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 Sunday, October 17, 2004 #6643

Dear Guru, In the past we used to assess media plans based on CPM. More than ten years ago, planners started to use CPP as a base of comparison and not CPM anymore. I would highly appreciate if you could elaborate on this evolution from CPM to CPP. Thank you & regards,
 The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 17, 2004 ):

This is not an evolution, this is apparently how your company has changed. Both of these measures have been in use for 40 of more years.
CPM is a more absolute measure, while CPP is in relation to a target population.
Network buyers may look more to CPM, since they don't deal with geographies of varying sizes, while planners look more to CPP, which relates directly to GRP, a planning metric, from which reach and frequency are most readily calculated. The growth of internet as a medium brings more emphasis to cpm, as CPP is not typically used in online media.
 Tuesday, August 31, 2004 #6583

Dear Guru,
Can you once and for all please give the mathmatics involved to calculate a local r&f into a national r&f, and vice versa. If I am mixing a national schedule into a local market, will the GRP's remain the same? If not, how is it cacluated?
Thanks in advance
 The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, August 31, 2004 ):

Local to national is simple arithmetic:
Local reach X % US coverage translates Rreach and GRP to national.
E.g. if you have a reach / Frequency / GRP of 70 / 4.0 / 280 in a market which is 10% of the US, then national reach is 7 / 4.0 / 28. Note that frequency is NOT recalculated, it is simply the same. In most cases, this doesn't make a difference, but when it does, keep the original frequency. This is because it is a count rather than a percentage. So the same people that were reached, even when expressed as a percentage of a different universe, simply experience the number of exposures originally calculated.
National to local however, invloves estimation or measurement as much as arithmetic: If you have a schedule delivering a national R/F/GRP of 70 / 4.0 / 280, then you may estimate that its local delivery is 70 / 4.0 / 280, because, by defintion, that is the average reach across markets. However, various vehicles have differences in marketbymarket audience, and if you have a specific market in mind, you can get the actual value of the schedule's delivery in the designated market. Then reach and frequency can be calculated for the market using whatever r&f model you have at hand, or perhaps using GRP delivery indices established in past experience. A delivery index would apply only to the GRPs; reach grows along a "curve" and would not vary in a linear fashion proportionately to the variations in individual vehicle audiences.
 Wednesday, March 10, 2004 #6412

Hello Guru I receive your comments of my question .
I Want to know , How many weeks is the maximum period I should accumulate for analysis of the reach for one campaign???
 The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 10, 2004 ):

The (US) standard is 4 weeks. At times, for various purposes, such as wearout analysis, 13 week and 52 week cumes may be calculated.
 Tuesday, December 16, 2003 #6315

How do you calculate combined frequency. If I have a cable plan in a market with a frequency of 2.6 and a broadcast tv plan with a frequency of 6.6  what is the combined frequency?
 The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, December 20, 2003 ):

The Guru will assume you are referring to average frequency, typically considered for a four week period. One actually calculates the combined reach and GRPs and then figures the "combined" frequency. Consider the following table. If you had run 400 GRP in broadcast and had 61 reach there would be 6.6 average frequency. If you also had 100 GRP of cable and a reach of 38, there would be an average frequency of 2.6.
GRPs are simply additive for a total of 500. reaches must be combined by a system that recognizes duplication; "random probability" will overstate a bit when you are working with two related elements such as different kinds of TV. Probability might have estimated a combined reach of 76 here but let's suppose your algorithm estimates 72. In any case, the combined average frequency is calculated thus: divide the combined GRP (500) by the combined reach (72) which equals 6.9; see below:
Element 
reach 
Freq. 
GRP 
Broadcast 
61 
6.6 
400 
Cable 
38 
2.6 
100 
Total 
72 
6.9 
500 
 Saturday, November 29, 2003 #6282

Is there a method for "manually" calculating the reach/frequency of network TV/radio? I know other options exist (Telmar, for example) but would prefer to have my students do it this way if possible.
 The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 30, 2003 ):

