pure, and messages overlap. Keep in mind that the decision / internet nexus you have identified goes well beyond the advertising arena, and involves consumers' use of manufacturers' web sites or independent product comparison sites like Consumer's Reports, neither of which involve advertsing budgets.

Friday, January 13, 2006 #7075
What is the average fall-off of awareness during subsequent TV hiatus weeks? Is there a standard weekly decline, such as 33% or 50%?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 13, 2006 ):
Formulas the Guru has seen showed (to oversimplify) 9 to 10% fall-off from previous weeks once hiatus began, but
  • this was from long ago when Network TV was so dominant
  • depended on how high awareness was and
  • how high advertising levels had been

Sunday, November 20, 2005 #7053
Hi.I was the one who raised question about correlation between awareness and share of voice last Nov 18. I wish to have deeper understanding about the underlying principles and how-to-dos of ideentifying relationship between share of voice to awareness level. Would appreciate if you have both theoretical explanations and concrete examples. Best regards.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 23, 2005 ):
Theoretically, more advertising or a greater share of the advertsing in a category will increase ad awareness at least, and of brand awareness as well.

The correlation is demonstrated by observing the measures of these two factors or the change in the measures at various points in time and performaing a statistical correlation analysis. This analysis is readily performed in MS Excel, for example.

Friday, November 18, 2005 #7050
Dear media guru: Good day! I am preparing a correlation analysis between awareness and share of voice. could you kindly share some guidelines. if for example, the awareness survey was done in May 2005, what period should I use for calculating share of voice? Is past 6 months valid? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 20, 2005 ):
This is a judgement call. Since you are using a static awareness measure, you can easily look at share of voice for a range of recent periods, if they differ. Why not latest 3 months, six months, and a year?

Tuesday, September 13, 2005 #7010
I have a client whose target audience consists only of Insurance Brokers. I am planning a print campaign and need to justify it to the owner who wants to know only the ROI. I have one weekly business publication and two trade pubs in three markets. I also only have the circulation numbers and nothing else. What is the best way to calculate reach and frequency with this information? Can I also figure the percentage of awareness from these numbers?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 17, 2005 ):
In trade publications, circulation tends to be heavy among qualified readers, pass-along is often minimal. A conservative audience estimate is audience = circulation. Again, because of this distibution pattern, issue-to-issue cume is minimal. As far as duplication between titles, random probability is a safe estimate, but may be a bit high.

Reach becomes a maximum measure of awareness; you need to estimate the required frequency which generates awareness as well. Ad awareness can't exceed reach.

Thursday, April 07, 2005 #6886
Hi Guru, We get asked often by clients to plan a radio campaign with sufficient budget to achieve a minimum threshold required to sustain market share. Is there any scientific method of analysing this "minimum threshold" or do we use our own insight? Thanks very much!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 10, 2005 ):
You seem to imply that radio is the only advertising at play here.

If you assume that the only influence on share maintenance is advertising weight (which is dangerous, of course), then considerations might be:

  • What is the current share? Obviously it will take more weight to maintain an 80% share than a 10% share.
  • What is the current awareness level?
  • What is the historical share of voice?
  • What are competitors likely to do; is it a stable category or are there new entries?

In the absence of better factors, the Guru would keep reach at the current aweareness level and share of voice at the current share of market level.

Sunday, November 28, 2004 #6705
MG, I believe I've seen recent news about efforts to align methods for measuring online and offline media. My first question: Are you familiar with these efforts? Second: Have you seen any data ranking the "effectiveness" of specific channels online and offline. (Clearly "effectiveness" is a tricky label, but I'm referring to it only in the sense of the effort to align measurement methods referred to above.) Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 02, 2004 ):
1. Yes, the Guru is aware of such alignment efforts. They have been going on almost since the dawn of internet advertising in 1995. Organizations like CASIE, Association of National Advertisers, American Association of Advertising Agencies and The Advertising Research Foundation have led these efforts.

More recently, The Internet Advertising Bureau is a leader. The newly linked I/PRO and BPA internet audit effort, with the participation of Agencies for Internet Audits, is also a force for this goal.

The essential unit of media measurement is agreed among traditional and online media to be the "impression;" one exposure of one ad to one person. Although measurment methods differ among media types, once there is agreement to impression numbers, moving to reach, frequency and GRP figures is relatively easy.

2. As you acknowledge, "effectivenss" is subject to interpretation and is best examined within an advertising category. One medium may be best for selling real estate another for cars and a different one for diamond jewelry. Within a medium, it is more reasonable to compare the effectiveness of various vehicles, while controlling for copy variations. And of course defintions of effectiveness are variable; sales, awareness, share change, etc.

One great advantage of online advertising is its accountability and immediately measurable results.

Friday, November 19, 2004 #6694
Dear guru ,in answering questions abt budgeting u have mentioned it is the planners Job to advice the client ,How much he should spend, I know one can use SOV:SOM CONCEPT OR AD:SALES, is there any other calculation for this as well as what should be the benchmark for a new product launch.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 21, 2004 ):
This depends on goals. For example, is awareness, trial, or market share the objective. Each of these could lead to different budget reuqirements

Tuesday, November 16, 2004 #6684
Hi Guru could u please tell me how can one decide on the media mix i.e the primary medium and sub mediuum for different product categories and with what what proportion one needs to spend in those media.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 17, 2004 ):
There are no absolute rules. Target, budget, marketing strategy and other factors contribute.

One good process rule is to use each medium until it hits a point of diminshing returns, with respect to reach, awareness, sales or whatever is your goal.

Click here to see past Guru responses about media mix.

Thursday, November 04, 2004 #6670
Dear Guru, I have several clients that like to say they want to place a media campaign with the main objective being to "raise awareness." Even if they give me an actual set percentage to measure from, say increase awareness by 20%, how do I know what GRP's to plan to? Besides the old rule of thumb of a min. of 3 frequency, are there any set "standards" in the industry of a min. reach and GRP goal to have an effective awareness campaign (I know that sounds very broad...that's why I need help!)

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 04, 2004 ):
We are discussing ad awareness, of course:

Consider the current level first. For a newly advertised product, growing awareness from 10% to 30% might be relatively easy as comarey to grwoing awareness of a product with 70% awareness to 90%.

The Guru would posit that the first step in growing awareness is by assuring reach is at least at the desired level of awareness; i.e. you won't attain 80% awareness without reaching 80% of the target.. . You will likely need to reach them 3 or more times. However, if advertising is contiuous, you may consider frequency over longer period of time.

Tuesday, November 02, 2004 #6663
What are the most frequently used methods for evaluating the effectiveness of media plan?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 03, 2004 ):
  • Change in sales
  • Change in market share
  • Change in awareness or attitude and usage measures. or . . .
  • other available measures of target action, including click thru

Tuesday, October 12, 2004 #6634
Hi MG , could you pleasetell me what is the significane of awareness index in setting media objectives.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 17, 2004 ):
If a the marketing objective is to grow awareness, then media objectives focused on awareness building will have more importance. These tend to call for strategies which use more reach-oriented, intrusive media.

Friday, September 24, 2004 #6616
what is the responce curve?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, September 26, 2004 ):
This refers to the consumer behavior pattern of action or learning (response) as a function of the amount of message weight. When graphed with a response, such as "awareness" on the Y axis, and weight such as GRP on the X axis, the line is curved, rising rapidly at first and then flattening. A reach curve (below) operates similarly.

Wednesday, August 04, 2004 #6562
Can you please clarify the differences between objectives, strategies and tactics within marketing and/or media planning?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 06, 2004 ):
It's forest versus trees:

Objectives are the broad statements of what is to be accomplished, such as "increase awareness," "grow share," etc.

Strategies are the general ways in which the objectives will be persued, such as "build reach at high levels of frequency via network television."

Tactics are very specific approaches to eexcuting strategies, such as "select most efficient programming to extend budgets and build highest reach," or "select programming which enhances product image to build awareness in the most favorable light."

Tuesday, July 13, 2004 #6535
Do you know of any models that allow you to project what your brands advertising awareness could be based on different variables such as spending, current awareness, etc? I have a client that wants to know if he doubles spending, can he expect to double awareness? Are there other ways to answer this question?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 16, 2004 ):
Like reach, awareness grows along a curved -- not straight -- line, since it can only approach 100%; and in ever-smaller increments. Further, awareness can decline over a period of communications inactivity.

So the simple answer is no, doubling spending does not double awareness -- unless the earlier spending is on low reach / awareness vehicles and the next dollars are invested better.

Wednesday, June 23, 2004 #6517
hi guru, would you please some methods of budget setting in a typical media planning scenario.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 25, 2004 ):
Budget setting typically preceeds media planning. Budget is input to media planners.

Budget may be set based on any of the following, or other factors, as well.

  • Advertising-to-sales ratio (A:S) for the category, and sales goal
  • Share of market goal vs share of voice.
  • Heavy up test requiring 30% or greater increment
Product intro versus known product, awareness goals, promotional plans all may be factors. The possibilities are idiosyncratic and virtually limitless.

Tuesday, April 20, 2004 #6465
For a new entrant with a small budget in a high spending category, 1)What should be prioritised in terms of Reach, Frequency or , Continuity at the expense of reach & frequency. 2)Is there a rule of thumb to set higher weight than competitors atleast in the launch month for better vicibility & cut thru at the expense of number of maintenance bursts.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, April 24, 2004 ):
The Guru always recommends 'outshouting' competition. For a new entrant with awareness issues this is all the more important.

Continuity can be a uniquely powerful technique if competion is flighted; a careful study of competitors' flighting patterns might show when to be the big noise in a loud field.

Another technique is geographic selection. If your budget does not allow making enough noise nationally or in a big region, it is wisest to begin in a smaller geographic area where your campaign can have significant share of voice.

Going directly to your question, the Guru would priorize continuity over reach and frequency, if you can achieve at least a minimum R&F; perhaps 30% reach.

Tuesday, April 06, 2004 #6453
How often do u have to run a 30 second tv spot in the same daypart before your generate awareness?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 11, 2004 ):
How much awareness? Every announcemnt generates some awareness. Some planners would view 3+ reach over a short period of time as an awareness indicator.

Wednesday, March 17, 2004 #6422
Hi Guru, I am planning a internet plan for client. Pleas help me to what data I have to put in plan to convince client the choosen site,the format(logo, banner, popup,..) most effective or approriate. My client is an IT Manufacturer. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 21, 2004 ):
Given the established target, compare sites for their ability to reach this target (coverage) and their focus on the target (composition). Then consider the appropriateness and supportiveness of site content.

For format, consider effectiveneess measures such as clicks, awareness building and available placement. Also consider audience reaction, for example, there is growing objection -- among some audiences -- to pop-ups.

Saturday, March 06, 2004 #6403
Hi Guru, I have a question. What's the difference between a frequency plan vs. a reach plan? How would you go about putting together a reach plan if needed? Are there any formulas or anything that you need to plug in to determine reach? How do you know what is effective? Please HELP!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 07, 2004 ):
A reach plan emphasizes reach versus frequency and the frequency plan is the oppposite. That is, a reach plan is designed to deliver is message to the greates number of different people while a frequency plan emphasizes the number of times each person reached is exposed to the message - no matter how many are reached. Reach plans are used when branding or awareness building are the focus. Frequency plans are aimed at more immediate, direct action such as a retail promotion for a limited time sale.

Some media, such as prime time TV and national magazines produce relatively more reach and others, such as radio, online or daily newspapers are better at frequency within a plan.

You need tools of the sort provided by our own Telmar or eTelmar to evaluate reach and frequency.

Sunday, February 15, 2004 #6382
My question: Is there a way to measure impact? is there such a term in media "impact"?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 15, 2004 ):
"Impact" is not a media term, it is a term used by advertisers (the dreaded client) and account execs, when they know they are supposed to insist on something special but are too lazy or insufficiently knowledgable to try to define it.

Impact could mean better sales results, more awareness building, more recall,etc, but the essence is to have more effect, somehow, on the target group and to generate better results for the brand. Impact is a useful shorthand term, if one knows the fuller meaning.

Saturday, January 31, 2004 #6372
I am doing an assignment for university based on recruitment for one of the armed forces. i cannot decide which would be most effective- to use higher frequency or reach..any ideas??

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 31, 2004 ):
The answer has many variables. Reach can be more expensive than frequency. Minority targets can be more difficult to reach and have fewer media options than a general audience. Suppose you had a ridiculously small budget of only $2500 and want to recruit Arab Americans. The problem would then be reach versus efficient targeting. Broad reach might argue for outdoor media in a neighborhood densly populated by Arab Americans, e.g. Brooklyn, New York's Atlantic Avenue. But that budget would buy only one small posting for 5 months. It could achieve substantial reach in that small area and good frequency but with a limited message and considerable waste.

City-wide Arabic newspapers might offer three different options covering broader geography for the same length of time. This would likely increase reach and lose frequency.

In short, never ignore budget parameters when thinking about reach versus frequency. With a more reasonable budget of $25,000, for the same goals, think more about reach and multiple media and adequate frequency will be there.

Reach versus frequency needs can also depend on awareness. If your audience is highly aware of your offering but needs persuading, then frequeuncy is probably more important; with no awareness, reach is primary.

Wednesday, November 26, 2003 #6275
Dear Media Guru, We did a multiple regression analysis to correlate the Nielsen awareness scores achieved by a brand with the media weights delivered by the brand. The entire category advertises only on Television. The dependent variable was the current awareness score for a brand (Y). The independent variables examined for the analysis were Share of Voice achieved by the brand in the Category in the week (X1), awareness in Previous Week(X2) and 1+ Reach achieved by the brand in the week (X3). This analysis was done for a eight-week period. The tracking continues. Hence, we are planning to extend the analysis and build a more robust base on which the analysis can be extended. The R-Square values we obtained after multiple tests for Current awareness with all three independent variables is 0.94 The R square values for any other combination is below 0.3 The question is a) Is this a collectively exhaustive list of what can cause impact on the awareness score ? b) Is there any flaw in the method used ? Regards RSV

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 28, 2003 ):
The method seems reasonable. The only other variables which immediately occur to the Guru are
  • # of competitors.
  • Ratio of share of market to largest SOV competitor. (i.e. 25% SOV might have a different impact against four other smaller competitors than against just one at 75% SOV).
  • Some measure of commercial impact, like recall

Monday, November 24, 2003 #6271
Need to justify the investment in brand awareness

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 28, 2003 ):
How many customers does the brand have who are not aware of the brand?

How many more might there be if there were greater brand awareenss?

Tuesday, August 19, 2003 #6130
Dear Guru I would like to know if there is any possibility to measure additional reach that is generated by adding other medium to usual media mix based on TV. For a couple of years we have been running almost 100% TV based campaigns for FMCG client and we have recently observed that there are no changes in building brands awareness nor other crucial barnds parameters. We are now deeply thinking about moving some part of the budghet to other mediums as we intuitively think we can be gaining some incremental value by this shift. Is there any way to measure what additional percentage we can gain by using TV + radio or print instead of using only TV? Is there any research on what incremental campaign reach or brand awareness can we get by this decision? We have difference of mediums research methodology (telemetric for TV vs declarative for radio and print) so perhaps you could indicate some findings or research. Thank you a lot

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, August 23, 2003 ):
The Guru infers from your query that you are in a country without media measurement or at least without reach models.

Reach models we have are consistent in demonstrating that adding weight to a base plan in a new medium increases total reach more than adding comparable weight in the base medium already in use. Reach models within single media generally are based on measured "curves" of growth. However the reach added by a new medium can typically be estimated by simple random probablilty calculations.

Click here to see Guru explanation of calculating reach by probability.

Friday, July 25, 2003 #6094
Dear Guru, I'm preparing an analysis of "going dark" aka taking a hiatus for an entire quarter for an insurance client who is typically on air 4 quarters/year. Can you site some sources (besides the ARF) that have data on taking a hiatus of this length and it's effect on awareness levels?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 27, 2003 ):
Try TV Bureau of Advertising, The Magazine Publishers' Association, The Newspaper Advertising Association and The Radio Advertising Bureau (RAB)

Tuesday, June 24, 2003 #6036
Is there a name for advertisements or promotions that retain brand awarness in a consumers mind after the advertisement is viewed, and if there is, is their a calculation or index to compare how effective an ad or promotion is at doing this?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 28, 2003 ):
They are called "good ones."

Whatever your standard is for effectiveness, awareness, sales, etc., it must be quantified, as % awareness for example. The result from any other promotion can then be divided by this standard to yield an index.

Monday, June 02, 2003 #5990
Media Guru: What is the carryover of awareness from one flight to the next? (with relatively little time between) How does the first flight affect the level of support necessary for the second flight? For instance, if the first flight achieves a target reach of 80%, I assume that your second flight could acheive the same reach at a lighter media level. Do you have any research on this? Please help! Thank you, Brooke

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 07, 2003 ):
The reach of a flight relates to the GRP and program dispersion. Given the same schedule, the same reach is achieved.

awareness is not the same as reach, but of course there is a relationship; only those reached will have ad awareness.

