25 matches were found
- Monday, November 27, 2000 #3988
Hi, I am working on a toothpaste brand in India which is a national brand and has limited market share .
It faces competition from Levers and Colgate Palmolive who spend many times more.
The sensitivity analysis says that for 1% increase in trial, there is a 4% increase in volume. Need to know if u could advice me some models on grps to awareness and awareness to trial correlations
Many many thanks
- The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 29, 2000 ):
awareness relates more to the reach of a plan than grp. You must reach more people more often to increase awareness.
Click here to see past Guru
responses about awareness and grp
For research, try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
- Wednesday, November 01, 2000 #3935
Where do I find information on weekly grp levels to use
in radio for a service that is constant throughout the year, with no seasonality?
- The Media Guru Answers(Monday, November 06, 2000 ):
- Determine grp from desired reach and or frequency
- Determine desired reach / frequency from awareness or sales goals; you can only sell to people who are aware of the service.
- Friday, October 06, 2000 #3873
Hi Guru. Do you have any information about "Decay Reach" or "Decayed Reach"? My client asked me about it. I know "Decay grp" but I've never heard of "Decay Reach". Does reach decay? Is it a popular concept?
- The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 08, 2000 ):
This is not a familiar term to the Guru. It might refer to awareness decline after consumers are reached.
- Friday, September 15, 2000 #3798
i have heard that 3500 grp's equals to 70% of brand awareness what do you think
- The Media Guru Answers(Friday, September 15, 2000 ):
The Guru thinks that's nonsense!
In media and awareness nothing is ever so simple.
- 3500 grp of what?
- In what competitive environment?
- Over what period of time?
- Wednesday, August 30, 2000 #3770
What is your opinion on 4 week TV plan that has the most grp during the first 10 days and the last 10. Three new ads used for a brand with rather low brand awareness.
- The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, September 03, 2000 ):
You don't cite any reason why the middle 8 days are less important than the first or last 10 nor why the first and last 10 have significance versus the middle. Since your other references are about simple brand awareness building. So the effects will only be part of a longer term scenario. The Guru imagines, without any information about what else you are measuring or trying to achieve, that this schedule won't have results any different than running evenly over the 4 weeks or running nothing during the middle 8 days and all the weight in the first and last 10.
- Wednesday, August 30, 2000 #3767
Dear Guru, we are getting into awareness based media
planning which means objective will be set on awareness
scores, rather than grp, R&F. Please tell me the
factors which are required and procedure for setting
awareness objectives.Thank you
- The Media Guru Answers(Friday, September 01, 2000 ):
Very theoretical. There is no specific rule of thumb equating awareness to grp. There will be a big difference in saying the objective is to achieve 30% brand awareness versus increasing an existing awarness of 30% by 30 points.
You should think about:
- What percent of "aware" persons will be purchasers?
- What number of purchases is the pay-out level of your advertising?
- How often does the aware person make a purchase decision?
- Assuming awareness never exceeds reach, what reach must you acheive and what decay rate can your afford to maintain the awareness that will drive sales?
Frankly the Guru believes that saying "awareness based media planning" is just putting a marketing spin on the media plan. Ultimately a media plan sophisticated enought to have objectives almost invariably has some awareness objective mentioned. And ultimately, media must be bought in terms of grp or impressions or insertions; the media vendors do not sell quantities of awareness. So either you have a formula which equates awareness numbers to media units or you do not. The Guru does not.
- Thursday, July 13, 2000 #3618
On July 5 you responded to a question regarding the
decline of brand awareness due to reduced advertising
activity. You indicated that the "formula predicts that
a brand running low grps per week loses awareness and
a brand with no activity loses 5-10% of the previous
week's awareness each week." I would love to pass this
information along to some clients. Is there a source
I can quote?
- The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 13, 2000 ):
"5-10%" is a general summary of experience with various estimates the Guru has found over many years.
The Guru has been told that some people are quite comfortable citing the
"AMIC Media Guru, http://www.amic.com/guru/index.html"
as an information source.
It shouldn't need documentation to understand that awarenness will decline when there is no advertising. It also seems easy to assume that it will be like an inverse reach curve:
constantly approaching 0% in constantly decreasing increments.