2530+ years ago, planners worked with tables of GRPs by medium or program frequency, etc, baseds on averages of many fully calculated actual measurements but not full scale calculation, which would involve treating each commerical individually. While there might be some value in learning how to take a set of observations and develop a curve, trying to make these base calculations for each plan seems pointless.
The purely manual calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Betabinomial function.
There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables
 Wednesday, November 26, 2003 #6278

Dear Guru(s), how does one establish an effective reach objective for a media mix? Do you report the effective reach for each medium separately and calculate the 1+ reach for the mix and leave it at that?
R.
 The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 28, 2003 ):

Media software can readily report total media 3+ reach.
Click here to see past Guru responses about levels.
 Monday, August 25, 2003 #6139

Hi Boss,
1. how many weeks needed as a based assumption to get certain point GRP needed to achieved certain level of reach/Freq
2. any explanation about answer no 1
3. how to calculate that (the tools)
Big thanks boss
 The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, August 26, 2003 ):

The standard measurement period for r&f is 4 weeks or one month. This allows fitting in monthly magazines. For tools, see Telmar
 Tuesday, August 19, 2003 #6130

Dear Guru
I would like to know if there is any possibility to measure additional reach that is generated by adding other medium to usual media mix based on TV. For a couple of years we have been running almost 100% TV based campaigns for FMCG client and we have recently observed that there are no changes in building brands awareness nor other crucial barnds parameters. We are now deeply thinking about moving some part of the budghet to other mediums as we intuitively think we can be gaining some incremental value by this shift. Is there any way to measure what additional percentage we can gain by using TV + radio or print instead of using only TV? Is there any research on what incremental campaign reach or brand awareness can we get by this decision? We have difference of mediums research methodology (telemetric for TV vs declarative for radio and print) so perhaps you could indicate some findings or research. Thank you a lot
 The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, August 23, 2003 ):

The Guru infers from your query that you are in a country without media measurement or at least without reach models.
reach models we have are consistent in demonstrating that adding weight to a base plan in a new medium increases total reach more than adding comparable weight in the base medium already in use. reach models within single media generally are based on measured "curves" of growth. However the reach added by a new medium can typically be estimated by simple random probablilty calculations.
Click here to see Guru explanation of calculating reach by probability.
 Thursday, July 17, 2003 #6085

I have an $11,000 cable schedule that achieves 182 demo rating points. In Tapscan the reach and frequency
is 12.4 and 14.7 frequency. In Strata the reach and frequency is 73% reach and 2.5 frequency. I think the truth somewhere in between. Tapscan will not share the
algorithims (sp)in the formula and I haven't asked STrata. What do you think?
 The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 19, 2003 ):

The Guru imagines that the discrepancy has two bases:
One: possibly the Tapscan r&f is assuming that the input is cable GRP and the desirted output is total market r&f, while the Strata is calculating only against cable universe. For example if a market's cable penetration is 60%, then 182 cable GRP = 109 total market GRP. 73 cable universe reach = total 44 market reach. Two: even under these circumstances, the difference should be less. The Guru suspects that dispersion and programming selection inputs differ between the two so that reach isn't calculated the same.
 Saturday, June 21, 2003 #6029

Dear Guru, Please help me to clarify these issues :
 What CPT and CPM stand for ?
 Are the formulas to calculate them as follows :
CPT=(Costx1000)/Impression
CPM=(Costx1000)/reach(000)
 Impression and reach in thousand are not the same,are they? Impression include duplication but the reach in thousand does not. Impression = reach(000)x OTS?
 Therefore, there must be different b/w CPT & CPM. But it seems that most books consider them as the same.
 GRP = OTS x reach (%)or GRP = Frequency x reach (%)?
 Does OTS have some meaning of impression?
Since these issue confuse me now so much and I current get a stuck in preparing a report. Pls do reply me as soon as possible. Many thanks.
 The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 21, 2003 ):