Once a level of awareness is established, less weight may be necessary to maintain that awareness. One rule of thumb is a 10% decline in awareness in each week without advertising. From this, levels of added support can be planned. Much depends on the levels achieved and desired.

Monday, June 02, 2003 #5988
Question wrote at Wednesday, May 21, 2003 #5979: We’ve done an Adawareness modeling and planning for 8 markets. And we require to do projection for other dozens of markets. The objective is to define the budget setting of each market based on our models. What’s the best approach we should look at? The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 24, 2003 ): It is not clear what the result of your "awareness modeling" is. Does your model give you the weight to deliver by medium? In that case, you just need access to media costs by market. If not, your query needs clarification. The awareness Modeling gave us the response function and we can do prediction based on the parameters we found (short/long term effect, decay, etc.) Up to now the awareness planning will help us to identify how much weight we need to get certain level of adawareness, and vice versa, how much adawareness we can get with our media weight. We're still consentrating in the aided TV adawareness modeling. The question is, how can we apply our modeling (8 markets) to any other market. As far as we understand, the response function and awareness modeling itself are applied only for the tracked Market respectively. Is there any successful case study for applying awareness modeling into other market which has no historical awareness data?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 02, 2003 ):
If you define your model as not applicable to other markets, you leave yourself with no options.

Try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Thursday, May 29, 2003 #5983
what is the formula or how can we calculate the recall impact or residual impact after a TV campaign

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 31, 2003 ):
Recall is not a factor of media so much as an artifact of the power of the creative. In general, some formulae show a loss of approximately 10% of the preceding week's ad awareness level for each week with no new activity.

Thursday, May 22, 2003 #5980
Dear Guru, My Client insists on using celebrities in ad campaigns of his brands. The main objective is to encrease brand awareness significantly. How can we evaluate whether using celebrities is more cost effective than just investing into direct advertising. Not taking into consideration other celebrities values like distiction, trust etc. Thanks in advance

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 24, 2003 ):
Testing seems to be the answer. Try a campaign with no celebrity in a control market and compare results vs costs. If awareness (not sales) is your only standard, then a laboratory copy test shouyld be sufficient. Either way, this is not a media question.

Wednesday, May 21, 2003 #5979
We’ve done an Adawareness modeling and planning for 8 markets. And we require to do projection for other dozens of markets. The objective is to define the budget setting of each market based on our models. What’s the best approach we should look at?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 24, 2003 ):
It is not clear what the result of your "awareness modeling" is. Does your model give you the weight to deliver by medium? In that case, you just need access to media costs by market. If not, your query needs clarification.

Friday, April 25, 2003 #5952
I'm looking for any data about double spots in one break - if such startegy improves memorability and awareness

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, April 26, 2003 ):
Try TV Bureau of Advertising aqnd The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Monday, April 21, 2003 #5941
apart from reach, frequency and continuity is there any subject that can be used in determining media objectives?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, April 26, 2003 ):
Seasonality, purchase cycle, effective frequency, BDI/CDI, awareness, wearout, etc.

Thursday, March 20, 2003 #5890
what is it?- Direct Respond Advertising

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 22, 2003 ):
This is advertising such as Direct Mail with a response card or TV infomercials with a toll-free telephone ordering number, which asks the audience to immediately place an order when the see the ad. This is different from brand building, awareness building or retail promotion.

Sunday, March 16, 2003 #5882
Dear Guru: our client (a premium price mineral water with a great brand awareness, although years of absence in communication) is considering 2 different media plan for the relaunch campaign: first based on national tv + press and the 2nd on press+outdoor. The budget is 1/4, 1/3 of the top spender in the market. In tv there is a very competitive arena (200-300 grp's per week). The positioning of the brand should target affluent, dinamic and young women: in your opinion it's better to concentrate the media budget on media less used by competitors (targeted press and outdoor) developing a "great noise" or you think it's better plan tv like the 95% of our competitors, risking to not be visible? thank you very much (sorry for my english)

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, March 20, 2003 ):
In this case the Guru thinks being big in unique media has an advantage, if you can reach the people you need to reach. But do consumers think about relative frequency within media or are they simply exposed to what they are exposed to?

Can you make a case for one medium being more effective than the other?

Wednesday, February 26, 2003 #5857
If we have a print campaign starting in March and ending in June and we can only afford 4 insertions in a national would you suggest we flight them? One per week for every other week or in a row? Please advise. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 02, 2003 ):
So many "it depends" factors. What is the pourchase cycle? Is it important to keep a flow of response over the entire period? Is it direct reponse or awareness building? A lot more strategic input is needed on which to base this answer. In any case, the plan seems so light that the choice is probably not going to make a great difference in results.

Saturday, February 08, 2003 #5818
Dear Guru: Is there any book or article that explain deeply the relation between sport lenght, media weight and advertising awareness? Thanks in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 17, 2003 ):
Any media planning book might touch upon this subject, See AMIC Bookstore (in association with

Sunday, February 02, 2003 #5795
Dear Guru: I have seen the terms "adstock" and "half life" mentioned a number of times, but I did not find any staightforward definitions of these term. Will appreciate your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 03, 2003 ):
The Guru does not recognize either as media terms. The actual term "half life" refers to the time it takes half of the radioactivity in a radioactive object to decay. The Guru is not aware of this term as a standard media usage, though it might be applied to something like awareness decline after advertising stops.

Wednesday, January 29, 2003 #5778
Mr. Guru, I am the marketing director for a PI law firm. The firm has been on tv for the past 15 yrs. Of course, our target is anyone from age 8-88. I have read a ton on the recency theory and feel that it may work for us. In the past we have always concentrated on the highest reach with keeping freq. at at least 3. However, I feel that we've built brand awareness over the year and that the frequency level should not be a factor. In addition, I don't think that people really recognize an attorneys comercial unless 1. They've been exposed to it a lot, or 2. Are exposed to it when they are in the market. Can you comment, and possibly lead me in a direction to reports and studies concerning attorneys or similar industry? Thanks for you help.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 03, 2003 ):
The Guru agrees your commercial is only effective when someone is in the market, so recency is appropriate.

Monday, January 20, 2003 #5745
Dear Guru: Can you give some information about when is better to do enfasis in reach or frecuency. I mean we have to consider the marketing goals.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 26, 2003 ):
Yes, you must consider marketing goals, particularly communication needs. Do you need to communicate with more people (for example, in building brand awareness) of more often (for example, in a short term retail promotion)?

Thursday, January 16, 2003 #5737
Please accept my request for your providing medium/vehicle life span for awareness including half life

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 18, 2003 ):
This question confusingly mixes two, or perhaps more, not-necessarily-connected concepts.

Saturday, January 04, 2003 #5715
Dear Guru: Are there any studies showing the relationship between advertising exposure frequency and sales? Does the effective frequency theory deal with the exposure-sale relationship, or rather exposure-awareness relationship? And in the latter case, is there any study showing the connection between awareness and sales? Thanks, R.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 04, 2003 ):
Try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Wednesday, December 18, 2002 #5692
Dear Guru: What is the correlation between ad awareness and brand awareness? Thanks, R.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 19, 2002 ):
That there is a correlation seems obvious, but there are many intervening variables for which to control.

Try Journal of Advertising Research.

Wednesday, December 18, 2002 #5691
Dear Guru: We can calculate (or estimate or guestimate) how much reach we can get for every dollar we spend on TV. Question: Can we calculate how much brand awareness we can get for every dollar we spend on TV? If positive, how do we do that? Thanks, R.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 19, 2002 ):
It would be an after the fact estimate, as is reach, really. You would need top have measured awareness across a variety of schedules and built a curve.

But, Reach is simply a head-count measure of media delivery, while awarenss is influenced by creative and other circumstance, so a predictive model would be much more complex.

Wednesday, November 27, 2002 #5649
How can I optimize a media plan based on advertising response curve???

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, December 01, 2002 ):
If your advertising response curve is assumed to be "S" shaped (as in many published studies), this means there are diminshing returns as frequency (repeated exposure) is added after an optimal point.

One approach to optimization on this basis might be to begin building reach in the most effective medium, and add the next most effective medium at the point of diminishing returns of the first. Then, the added exposures would be more likely to hit a previously unexposed group of prospects.

This assumes you will base your judgement of "most effective medium" on the one which generates the most results (sales / awareness / perception change, etc.) per dollar. . . and track incremental results on the same basis.

Saturday, November 02, 2002 #5594 do you measure the effectiveness of sponsorship? sponsorship more effective than other types of media

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 05, 2002 ):
You must begin by deciding what kind of effectiveness you want: sales, public opinion, image, awareness?

For some of these, e.g. public opinion, image, sponsorship may be more effective. Sponsorship is about depth of communication and its impact, media is about breadth of communication. Media gets reach and freqeuncy, sponsorship engages the hearts of those who care about what you sponsor, and will cost you in reach and frequency terms.

Monday, October 28, 2002 #5587
I'm looking for a list of the top 10-20 companies/agencies/organizations that focus on retention and where they are located.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 05, 2002 ):
It isn't clear whether you mean customer retention or awareness retention, two quite different concepts. The Guru does not know of any such listings, but this isn't really a media question.

Tuesday, October 22, 2002 #5574
Dear Guru, I am interested in the perfect values of the following media parameters for one TV campaign of beer product (May be there is some standards): 1. Number of flights per year 2. TRP’ s per week 3. TRP’ s per campaign 4. OTS per campaign 5. Reach 1+, 3+, 5+ per campaign I am interested which are the effective frequency and the effective reach. Thank you very much for your answers.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 27, 2002 ):
There are no perfect answers. Within whatever budget you have, you must consider what is possible. If you can afford 5,200 GRP per year, is it better to have 100 GRP per week every week or 146 GRP for 9 four week flights?

Part of the answer depends on how you set the effective frequency goal. Perhaps seasonality tells you you need the 150 in the summer but only the 100 the rest of the year. What level do the competitors run? What is your brand awareness? What are your awareness goals, sales goals, share goals?

In short, budget, and many circumstances need to be considered rather than any quest for abstractly 'perfect' answers

Friday, October 04, 2002 #5545
Hi folks, Has anyone come across any research on reach R(1+,2+,...n+) and Brand awareness. Idea is to understand whether there are some coefficients, that would allow to forecast Brand awareness given a R(1+) dez

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 06, 2002 ):
Try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Tuesday, September 17, 2002 #5520
Dear Media Guru, 1) We represent a home services marketer that has a budget of $700,000 per year ($55K/month) and the goal is to raise BRAND awareness in the US and Canada. What media would you recommend to obtain the greatest impact on a national level with this budget? The target is upscale working women 35-64, Household income $100,000+. 2) How do we go about securing partners for co-branding ... is there an agency that specializes in this, or a directory you know of? 3) Where can I find someone to help get this service placed in a tv show or movie? 4) What do you know about advertising in hotels, in their electronic on-screen check-out process? 5) Any other non-traditional avenues I might look in to? Thank you very much.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 17, 2002 ):
  1. Understand that $700,000 is a VERY LOW budget for a national campaign. It is the not even a strong budget for a major market. The Guru would begin with network radio and national cable for the target and brand you mention. The Guru would probably recommend not even being national, but selecting a few markets where the budget would have an impact.
  2. Co-branding is not a media issue
  3. Click here to see past Guru responses about in-film product placemnt
  4. Contact the hotel chains for their in-system ads
  5. Consider Welcome Wagon and Telephone company new customer packages.

Monday, September 16, 2002 #5518
wich media generates awareness?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 17, 2002 ):
All media generate awareness. The copy and schedule play enormous roles in resulting awareness.

Wednesday, September 11, 2002 #5514
Our client uses TV, newspapers, direct mail and the yellow pages and measures each response (via an 800 number)separately for each medium. We have told them that all media is integrated and he can't look at individual responses and measure cost per response for each medium - that an integrated multi-media plan actually delivers better results and that you cann't look at individual medium cost-per-responses. Can you help substantiate this?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 16, 2002 ):
Obviously, previously established awareness of a brand makes it much more liklet that its Yellow Pages ad will be the one that gets a response. Try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Wednesday, August 14, 2002 #5462
Dear Media Guru: Let's say there are 2 competing chewing gum brands in the market that generate over 800 GRPs weekly each. Clearly they are fighting for a higher SOV. The awareness level of each is close to 100%. I would think that when you have such a high awareness level you just need to maintain it with about 100 or max 200 GRPs weekly which will give you 80-85% reach. Maybe there are merits in such huge GRP weights that I am not aware of? Thanks, R.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, August 14, 2002 ):
In communications levels questions, it is always important to understand that different target groups and especially differetn cultures have different expectations and needs.

You appear to be writing from Uzbekistan, so the Guru's experience may not apply directly.

Sometimes schedules seem high because ratings are enormous, perhaps 25%, so any kind of frequency runs to heavy GRP weights. If ratings are 2-5% than this probably isn't a factor.

There are more effects derived from GRP weights than just reach. At the levels of which you speak, frequency becomes the key variable. If chewing gum is a major staple in your market with users making purhcase decisions daily, extreme frequency levels might be justified. If gum brands have more significant social overtones - i.e. are culturally significant, unlike the U.S. perhaps the weight is justified.

In a U.S. context, these levels do seem mystifying.

Thursday, August 08, 2002 #5456
Do you know of any research that would show which is more effective in gaining audience attention: a medium length schedule with larger ads (6x with spread ads for example), or a longer schedule with smaller ads (12x with full page ads). Any insight is appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, August 10, 2002 ):
There will be many studies of this nature. The key is your definition of "audience attention." Reach will be greater with the greater number of ads. Recall or noting is likely to be greater with the spreads. Ad or brand awareness might be the more decisive difference.

Try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter,

Thursday, July 25, 2002 #5435
Many years ago I used a formula to measure brand recall on TV. It was called the Zielski Study, and basically you applied a formula to the TV weekly TARP weightings when on air and another formula to current recall % achieved to measure the recall "drop off" factor when off air. You were then able to manage flighting of a TV schedule to either maintain a target recall %, or analyse exactly how many weeks you could be off air before dropping below a nominated recall % and then calculate how many TARPs were required to lift recall to the desired target. You wouldn't happen to have that algebraic formula would you?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 27, 2002 ):
You seem to be talking of awareness, an aspect of a brand or of advertising, rather than recall, a phenomenon usually attributed to an individual advertisement.

The kink in these formulae is that they seem to be keyed to 100 GRP per week for a brand with established awareness. Click here to see Guru discussion of awareness decline formulae.

Friday, July 19, 2002 #5424
In your opinion, what are the key differences between direct marketing and media advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 20, 2002 ):
You don't seem to be contrasting actual dichotomies. Unless you mean to compare "direct mail" versus media?

Then there are the distinctions of simply measuring sales against the possibilites of brand building, awareness, imagery, etc

Friday, June 07, 2002 #5335
I'm looking for a resource that compares different mediums of advertising and their effectiveness in the market (cost vs.numbers reached/caipaign success rates), where could I find the name of such a publication the publication.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 08, 2002 ):
The problem is in defining "campaign success rates." One definition might work in direct response and quite another in a package goods awareness campaign or a political or corporate image campaign.

It is a mistake to compare without considering the standards of succes for the category or without considering the importance of factors beyon the medium itself, like creative, for example.

It is reasonable easy to find media efficiency comparisons, using sources like AMIC's Ad Data area.

Thursday, June 06, 2002 #5330
Is there any data that supports the belief that it is best to advertise when sales are most likely to occur? For example, a restaurant advertising near the dinner hour, Wed-Sat, during peak months.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 08, 2002 ):
This is a commonly held belief among smaller retailers, and includes not advertising when the store is closed. The key to advertising timing is advertising when the decision is being made. If one thinks that persons are deciding what to have for dinner an hour before dinner and are likely to be using TV or radio then, there is some argument. But advertising works by creating an awareness and overall impression through campaigns, not by consumers reacting to one specific commercial that makes them turn the car around and head for a different restaurant.

For research, see The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Thursday, May 23, 2002 #5306
In my heavy spending media test, the control markets will not receive advertising. Therefore what should I look for in the control market results when we ultimately compare pre and post scores?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 23, 2002 ):
This does not seem to make sense. A "Heavy Spending Test" is a comparison to a normal spending plan. If there is NO advertising in the control market, you lose your comparison base.

In any case, pre and post would compare increases in the heavy market to the control. Are you trying to drive awareness? Is the percent lift comparable to the spending increase? Have you projected sales in relation to awareness? Recall?

Wednesday, May 22, 2002 #5300
what are the best metrics for measuring: effectiveness efficiency

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 23, 2002 ):
1. When available, the best metric for effectiveness is sales or some direct measure of the ultimate goal. Sometimes the ultimate goal is a change in image or increse in awareness. These goals are almost never purely a result of media, except in controlled test scenarios.