No doubt many supporting studies are available through The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
- Wednesday, July 05, 2000 #3598
lets assume that a company has been running a branding and image campaign for 12 months at 800points a month. If the company goes completely dark for 6 months what are the expected effects on awareness and branding. The negative effects of going dark at then end of a branding campaign have been taught to me during several courses I cannot remember nor find a formula or case study which proves this point. Where can I go to find statistics or case studies to support your answer. Thank you again for you help.
- The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 05, 2000 ):
The Guru can consider this in terms of ad awareness, since brand awareness is subject to so many more outside factors.
Whatever the level of advertising, awareness can never be more than 100%. One very simple formula the Guru has seen predicts awareness as a high percentage the previous week's awareness plus a small percentage of the current week's grps.
As will be obvious, this formula predicts that a brand running low grp per week loses awarness. A brand with no activity loses 5-10% of the previous week's awareness each week.
Of course this is all general. One classic case is the old Certs "two, two, two mints in one" copy which had good awareness as a "current commercial" ten years after it last aired.
- Thursday, June 01, 2000 #3517
What is the general rule of thumb (in terms of number of :60 radio spots per week) in a non-metered market? The goal of the advertising campaign is awareness over a 7 month period (no weekly promotion to talk about - just letting people know about our business). In the past we have been running anywhere from 14 to 16 spots per week.
- The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 01, 2000 ):
The "overkill" level of frequency will depend on continuity among other things.
In a market too small to measure, the Guru imagines that there are relatively few radio stations, perhaps 12 or fewer, and average ratings might be 5 or better. So suppose 16 spots is about 100 grp. FOr reach you would still want to use more than one station, at least 12 times each.
Are you sure your market isn't measured, perhaps as part of a larger market as defined by Arbitron? Even tiny Lima, Ohio, the 201st of the 210 DMAs making up the entire country has ratings twice yearly. Check out Radio & Records.
- Tuesday, December 07, 1999 #3033
Without the budget for post-flight call out surveys what formulas or 'rules' can I use to anticipate message saturation and burn. What reach or net reach level over what period of time would be probable to achieve a 80% awareness within the target. Also what is considered too much exposure for one message before you reach a point of diminishing returns. I know that the the better measurment here is research before and during the campaign, but there must be some bench marks that are industry accepted. Can you share these and share a public location for other general assumptions like this. Thank you in advance Guru...
- The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 08, 1999 ):
Ad awareness will never be greater than reach, so start from a plan that delivers at least 80% reach
- To establish measurable awareness, some repetiton will be needed, so think about getting an 80% reach at a set effective frequency level. The Guru has previously discussed use of the Ostrow Model to set this goal.
- A message is worn out when its ability to generate sales falls off. This being hard to predict, many advertisers have used past experience to set media-measurement based cut-offs. These have included a limit of 2000 grps and a frequency cap of 20 in the second highest quintile. In reality, the size of the copy pool, the qualities of the copy, the target, the overall media mix, and product category may all lead to wide variations in wear out. The two standards mentioned above were both commonly used in basic package goods TV advertising in a mix with print and a TV copy pool of 2-3 executions.
- Thursday, August 19, 1999 #2726
I buy a base level of 500 Ad 18-49 TRP's per week; a typical flight will run 4 weeks --- for a total of 2000 TRP's. From this base buy, we usually split the base buy in 1/2 trafficking in two different spots (1000 / 1000 TRP's). At what level do you think that wear out will occur? Thanks for your help.
- The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 19, 1999 ):
What is your definition of wearout? A frequency level? A decline in ad awareness? A sales decline? There are may ways to set wearout.
One of the oldest, and easier to use because it is defined entirely by media measurement, is a certain frequency level in the next-to-highest quintile, perhaps a frequency of 20.
Depending on daypart mix, this might mean wearout at about 2000 grps for a spot.
- Monday, July 12, 1999 #2623
Reciently I have read a couple of documents
that explain that you may estimate wearout using an
equation(applying quintyl analysis). I would like to
know if there is any equation to estimate hoe many
grp's per version you need to generate awareness.
As always thansk in advance.
- The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 12, 1999 ):
Any number of grps generate some awareness. So the question is how much aweareness do you want to achieve. Reach may tie more closely to awareness generation, but grps are easier to work with.
Also, consider whether you really care about awarness of individual commercial versions as opposed to advertising overall.
Formulas the Guru has seen generally assume some beginning level of awareness and a fall-off in any week with less than100 grp.