You have tangled up several ideas and defintions. In different countries, some of these terms are used differently or not used. For example, in the Guru's base of the U.S., we do not use "opportunities to see (OTS)," and though you may be in Thailand, the Guru will not assume so.
CPM stands for cost per thousand impressions; the "M" is the Roman numeral M, meaning one thousand. CPT is not familiar in the US, but is probably another indicator of Cost per Thousand impressions.
The Guru most often sees "OTS" used as equivalent to "impressions" but sometimes as a reference to average frequency, so here are the simplest definitions.
"Impressions" are the number of advertising exposures, i.e. the number of different people exposed to advertising times the average number of occasions on which they are exposed. Thus, duplication is included. "number of different people exposed" is equivalent to "reach." "Number of occasions on which they are exposed" is equivalent to "frequency."
CPM is cost of advertising divided by impressions in thousands. reach is not involved. When reach is expressed as a percentage of a target group, then reach x frequency = GRP.
 Tuesday, June 10, 2003 #6006

Dear Guru, I have the circulation figures and the readership duplication percentage of various dailies. How can I calculate the net reach? What are the other variables required to calculate net reach? Thanx, Toolie, Bangladesh.
 The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 15, 2003 ):

You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.
The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Betabinomial function.
There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables
 Thursday, May 15, 2003 #5974

I can use random probability to calculate reach. Is there any way I can create a complete frquency distribution? For instance, Is it correct to add up probabilities for an individual for 4 publications (Say 0.75, 0.75, 0.5 and 0.25) and say that frequency for the person is 2.25?
 The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 18, 2003 ):

The Guru follows neither your math nor your logic here.
If your example means the the indivisual has a 75% chance of reading the first publication, etc how would that give the person a 2.25 frequency for the 4? You are working with almost unrelated data, not to mention the overstatement of random probability in calculating reach of related media. Further, frequency distribution deals with the numbers of persons who experienced each integral frequency, i.e. how many had one exposure, how many had two exposures. No individual may have a fractional exosure.
 Tuesday, April 22, 2003 #5943

i believe there is a rule of thumb when calculating the reach of trade publications. something like the first major pub in the buy gets over like 75 or 80% and then there is a average increase per added pub. It's just a rule of thumb, but it sure would be useful since we cannot define the size of the overall industry's target universe. IF you do not know this rule of thumb, how would you suggest we calculate the reach and frequency of 5 trade pubs bought with differing levels of insertions over a year. Thanks for any help!
 The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, April 26, 2003 ):

Crudely: calculate each book's circulation's percentage of the sum of the goups' circs and make this each one's individual reach. Start with the largest and calculate the added reach contribution of the others by random probability.
 Saturday, March 08, 2003 #5871

Dear Guru,
I encounter some more questions which I am unsure. I learnt that we can calculate combined reach of different media vehicles in one medium and combined reach of different media (e.g. TV, Magazine etc.) and same for frequency.
However, how can I applied tohse in an advertising flowchart? where I need to indicate monthly reach, monthly frequency and GRPs for different media vehicles+media (?) To do it manually, do we really calculate first combined reach and frequency of all media vehicles within 1 medium first than use the final combined reach % to calculate with other media to get the Montly reach & frequency & grps in the adv flowchart....it will be quite tedious....I am confused...please help!
 The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 09, 2003 ):

The Guru does not understand your confusion. You say you understand how to calculate the reach of several vehicles in one medium and how to combine the reaches of several media.
One thing you must understand is that reach is always calculated over a specified period of time. The standard period is four weeks. Often, when print is the only medium involved, one month is used because this is virtually the same as four weeks and monthly magazines fit readily. However, it should be recognized that variations in issue dates muddy the time cycle, and that monthly magazines' audiences cume over a longer period than one month. In any case, whether the flow chart is divided into 12 months or 13 fourweek periods, the process is simply a matter of looking at the schedule that will run in each of these periods and calculating the R/F/GRP for each. The is not any kind of standard that establishes that a flow chart should show r&f for every month. When schedules are fairly consistent, it is probably more common to show the average 4week r&f within each quarter, or whatever is needed to give a clear understanding of the plan's communications levels. And yes, if you are doing the work manually, it is tedious.
 Monday, March 03, 2003 #5863

Dear Guru, I learnt in school using onlyonlyboth method to calculate the reach for media A only, media B only and both. However, if there are more than two media, how to calculate the reach of media A+B+C?
And reach for media C only?....
 The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 03, 2003 ):