2. Media efficiency is simply a matter of definition:
Audience achieved per dollar spent.
"Audience" may be expressed as thousands of impressions or rating points or sometimes, net reach

Tuesday, May 21, 2002 #5295
Avoiding media jargon: provided client have 2 spot (each 30") and he would like to hear recommendation of rotation. Particularly he asked of any proven examples of tactics when one spot is placed 1st in commercial block and the second spot is placed last in block- he called it "top-&-tail" (any research saying it is more effective than random placing in block). The other side of the story is - I suggested to rotate as follows: 1 spot - any other commercial- 2nd spot- other commercials (I heard it is called "consecutive spots". Both spots are in form of reportage- this connects them and therefore I recommended such rotation. I read in couple of books that qualitatively placing 1st /last in break is more effective, as peaple switch to other stations after 1st spot and than come back likely at the end of the block, but it was not proved by any examples, case studies, which is requested by my client.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, May 22, 2002 ):
There is research showing first and last in break are more likely to be viewed. The alternate 'consecutive' might be more effective in awareness / recall building. among those who view the entire set.

So the first issue is to set a standard of "success." Is it most viewers or most recall? Or is it really sales in resonse to audience size versus audience impact?

Best research resources are ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization and The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Tuesday, May 14, 2002 #5284
Hello, I am looking for some help on determing ROI for a print media campaign I've had running for about 8 months. Unfortunately, I cannot include sales as we are a B2B company and our product is pricey (read millions of dollars). So advertising is not going to make the phone ring with sales but I would like to put something together to determine how effective the print campaign is at awareness/perception. Or at least reach/frequency. Is there any rules of thumb I can go by or incorporate besides just circulation and cost per pub? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 18, 2002 ):
Click here to see numerous past Guru responses, posted for your reference, regarding estimating reach and frequency.

awareness / perception may be a useful metric in evaluating a plan, but unfortuately you really need to have a benchmark base level from before the campaign began.

Thursday, May 09, 2002 #5274
If we are planning to introduce a new product to the mass market and want to achieve 30% awareness in the first year, What would be a good assumption in the planning budget for cost of advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 12, 2002 ):
There are too many variables to answer this simply. Assuming the right creative and media mix and target and product, $10 million might be enough. Or $50 million might not be. It's much more than a media question.

Thursday, May 02, 2002 #5264
What are the most often used metrics to measure effectiveness of media investment.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 05, 2002 ):
Sales, awareness, purchase intent.

Wednesday, March 27, 2002 #5176
What does the term "half life" mean and how is it calculated?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 30, 2002 ):
The actual term "half life" refers to the time it takes half of the radioactivity in a radioactive object to decay. The Guru is not aware of this term as a standard media usage, though it might be applied to something like awareness decline after advertising stops.

Wednesday, March 27, 2002 #5175
What research is there available that discusses the link between media plans and brand awareness?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 27, 2002 ):
Try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Tuesday, February 26, 2002 #5121
If an advertiser cuts their typical TV schedule in half for three months, can we guage any residual effect in the following three months even if they return to normal levels.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 27, 2002 ):
One old rule of thumb was that about 10% of the previous week's awareness is lost each week without advertising. A collateral rule was that about 10% of the GRPs were added back to reach if some advertisng ran.

So, if awareness was 80% and you had been running 100 GRP per week, after one week without advertisng, awareness would fall to 72%. But if you ran 50 GRP instead of nothing, you could gain back 5 points.

Obviously, this scenario will always show an awareness loss in any week with less than 100 GRP, no mattere the ratio to prior weeks GRPs. It is overly simplistic, but may be directionally useful.

Tuesday, January 15, 2002 #5006
I have been asked to provide the impact of advertising by medium, for a multi-media retail plan. The advertising consists of TV, Radio and Outdoor. The percentages are: TV 80%, Radio 14% and Outdoor 6%. The communication is both branding and price/item. During the TV campaigns the creative split is 60% branding/40% price & item. The radio is almost exclusively price and item and the outdoor is 100% branding.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 17, 2002 ):
First you need to define the 'civilian' term 'impact'. Is it
  • Sales contribution
  • recall
  • awareness
  • or something else?

    Are the percentages Budget, impressiosn, reach contribution or . . .?

    This is not a reasonable question.

Thursday, November 22, 2001 #4905
Media Guru: Is there any information available that demonstrates the relationship of awareness (unaided and aided) to market share? I realize this is probably specific to product categories, markets, etc. -- but I am looking for any general "rule of thumb" guidelines. I work in business-to-business marketing, and would data from this area rather than general consumer goods. Also...can you suggest some "further reading" sources on this subject?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 22, 2001 ):
A good resource is Cahners Business Information

Saturday, October 27, 2001 #4835
What wins ad size or frequency? Are there any case studies or research available that proves either theory? Your assistance is greatly appreciated to help settle this debate.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 28, 2001 ):
What wins what?

The Guru finds that frequency will do better at generating awareness, recall or reach. Size may convey a different impression of "importance." Frequency is probably better for sales, but ad size may be better for image or to convey certain highly graphic ideas.

Friday, October 12, 2001 #4788
Does it pay to advertise on the Internet?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 15, 2001 ):
It does for some. Simple click though to simple purchases can work. Less direct, less measurable awareness build might not be proven to pay.

Friday, October 05, 2001 #4756
my client (a bicycle manufacturer) wants to change their regular campaign of brochures and :25 radio commercials to brochures and :5 radio commercials, involving just the jingle. their goal is to increase awareness. their current awareness level is 40%. we would like to advise them to stick with the longer commercials, as we believe you need to inform the consumer to build brand awareness, image, purchase intent etc. the jingle alone, we think, will only produce short term effects. do you know of any research that supports this? thank you!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 05, 2001 ):
The Guru agrees with you overall and presumes you are now running :25s with a :05 dealer tag. Also that you mean to swaitch to putting a :05 tag on a dealer commercial you are buying on behalf of the dealers. Surely no one will sell you stand alone :05s. It seems wasteful and lacking in brand sell to do this :05 thing.

Try The Radio Advertising Bureau (RAB) for research.

Wednesday, October 03, 2001 #4754
Is there an "equivalancy" formula comparing the effectiveness of one newspaper and and a television commercial that appears "x" times for equal recall?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 08, 2001 ):
No standard formula. Once you set your units, you mught compare awareness or other measures. The right comparison should allow common budgets, not compare unit to unit.

Friday, September 07, 2001 #4702
I am looking for info on awareness decline to defend continuity scheduling. I have found in the archives your reference to 5-10% decline per week of no advertising and would like a bit more meat than the rule of thumb. Can you tell me more about it? And how does the 5-10% decline come off of the awareness: 60% *.95 or .9 = 54-57% or 60% -5 or 10% = 50-55%? I'm also referencing recency. These questions are to help me build a model of some sort. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, September 07, 2001 ):
The meaning is 60*.95 or *.9. This way it's asymtotic, like reach. The other way, no awareness would remain from any starting level after 10 to 20 weeks.

Tuesday, September 04, 2001 #4696
Dear Guru: What value would you give to a :10 live radio liner versus that of a :30 spot? Would you consider the value of the liner the same --- an impression is an impression regardless of the spot length? Thank you for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 08, 2001 ):
There is certainly less value in a liner. Typically liners are ojly mentions of the advertiser in conjuntion with a program or event, e.g. "Come down and meet our DJs at the mall, courtesy of (advertiser)."

In this case, the value is hard to compare to a brand :30 message, because it isn't aiming at the same goals, but valuing it at a simple proportionate one-third is reasonable. If the liner is a miniaturized barnd message, it may be worth half based on simple awareness building. If you're couunting impressions for bragging purposes, as in charging up the sales force or trade, you might play the 'an impression is and impresssion' game.

Tuesday, August 21, 2001 #4671
I have a client that wants to build awareness and they are already have a 30% awareness so is there a way we can translet building awareness to a reach %?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 26, 2001 ):
No, too many variables. Some rules of thumb, when you consider awareness directly correlated with reach, are:
  1. Awarenss is never higher than cume reach
  2. awareness begins to decline as soon as advertsing stops

Tuesday, July 10, 2001 #4564
Hi Guru! I am looking for any statistics on the use of piggybacked :30s (to make one :60) in radio and :15s (to make one :30) in TV to increase awareness/ effectiveness. Does this technique help?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 11, 2001 ):
The Guru doesn't follow your reasoning. Are you expecting that repeating a :15 twice in thirty seconds will have more effectiveness ore build more awarness than stand-alone :15s at the same budget or more than whole :30s at that budget?

Pairs of piggy-backed :15s in TV will no doubt yield less awareness than stand-alone :15s, because the reach will be less. As to effectiveness, you need to define that in terms of awareness, intent to purchase, sales results etc. Pairs of piggy backed :15s versus whole :30's would yield the same reach. There might be more awareness because of the apparent error, but there will be reduced message content.

For research try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Thursday, July 05, 2001 #4548
Do you have any knowledge as to the long-term impact of radio. For example, we ran 8 weeks of traffic radio; how long can we expect this to have an impact on sales?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 06, 2001 ):
If the campaign was aimed at awareness building, rather than a promotion, and it was the only advertising for something new, whatver "impact" might last a few weeks. It depends more on the uniqueness of the product and the creative. Consult The Radio Advertising Bureau (RAB).

Monday, June 11, 2001 #4472
We have twenty-three auto glass stores in twenty-three different markets. Our target audience is anyone owning a car 18+. Historically, this industry does very little advertising, relying on the insurance agents to refer their insureds to glass shops. Now they are using third-party billing systems and sending insureds to a rotation system. What mediums would be most effective to begin building awareness and telling the consumer why they should come to us?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 16, 2001 ):
With only these details to go on, Primetime TV.

Friday, June 01, 2001 #4451
Hi Guru. I've read through your responses to questions relating to "reach and frequency" and "awareness", but haven't found exactly what I'm looking for. In setting up goals for a new product launch media plan, we've determined that the overall goal is to generate awareness. What we don't know is the correlation between r/f and awareness. In other words, if we know that we're gong to have an effective (3+) reach of 82.85% and a frequency of 8.63, what % of unaided awareness could we expect to achieve? Will Ostrow's effective frequency model help in this case? Is there a model / matrix used to determine awareness levels? Thanks so much.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 01, 2001 ):
awareness does not correlate absolutely with reach. There are too many other factors, like the quality and memorability of the creative and the advertising environment. Obviously only those reached by the advertising will be aware of the advertising. But there can be wide variance in how many of those reach a given number of times can report awarness in research. Even if awareness corresponded well with reach, there could be varying results due to differences in awareness research technique. Advertisers who do a lot of awarness tracking can build reliable models for thier own use, by tracking results of comparable research studies against known R&F. Similarly, research houses which frequently field awareness studies could get reach and frequencies, for the campaigns tested, and build a model.

Thursday, May 31, 2001 #4442
This is in continuation of the measurement of online campaign ..yse click thru, time spent cd be a few parameters , however to take it a step further and say with confidence that the brand awareness, brand building has leaped by such and such %age, wd a pre and post be an appropriate method ? Is there an precedence to this ?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 01, 2001 ):
Comparing awareness measures before and after a campaign is a very basic approach. You need to be sure that the measured campaign is the only marketing communications during the measured period, of course, or control for the presence of other influences.

Wednesday, May 30, 2001 #4441
This is in regard to automotive advertising. A schedule is bought for each franchise/product. Let's use 3 products for this question. Each schedule is a modest R/F of 65% / 3.5. The creative is one spot for each product, a "donut", the open and close are identical or have the same theme but with a different product in each of the 3 spots. All three spots run within the same flight dates. Is the reach and frequency actually greater on each product because of the "common" open and close or does the common open/close just build the "brand"?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, May 30, 2001 ):
Though there may be some synergy in brand awareness, "reach" is simple statistics. The middle of the donut reaches only those who see it.

Wednesday, May 30, 2001 #4438
Hi Guru, Is there any way we can measure the effectiveness of any online ad campaign?For instance a sponsorship of 3 months can be measured by doing a pre and post research among the netizens. Please advise , thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, May 30, 2001 ):
Measuring effectiveness starts with setting goals. If your campaign is aimed at awareness or purchase intent then your idea is appropriate. Some campaigns can be measured by click-thru.

Saturday, May 12, 2001 #4388
dear sir, may i know what are the limitations of internet advertising!

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 12, 2001 ):
Different ad units will have specific limits, but as a medium, some key limitations are:
  • Total reach: only 50% or so of any population are internet users, some groups much less, some a bit more.
  • Individual ads on specific sites have very low reach potential; a high reach schedule can be very expensive
  • Click rates are vanishly low; a problem if generating traffic, rather than awareness/branding is your goal
  • Acceptance of internet advertisng is controversial, many consumers seem to object to its presence.

Monday, May 07, 2001 #4372
Dear Guru, this question was last asked in 1997. I would love to hear your comments based on current(2001) and beyond...your opinion on the changing shape of the media environment. How the media is changing for the near future, what are the main trends in the media and how will it change the media planning? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 07, 2001 ):
In 1997, the Guru said

Media have always changed. Once there were only print media and billboards. Then radio, then TV. Not only do new media arise, but the numbers of media vehicles of each type of each type proliferate. The web is only the latest and most explosive example of this proliferation. What causes the changes for the planner is the availability of research and hard facts on which to base decisions, rather than using theory. One of the biggest changes may be the growing emphasis on direct response models for evaluating media effectiveness, rather than awareness, recall, or requests for additional information. Or is it the ability to apply computer models to planning?

Today, the emphasis on the new has shifted to internet. Its importance as media must always be kept distinct from the prblrms of dot-com's business models. In 1997 the direct response issue and internet were moslty on the same track: click rate and sell-through. Today CRM is the buzz word and the webs' data capture and branding ability fit well with marketings new emphasis on those two issues.

The Guru believes that other technologies promoted as the coming thing will continue to languish until they give the user more than they demand of him/her, these are interactive TV and wireless internet.

Friday, April 27, 2001 #4347
What incremental level of brand awareness can feasibly be generated by a TV and Internet buy as opposed to a TV only buy?. i.e. will adding an online component to media buy help to build better brand awareness?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 29, 2001 ):
It depends, among other things,
  • On the current level of brand awareness
  • On the level of awareness among internet users
  • On the levels of the media used
  • On the reach obtained in each medium

In short, this question needs to be very much more specific to answer usefully. But key facts are that TV has reach potential better than 95% and internet only about 50%. Thus with no budget limits, TV could add enough awareness so that any added benefit of internet might well be immeasurable. At some budgets, internet contribution could be significant.

Thursday, April 12, 2001 #4324
Dear Guru, we are working on a sort of educational document for an important client. What we have in mind is: what should the ideal media briefing look like, som basic media terms (GRP, OTS, coverage,...), what is the difference between strategic and tactical planning, media-memorisation, ... I was wondering if you have some examples of such documents that could give us an idea of such a presentation. Thanks for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 12, 2001 ):
To determine the right media briefing, you must know your audience:
  • What do they already know?
  • What do they want to know?
  • What do they need to know for future interactions?

From the syntax of your query, you seem to use British media terms (like OTS, rarely heard in the U.S.), but your email address is in Belgium. Therefore the Guru is hesitant to try to list the media terms most relevant for your needs. As a broad guide, see the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan and the Guru's Media Terms, keeping in mind that these are often U.S. - specific.

You may click here to see past Guru discussion of strategy versus tactics but briefly, tactics are specific courses of action taken to implement strategies. For example using TV is a tactic to achieve a strategy of attaining high reach towards and awareness-building objective.

Wednesday, March 28, 2001 #4291
I have a client that is in the storage business. They just launched a US branding campaign in trade print in March. However, they have a new product that is launching in April and would like to promote it. How long should the branding ads run before you should begin to run product ads. Can you run them at the same time if so how much should be branding ads vs. product??

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, March 29, 2001 ):
This is not a media question, albeit the answer will determine some elements of a media plan. This is about which copy to run or which message to communicate to build target audience response.

These are marketing issues to address before touching media. The answers will depend on the nature of the industry and the client's current awareness and postioning.

Friday, March 16, 2001 #4261
I am working as a marketing consultant for an eBusiness/solutions provider. One of our clients is a government entity. We are writing a marketing and communications plan to promote awareness of their new brand image. Do you have any suggestions of materials I could use for reference?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 20, 2001 ):
Try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Wednesday, March 07, 2001 #4243
Media guru, hopefully you can help me. I am trying to obtain definitions for the following. These phrases get thrown around so often here, but I am not completely sure what they mean; 1) Media strategy? 2) Communications strategy - how does it differ from media strategy? 3) Brand communications as opposed to advertising? Appreciate the help.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 13, 2001 ):
You are right that these phrases get thrown around loosely. Part of the problem is that they have common English meanings and another is that, like many advertising terms, they have different meanings in various English speaking countries.