- Monday, July 12, 1999 #2622
Dear Guru! Our client would like to spend $ 100000 on
advertising on one of the major TV channels. This
budget allows us to buy approximately 50 insertions.
The product is a tv set. The brand is not new at the
market. The advertising campaign goal is to increase
the brand awareness. We are doubtful whether to place
all insertions in a 4 week period, or to use fligts
and 1-week hiatus. Could you clear the problem.
Thanks in advance.
- The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 12, 1999 ):
The Guru is not very familiar with TV in Russia (from where this question has been submitted).
But, assuming common ground:
If a national commercial costs $2000, the Guru imagines it has to have a very small audience. Perhaps 1.0 rating, so you are talking about 100 or so grp.
Ad awareness is primarily a function of reach, while brand awareness nay have many drivers. 100 grp of low rated commercials will not be likely to produce much reach, whether in four weeks or flighted. If brand awareness is the only goal and there are no promotional periods involved, the Guru would choose to spread the advertising over more time, to sustain the limited awareness which will be built.
- Friday, June 11, 1999 #2572
Is there any way to equate grp levels to a brand attribute awareness? Everything I have researched tells me that a planner can translate grps into a desired awareness level, but I don't know how to take it to the next step. And aren't there many other factors that contribute to the brand attribute awareness that aren't advertisind-related? Help!
- The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, June 16, 1999 ):
Yes, consumer experience, word of mouth, in store exposure all contribute to attribute awareness. And grp to awareness translation is far from perfect.
- Thursday, February 18, 1999 #2347
As a buyer I have always been given the necessary
information needed to put together a buy. I am
currently in a new position, and I am being asked to
provide information that I've never concerned myself
with before, or gotten involved with the how's or
why's of the decision. I'm in dire need of help.
I have been asked to determine the number of grp's that
should be used in a proposal for a new client. I have
not received any budget information. The schedule will
run 6-8 months, my demo is A 25-35 and the grp's
should be spiked during the 1st & final week of each
month. Also, I am to include TV, Cable, and Radio.
My question is:
Do I simply request avails from the various TV & radio
and cable stations within the market, put together a
proposed schedule based on the avail information I
receive, and add up the number of grp's accordingly?
- The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 18, 1999 ):
Congratulations, today you are a media planner. But apparently you are working with people lacking professional advertising experience or perhaps a retail client.
You either need some marketing goals input or you need to suggest some goals and get agreement before proceeding. You have been presented with a question equivalent to "how many pounds of nails are needed to build a building?"
You need to know how big a building, what materials it will be made of, how many nails in a pound, to what use will it be put and how big must it be?
To recommend schedule weights you need either a budget or a communications goal to deliver. In media / marketing terms you need to establish -- whether you are given direction or someone accepts your suggestions:
- What has priority: Reach or frequency?
- is there a minimum reach or effective reach to attain; per week, in four weeks, or in total?
- To help answer those questions, if no simple answer is available, you might ask is it a new or established product or service?
- What levels are used by the competition, if any?
- Are there any specific product awareness, ad awareness or sales volume goals?
- (In planning advertising, assume everything is a result of advertising: there is no awareness among people not reached; there are no sales to people who are not aware of the product.)
Knowing all this, you could examine reach frequency and continuity impact of various levels and combinations of your media choices. In other words, you somehow need to establish what must be accomplished by the grps, before you can decide how many to use.
It is puzzling, in this great information vacuum, that someone has decided to "spike" certain weeks. Apparently there is some information around which you haven't yet been given.
- Friday, December 04, 1998 #2198
Dear Guru. Thank you for your answers - they are very
helpfull to me. My question is on "recency".
1.What groups of products best fit for "recency"
2."Recency" planning needs continuity. But it is
not evident what frequency level is needed at every
moment of such continious ad campaign. It seems
reasonable to set more frequency at the launch period
and then decrease frequency for mantainance. Also we
should take into consideration seasonality. Thus our
campaign becomes pulsing but not continious. What are
your comments? Thank you very much.
- The Media Guru Answers(Friday, December 04, 1998 ):
1- Recency seems to best fit common products that are bought regularly; in other words, a purchase is stimulated by running out of the current supply. This means food and HBA products, primarily. More "considered purchase" products, like automobiles, may not be a good fit.