The trick is to look at the percent who do not see each medium. This is 100% minus the percent who DO see A. The percent who do not see medium A times the percent who do not see medium B is the percent who see neither. 100% minus the percent who see neither = net reach of both. Working this way the calculation can be readily chained as far along as needed.
In other words, if you have  reach of A = 20%
 reach of B = 24%
 reach of C = 31%
 reach of D = 47%,
then the calculation for the net reach of all is
0.8 x 0.76 x 0.69 x 0.53 = 0.22 so net reach = 78%. Remembering that as above, if reach is the probability of seeing a medium, then 100 minus reach is the probability of NOT seeing the medium, you should be able to calculate exclusive reaches as needed.
 Saturday, February 15, 2003 #5841

Can you please tell me how to do the Sainsbury formula in order to calculate campaign reach & frequency?
 The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 17, 2003 ):

Click here to see past Guru responses about Sainsbury.
To do the kind of calculation you probably want, you need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar. The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Betabinomial function.
There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables
 Friday, February 14, 2003 #5838

I am working on creating a hypothetical media plan for a class project, which entails targeting adults age 1834 years of age, for a new product. I am lost as to how to set reach Frequency goals, and then once I formulate my plan, how do I calculate the actual reach? Also, how do I figure out cost per point for network tv late fringe and cable tv? Is there a guide that could help me estimate?
 The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 14, 2003 ):

Go to the Guru Archives Search Engine. Use "goals" or "calculate" or the other questions as your search terms.
 Friday, February 07, 2003 #5815

We've been asked to estimate reach/frequency/etc. for a plan that includes USA Today, newspapers in 810 major markets, spot radio in 5 markets, metro traffic in 810 markets, and national magazines. I think this is impossible, but can you think of any way I can provide the client with a decent estimate? I was thinking I could start by pulling delivery for USAT, magazines, New York Times, and then somehow estimating the rest.
 The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 08, 2003 ):

The Guru sees no problem, and so does not quit understand your question perhaps. Assuming you know what reach and frequency is, you can readily determine the reach of each one of the media you mention. Most simply, you can combine them by Random Probability . Most reach and frequency systems on the market, like our own eTelmar, can do this for you. The only "trick" is accounting for the different geographies, but that's just artithmetic, and easy if you look at all the percentage reaches as their equivalent in thousands.
 Wednesday, December 18, 2002 #5691

Dear Guru:
We can calculate (or estimate or guestimate) how much reach we can get for every dollar we spend on TV. Question: Can we calculate how much brand awareness we can get for every dollar we spend on TV? If positive, how do we do that? Thanks, R.
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 19, 2002 ):

It would be an after the fact estimate, as is reach, really. You would need top have measured awareness across a variety of schedules and built a curve.
But, reach is simply a headcount measure of media delivery, while awarenss is influenced by creative and other circumstance, so a predictive model would be much more complex.
 Tuesday, December 10, 2002 #5671

I am doing a media plan for a global biotech company and they advertise in the major trade and science journals. They gave me geography goals of 65% US, 30% Europe and 5% Japan. Meaning the % of impressions in each region they want to reach. How do I calculate the percent that they are reaching with the current plan? For example, do I just take the Europe circulation of the publication and multiply it by the total number of insertions scheduled for that pub to get the total number of impressions in europe? Media Guru, I need your help, I don't know how I am going to reach 30% in Europe. Thanks so much.
 The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, December 15, 2002 ):

If you assume circulation = readers, then your formula works. In most cases, trade media like these won't have any surveybased audience research available. so circulaiton is a good basis.
Obvioulsy, you need to be considering titles published in some of the regions you wish to cover. See PubList
 Wednesday, November 20, 2002 #5630

How do you determine the reach on TV and Radio schedules.
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 21, 2002 ):

Click here to see past Guru responses about reach calculation.
 Thursday, September 26, 2002 #5532

How can I calculate reach & frecuency?
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 26, 2002 ):

You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.
The calculation is extremely complex. In print, for example, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Betabinomial function.
There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables
 Friday, August 16, 2002 #5468

I need to know, What is the data that I can use to calculate newspaper reach?
 The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 16, 2002 ):