Looking "from the top down" may help understanding. First of all, generally "strategies" are courses of action designed to meet objectives.

  • Marketing objectives are big overall goals like increasing sales 10% per year.
  • A marketing strategy aimed at meeting this objective this objective might be to use consumer advertising.
  • An advertising objective within this marketing strategy could be to increase trial of the brand.
  • An advertising strategy within this could be a budget for consumer media.
  • A media objective under this strategy could call for building awareness among a new target segment.
  • Media strategies to achieve this objective might include a communications strategy of achieving X% reach in each four week period at a minium of Y average frequency

Brand communications is a broad concept including all messages delivered to consumers and trade via advertising, promotion, public relations, etc.

Sunday, February 25, 2001 #4206
what is the importance of advertising in small business should there be motivation for them to advertise and in what forms and how to measure it?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 25, 2001 ):
Advertising is a means of generating awareness and sales. Ways and means vary according to each business' needs, customers and opportunities.

A chain of beauty salons will face very different challenges than a small electronics manufacturer.

Wednesday, February 21, 2001 #4200
Is there a defined difference between a DRTV spot and a general spot with a call to action message? Also, can you run either of those spots in a general buy (e.g, on ER)? Also, does doing this make sense if you have dual objectives (i.e., awareness and trial?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 22, 2001 ):
Your first question is not a media issue. Why not run a DR spot on ER to build awareness? But don't expect DR rates. "Trial" seems an odd goal for the typical DR - make a sale now - product.

Monday, February 19, 2001 #4194
Dear Guru, what is "cost per aquisition" and what do you believe is the most acceptable way to count the effectiveness of a web site? Impressions or unique visitors? This is a huge problem in Greece right now. Every site has it's own general overview of it's performance and visitor's behavior so things are confused. Thanks in advance

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 19, 2001 ):
"Cost per acquistion" may refer to the marketing spending required to bring a new visitor to a site, ot the cost of generating a subscriber, or the cost of making whatever sale a site aime at.

Sites have different goals, missions and standards of success. A site might be designed to sell retail products such as books, vdeos, muic, food, cars, etc. These sites may need repeat customers, who buy music every month or more often. A site selling automobiles will probably not see the saem customer more than once in three years once sale is made.

Other sites generate revenue via advertising, still others from subscriptions, and some by conveying information to support corporate image, with a one-time message. If you are evaluating sites as advertising vehicles, and seeking reach, then unique vistors will be the key. >"Brand Visibilty Index" is not a standardized media term. It might be a term invented by one agency or advertsing school to indicate a specific concept they use in describing some situation. It might be an index of Brand GRP versus category average GRP. Or it might be something else based on awareness, clutter, etc.

What may seem important to a site, like building impressions so that it has ad inventory to sell, may be relatively meaningless to an advertiser. Sites with a million unique visitors may be able to sell you as many unique visitors as a site with 10 million, because your needs only call for 200,000 unique audience. Evaluate according to your plan's needs, not the site's claims of success.

Saturday, February 17, 2001 #4192
What is brand visibilty index ? How do you calculate Brand Visibilty Index from Media Planning perspective ? Please state examples ?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 19, 2001 ):
"Brand Visibilty Index" is not a standardized media term. It might be a term invented by one agency or advertsing school to indicate a specific concept they use in describing some situation. It might be an index of Brand GRP versus category average GRP. Or it might be something else based on awareness, clutter, etc.

Wednesday, February 14, 2001 #4180
Hi! Dear Guru thank you for your last ansewrs! How do You think is it possible to estimate budget/GRP limit with wich there is no sence to advertise on TV (ad. cmp. will be lost in ad.clutter). Or there is no any limits at all? For instance could 10 spots placed in prime-time on national channel(with av. rating 10%)give some results? Spasibo!(means thank you in russian).

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 14, 2001 ):
Any advertising has some effect. There is a threshhold of awareness where a noticable difference in consumer response occurs.

Some say those exposed more than three times respond noticably more. Others speculate that once the three exposure threshold is past, continuous exposure wit a reach of 30+ per week is the key to sales.

Your 100 GRP schedule is a good starting point.

Monday, January 08, 2001 #4087
Guru, First off, just wanted to let you know that I find this to be one of the most usefull sites on the web - as a management consultant in need of a crash course on media planning, the information found in these pages has proven invaluable...Now, on to my question: I am working on the launch of a branded consumer services play (auto related), and am trying to build a marketing budget from the bottom up, rather than as a strict % of sales. I have modeled an overly simplified media plan, and am looking for guidance on placeholders to use for weights (TRP) for TV and Radio, # of weekly inserts for newspaper, and showing level for outdoor. I know there are numerous factors and considerations I am leaving out (I know the GURU doesn't like sweeping generalizations), but I need a place to start. Goal: generate "substantial awareness" (think Midas, Maaco). Thanks for your insights.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 11, 2001 ):
The Guru thanks you for the compliments.

Keep in mind that while "substantial awareness" may be a snappy phrase for discussion of plans, you need to quantify such a term in order to quantify the building blocks of getting there.

Let's suppose we decide the goal is 80% ad awareness among the target within a given campaign period. Therefore, your advertising must reach at least 80% of the target in that period, with enough frequency for the message to penetrate and stick, let's say at least three times.

Now, you can calculate that generating that reach in TV will call for a certain number of TRP (you can use the media software at eTelmar for calculations). Or you can examine getting that reach with radio or a combination of TV and radio.

Outdoor will generate high reach more efficiently than either, with a #25 showing, but outdoor's necessary simplicity of message may not stand alone in filling your needs.

Newspaper has its own contribution and you need to judge from a marketing perspective whther you need a small store-locator ad every day, a full page branding message once a week, or some other approach, if any.

Tuesday, December 26, 2000 #4066
Dear Guru, We have a national client that has primarily used newspaper inserts and direct mail for their advertising efforts. We will be planning broadcast to build awareness for this client. My questions is: does it makes sense to buy spot cable in the markets (over 100) or to buy national cable in these markets? They have over 100 franchisees operating in major metro areas, but may not operate in the entire market - just a few zip codes. Also, any idea on cost? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, December 29, 2000 ):
Because of the high premium typically charged for local cable buys, a national buy for such a large area will almost certainly be more efficient.This would mean buying directly from national networks.

Alternatively, one of the national cable reps like National Cable Communications may be able to customize a "national" buy around your geographic needs.

Wednesday, December 13, 2000 #4042
Hi Guru A.S.A.P....Please can you tell me what should a Brand Review presentation contains? what are the steps for preparing such presentaion? Thanks for your help in Advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, December 17, 2000 ):
The Guru must presume you are referrring to a Brand review from the media perspective. Therefore, without anyother specifications than "brand review" the Guru would put together:
  1. For whatever period of years is specified, the marketing and advertising strategies which guided the media plan
    budget, etc
    emphasizing all changes in any of these
  2. Summary descriptions of the plans by year, i.e.
    objectives and strategies,
    Media Allocation, e.g.: "Primary Medium: Network TV 50%,
    Spot TV 10%,
    Spot Radio 10%,
    National Magazines 30%" or wahtever other media (newspaper, interactive, etc) were used
  3. Learning regarding sales response, ad awareness changes, etc. and media responses to that learning
  4. Plans for next year with alternates considered
  5. As back-up, flow charts, research supporting targeting and media selection, particulars of programming or magazine title selection, spot market selection, sales or awareness research, measurement of any other goals

Monday, December 04, 2000 #4013
Dear Media Guru, I've read all articles about recency planning written by E.Ephrone and i still have a question - can You say for what product categories or marketing goals(like product launch)it is better to use recency or effective frequency planning strategy?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 06, 2000 ):
Recency is based on the idea that the advertising exposure closest to the time of purchase is most effective. Therefore, when products are purchased continuously across time, continuous advertising gives the best chance of exposure to a consumer clost to the time of a purchase.

At times when other issues than maximizing sales over time are dominant, scuh as short term promotions or building awareness of a new product, other scheduling is more appropriate

Friday, December 01, 2000 #4009
I handle a small investment advisor service client who's target is super affluent. They currently have decent awareness on the east coast but are virtually unknown on the west in LA where they just opened an office. They gave us a $1MM budget and we told them to use local cable on financial networks/programs, & other networks which generally reach a more affluent audience(A&E, Bravo, Golf Channel, etc). They are not convinced that TV will help them penetrate the market and assist with sales calls. Is there any way to convince them that TV is the best and most effective offensive media based on budget and awareness concerns. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, December 02, 2000 ):
You should start with a comparison of target compostion of all the options. Almost anyone accepts tv as the most impactful medium, all else aside. Financial networks are appropriate. However, some print will be far more authoritative than simply affluent cable networks. Wall St. Journal, Barron's, Financial Times, etc.

Monday, November 27, 2000 #3993
A client has asked for information pertaining to the level of advertising required to increase awareness and positively affect the perception of their company on an on-going basis. Is there a source for information regarding required grp levels for radio and television to maximize awareness. Our client is based in Phoenix, Arizona, with an interest in statewide coverage?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 29, 2000 ):
awareness relates most to the reach and frequency of a plan. You must reach more people more often to increase awareness. You must reach more people than are currently aware.

Click here to see past Guru responses about awareness and levels

For research, try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Monday, November 27, 2000 #3988
Hi, I am working on a toothpaste brand in India which is a national brand and has limited market share . It faces competition from Levers and Colgate Palmolive who spend many times more. The sensitivity analysis says that for 1% increase in trial, there is a 4% increase in volume. Need to know if u could advice me some models on GRPs to awareness and awareness to trial correlations Many many thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 29, 2000 ):
awareness relates more to the reach of a plan than GRP. You must reach more people more often to increase awareness.

Click here to see past Guru responses about awareness and GRP

For research, try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Wednesday, November 01, 2000 #3935
Where do I find information on weekly GRP levels to use in radio for a service that is constant throughout the year, with no seasonality?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, November 06, 2000 ):
  • Determine GRP from desired reach and or frequency
  • Determine desired reach / frequency from awareness or sales goals; you can only sell to people who are aware of the service.

Monday, October 30, 2000 #3928
What is the typical awareness decay when advertising goes off air? Specifically, we have been running a campaign since April, 2000 consisting of Cable TV, Print, Internet, and some guerilla media. The current total plan delivers 75/15.2/1138 against A12-24.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 02, 2000 ):
One theory says each weeks awarness is about 90% of the prior weeks' when there is no advertising. Of course one would expect this to vary depending on other advertising in the market, how high awareness had risen, current share of market, etc.

Friday, October 06, 2000 #3873
Hi Guru. Do you have any information about "Decay Reach" or "Decayed Reach"? My client asked me about it. I know "Decay GRP" but I've never heard of "Decay Reach". Does reach decay? Is it a popular concept?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 08, 2000 ):
This is not a familiar term to the Guru. It might refer to awareness decline after consumers are reached.

Monday, October 02, 2000 #3856
Are there any standardized formats for measuring the effectiveness of place based media? Said another way, what are the most common criteria used in mesauring OOH media effectiveness...

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 08, 2000 ):
"Effectiveness" is a matter of interpretation, but OOH is judged by the same standards as any other medium: recall, awareness, sales impact, etc.

Thursday, September 21, 2000 #3824
You have stated in the past that "it has been demonstrated... that two, consecutive, one-third page ads on the outside column or right hand pages will do far better in awareness, recall, etc. than one full page." Will you please tell me where to find a source that will support this statement? Thank you!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 21, 2000 ):
The testing which the Guru has seen was done by Starch on a comissioned basis, but there should be some comparable public data, if nat at STARCH, then The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Thursday, September 21, 2000 #3821
Guru, what are your thoughts regarding optimum flighting for a low interest, non seasonal product (household insurance) that is purchased only once to twice per year ? Burst or continuity ? Thanks for your service - itz great.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 23, 2000 ):
When there is no seasonality, there is no justification for bursts. There may be a break-through minimum threshold of awareness such as 30% reach per week. Beyond that, having a presence whenever a purchase decision might be made is probably most productive.

Friday, September 15, 2000 #3799
Hi Guru - Hope you are well. I am taking on a side project and would love to get your input on how to go about it. A prosthetic parts manufacturing company is looking to increase sales. They primarily sell direct to doctors who then sell to patients and the bills are paid by insurance. The market is very small, and to date they have gotten their awareness from trade shows and trade journals. Do you have any ideas on how to develop a marketing strategy for a product like this? WOuld looking a prescription drug advertising help give me some direction? Do you think there is an opportunity to reach customers after surgery in hospitals? Any input you have would be helpful. Do you know of any research shources for this type of thing? Market size, etc.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 18, 2000 ):
Why not create a "gift pack" for post surgical patients, like those typically given to post natal patients? It could include care instructions, dressing changes, antibiotic cream samples, etc.

Contact the maternity gift pack distibutors.

Friday, September 15, 2000 #3798
i have heard that 3500 GRP's equals to 70% of brand awareness what do you think

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, September 15, 2000 ):
The Guru thinks that's nonsense!
  • 3500 GRP of what?
  • In what competitive environment?
  • Over what period of time?
In media and awareness nothing is ever so simple.

Thursday, September 14, 2000 #3796
Is there a metric for evaluating the performance of online advertising (Internet), print, radio and tv advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 18, 2000 ):
The absolute metric is sales. Short of that there is ad awareness or recall. Otherwise there are audience measures; impressions, or reach.

Tuesday, September 12, 2000 #3792
Dear Guru : Topic : TV Advertising Awarenness I would like to know that if it is a factor or rate, that afect the ad position in the comercial break thanks :

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 16, 2000 ):
Ad awareness is a broad measure, taken against full schedules of advertising. With the variance in positions experienced over a schedule, among som many othter factors, it seems unlikely that awareness could be attached ot pod-position.

There probably have been tests of day-after-recall for this, however. Check The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Wednesday, August 30, 2000 #3770
What is your opinion on 4 week TV plan that has the most grp during the first 10 days and the last 10. Three new ads used for a brand with rather low brand awareness.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, September 03, 2000 ):
You don't cite any reason why the middle 8 days are less important than the first or last 10 nor why the first and last 10 have significance versus the middle. Since your other references are about simple brand awareness building. So the effects will only be part of a longer term scenario. The Guru imagines, without any information about what else you are measuring or trying to achieve, that this schedule won't have results any different than running evenly over the 4 weeks or running nothing during the middle 8 days and all the weight in the first and last 10.

Wednesday, August 30, 2000 #3767
Dear Guru, we are getting into awareness based media planning which means objective will be set on awareness scores, rather than GRP, R&F. Please tell me the factors which are required and procedure for setting awareness objectives.Thank you

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, September 01, 2000 ):
Very theoretical. There is no specific rule of thumb equating awareness to GRP. There will be a big difference in saying the objective is to achieve 30% brand awareness versus increasing an existing awarness of 30% by 30 points.

You should think about:

  • What percent of "aware" persons will be purchasers?
  • What number of purchases is the pay-out level of your advertising?
  • How often does the aware person make a purchase decision?
  • Assuming awareness never exceeds reach, what reach must you acheive and what decay rate can your afford to maintain the awareness that will drive sales?

Frankly the Guru believes that saying "awareness based media planning" is just putting a marketing spin on the media plan. Ultimately a media plan sophisticated enought to have objectives almost invariably has some awareness objective mentioned. And ultimately, media must be bought in terms of GRP or impressions or insertions; the media vendors do not sell quantities of awareness. So either you have a formula which equates awareness numbers to media units or you do not. The Guru does not.

Friday, August 04, 2000 #3676
Do you have any research that shows how using multiple advertising medium (e.g. using radio plus outdoor) can increase effectiveness?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, August 08, 2000 ):
The first purpose of multiple media is to improve reach / frequency for the dollar. Otherwise, there can be many definitions of "effectiveness," such as brand awarenss, ad awareness, sales, etc.

For a range of research, try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Friday, July 28, 2000 #3659
Do you know of any sources of studies regarding Vertical publications. Specifically, are there differences between"how" people read vertical pubs vs. consumer pubs? Is there any quantifiable data on awareness/recall/intent to try from ads in vertical pubs vs. consumer pubs? Thanks in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 29, 2000 ):
No publication is itself "vertical." A set of publications is "vertical" because they cover the same topical area. If what you meant, judging from your context, is trade publications versus consumer, then Cahners might have what you need to know.

Tuesday, July 25, 2000 #3650
I'm working on a business-to-business media schedule for a client. To build awareness, is it best to buy two books (that reach the same people) 6 x each in a year or buy one book heavy (12x/year). And if you buy the two books, how much duplication would you be getting?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, July 25, 2000 ):
awareness is usually analogous to reach, thus using two books would build awareness better than multiple insertions in one, because there is greater duplication between any two issues of the same title than between any two different titles.