Erwin Ephron, principal proponent of Recency, has commented to the Guru that about 30 reach on a weekly basis is a threshold level. This might mean 50-60 grp depending on the media used amd target.
Part of recency theory, in relation to frequency levels and effective reach, is that after three exposures have been delivered, every subsequent exposure is supported by adequate frequency. Recency generally applies to brands with established awareness; when you raise the issue of product introductions, it is a different situation.
Seasonality is the principal exception to recency. There is no point in delivering the most recent ad exposure at a time when no purchase is likely. It is important to distinguish products with seasonal fluctuations, like deodorant, from products with very specific seasons, like barbecue charcoal.
Also consider that Recency does not mandate even levels in its continuity. The weight can be raised above the threshold when appropriate.
- Wednesday, June 10, 1998 #1890
Is there any way to compare between the quantity of a campaign grps to the purchase intentions?
For example: if we did a campaign of 1000 grps, and the post test results show that 50% intend to buy the product
(a new product that was just penetrated).Is there any criteria that I can use to evaluate the "value" of each
rating point according to its influence on the purchase intentions or on the aided / unaided awareness?
I know that the purchase intentions and all other post-test results are a results of lots of other factors
as the message itself, the frequency, the product itself etc. Still, I wonder if you can help me to focus on the connection / correlation
between the grps quantity and the slots mix to the purchase intentions (The competitor's campaign had the same sum of grps but most
of it in off prime, unlike ours that was about 50% in prime time, and this difference had a meaningful effect on the purchase intentions.
Can I "prove" the correlation between slots mix and purchase intentions?
Thak you very much!
- The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 20, 1998 ):
The Guru could rule the world if grp's had a simple direct relationship to purchase intent, or sales, etc. If advertising copy quality or unit length or programming made no difference, as your theory would require, there would be no creative "stars" in agencies and The biggest agency might have a one-person media department.
To approximate what you are looking for, if purchase intent is measured at enough different points of enough different schedules, then a graph relating grp to intent can be created. It will only be approximately predictive because it ignores all those other variables the Guru mentioned.
- Thursday, May 28, 1998 #1610
1.Please, where can I find "Archives" by topic?
2.I have seen a table showing awareness Level correlat
ed to Target grps.Could you, please, tell me how they
estimate awareness Level?
3. I also have seen a table showing Audience engagement
in various activities when average commercial is aired.
Would you, please, tell me how the information is obtain
ed? Is it from a national panel? If yes, does this panel
also provide audience data? Thank you, Inocima.
- The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 02, 1998 ):
1) The Guru Archives may be accessed from their link on the Media Guru Page. In the next few days, we will be adding a search engine to allow you to find all all past Guru answers on the topics of your choice.
2) The Guru isn't familiar with the table you have seen. Since you are writing from Brazil, it could be based on research totally unfamiliar to the Guru. The proper way for such a table to have been created would use just estimates of awareness, but actual survey results. An advertiser or agency which has conducted many awareness studies and correlated them with actual grp's of the plans running in synchronization with the studies could create such a table.
In fact, just a few actual measurements could be the basis of a table if it is assumed that the awareness / grp relationship follows some sort of curve as does the Reach / grp relationship. The Guru is familiar with one formula for predicting awareness based on grp, which came from analyzing several plans and surveys. In essence, it predicted that when there was any significant starting awareness, awareness declined in any week where there were less than 100 grp.
3) Again, Brazil's audience engagement data is not familiar to the Guru. In the U.S. such data usually comes from secondary sources such as our Simmons or MRI, which ask these questions but are primarily print audience and product usage studies.
- Saturday, May 23, 1998 #1602
I am looking for any guidelines / research about:
1- number of spots for radio (sustaining level, 50% heavy up, 100% heavy up
2 - if I have continues strategy what maximum gap of not being on air may I allow without harm to sales (one week, two, three?)
3 - in my country (Russia) we have practice in outdoor not to place competitors on two opposite sides of billboard, ahzt I think is not correct, as each face of billboard works for different directions and can not compete with each other. What is the practice regarding this in other countries. Thank you very much.
- The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 26, 1998 ):
1) The Guru doesn't judge radio effectiveness in terms of numbers of spots. If one schedule of 12 spots, for example, has an average rating of 0.5 (one-half of 1 percent of the target audience), which is common, it cannot be considered equal to another station's 12 spots with an average rating of 2.5 (also reasonable for top stations in the US). The first accumulates 6 grps and might reach 3% of the target, the second accumulates 30 grps and might reach 12-15% of the target.