As in your adjacent query, you need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.
The calculation is extremely complex. As input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Betabinomial function.
There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables. Try The Newspaper Advertising Association for some general estimates.
 Tuesday, July 23, 2002 #5431

How do you calculate cost of incremental reach?
thanks
 The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 27, 2002 ):

Simple artithmetic:
Base plan has reach of "X"
Spending "Y" additional dollars will produce a plan with reach of "Z"
Incremental reach = Z  X
"Y" is the cost of incremental reach.
 Wednesday, July 10, 2002 #5405

Quick question, I have an AE who keeps bringing up "impact factor" with planning. And that the impact factor needs to be addressed when planning and GRP's and total R/F need to be adjusted. I have no clue what he means or an idea how to do this. Any help is greatly appreciated. Thanks again.
 The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 10, 2002 ):

It sounds like your AE just arrived from working on an account which used such factors. Perhaps he never worken on any other acount and doesn'r realize this is ideosyncratic. Or perhaps he came from an agency with their own factors.
In any case, "impact" factors might be based on an index of recall or attentiveness or some other measurement of results specific to media types, from synidcated or proprietary research. Typically, the "best medium" which is probably going to be prime time television has a 100 index and the others are set in relation to that. Also typically, the GRP are adjsuted and reach is then calculated based on the adjusted GRP. None of this "impact factor" process is absolute or standard, but it can be done.
 Tuesday, June 18, 2002 #5359

Is it relevant to calculate an overall reach / effective reach of a 3 flights campaign with 4 weeks OFF AIR period between?
 The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 18, 2002 ):

What might "relevant" mean here?
Can the calculation be done? Yes. Is it meaningful? That depends on your needs. Have you set a goal pertaining to the total numbers of persons exposed? Then it is relevant to that goal? Is your only standard based on people being reached at a point in time? Then it is less relevant.
 Sunday, March 17, 2002 #5157

how do you find the reach?
 The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 17, 2002 ):

Click here to see past Guru responses about media calculations
 Thursday, January 31, 2002 #5039

calculate reach and frequency
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 31, 2002 ):

You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.
The calculation is extremely complex. As input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Betabinomial function.
There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables
 Tuesday, January 22, 2002 #5026

Now that Outdoor can be mixed with other media, what is your thinking on how do the number of uses effect the frequency distribution? Should we be transferring GRP's, number of days or number of boards times days? How does this effect the frequency of the programs?
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 31, 2002 ):

Outdoor could always be mixed with other media, so the Guru presumes you mean that the media software you use now has the ability to calculate reach and frequency for the combined media. Your question is probably answered in the software's manual.
 Tuesday, January 22, 2002 #5025

What do I need to calculate reach for print and what is the formula?
 The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 23, 2002 ):

You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.
The calculation is extremely complex. As input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Betabinomial function.
There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables
 Thursday, January 03, 2002 #4971

Dear Guru  Was there ever a "chart" that enabled media buyers to calculate reach/freq, gross impressions etc for broadcast television planning. I have been explaining to someone that we use programs for this kind of thing, but this person seems to remember using a chart and thinks i should be able to do this manually if he could. I've never heard of it, have you? He would have been planning around 1975. Thanks.
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 03, 2002 ):

Yes, before computers became common in the 80's, when there were just 3 networks, with 90%+ share, no cable, and few independent stations, r&f tables were the way it was done. Every few years, using Nielsen cume studies of actual scehdules, average reaches for various GRP levels were calculated. There might be variables for the number of programs or episodes used. In this way all possibilities for a daypart could be displayed on a single, typed page.
Today, with computers on every desk, 6 broadcast networks amassing only 50% share, dozens of cable options and hundreds of independent stations, accuracy requires computer systems. Such crude tables could be still constructed, but why bother when computers and software are so readily available?
The Guru who was using the charts in the 60's, is happy with his computer today.
 Wednesday, August 15, 2001 #4658