The specific duplication between two different titles can vary considerably.

Thursday, July 13, 2000 #3618
On July 5 you responded to a question regarding the decline of brand awareness due to reduced advertising activity. You indicated that the "formula predicts that a brand running low GRPs per week loses awareness and a brand with no activity loses 5-10% of the previous week's awareness each week." I would love to pass this information along to some clients. Is there a source I can quote?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 13, 2000 ):
"5-10%" is a general summary of experience with various estimates the Guru has found over many years.

The Guru has been told that some people are quite comfortable citing the
"AMIC Media Guru,"
as an information source.

It shouldn't need documentation to understand that awarenness will decline when there is no advertising. It also seems easy to assume that it will be like an inverse reach curve:
constantly approaching 0% in constantly decreasing increments.

No doubt many supporting studies are available through The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Wednesday, July 05, 2000 #3598
lets assume that a company has been running a branding and image campaign for 12 months at 800points a month. If the company goes completely dark for 6 months what are the expected effects on awareness and branding. The negative effects of going dark at then end of a branding campaign have been taught to me during several courses I cannot remember nor find a formula or case study which proves this point. Where can I go to find statistics or case studies to support your answer. Thank you again for you help.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 05, 2000 ):
The Guru can consider this in terms of ad awareness, since brand awareness is subject to so many more outside factors.

Whatever the level of advertising, awareness can never be more than 100%. One very simple formula the Guru has seen predicts awareness as a high percentage the previous week's awareness plus a small percentage of the current week's GRPs.

As will be obvious, this formula predicts that a brand running low GRP per week loses awarness. A brand with no activity loses 5-10% of the previous week's awareness each week.

Of course this is all general. One classic case is the old Certs "two, two, two mints in one" copy which had good awareness as a "current commercial" ten years after it last aired.

Thursday, June 22, 2000 #3571
What is the difference between: advertising objective vs. media objective vs. communication objective? What is the best way to do an online branding campaing for a car manufacturer? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 25, 2000 ):
Advertising objectives are a broad set of goals which include media opbectives. Media Objectives are a broad set of goals for a media plan, which include a communications objective.

For example, advertising objectives may include a brand image to establish or a specific level of brand awareness to achieve. Neither of these are media objectives.

Media objectives may include a media target, a media budget, a region of the country or sales index standard for geographic concentration. These are not communications objectives.

Communications objectives may be such goals as minimum average four week reach, frequency, effective frequency, etc.

There are many ways to do any sort of online branding campaign. There is no "one size fits all" best solution. A branding campaing for "the safest car" would certainly differ from one for the car whic is the "best value for a family." It is important to have firmly in mind what "branding" means:

According to marketing consultant Rob Frankel, "Branding is not about getting your prospects to choose you over your competition; it's about getting your prospects to see you as the only solution to their problem." (sm)

This means that most of what makes a campaign a "branding" campaign is outside of the domain of media. Study the marketing elements of the campaign and judge how you can make the media plan support it.

Thursday, June 01, 2000 #3517
What is the general rule of thumb (in terms of number of :60 radio spots per week) in a non-metered market? The goal of the advertising campaign is awareness over a 7 month period (no weekly promotion to talk about - just letting people know about our business). In the past we have been running anywhere from 14 to 16 spots per week.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 01, 2000 ):
The "overkill" level of frequency will depend on continuity among other things.

In a market too small to measure, the Guru imagines that there are relatively few radio stations, perhaps 12 or fewer, and average ratings might be 5 or better. So suppose 16 spots is about 100 GRP. FOr reach you would still want to use more than one station, at least 12 times each.

Are you sure your market isn't measured, perhaps as part of a larger market as defined by Arbitron? Even tiny Lima, Ohio, the 201st of the 210 DMAs making up the entire country has ratings twice yearly. Check out Radio & Records.

Thursday, March 02, 2000 #3275
Guru, any thoughts on how to estimate % trial as a result of advertising (effective reach 50% at 3.6+ effective freq. print plan, only medium).The brand has done little advertising,has limited awareness(8% unaided) in a moderately competitive category(indigestion remedies). I have factored the target group pop.(W55+) by the incidence of the condition, then further adjusted by % likely to treat the condition, to arrive at a "Total Potential Prospects". At this point I would like to estimate the % that can be persuaded to trial, to determine estimated prospects and potential sales, but I have no historical advertising or client data on which to base the expected return. Would you base return on current awareness levels, or current SOM? No growth expected in the category,assume trial at the expense of the competition. I am attempting to devise a systematic method of determining ideal effective reach,linked to sales objectives, as I am not content to leave it at "maximum affordable at effective freq. level" Sorry for all the blather, but your thoughts and wisdom would be much appreciated. R.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 04, 2000 ):
What you seem to need is a persuasiveness measure: what is the percent who would try the product (purchase intent) with and without advertising exposre? Many marketers have done such research and, if available, it can be factored against your "total potential prospects."

Sunday, February 27, 2000 #3254
I would like to have information about typical rates of frequency that are considered necessary for advertising to be effective on different media. I would like information for television, radio, outdoor and print advertising. If there is such information, I would also like information for internet ads. In short, how many times does an ad need to be seen on different media before for an effective reach. Thank you...

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 27, 2000 ):
Most judgements about effective frequency are just that; judgements. The traditional number, 3, is based on century-old learning theory about repetitions of information needed for learning to occur. This theory is not medium-specific but has many other aspects.

Click here to see past Guru responses about this and the Ostrow model

Research by DoubleClick about "banner burnout" shows that internet ads lose effectiveness (in the sense of causing clicks) by the third repetition. Of course, if you want to apply this approach to internet advertisng then you would be considering the awareness-building and sales-driving aspects of banners, rather than click-thru.

Tuesday, January 25, 2000 #3151
How do you measure cause marketing? What is the influence of e-commerce on cause marketing?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 29, 2000 ):
Like any other marketing, cause marketing must set the specific goals to be measured. In some cases, it's donations, in others, volunteerism / memberships or attitiudes or public activity.

Donations or memberships can be measured by actual acheivement. Attitude or action may require survey research on attitudes, awareness or intents.

The question about e-commerce is puzzling. Some causes may have made donations or sign-ups possible on line, and the Guru imagines that this has generated action that might not have otherwise happened. Some commercial e-commerce sites are soliciting donations on behalf of causes or allocating a portion of profits.

Friday, January 21, 2000 #3143
Can you please direct me to a source for brand awareness benchmarks - whatz good and/or typical preferably across a range of industry types Thanx Guru, from Sydney, Australia

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 23, 2000 ):
It is not likely that there would be awareness benchmarks in the abstract. They would only make sense in relation to market share, sales, media weight, etc.

The Guru would expect Journal of Advertising Research to have covered this and other data to be in The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Friday, January 21, 2000 #3140
i am doing a project on effectiveness of print medium vs Televion. i would like to know if you have any studies or articles on the same. i would also like to know the trends in advertising spends on both the mediums in various markets across the world especially India. could also please suggest various parameters of comaparing the effectiveness of the two media.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 23, 2000 ):
Effectiveness studies would be available from Newsweek Media Research Index, ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization and The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter.

International agencies like YR and Saatchi compile and publish ad-spend data for various countries and regions.

Professionals working in one country and culture typically overlook the basic fact that the relative strengths and impact of the media differ in different cultures. They have the same physical nature, e.g print allows visuals plus detailed text, radio is sound only, tv offers visual/sound and action, yet the strengths may differ.

In one country broadcast is government controlled and print is the only viable commercial medium. In another, TV has only one commercial outlet and one government outlet in each area while radio has few outlets to compete. In yet another culture, radio is the best reach medium while TV has the biggest individual audience ratings and print is very weak.

The ultimate standard of effectiveness is sales, when that can be directly linked to advertising. Brand awareness and Ad awareness, Attitude and use, purchase intent, etc are also possible comparisons.

Tuesday, January 11, 2000 #3108
I am working on a preliminary recommendation--a branding awarness campaign for a bank that currently does product advertising but no image advertising. Thre are three levels of spending that will be discussed. The question that I have is what freqency levels should be achieved to have not only a increase in awareness, but also influence the target to switch banks. It is a competitive banking market. What do you think of these reach and freq levels based on 4 weeks of advertising?? The media mix for the first 2 includes TV and Outdoor/Transit and the last Outdoor/Transit. There would be 1 TV commercial, 2 messages for Outdoor and 2 messages for transit. So, I am not concerned that much about wearout as having adequate effective frequency levels. Schedule #1 91% reach/14.6x; Schedule #2 is 90%/11x ; #3 is 79%/9.9x please let me know what you think of these frequency levels. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, January 17, 2000 ):
When you evaluate media schedules which include out-of-home media, considerations of "effective" frequency go out the window. The nature of these media is to amass enormous levels of frequency behind simple, undetailed messages. Statistically, any of these schedules would have plenty of effective frequency, although you haven't mentioned the effective frequency in your details. The most effective schedule would be one of the first two, and the best of those is the one with the higher reach and frequency. Apparently the second costs less than the first.

Wednesday, January 05, 2000 #3097
Dear Guru Please can you tell me how I know when x% reach is enough? From going through the archives it seems as if your answer will be "that this is a judgement call" but surely there must be something more scientific than that?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 05, 2000 ):
Yes, the Guru has often answered such questions with that phrase, but went on to list the considerations to review in making the judgement.

You need to build toward a reach goal, not pull it out of your hat. There is no piece of science that makes one specific reach number correct as an abstraction.

If some level of ad awareness is your real goal, the reach must be at least as high as the awareness level desired: people must see an ad before they can become aware of it. If you believe that it takes three exposures to a campaign before the consumer is consciously aware of the campaign then the awarenes level becomes the 3+ reach level, and a total (1+) reach level may be inferred from that.

If you follow recency theory, you will evaluate the continuous levels of reach delivery affordable in possible media options.

So "enough" is not simply "enough," it must be enough to accomplish a specifed goal of awareness, sales, image change, etc.

Tuesday, December 07, 1999 #3033
Without the budget for post-flight call out surveys what formulas or 'rules' can I use to anticipate message saturation and burn. What reach or net reach level over what period of time would be probable to achieve a 80% awareness within the target. Also what is considered too much exposure for one message before you reach a point of diminishing returns. I know that the the better measurment here is research before and during the campaign, but there must be some bench marks that are industry accepted. Can you share these and share a public location for other general assumptions like this. Thank you in advance Guru... J

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 08, 1999 ):
  1. Ad awareness will never be greater than reach, so start from a plan that delivers at least 80% reach
  2. To establish measurable awareness, some repetiton will be needed, so think about getting an 80% reach at a set effective frequency level. The Guru has previously discussed use of the Ostrow Model to set this goal.
  3. A message is worn out when its ability to generate sales falls off. This being hard to predict, many advertisers have used past experience to set media-measurement based cut-offs. These have included a limit of 2000 GRPs and a frequency cap of 20 in the second highest quintile. In reality, the size of the copy pool, the qualities of the copy, the target, the overall media mix, and product category may all lead to wide variations in wear out. The two standards mentioned above were both commonly used in basic package goods TV advertising in a mix with print and a TV copy pool of 2-3 executions.

Thursday, December 02, 1999 #3017
Is it possible to ignore ROI data and still come up with a numerical range that would constitute a successful click-through rate at the end of an online campaign? If so, what is that numerical benchmark?!?! Please help.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 02, 1999 ):
One can always define success as one wishes. Branding or imagery goals do not rely on ROI, for example. To take a total abstraction of click-through and call it successful with no relationship to ROI or established branding / awareness goals makes no sense to the Guru. At best you might compare your click-through to current average rates which are about 0.5 to 1.0%.

Thursday, December 02, 1999 #3016
How do you feel branding issues will be answered in on-line media. Currently it is mainly response driven advertising. What are likely to be the best ways to improve the brand's images rather than just driving traffic to a site? Also is there any research on the effectiveness of brand driven web advertising campaigns?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 08, 1999 ):
Branding can be influenced by media as well as message. True, banners don't do much by themselves to convey a branding message, but one test done by AOL and posted in their media kit area shows some results of awareness generated by banners.

A banner must capture attention to be effective in direct response or in branding. Using an interstitial, which is in effect, a full page ad, as the banner's click target, instead of a normal web site can allow a full branding message to be communicated.

The Guru does have his doubts about the potential click rate of a banner which says "Click here to see our ad," but finding sufficiently interesting ways to say it is what creativity is all about.

Friday, November 19, 1999 #2991
Media Guru, I have heard that banner advertising on-line is a waste of money. Do you know if there are any facts supporting the ineffectiveness of banner advertising? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, November 22, 1999 ):
Effectiveness depends upon expectations. If your goals depend on consumer action, i.e. click-thru, you have to determine whether the expected 0.5% click rate will be enough. If you pay a $25 impressions cpm, you might be paying $5 per click. If 10% of those who click will buy, then you need to net over $50 per sale to call the advertising "effective."

If you intend to use banners for branding, you need to compare awareness results with other media. Some research has been done by DoubleClick and The Internet Advertising Bureau to demonstrate branding effectiveness.

Friday, November 19, 1999 #2989
Media Guru, Our client is asking us why we use reach & frequency to analyze the effectiveness of our media plans. We are not aware of any other tools/methods that have been developed. Can you give us some pointers on how best to answer this question? Thanks in advance!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 19, 1999 ):
Reach and frequency are used to help predict the effect of plans and, more appropriately, to compare the available alternate plans, when communications power is the issue.

Media plans are actually advertising communications plans: "how many people of the targeted demographic receive the message and how often?" is the most basic quantification of the expected acheivements of the plan. In the process of selecting targets amd media, other issues of prospect quality and ad impact are addressed, but the final wieghts and measures are reach, frequency, and their product, gross impressions.

During and after execution, of course, sales and awareness measures are more direct evaluative tools.

Friday, November 12, 1999 #2964
Can research determine which media is best to drive traffic to a local retail business? If there is a particular medium or media, what research approach can best determine which media works? Please consider that this a local business that currently advertises in radio, newspaper and billboards and is very successful at driving traffic to retai outlets that are not highly visible in their marketplace.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 16, 1999 ):
A specific individual business can use research to determine this.

Most simply, it is easy to include something in the advertising which makes people want to tell the business's operators where they heard of them. Or staff can be instructed to inquire where customers heard. More expensively, a commissioned study can probe awareness and shopping behavior from a random sample or a customer database sample. In any of these cases, the research must be carefullly studied and interpreted, to distinguish the results of branding efforts from promotions.

If the business has a long history of establishing its name and offerings in the community through radio and outdoor campaigns, the research might still find that "What brought the cusotmer in today" was a newspaper or Yellow Pages ad. Analysis might well show that the newspaper or Yellow Pages ad would have had little impact without the other media's branding effects.

Different businesses enjoy different effects from various media. A roadside, impulse business, like a highway restaurant chain can get immediate results from highway billboards which would have much less benefit for an in-town, white tablecloth eatery. A branding-oriented newspaper campaign for the latter would likely be more effective than one for the highway chain.

Wednesday, November 03, 1999 #2933
I have been asked the following question: "Are there any impact/awareness studies or information that you have that measure the impact of spreads versus single page creative units?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 03, 1999 ):
Starch is best known for these studies.

Tuesday, November 02, 1999 #2928
Guru: I'm trying to plan an online media buy for branding purposes and having a hard time devising a formula for adequate impressions levels. I think % reach is a better way to go, but what's the optimal % reach for online branding on a website (high enough frequency without waste)? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 03, 1999 ):
It is very early in the scheme of internet reach models to imagine that there are standardized formulas.

You are correct to think that "branding," which means different things to different people, but seems to be about awareness in most definitions, depends upon reach.

But reach in relation to internet impressions is a curious thing. As in all media, it depends upon duplication between one day's visitors and the next plus duplication between one site's visitors and another site's.

When reach formulas are created, they begin from examination of the actual reach and frequency in real advertisers' schedules.

In this connection, it is instructive to visit the "Top 10 Advertisers of the Month" page at Nielsen//Netratings, a web audience research firm. In the month of September, 1999, the #1 advertiser, in terms of impressions, was TRUSTe, with 945 million immpressions and 25% reach among persons with internet access. But, the advertiser with the highest reach, at 44%, had less than one-third as many impressions, 273 million. Other advertisers with as few as 103 million impressions surpassed TRUSTe's reach.

The bottom line is that

  • Clearly, there is not a lot of consumer reach possible on the web, if the top advertisers' perform like this.
  • Impressions-to-reach models are going to be complicated to build.
  • We probably need a new definition of "branding" for on-line purposes.

Friday, October 15, 1999 #2876
Can you explain the difference in "awareness curves" and "reach curves"

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 17, 1999 ):
The "curve" reference in both cases simply means that both of these metrics can be comapared on a simple x/y graph and the result, whether reach or awareness (the dependent variables) charted against total exposures or toal spending (the independent variables), creates a line that is a curve. In other words. each increment of input yields somewaht less gain in reach or awareness than the prior increment.