So grps' or other audience measure are more realistic ways to determine levels. Having done this, if you determine that 100 grps, for example, is the correct sustaining level, then by simple arithmetic, 50% heavy-up is 150 grps and 100% heavy-up is 200 grps
2) awareness begins to decline as soon as there is any advertising gap. Current thinking is that sales of a continuously purchased product are better supported by continuity at whatever level is affordable rather than an arbitrary minimum effective weekly level, separated by periods of inactivty. The U.S.'s Advertising Research Foundation has considerable literature on the topic and so might ESOMAR , the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research organization
3) The Guru agrees with you regarding opposite sides of a billboard. The competitive protection policies the Guru is familiar with in the U.S. only deal with advertising seen by the same audience, that is, traffic headed in the same direction. Usually there will be a certain range specified, such as "Within 500 feet" for metropolitan 8-sheet boards, which are about 5x12 feet and can be placed in dense concentration within cities.
- Monday, May 11, 1998 #1587
Is there a correlation between grp levels and awareness? If so, what grp levels are recommended to significantly effect awareness? The category I'm looking at (long term care insurance) has low consumer awareness, and a high avoidance
- The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 11, 1998 ):
In its simplest terms, there is a correlation. Obviously, the more grps delivered, the more awareness is created. Creating new awareness will take more grps than sustaining existing awareness.
A safe minimum guideline is to continuously reach more people than the existing level of awareness.
It is also important to remember that awareness alone doesn't make a sale. The message must be persuasive, not merely one of which the prospects are aware.
- Saturday, October 18, 1997 #1438
Could you please give me your views/suggestions on the following:
1. How can you set media objectives for a banking client in a market with only two major competitors; both of whom do not have a clear-cut advertising campaign? Would a % above last years grp levels be appropriate; in proportion to the market share desired? What other parameters should I consider?
2. Qualitatively or quantitatively, how can front page solus positions in newspapers be compared with inside pages and ear panels?
3. And lastly, how do you add TV and press grps; for a specific audience?
Sorry about the long query.
Thanks in advance
- The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, October 18, 1997 ):
As a rule, the Guru sets media objectives based on
marketing goals, not competitors' activity. Some
marketing goals do indeed lead one to comparsions with
competition, and awareness of competitors' plans is always
If the key marketing goal is share growth, then a
proportional increase in weight is one approach. But
consider that share, like reach, exhibits an asymptotic
curve. In other words, it can't pass 100%, so the higher it
goes, the more effort is required to "move the needle."
Consider: You first assume that "X" amount of grp's are
required just to maintain share, on the assumption
that competitive activity doesn't vary (and that advertising
is the only variable influencing share).
Have you considered whether current share is
proportional to share of grp weight among competitiors?
Would 50% more grps grow share by 50%?
No, if only because it increases the size of the total advertising
arena. Your 50% increase in grp does not increase your
share of grp by 50%, so calculate the right
number to increase share of grp, if you follow that
But since there are competitors, perhaps it takes 50%
more weight to gain 25% more share?
Newspaper positions can be compared on a basis of noting,
reading, recall, etc. In each country or culture (you are
writing from India), the relative power of media and the
way consumers relate to them are different.
In the U.S., for example, a front page ad in a newspaper
would be quite unusual if not unheard of.
Contacting the U.S. Advertising Research
Foundation or ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Marketing Research organization, or
your own country's newspaper advertising association may
turn useful up research on positioning.
The Guru treats grps of different media as simply additive.
When there are established effectiveness factors, as some
advertisers have developed, grps may be accordingly
adjusted before adding, in comparing plans.
- Monday, May 12, 1997 #1343
Is there any model that relates advertisign awareness
or brand awareness with media weight level? If there
is no measurable coverage of the media, say computer
magazine, what can we base our judgement on.
- The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 12, 1997 ):
When there are published studies of this sort, the Guru can
usually find them in the Advertising Research
Foundation Library or in the Newsweek
Media Research Index
There is, no doubt, a great volume of studies which are
held proprietarily by advertisers.
There was a model the Guru once used, based on certain
Agencies' many tests, which roughly assumed ad awareness
would equal 91% of the existing awareness plus 3% of
the previous week's grps (gross audience coverage).