Guru,
Could use some help framing questions for my agency relating to the effectiveness of a media campaign. We recently ran a test cell for a new campaign (our first)in which the agency provided information on total TRPs, total reach and total frequency over the life of the test. I need to determine how the frequency builds over time. Are there any formulas/rules of thumb for calculating build over time? If not, what specifically should I ask them for?
Thanks.
 The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, August 15, 2001 ):

reach relates to GRP in a curvilinear function. Frequency relates to GRP in a straight line. This doesn't mean that each week adds the same amount of frequency, merely that it's fairly easy to work with.
The easiest thing however, is probably to ask the agency to calculate cumulative reach and frequency, week by week, over the course of the campaign.
 Tuesday, July 31, 2001 #4621

Hello Media Guru
Is there software available that will have reach and frequency information for Trade publications. If not what is the best way to calculate this information?
 The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, July 31, 2001 ):

Programs like Telmar's print planning systems can process Intelliquest (computer and tech trades), as well as some others which exist in the medical and other fields. The software can also estimate r&f for other, unmeasured trade titles if you have circulation and readerpercopy estimates.
 Monday, July 09, 2001 #4562

Dear Guru, Our client has asked me to produce a "payout scenario" that they would be able to expect in sales based on a national plan that I have done for them. I don't know what the creative will look like because it is done in house. How can I calculate the sales potential of a media plan? Thanks again.
 The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 11, 2001 ):

Except in direct reposnse scenarios with considerable past history, this can only be very approximate. Try the following steps:
 What percent of the target will buy the product over the period of the plan if there is no plan?
 What percent of persons will you reach at effective levels during the plan?
 What percent of nontarget persons will buy the product over the period of the plan if there is no plan?
 What percent of nontarget persons will you reach at effective levels during the plan?
 Can you assume that current nonusers will be moved to purchase by exposure to the plan?
Of course a lot depends on whether the advertising is aimed at newuser trial, increasing use among currentusers, using up, etc. Once you have all these assumptions organized, then comparing the value of projected added sales to the cost of advertising leads to payout estimates.
 Friday, July 06, 2001 #4555

Our agency handles a lot of business to business accounts how would one go about calcualting reach and frequency for each particular business sector ex. one account makes catheters. How would you calculate in various valueadded opportunities into reach and frequency like links on a site, direct mail lists etc. Thanks for the great service.
 The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 06, 2001 ):

To calculate reach and frequency two data points are necessary:
Unduplicated audience within the target (sector, in your case) and total population for the target. The media type or unit size are not relevant; reach is pure arithmetic; relative impact and other creative judgements are separate.It should be basic to estimate the numbers of audience for any media vehicle, site or mailing in your plan. You certainly must have an idea of the size of the sectors you are targeting. The tricky part would be estimating the duplication between advertisements. In the medical field, possibly PERQ has some useful estimates. Once you add the gross audiecne of all your ads and eloiminate the estimated duplication, you divide by the population to determine reach.
 Friday, June 29, 2001 #4538

Hello again,
I have two questions about calculating reach and frequency that I have been unable to find in the archives of past responses. Perhaps you can help?
1. I normally use the formula (a+b)(.a*b) to determine combined reach of two mediums, such as radio and print. How do I calculate the combined reach of more than two? The plan I am working on includes spot TV, spot radio and local newspaper.
2. Is it possible to determine a combined reach for more than one market or should each market be reported separately? In the past, I have provided separate delivery for each market in the same plan with a total number of gross impressions for the whole plan. Is this correct?
Thanks in advance!
 The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 29, 2001 ):

1. This common formula is based on an assumption that different media duplicate their audiences according to random probability. Therefore if you follow this assumption, media may be added to combinations of media in a "chain" of the same formula. So, once you have combined TV and Radio, you can use this combination as your "a" and then combine it with newspaper as "b."
2. You can combine reaches across markets by doing a weighted average. Multiply the reach in each market by the percent of U.S. in each market. Add all the products and divide by the sum of the % U.S.
 Sunday, June 17, 2001 #4492

Hi Guru  I have a few cable TV questions. 1. Can reach/frequency estimates be done for cable schedules. My rep keeps giving me everything but. 2. Does Nielen measure all cable stations. 3. Why can't I get FX numbers on Telmar, just ESPN. 4. If I can get R/F for cable what are some of the major differences from Network numbers. Thanks.
 The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 17, 2001 ):