But reach is a simple, process, it merely counts the different people exposed to advertising. awareness measures retention of message or recallable knowledge of product or advertising. awareness may be seen to decline when messages cease to eb delivered, but once someone has been reached, they've been reached. The curves are different. Reach can even be the independent variable in plotting awareness.

Friday, September 24, 1999 #2823
As a client not well versed in media and media measurement tools I was asked some questions that I don't quite know the meaning of or the terminoligy in how it is used. These terms are specific and deal with planning strategies. Please help where you can. -A & U or segmentation studies (audience probably) A & U ? -Volumetric analysis? -What does RDI, RPI stand for/mean (indexes for investment strategies?) -Econometric modeling? Thank you, Guru.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 25, 1999 ):
These are all consumer behavior measurements, not media measurements, but they are used in forming media strategies.

  • A&U is Attitude and Usage study (or sometimes awareness and Usage study). This is a survey of consumers concerning their knowledge of the product and/or the advertising, feelings about the product and category and ways and amounts of usage. It can be used to define and segment the target.
  • Volumetric analysis goes beyond defining who is using your product and segments users according to the quantity (volume) consumed. The classic example is: Men 18-34 are 20% of beer drinkers, but consume 80% of all beer.
  • RDI and RPI are not entirely familiar to the Guru. The _DI and _PI forms in these contexts are usually (something Development Index and (something) Potential Index. The "somethings" are most typically "Brand" and "Category." Brand Potential Index can be equivalent to Category DevelopmentIndex.

    BDI is a comparison of the sales in a specific market versus the markets portion of national sales. So, a market where 3% of all product sales occur but only 2% of the target population lives has a BDI of 150 (3 ÷ 2). CDI is calculated the same way, but using the entire product category's sales.

  • Econometric modeling is a broad, general term, taking into account all the above and other measures of consumer behavior.

Thursday, September 09, 1999 #2778
Dear Guru I' m interested in any information about 'effectiveness measurement' on online advertising.What are the most important criteria measuring effectiveness of online advertising?Where can i found more about this subject?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 13, 1999 ):
"Effectiveness measures" are many and "most important criteria: depends upon your goals. Some internet campaigns are solely on achieving click-thru, which is easily measured. Others might be based on building awareness, recall, or direct sales effects.

Good sources of on-line ad effectiveness research are C.A.S.I.E. (The Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive Entertainment) and the Internet Advertising Bureau

As always, the most complete compilation of this research will be at the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Thursday, August 19, 1999 #2726
I buy a base level of 500 Ad 18-49 TRP's per week; a typical flight will run 4 weeks --- for a total of 2000 TRP's. From this base buy, we usually split the base buy in 1/2 trafficking in two different spots (1000 / 1000 TRP's). At what level do you think that wear out will occur? Thanks for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 19, 1999 ):
What is your definition of wearout? A frequency level? A decline in ad awareness? A sales decline? There are may ways to set wearout.

One of the oldest, and easier to use because it is defined entirely by media measurement, is a certain frequency level in the next-to-highest quintile, perhaps a frequency of 20.

Depending on daypart mix, this might mean wearout at about 2000 GRPs for a spot.

Monday, August 02, 1999 #2678
Hi. Are there any clear rules for calculating the level of spending increase needed to achieve an X% increase in brand awareness? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 05, 1999 ):
Certainly, no "clear" rules. For one thing, it changes depending on the current level. I.e. a 100% increase in awarenes, from 10% to 20% requires a different spending change than a 50% increase from 60% to 90%.

The choice of added media and base media are also key factors.

The Guru speculates that the closest you can get, to calculating a percent increase in awareness through advertising spending is to calculate the cost of making the same increase in reach, sustained over a time frame comaprable to the base period.

Monday, August 02, 1999 #2677
what's the definition of "sponsorship" in online-advertising and why and when should an advertiser select this form of advertising over banner- advertising

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 05, 1999 ):
Sponsorship of a site is whatever the site decides it is. Typically, it can be having the only banners on a site, a special feature or page within a site, logos and other non-banner presence. On giant sites it may be sole presence in a specialized area.

It is selected when image building, branding, or awareness are more important than click-thru's.

Wednesday, July 14, 1999 #2631
While there are different parameters ( creative, media, marketing ) to set the effective frequency for a media plan there seems to be no parameter for setting reach. What are the different ways to arrive at reach objectives for a plan

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 15, 1999 ):
There are many approaches.
  • awareness goals: Ad awarness won't get higher than reach, obviously
  • comfort levels: When working with an effective frequency level, the Guru wants to reach the majority of his target effectively over four weeks
  • Affordability
  • recency: Recency says that maintaining some level of weekly reach is more effective than flighting, for products with regular purchase (threshold is 30 reach per week)
There are numerous variations.

Monday, July 12, 1999 #2623
Reciently I have read a couple of documents that explain that you may estimate wearout using an equation(applying quintyl analysis). I would like to know if there is any equation to estimate hoe many grp's per version you need to generate awareness. As always thansk in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 12, 1999 ):
Any number of GRPs generate some awareness. So the question is how much aweareness do you want to achieve. Reach may tie more closely to awareness generation, but GRPs are easier to work with.

Also, consider whether you really care about awarness of individual commercial versions as opposed to advertising overall.

Formulas the Guru has seen generally assume some beginning level of awareness and a fall-off in any week with less than100 GRP.

Monday, July 12, 1999 #2622
Dear Guru! Our client would like to spend $ 100000 on advertising on one of the major TV channels. This budget allows us to buy approximately 50 insertions. The product is a tv set. The brand is not new at the market. The advertising campaign goal is to increase the brand awareness. We are doubtful whether to place all insertions in a 4 week period, or to use fligts and 1-week hiatus. Could you clear the problem. Thanks in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 12, 1999 ):
The Guru is not very familiar with TV in Russia (from where this question has been submitted).

But, assuming common ground: If a national commercial costs $2000, the Guru imagines it has to have a very small audience. Perhaps 1.0 rating, so you are talking about 100 or so GRP.

Ad awareness is primarily a function of reach, while brand awareness nay have many drivers. 100 GRP of low rated commercials will not be likely to produce much reach, whether in four weeks or flighted. If brand awareness is the only goal and there are no promotional periods involved, the Guru would choose to spread the advertising over more time, to sustain the limited awareness which will be built.

Friday, July 09, 1999 #2619
Given some historic data on consumer awareness and media spends, how do i go about in modelling the same so as to enable me to make decisions on future media spends for a brand or new execution for a brand?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 11, 1999 ):
Like any model, the more data you can include, the better the result.

Obviously, it is too simplistic to assume a simple direct correlation of money spent to awareness.

Other factors could be unit ad/size/coloration; the same money spent in :60 TV would have a different effect than if spent in :15s. Reach and frequenccy, daypart mix in the broadcast media and media mix are key factors within media data, but other factors outside media measures may be more significant, such as copy quality, brand maturity, proir awareness, share of voice, etc.

Friday, June 11, 1999 #2572
Is there any way to equate GRP levels to a brand attribute awareness? Everything I have researched tells me that a planner can translate GRPs into a desired awareness level, but I don't know how to take it to the next step. And aren't there many other factors that contribute to the brand attribute awareness that aren't advertisind-related? Help!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, June 16, 1999 ):
Yes, consumer experience, word of mouth, in store exposure all contribute to attribute awareness. And GRP to awareness translation is far from perfect.

Thursday, May 20, 1999 #2520
Which are the main criterias to evaluate the impact of newspaper ads? We are suggesting to have different sizes and positions (all at the same cost), but we don't know exactly how to measure their impact. I remember that there is a study about the visual process of the eye when reading. That study includes informtation about the parts of the page that are the most visual. Thanks in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 23, 1999 ):
Ad impact is typically measured in terms of recall, awareness, and sales results. awareness and sales are usually measured by custom studies of awareness and panel or scanner studies of sales. Starch is well known for recall studies of print.

Monday, May 10, 1999 #2502
I've always looked at communication goals in terms of effective reach. Determining effective reach goals can be different agency to agency. That is fine. My issue has to do with combining broadcast media with print media. Can there be an effective reach goal when these media types are combined? In a discussion with my Media Director, they felt that there can only be a 1+ goal. That the concept of effective reach curves were developed on a broadcast model and that print cannot be combined. If not why? I would love your opinion and insight. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 11, 1999 ):
First, the 3+ concept goes back 115 years, to a researcher named Ebbinghaus, who found three repetitions of a series of nonsense syllables was needed for "learning" or memorization.

Combining media to achieve 3+ goals depends on a variety of philosophical judgements:

  • Is the message sufficiently similar, between broadcast and print, so that repeats of either count equally toward establishing the information in the consumer's mind? (unlikley)
  • Determining what level of reach should be achieved at 3+ and/or whether 3+, 4+ or another level should be set as "effective" usually depends on issues like the competitive pressure in the media used, clutter in the media selected, message complexity, category appeal, category novelty, etc. Many of these evaluations would have different results in different media.

It seems to the Guru that the issue is not whether to look at 1+ versus 3+ but whether to consider effectiveness medium-by-medium or in total.

The bottom line would depend on whether the communication focus is on the specific message, which leads to medium-by-medium evaluation, or more on brand or ad awareness, which leads to combined media evaluation.

Monday, May 10, 1999 #2499
How do you calculate reach "in-market", and are you to combine that with the national numbers? How is this done? Thanks. We are trying to show total "in-market" delivery. Also, back to the average 4 week dilemma, is it only relevant when looking at sustaining levels of a continuity plan? Or would you show average four week even in a launch, retail, or promotional type heavy-up situation? Thanks as always.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 10, 1999 ):
Suppose you had national media with a reach of 40% and a local media plan delivering 50%.

You would combine the national reach of 40% with the local 50%. If you care to go the extra step, you could analyze local variation in delivery of the national plan and adjust the local delivery of the national media before combining with the local. Or if you run only national media you can look at the locally delivered weight to caculate the in-market reach resulting from national media, as if it were local spot media.

Four weeks is a traditional standard measurement period. This standard goes back to the days of the dominance of monthly magazines as an advertising medium. There are numerous ways this rule of thumb is used. Some look at "4-weeks-when-in" and examine four weeks worth of average activity no matter ho many active weeks a plan has. This focuses on the rate of advertising rather than the quantity. Other focus on cume of whatever number of weeks. One has to make a judgement of what tells the story best. The judgement can be made differently when you are comparing possible plans and when you are trying to quantify potential effects on awareness, sales, etc.

Friday, April 30, 1999 #2480
What would you advise as an effective plan on determning an efficient ROI on the net

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, April 30, 1999 ):
If the question is "how does one measure ROI for intertnet advertising?" the key to the answer is in how you set your goals.

In the simplest scenario, your goal is to sell a product or service. If your advertising is web banners, and the banners click through to a page where the product is sold and there is no other source of the product, obviously sales dollars ÷ ad dollars is the calculation you need.

In any other case, it's the same as determining ROI in all marketing scenarios. Did you advertise to biuld image or awareness? Do pre/post research on the change in awarenss or perception and comapre against $ spent.

Thursday, April 08, 1999 #2435
Dear Guru, We are preparing a plan for our client that is meant to be a corporate imaging/community relaitons campaign. The client is looking to run the plan over 2 months, 4 months or 6 months, at out recomendation. Seeing as how the objective is to create a presence for the company in the marketplace, rather than drive a retail product, we're thinking the plan should run over the longer period of time, with a slight heavy-up in the beginning. Can you provide any insight here? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 08, 1999 ):
The question is unclear: will you spend the same dollars per month for 2, 4 or 6 months or will you spread a given total over 2, 4 or 6 months?

Building a relationship seems to call for longer term advertising. A heavy-up is typically used to jump start awareness and get the first couple of exposures established early in a promotion or during the building of distribution. Those needs don't seem relevant here.

Wednesday, March 31, 1999 #2423
One of the counter claims that clients come up with when we recommend the Web for banners is that they do not yet have a web site . Is it necessary for someone to have a web site before putting up a banner ? If not, what are the alternatives ? Since banner exposures work far more effectively than do click throughs (IAB Survey ) , shouldn't there be some way of getting out of this "Banner-click-web site " syndrome ? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 31, 1999 ):
People's experience as consumers on the web has taught them that banners click through to web sites.

The same people's experience as media professionals has mostly not exposed them to the research that shows banners build awareness better than the ½ percent clickthrough builds anything else.

Some sites, like Business Marketing's Net Marketing and and IAB have such research posted. Clients may be directed there.

Some sites, like AMIC , will create a page for a banner advertiser so that a click has a target. The page can be the equivalent of a full-page magazine ad. Other advertisers might do the same with a multimedia interstitial.

Thursday, March 11, 1999 #2385
Will you explain to me how one ad size is better or worse than another? For example: 1/4 pg bw @ $830 with a $36.09 CPM - vs 1/8 pg bw @ $520 with a $22.61 CPM (within the same publication). I am working on a mediaplan and I am not certain which one would benefit my client more and/or how to justify it. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 12, 1999 ):
It is very straightforward to compare cost or cpm of two ad units. Creatives usually like a bigger ad (and will judge executions from across the room).

The question for a media planner is "if ½ page costs 60% more than ¼" does the larger ad give 60% better results?

"Results" might mean sales, copy recall, awareness or many things. And the percentage differential in question is key. Rarely if ever does a spread do twice as well as a page, though it cost twice as much. Cost must be balanced against impact. One of the common research bases of results comparisons, when past sales results are not an available standard, is Starch .

Thursday, February 18, 1999 #2347
As a buyer I have always been given the necessary information needed to put together a buy. I am currently in a new position, and I am being asked to provide information that I've never concerned myself with before, or gotten involved with the how's or why's of the decision. I'm in dire need of help. Here goes: I have been asked to determine the number of GRP's that should be used in a proposal for a new client. I have not received any budget information. The schedule will run 6-8 months, my demo is A 25-35 and the GRP's should be spiked during the 1st & final week of each month. Also, I am to include TV, Cable, and Radio. My question is: Do I simply request avails from the various TV & radio and cable stations within the market, put together a proposed schedule based on the avail information I receive, and add up the number of GRP's accordingly? HELP!!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 18, 1999 ):
Congratulations, today you are a media planner. But apparently you are working with people lacking professional advertising experience or perhaps a retail client.

You either need some marketing goals input or you need to suggest some goals and get agreement before proceeding. You have been presented with a question equivalent to "how many pounds of nails are needed to build a building?"

You need to know how big a building, what materials it will be made of, how many nails in a pound, to what use will it be put and how big must it be?

To recommend schedule weights you need either a budget or a communications goal to deliver. In media / marketing terms you need to establish -- whether you are given direction or someone accepts your suggestions:

  • What has priority: Reach or frequency?
  • is there a minimum reach or effective reach to attain; per week, in four weeks, or in total?
  • To help answer those questions, if no simple answer is available, you might ask is it a new or established product or service?
  • What levels are used by the competition, if any?
  • Are there any specific product awareness, ad awareness or sales volume goals?
  • (In planning advertising, assume everything is a result of advertising: there is no awareness among people not reached; there are no sales to people who are not aware of the product.)

Knowing all this, you could examine reach frequency and continuity impact of various levels and combinations of your media choices. In other words, you somehow need to establish what must be accomplished by the GRPs, before you can decide how many to use.

It is puzzling, in this great information vacuum, that someone has decided to "spike" certain weeks. Apparently there is some information around which you haven't yet been given.

Wednesday, February 10, 1999 #2317
We are looking for "big ideas" to increase awareness and drive traffic to a new website. The target is an upscale art enthusiast. We are looking at traditional media and considering other vechicles such as post cards, blimps, etc. We will have on online campaign, but that is separate. Do you have any other good ideas for this type of objective? Thanks for your input! You are great.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 10, 1999 ):
The Guru would look for opportunities in conjunction with Art Museums and Galleries. Ads/mentions in programs and/or catalogues, positions in newsletters/mailings announcing new exhibits.

Wednesday, January 20, 1999 #2280
For a national product launch, what are "typical" TRP weight levels for network tv, say for a launch that is scheduled for 8 weeks?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 20, 1999 ):
No such thing. It's a classic case of "it depends".

  • What is the category?
  • Who is the target?
  • Is it a unique product or in a competitive field?
  • Will there be any other media / PR / other marketing communications?
  • What is consumer awareness of the category?
  • Is it a high-involvement or low-interest category?
  • Is it from a well regarded parent company or an unknown?

With a new product, you want to drive reach as high as possible with adequate supporting frequency. As a rule of thumb, few would start lower than 100 TRP / week.