It should be obvious that this model works best for brands
with little or no going-in awareness and also dictates
that anything less than 100 grp per week leads to declining
awareness for brands with awareness above 35%
Media coverage can be estimated for print media:
circulation is usually known; readers-per-copy and
composition can be approximated by comparison to similar
It should also be kept in mind that awareness is not a factor of media alone, but depends, to great extent on creative.
- Tuesday, February 04, 1997 #1057
What is the best way to evaluate outdoor - qualitatively and quantitatively? Any available research?
- The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 09, 1997 ):
In the US, outdoor is typically packaged in "showings" of 25 / 50 / 100 which generally mean 25 / 50 / or 100 grps per day, that is, a selection of locations with a total daily effective circulation equal to 25 or 50 or 100% of the adult population of the market. (demographic data is often very approximate).
Outdoor delivers very high reaches at low CPMs. Message lengths are of course quite limited.
Barring specific creative testing or pre-post attitude awareness and usage tracking, evaluation is very much a judgement call based on creative and your communications goals.
- Monday, August 05, 1996 #1171
In regards to print advertising, what is a wear-out report? What data do I need to complete this report (reach, frequency, formulas)?
- The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 08, 1996 ):
The Guru has discussed Wear Out previously (see below July 17 and May 7).
A wear out report would state the status of various print executions in your campaign in comparison to the wear out standard you have established.
Clients have a way of asking the wear out question without setting a standard or even being able to decide how to set one.
Essentially an ad is worn out when it loses all or most of its ability to accomplish its marketing purpose with its target. The purpose may be as simple as product sales, or lead generation in a direct response campaign, or it may be as difficult to define as building brand imagery or awareness of a specific product benefit. Since directly relating any of these to a specific ad would require custom research, it is typical to use whatever research has been done in the past as related to easily modelled media measurements, such as reach, frequency, grps or quintiles.
For example if in the past, a custom study showed the average ad was worn out at a time when the planners knew that 80% of the target had seen it 8 or more times, or when the frequency in the top 2 quintiles passed 30. (Don't use these examplenumbers). Naturally, different ads perform differently, but you will need to work on an average basis.
A wear out report then becomes a matter of reporting something like how many of thetarget have seen the ad at least "x" times, or that the frequency in the top 2quintiles will exceed the standard measure as of a certain month of the schedule, or"X" number of grps will have run for the ad by some date.
The key is knowing how one of these media measures relate to your wear out standard. Then the report is a simple task.
- Wednesday, December 27, 1995 #1804
what is the difference between general media and direct response television media? and would I ever recommend to my client DRTV as an inexpensive way of getting exposure?
- The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 02, 1996 ):
General TV and DRTV are different in the way they are purchased and in key aspects of the copy used. To qualify for DRTV, the copy usually must be selling something through an 800 telephone number. Mail is also possible, but the immediate nature of telephone response is preferable (900 number ads are typically under a different rate structure).
DRTV rates are usually based on half of the going rate for the time period. The concept of "going rate" is hard to pin down with any certainty, unless you are buying the same schedule at the same time as "general media." These half price schedules are typically in remnant time or relatively undesirable times late at night or early in the morning or weekends. They are also instantly preemptible. You can't rely on delivering a schedule of "50 grp per week in prime and 75 grp per week in early fringe" through DRTV.
General TV schedules are used to build awareness through planned levels of reach and frequency or timely impressions delivery during specific promitions or campaigns DRTV schedules are opportunistic buys, with each airing anticipated to generate a certain quata of responses for a product ready to sell at all times without specific timing issues.. DRTV advertisers often track resonse minute by minute to associate each call with the specific commercial airing responsible. This is in clear contrast with the awarenes building aspect of general media.
When your client measures "exposure" in reach or effective reach terms than DRTV is not an efficient way to get exposure. Those remnant timeslots are not reach builders.
A DRTV advertiser is generally selling something worth the investment in inbound telemarketing expenses for each 800 number order, and assuming a certain minimum of orders per airing. (You cant make money if a $5 an hour operator has to spend 10 minutes taking address, size, flavor and credit card info to sell a $2 item, unless you add $3 shipping and handling). This means it doesn't work for toothpaste, floor wax, soap or cookies, unless you're selling the $29 bag-o-groceries special.