Friday, December 04, 1998 #2198
Dear Guru. Thank you for your answers - they are very helpfull to me. My question is on "recency". 1.What groups of products best fit for "recency" planning. 2."Recency" planning needs continuity. But it is not evident what frequency level is needed at every moment of such continious ad campaign. It seems reasonable to set more frequency at the launch period and then decrease frequency for mantainance. Also we should take into consideration seasonality. Thus our campaign becomes pulsing but not continious. What are your comments? Thank you very much.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, December 04, 1998 ):
1- Recency seems to best fit common products that are bought regularly; in other words, a purchase is stimulated by running out of the current supply. This means food and HBA products, primarily. More "considered purchase" products, like automobiles, may not be a good fit.

2- Erwin Ephron, principal proponent of Recency, has commented to the Guru that about 30 reach on a weekly basis is a threshold level. This might mean 50-60 GRP depending on the media used amd target.

Part of recency theory, in relation to frequency levels and effective reach, is that after three exposures have been delivered, every subsequent exposure is supported by adequate frequency. Recency generally applies to brands with established awareness; when you raise the issue of product introductions, it is a different situation.

Seasonality is the principal exception to recency. There is no point in delivering the most recent ad exposure at a time when no purchase is likely. It is important to distinguish products with seasonal fluctuations, like deodorant, from products with very specific seasons, like barbecue charcoal.

Also consider that Recency does not mandate even levels in its continuity. The weight can be raised above the threshold when appropriate.

Tuesday, December 01, 1998 #2189
Dear Guru. I've got several questions. 1. What is the difference between the following three types of compensation for the ad agency services: commission, fee and percentage? Are there any other compensation systems used by the ad agencies? 2. What is the right way to evaluate the efficiency of the advertising campaign: a) held in several cities at the same time (each city has its' own media vehicles and their ratings are measured for the target audiences based in those cities); b)using several medium at once (i. e. TV and print). 3. How can we measure the effectiveness of the outdoor ad campaign? Thank you in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, December 01, 1998 ):
  1. Commission is based on a percentage of the agency's spending on the advertiser's behalf. The spending will primarily be media purchase and (in the U.S.) traditional commission, usually included in media rate cards, is 15% of the gross spending. Other expenditures, such as production, are marked up 17.65% of the net spending; this is exactly equivalent to 15% of the gross.

    Fees are flat amounts of compensation for performing agency tasks. On very small accounts, 15% commission may not cover the work required to create and place advertising. On very large accounts, 15% far exceeds what would compensate the effort.

    By Percentage the Guru imagines you mean an agreed commission other than the 15 / 17.65% structure.

  2. Efficiency is typically expressed in one of two ways: CPP - Cost Per gross rating Point or CPM - Cost Per thousand audience impressions (Roman numeral "M")

    In comparing markets, CPP is problematic because the universe number for calculating the Points - or percentage of universe - changes. However, CPM just uses impressions, which can be added and compared across markets. Other issues, about units and print versus broadcast can merit separate consideration, but these would be beyond efficiency.

  3. Effectiveness measures depend on a definition of the effect desired; is it awareness or sales or share? To best measure outdoor specifically, you need to set up your standard of effect and measure it with and without outdoor.

Saturday, November 07, 1998 #2139
Dear Guru: Could you please tell me where I can find resources, information or research paper done on the relationship between advertising spend and brand awareness building?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 08, 1998 ):
There are so many factors in biuilding awareness that a study focusing purely on ad spend seems pointless. A dollar spent on billboards wiil do a different job than a dollar divided between tv and magazines. A dollar spent on 2-page spreads in magazines will do a different job than a dollar spent on web banners.

However, what research exists on relationships between amounts of advertising and awareness can probably be found at the Advertising Research Foundation, the Newsweek Media Research Index or ESOMAR , the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization

Monday, October 12, 1998 #2090
Dear Guru, We are intending to shift to awareness led planning where we set media weights according to the awareness benchmarks . I would like to know if there re any clear cut guidelines to foollow. Are there any experiences that can be shared .. Thank You

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 12, 1998 ):
The Guru's only sure guidelines are that ad awareness will never be greater than reach, and that awareness declines during any advertising hiatus.

Otherwise, the best resource for published research, as always, is the library of the Advertising Research Foundation.

Thursday, September 17, 1998 #2048
We have a client who is interested in utilizing Network Radio over a two-month period (January and February) to help maximize the awareness of a new brand. Is there any research that correlates radio TRP levels with brand awareness levels to give us some direction on how many points we should buy for the period without generating too much wearout? we should buy? brand.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, September 23, 1998 ):
awareness is more likely to correlate with reach/frequency than TRP's. Only those reached can be aware. The same level of TRPs might reach 40% of a target or 60% depending on the schedule.

The Guru has seen research that shows that any level below 100 TRP a week in TV allows awareness to decay.

Most research on wearout which the Guru has seen ties wearout to frequency i.e. a commerical is worn out (loses sales effectiveness) after "X" exposures. This may be expressed as the frequency in the next-to-highest quintile. I.e. the 40% most exposed to the commercial would have "X" or more exposures. 25 exposures might be the threshold level you choose. This level would occur at about 200 TRP/week for 8 weeks, which is more than the Guru would guess you would buy.

By the way, one Adult 18-49 plan with those quintiles would have a 66 reach. Another plan with the same TRP's and different schedule could have an 85 reach and just 22 exposures in the next-to-highest quintile.

Friday, July 31, 1998 #1981
Is there a formula that would indicate increases in effectiveness if a direct mail campaign is supported by other media? Example: TV and radio campaign to increase awareness of a product followed by a targeted mailing with a call to action. Thanks, Guru

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 31, 1998 ):
The Direct Marketing Association (DMA) would be the best source for such information.

Sunday, July 26, 1998 #1974
Dear Guru! I have cilent that wants to know the accumulated reach of a 5 months campaign. The campaign was based on a recency strategy; 4 "flights", each flight - 3 weeks, and a break of about 2 weeks between one flight to another. It seems to me not right to sum up the reach of all 4 flights as a total, but to show each flight by its own results Can you please give your professional advice in this issue? Thanks a lot, Irene, Israel.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 26, 1998 ):
A "recency" strategy generally calls for continuous advertising, not flighting. However this is neither here nor there in responding to your question.

A four-week reach has long been the basic standard of evaluation of a campaign, most likely based on the one time dominance of monthly national magazines in the plans of major consumer goods advertisers -- in the U.S., at least.

"Recency" argues for concentrating on the reach at the point in time closest to the purchase decision, so average reach during the typical purchase cycle is a reasonable way to focus on a recency plan. Of course, in reality, despite an average purchase cycle, in most cases, decisions are made every day. You may end your four-week purchase cycle of laundry detergent tomorrow while your neighbor's four week cycle ends a week from Tuesday. Equally, there may be a day of the week of more opportunity than others, when the product is purchased during a main grocery shopping trip.

A five month cume reach can be calculated. Its usefulness is questionable when recency is the guiding principal, but for other issues, like awareness, it may be relevant.

Tuesday, June 23, 1998 #1917
Dear Guru, 1)I have heard the concepts "awareness" and "response curve" But I need more detailed explanations for them. E.g. what kind of researches are needed, how to judge the findings, how to use these results to improve/evaluate a tv ad. schedule... 2) What do you think about "conversion factor" which represents an index in terms of ratings for a target based on another one. The point makes me unconvinied with this concept is: Some targets are heavy wievers and some are not. But there is nothing for these differences in the "conversion" calculation. Thank you..zrb

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 25, 1998 ):
1) awareness and response curve can both have more than one meaning. Advertising awareness is a result of quantitative, random sample survey research, where questions are asked to determine whether respondents can recall ads for a prodcut and/or what elements of the advertising they recall, e.g. copy points, which medium was seen, etc.

There is unaided awareness, i.e. "When you think of toothpaste, what brands' advertising have you seen?" and

Aided awareness, i.e. Which of these brands' advertisng have you seen?

  • Colgate
  • Crest
  • Aquafresh
  • Mentadent
  • Other

There is also brand awareness, considered without regard to advertising.("What brands of toothpaste are you familiar with?")

Response curve too, can mean many things. The "curve" part just refers to plotting on a graph with one axis representing some form of behavior such as purchase, purchase intent, ad recall, brand awareness versus another axis representing some stimulus, such as advertising weight or promotional effort.

2)Conversion factor does explicitly account for differences in viewing behavior between one target and the next. For example, if a certain program or daypart has an average Household rating of 10.0 and an average women 18-49 rating of a 6.4, and an average Men 18-24 rating of 2.5 there is a conversion factor of .64 for the W18-49 and a factor of .25 for the M18-24.

This difference is because of the difference of heaviness of viewing of the specific programming by these demographics. Their general heaviness of viewing relating to any other dayparts is irrelevant here.

Monday, June 22, 1998 #1915
Do you know of any awareness tracking studies or models that relate recall by medium to purchase intent? Would it be feasible to carry out this kind of effectiveness study to determine what kind of results a media placement agency is delivering to clients?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 25, 1998 ):
No doubt some users of recall tests have made an effort to relate recall to sales or purchase intent. This involves using their own, proprietary test scores and sales data. It is possible that the Advertising Research Foundation Library or the archives of their Journal of Advertising Research or conference presentations include the sort of analysis you need.

However, whether this is a basis for judging the performance of a media service is another question altogether. Has the media service been instructed to buy for optimal recall? Has the media service been instructed to buy to optimize purchase intent? In the Guru's experience, these are rarely part of the media goals conveyed to a buyer. More often, buying efficiently or to achieve a reach, frequency or effective reach goal is the instruction.

Further, if you wish to make recall or purchase intent your standard of evaluation, it only makes sense if you share the model you wish to use with your buying service

Wednesday, June 10, 1998 #1890
Dear Guru, Is there any way to compare between the quantity of a campaign GRPs to the purchase intentions? For example: if we did a campaign of 1000 GRPs, and the post test results show that 50% intend to buy the product (a new product that was just penetrated).Is there any criteria that I can use to evaluate the "value" of each rating point according to its influence on the purchase intentions or on the aided / unaided awareness? I know that the purchase intentions and all other post-test results are a results of lots of other factors as the message itself, the frequency, the product itself etc. Still, I wonder if you can help me to focus on the connection / correlation between the GRPs quantity and the slots mix to the purchase intentions (The competitor's campaign had the same sum of GRPs but most of it in off prime, unlike ours that was about 50% in prime time, and this difference had a meaningful effect on the purchase intentions. Can I "prove" the correlation between slots mix and purchase intentions? Thak you very much!

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 20, 1998 ):
The Guru could rule the world if GRP's had a simple direct relationship to purchase intent, or sales, etc. If advertising copy quality or unit length or programming made no difference, as your theory would require, there would be no creative "stars" in agencies and The biggest agency might have a one-person media department.

To approximate what you are looking for, if purchase intent is measured at enough different points of enough different schedules, then a graph relating GRP to intent can be created. It will only be approximately predictive because it ignores all those other variables the Guru mentioned.

Tuesday, June 09, 1998 #1887
I have been assigned the task of putting together an internet plan. I haven't the first clue where to start. Let me give you a little background. My client is a local hospital that is interesedt in marketing to business owners/presidnets/ceo's/human resource director/benfits administors. The ojective is to create top of mind awareness that our hospital is the hospital of choice when selecting Health Plans. Again, this is a local client. Please can you give me some direction. Where do I start. Thanks for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, June 10, 1998 ):
There is very little research available on internet audience at the micro-geographic level. There is very little available that might cover a segment as small as president / ceo / HR director. The Guru is saying "very little" while really thinking "probably nothing."

MediaMetrix or Relevant Knowledge are most likely to have some pertinent information.

  • Presidents and CEO's are generally found to be the last people in their companies to be computer users.
  • The internet is inherently a non-geographic medium since the entire nation and world have equal access to any web site, and a hospital has a relatively tiny service area

  • Some major markets do have extensive, multi-purpose local sites, and
  • some sites have the ability to serve an ad based on the location of the visitor. This is severely compromised by such problems as all AOL users appearing to be located in Virginia. Other national internet providers' customers carry the same sort of obscured location.
  • Ideally, you might find ad-bearing sites which appeal to business and HR managers which can tell you where, geographically, their visitors come from, or local interest sites which, by virtue of registration know the business role of their visitors.

Generally, the Guru does not believe that local retail advertisers with very narrow targets will find the internet to be an efficient or effective advertising vehicle, compared to traditional local business media, such as Crain's or The Network of City Business Journals

Monday, June 01, 1998 #1879
Dear Guru, I have a local client who is looking at gradually expanding into the US / European business markets. They are looking to gradually start generating awareness in these areas. The target market is businesses / individuals interested in doing business in Africa. We have been asked to compile a report onthe following: a) Media choices - TV vs. Print etc b) Broadcast sponsorship opportunities (Sport, business programming etc.) c) Advertising Costs and potential reach, frequency for campaigns in these markets. Which medium / combination of media should they be looking at initially, and why? Where do I source information on global rates, audiences, trends? Thanks for a great service!

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 02, 1998 ):
You may refer to Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) for the U.S. media lists and Intrernational Media Guide for Europe.

You may find that trends are best assessed by reviewing the archives of each country's ad trade media, such as Ad Age in the U.S. or Campaign in the U.K. If you can get the media factbooks compiled by major international agencies like Saatchi (Cordiant) or Young & Rubicam, there will be convenient trend data presented.

Thursday, May 28, 1998 #1610
1.Please, where can I find "Archives" by topic? 2.I have seen a table showing awareness Level correlat ed to Target GRPs.Could you, please, tell me how they estimate awareness Level? 3. I also have seen a table showing Audience engagement in various activities when average commercial is aired. Would you, please, tell me how the information is obtain ed? Is it from a national panel? If yes, does this panel also provide audience data? Thank you, Inocima.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 02, 1998 ):
1) The Guru Archives may be accessed from their link on the Media Guru Page. In the next few days, we will be adding a search engine to allow you to find all all past Guru answers on the topics of your choice.

2) The Guru isn't familiar with the table you have seen. Since you are writing from Brazil, it could be based on research totally unfamiliar to the Guru. The proper way for such a table to have been created would use just estimates of awareness, but actual survey results. An advertiser or agency which has conducted many awareness studies and correlated them with actual GRP's of the plans running in synchronization with the studies could create such a table.

In fact, just a few actual measurements could be the basis of a table if it is assumed that the awareness / GRP relationship follows some sort of curve as does the Reach / GRP relationship. The Guru is familiar with one formula for predicting awareness based on GRP, which came from analyzing several plans and surveys. In essence, it predicted that when there was any significant starting awareness, awareness declined in any week where there were less than 100 GRP.

3) Again, Brazil's audience engagement data is not familiar to the Guru. In the U.S. such data usually comes from secondary sources such as our Simmons or MRI, which ask these questions but are primarily print audience and product usage studies.

Tuesday, May 26, 1998 #1608
We have a client who is considering terminating all spot TV advertising in markets where he has provided support for the past couple of years. His thinking is that additional advertising here would be wasteful as he feels that his sales have now optimized and he would experience bigger growth by diverting these funds into new expansion markets. Is there any research that says he should continue to provide support in the original markets for fear that he would be risking experience a high degree of share erosion by pulling the advertising there?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 26, 1998 ):
There are a lot of "ifs".

IF the spot TV is the only advertising in the old markets, it seems too obvious to discuss that he will lose share without the advertising, IF we assume advertising correlates with sales at all, which we must since we are in the advertising business.

So the question is whether the sales in new markets will be greater than the lost sales in the old markets. IF the new markets can be bought more efficiently than the old markets, then there is a good chance that they will eventually be more productive than the old, after we establish awareness in those markets.

On the other hand, what kind of product is it? IF it is a product that everyone only buys once or rarely over a lifetime, like sodding a lawn, or cemetary plots, and the old markets are deemed saturated, then it will be easy for new markets to show a better ROI than the old.

But, IF the spot TV is just part of a mix including national media, then this become a very complex question. The Advertising Research Foundation library would be the best place to look for research on the topic.

Saturday, May 23, 1998 #1602
I am looking for any guidelines / research about: 1- number of spots for radio (sustaining level, 50% heavy up, 100% heavy up 2 - if I have continues strategy what maximum gap of not being on air may I allow without harm to sales (one week, two, three?) 3 - in my country (Russia) we have practice in outdoor not to place competitors on two opposite sides of billboard, ahzt I think is not correct, as each face of billboard works for different directions and can not compete with each other. What is the practice regarding this in other countries. Thank you very much.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 26, 1998 ):
1) The Guru doesn't judge radio effectiveness in terms of numbers of spots. If one schedule of 12 spots, for example, has an average rating of 0.5 (one-half of 1 percent of the target audience), which is common, it cannot be considered equal to another station's 12 spots with an average rating of 2.5 (also reasonable for top stations in the US). The first accumulates 6 GRPs and might reach 3% of the target, the second accumulates 30 GRPs and might reach 12-15% of the target.

So GRPs' or other audience measure are more realistic ways to determine levels. Having done this, if you determine that 100 GRPs, for example, is the correct sustaining level, then by simple arithmetic, 50% heavy-up is 150 GRPs and 100% heavy-up is 200 GRPs

2) awareness begins to decline as soon as there is any advertising gap. Current thinking is that sales of a continuously purchased product are better supported by continuity at whatever level is affordable rather than an arbitrary minimum effective weekly level, separated by periods of inactivty. The U.S.'s Advertising Research Foundation has considerable literature on the topic and so might ESOMAR , the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research organization

3) The Guru agrees with you regarding opposite sides of a billboard. The competitive protection policies the Guru is familiar with in the U.S. only deal with advertising seen by the same audience, that is, traffic headed in the same direction. Usually there will be a certain range specified, such as "Within 500 feet" for metropolitan 8-sheet boards, which are about 5x12 feet and can be placed in dense concentration within cities.

Thursday, May 14, 1998 #1591
we are in the process of recommending to a new client a media strategy that will help him sell more olives and cucumbers (both products in either can and glass containers). The client has a large marketshare, about 42%. Neither this client nor competitors have ever advertised their products. In this respect the category has been rather dormant. What guidelines can you provide regarding a 3 year plan. Since the company name is very well known, does it make sense, for example, to 'fortify' TV advertising with radio? Providing that radio has very good reach, is there a synergetic effect with TV or is the money better spent in one media? Thank you Irene Kol

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 14, 1998 ):
Modern thinking for such products emphasizes reach over frequency. It is more important to have some presence at any time that a purchaser might be making a purchase decision, than to drive reach to high levels (with more frequency) over a short campaign.

One guideline tha comes from this is to make a media mix more valuable, since a secondary medium almost always adds more reach than additional investment in the base medium.

Assuming then that you can afford an acceptable minimum continuous level of TV, addding radio will be wise.

No matter your client's awareness and market share, the first entry into advertising in this category will probably change the picture.

Monday, May 11, 1998 #1587
Is there a correlation between GRP levels and awareness? If so, what GRP levels are recommended to significantly effect awareness? The category I'm looking at (long term care insurance) has low consumer awareness, and a high avoidance factor.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 11, 1998 ):
In its simplest terms, there is a correlation. Obviously, the more GRPs delivered, the more awareness is created. Creating new awareness will take more GRPs than sustaining existing awareness.

A safe minimum guideline is to continuously reach more people than the existing level of awareness.

It is also important to remember that awareness alone doesn't make a sale. The message must be persuasive, not merely one of which the prospects are aware.

Monday, March 23, 1998 #1547
Does direct response television work for telecommunications companies? ie, long distance offers. Does direct response work best as an adjunct to traditional media? Any info on drtv would be great

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 30, 1998 ):
There are two key factors controlling whether or not Direct Response works: The creative of the advertising and the quality of the mailing list used or TV target reached. This can work for telecommunications. The Guru belioeves that the branding and awareness benefits of traditional media will make DR more successful.

Saturday, October 18, 1997 #1438
Dear Guru Could you please give me your views/suggestions on the following: 1. How can you set media objectives for a banking client in a market with only two major competitors; both of whom do not have a clear-cut advertising campaign? Would a % above last years GRP levels be appropriate; in proportion to the market share desired? What other parameters should I consider? 2. Qualitatively or quantitatively, how can front page solus positions in newspapers be compared with inside pages and ear panels? 3. And lastly, how do you add TV and press GRPs; for a specific audience? Sorry about the long query. Thanks in advance

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, October 18, 1997 ):
As a rule, the Guru sets media objectives based on marketing goals, not competitors' activity. Some marketing goals do indeed lead one to comparsions with competition, and awareness of competitors' plans is always a consideration.

If the key marketing goal is share growth, then a proportional increase in weight is one approach. But consider that share, like reach, exhibits an asymptotic curve. In other words, it can't pass 100%, so the higher it goes, the more effort is required to "move the needle."

Consider: You first assume that "X" amount of GRP's are required just to maintain share, on the assumption that competitive activity doesn't vary (and that advertising is the only variable influencing share).

Have you considered whether current share is proportional to share of GRP weight among competitiors?

Would 50% more GRPs grow share by 50%? No, if only because it increases the size of the total advertising arena. Your 50% increase in GRP does not increase your share of GRP by 50%, so calculate the right number to increase share of GRP, if you follow that philosophy.

But since there are competitors, perhaps it takes 50% more weight to gain 25% more share?

Newspaper positions can be compared on a basis of noting, reading, recall, etc. In each country or culture (you are writing from India), the relative power of media and the way consumers relate to them are different.

In the U.S., for example, a front page ad in a newspaper would be quite unusual if not unheard of.

Contacting the U.S. Advertising Research Foundation or ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Marketing Research organization, or your own country's newspaper advertising association may turn useful up research on positioning.

The Guru treats GRPs of different media as simply additive. When there are established effectiveness factors, as some advertisers have developed, GRPs may be accordingly adjusted before adding, in comparing plans.

Sunday, August 10, 1997 #1387
Hello, I am looking for research on relative campaign build (and speed of build) for cinema and tv. Is there any readily available research you can direct me to. Thanks Lisa Campton, Media Strategist, Saatchi & Saatchi Sydney

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 11, 1997 ):
Speed of campaign build, whether you mean reach, awareness or other factors, varies from one media environment to the next. Factors include the number of media, overall cume potential and media consumption habits peculiar to the specific culture. For example, cinema advertising, a major force in many countries is relatively insignificant in the U.S.

The cume of cable TV advertising in a country with 5 or 10 cable networks and 40% penetration will be vastly different than a country with 70% penetration and 50 channels available to the average subscriber.

In the U.S. the Advertising Research Foundation maintains archives of published research on such topics, much of it from other countries, and can often direct researchers to other, appropriate resources. You might also try

The Market Research Society of Australia Ltd P.O. Box 697
North Sydney, NSW 2059
Fx. 612-9955-5746


The Marketing Association of Australia and New Zealand
3 Melton Ave.
Carnegie, Victoria 3163
Ph. 613-9578-8610
Fx. 613-9578-7365

Tuesday, August 05, 1997 #1384
Are there any benchmarks for radio advertising as far as how many marketsto be in, how many $ to spend, etc. Especially for retail stores.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, August 06, 1997 ):
No, these facts change with the marketing situation. It should be obvious in a retail case that market selection depends on store locations.

Budget depends on availability of funds and the specific marketing task, like awareness or image building which may depend on continuity and long term presence, versus driving trafic to a specific, one-shotmsale or promotion.

The question suggests a student project withn an inadequate marketing brief.

Tuesday, July 15, 1997 #1373
Media Guru, I would like to know your opinion or if there are any generally accepted principles regarding advertising in print with multiple ads for the same brand within one issue. Thank you for your response.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, July 15, 1997 ):
Generally accepted rules? The Guru thinks not. From a media perspective it has been demonstrated, for example, that two, consecutive, one-third page ads on the outside column or right hand pages will do far better in awareness, recall, etc than one full page ad,

Despite this, it is difficult to convince advertisers to use multiple, small space ads. Unfortunately, from the media planners perspective, advertisers are more likely to judge an ad's impact by the single ad alone rather than what can be achieved in a schedule.

Sunday, July 06, 1997 #1371
I am interested in learning about media placement on the internet. Where do you start? If you can reference any good reading materials. Help! I need a quick learning fix? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 06, 1997 ):
The Guru has discussed this topic many times. You can use your browser's "Find" button to search this page for references to the topic or look in the Guru Archive

There are web rep firms, like Webrep and "consolidators" like Softbank which are resource that can provide general information. As the web grows and new advertising models gain popularity, the best planning ideas change and recycle, such as banners for awareness --> banners for click-through --> banners for clicks for revenue generation --> banners for awareness.

Staying current generally means, at a minimum, reading the ad trade's coverage of web trends. There are some interesting essays on web advertising which appear among AMIC's weekly Think Piecesin the "This Week" section and in the Think Piece Archive

Ad Age has some articles and The New York Times On-line has several articles by Jamie Murphy, one of our "Think Piece" authors.

Tuesday, May 13, 1997 #1345
Since "PRICING WEB SITE ADVERTISING" was first published (it's not dated but I'm guessing '96?) have there been any 'advances' in the methodology for pricing web advertising beyond either the ModemMedia model or the alternatives suggested? I am not an advertising professional (and they said us geeks use obscure achronyms?), and I am also looking for a concise FAQ type document that might explain the formulae and jargon (CPM, Frequency, Impressions in your excellent on-line dictionary and Depth which isn't) within the context of web advertising. Are there and other specific media terms (new or old) that are pertinent in a web advertising context (I got page view and hits)? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, May 14, 1997 ):
The AMIC article was wriiten in the latter part of 1995, not long after the appearance of the Internet World May 1995 article which it discusses.

By the way, please be aware that AMIC has added a new area, called I-Trac, which discusses web terms and measurement and which includes a Web Glossary

In terms of newer thinking, consider the critqued article's central concepts:

1.Determine the ratio of hits between the web site's log and the number of file "hits" that make up the page carrying the ad. Divide logged hits by number of hits making up the page to calculate what we can call "page views." Then call page views "reach."

Since then, the software which interprets log files has developed so that it can distinguish pure "hits" from the more relevant page requests or "page views" . Hits today is taken to refer to any line in a log file, even errors. (Ad) Page requests is the analog to traditional media's "impressions".

2.Determine repeat viewing of that page and call that frequency.

We more commonly use "frequency" in terms of whole campaigns

3.Determine the success of viewings of that billboard ad in moving readers to the actual web site and call that "depth."

This measurement concept has come to be called "click-through" or ad click rate. Depth was a term only used as defined in this Internet World article.

Today pricing is generally based on cost per thousand (CPM) impressions. Rates seem to range from $15 cpm for the broadest, general audience sites' rotating banners, through $50 or so for search engines' keyword banners up to $100+ for "premium audience" on highly targeted business to business web sites. Another pricing model growing in popularity is "price per click," which charges for each vistor who clicks on a banner. The problem here is that the site hosting the banner must rely on the creative to generate viewr response -- it isn't all the effect of the web site itself. Therre is considerable literature today about how to influence clicks, as well as a growing body of research which argues for the awareness building effects of the banners, regardless of clicking response. Finally, simple revenue based models are the rising concept. In this, sites hosting banners are compensated with a portion of the transaction revenue generated by web surfers they send to retail type sites. An offshoot of this is a model for ad placement agency compensation based on the revenue generated by their placement of ads at recommended sites.

Monday, May 12, 1997 #1343
Is there any model that relates advertisign awareness or brand awareness with media weight level? If there is no measurable coverage of the media, say computer magazine, what can we base our judgement on.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 12, 1997 ):
When there are published studies of this sort, the Guru can usually find them in the Advertising Research Foundation Library or in the Newsweek Media Research Index

There is, no doubt, a great volume of studies which are held proprietarily by advertisers.

There was a model the Guru once used, based on certain Agencies' many tests, which roughly assumed ad awareness would equal 91% of the existing awareness plus 3% of the previous week's GRPs (gross audience coverage).

It should be obvious that this model works best for brands with little or no going-in awareness and also dictates that anything less than 100 GRP per week leads to declining awareness for brands with awareness above 35%

Media coverage can be estimated for print media: circulation is usually known; readers-per-copy and composition can be approximated by comparison to similar publications.

It should also be kept in mind that awareness is not a factor of media alone, but depends, to great extent on creative.

Wednesday, March 12, 1997 #1304
Dear GuruI am interresting in your oppinion on the changing shape of the media environment.What do you think how the media changing for the near future, what are the main trends in the media and how will it change the media planning?Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 24, 1997 ):
Media have always changed. Once there were only print media and billboards. Then radio, then TV. Not only do new media arise, but the numbers of media vehicles of each type of each type proliferate. The web is only the latest and most explosive example of this proliferation. What causes the changes for the planner is the availability of research and hard facts on which to base decisions, rather than using theory. One of the biggest changes may be the growing emphasis on direct response models for evaluating media effectiveness, rather than awareness, recall, or requests for additional information.

Or is it the ability to apply computer models to planning?

Tuesday, February 04, 1997 #1057
What is the best way to evaluate outdoor - qualitatively and quantitatively? Any available research?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 09, 1997 ):
In the US, outdoor is typically packaged in "showings" of 25 / 50 / 100 which generally mean 25 / 50 / or 100 grps per day, that is, a selection of locations with a total daily effective circulation equal to 25 or 50 or 100% of the adult population of the market. (demographic data is often very approximate).

Outdoor delivers very high reaches at low CPMs. Message lengths are of course quite limited.

Barring specific creative testing or pre-post attitude awareness and usage tracking, evaluation is very much a judgement call based on creative and your communications goals.

Friday, December 20, 1996 #1087
How do the concepts of effective frequency relate todirect response advertising? Should the same rules of frequency be taken into account when planning forresponse as when planning for awareness? Is frequency even a factor in D.R. or should I just max out on impressions and occasions?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, December 21, 1996 ):
Effective frequency applies, but differently. If it takes 3 repetitions for a message to be absorbed, then DR may need the 3 repitions as well before it begins to work. But perhaps that's why DR messages are often 90's or 120's, There is the chance to repeat information 3 or more times and capture attention. In half hour infomercials, it is not unusual for ther to be 3 10 minute cycles of repeated information.

Monday, August 05, 1996 #1171
In regards to print advertising, what is a wear-out report? What data do I need to complete this report (reach, frequency, formulas)?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 08, 1996 ):
The Guru has discussed Wear Out previously (see below July 17 and May 7).

A wear out report would state the status of various print executions in your campaign in comparison to the wear out standard you have established.

Clients have a way of asking the wear out question without setting a standard or even being able to decide how to set one.

Essentially an ad is worn out when it loses all or most of its ability to accomplish its marketing purpose with its target. The purpose may be as simple as product sales, or lead generation in a direct response campaign, or it may be as difficult to define as building brand imagery or awareness of a specific product benefit. Since directly relating any of these to a specific ad would require custom research, it is typical to use whatever research has been done in the past as related to easily modelled media measurements, such as reach, frequency, GRPs or quintiles.

For example if in the past, a custom study showed the average ad was worn out at a time when the planners knew that 80% of the target had seen it 8 or more times, or when the frequency in the top 2 quintiles passed 30. (Don't use these examplenumbers). Naturally, different ads perform differently, but you will need to work on an average basis.

A wear out report then becomes a matter of reporting something like how many of thetarget have seen the ad at least "x" times, or that the frequency in the top 2quintiles will exceed the standard measure as of a certain month of the schedule, or"X" number of GRPs will have run for the ad by some date.

The key is knowing how one of these media measures relate to your wear out standard. Then the report is a simple task.

Tuesday, May 07, 1996 #1226
How many times can a print ad run before it wears out?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, May 08, 1996 ):
The only answer to such a question is "it depends."

How powerful/interesting/competitive is the ad?

What reach and frequency is being developed as the ads insertions repeat.

How many different magazines versus repeats in the same titles.

What is your definition of "wear out?" Decline in awareness, decline in incremental sales, frequency of exposure in the top quintile or top 2 quintiles?

. . .it depends.

Wednesday, December 27, 1995 #1804
what is the difference between general media and direct response television media? and would I ever recommend to my client DRTV as an inexpensive way of getting exposure?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 02, 1996 ):
General TV and DRTV are different in the way they are purchased and in key aspects of the copy used. To qualify for DRTV, the copy usually must be selling something through an 800 telephone number. Mail is also possible, but the immediate nature of telephone response is preferable (900 number ads are typically under a different rate structure).

DRTV rates are usually based on half of the going rate for the time period. The concept of "going rate" is hard to pin down with any certainty, unless you are buying the same schedule at the same time as "general media." These half price schedules are typically in remnant time or relatively undesirable times late at night or early in the morning or weekends. They are also instantly preemptible. You can't rely on delivering a schedule of "50 GRP per week in prime and 75 GRP per week in early fringe" through DRTV.

General TV schedules are used to build awareness through planned levels of reach and frequency or timely impressions delivery during specific promitions or campaigns DRTV schedules are opportunistic buys, with each airing anticipated to generate a certain quata of responses for a product ready to sell at all times without specific timing issues.. DRTV advertisers often track resonse minute by minute to associate each call with the specific commercial airing responsible. This is in clear contrast with the awarenes building aspect of general media.

When your client measures "exposure" in reach or effective reach terms than DRTV is not an efficient way to get exposure. Those remnant timeslots are not reach builders.

A DRTV advertiser is generally selling something worth the investment in inbound telemarketing expenses for each 800 number order, and assuming a certain minimum of orders per airing. (You cant make money if a $5 an hour operator has to spend 10 minutes taking address, size, flavor and credit card info to sell a $2 item, unless you add $3 shipping and handling). This means it doesn't work for toothpaste, floor wax, soap or cookies, unless you're selling the $29 bag-o-groceries special.