 Yes they can. Some smaller networks may not have the facilities to calculate r&f, but that doesn't seem likely.
 Yes, but not all cable networks have enough measured audience to be considered reportable by Nielsen
 Telmar systems which use your own Nielsen tape data will allow you to examine any reportable network. Systems like Market Maestro, which use established generalized data can only incorporate networks old enough and large enough at the time of the system update to have establish patterns, but not all the 100+ imaginable networks
 Because cable ratings are a fraction of broadcast ratings, and turnover is less, cable reaches cume lower in relation to GRPs. SInce cable universes are smaller than broadcast, reach potential is lower as well
 Friday, May 04, 2001 #4368

Media Guru, please help. How do I calculate reach and frequency for a twoweek, twonewspaper buy? We are placing 4 ads per week (total of 8 ads for the schedule) on Newspaper #1, which has a maximum reach of 9% of our target. Newspaper #2 will carry 2 ads per week (4 ads for the schedule) with a maximum reach of 23% of our target. Please advise. Thanks!
 The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 06, 2001 ):

Find some example newspaper r&fs at The Newspaper Advertsing Associations Marketscope site.
In very general terms, you can estimate some parameters. If newspaper A has a 9% maximum reach, it probably has a single copy reach of around 7%. If B has a maximum of 23%, then it likely has single copy reach around 20%. So the outside bounds of reach for your schedule are a minimum of 20, but more likely closer to 25, the random combination of the two papers' single copies. The outside maximum is 32 ( the 9% plus the 23% maxima), but more likely closer to 30 (random again).
A solid estimate of 2530 reach for your schedule should be good enough, but you could use the eTelmar payperuse system for a specific calculation.
Frequency, of course, will be the sum of the single copy audeinces of all insertions (GRP) ÷ the reach estimate.
 Tuesday, March 20, 2001 #4273

Dear Guru,
Can you guess at an estimated reach for a 4week radio schedule at 150 TRP/WK (W2554)? Also, do you happen to know the formula for manually figuring reach/frequency?
Thanks for your help!
 The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 20, 2001 ):

The formulas for radio reach are enormously complex and must take into account number of stations, daypart mix, average rating and other variables.
Your 600 GRP schedule might generate (roughly) from 35 to 70 reach, depending on these variables.
Click here to see past Guru
responses abourt calculating reach.
 Tuesday, March 13, 2001 #4251

Hello Media Guru 
Hopefully you can help me. We are currently in planning and we are analyzing our competitiors When  In Avg Weekly and Avg 4 wk deliveries by Quarter and Full Year. We have pulled their GRPs by week for Network by daypart, Syndicated and Cable so we have the National TV deliveries. We have pulled their Print schedules off of Stradegy and now want to come up w/the same deliveries (Whenin Avg weekly and Avg 4 wk by Quarter and Full Year)for Print in order to combine the TV and Print deliveries. Is there a method that you suggest?
Thank you in advance
Bridget
 The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 13, 2001 ):

It isn't clear which steps cause your problems.
If you're being strict, for average 4week a simple arithmetic adjustment from average month to average 28 days will suffice. For average print week, you could take the year's schedule and divide it into 52 roughly equal groups, then average the r&f of all 52. If print is flighted, then you should calculate for active periods and average with zero weight for as much time as there is hiatus.
 Monday, January 08, 2001 #4087

Guru,
First off, just wanted to let you know that I find this to be one of the most usefull sites on the web  as a management consultant in need of a crash course on media planning, the information found in these pages has proven invaluable...Now, on to my question:
I am working on the launch of a branded consumer services play (auto related), and am trying to build a marketing budget from the bottom up, rather than as a strict % of sales. I have modeled an overly simplified media plan, and am looking for guidance on placeholders to use for weights (TRP) for TV and Radio, # of weekly inserts for newspaper, and showing level for outdoor. I know there are numerous factors and considerations I am leaving out (I know the GURU doesn't like sweeping generalizations), but I need a place to start. Goal: generate "substantial awareness" (think Midas, Maaco).
Thanks for your insights.
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 11, 2001 ):

The Guru thanks you for the compliments.
Keep in mind that while "substantial awareness" may be a snappy phrase for discussion of plans, you need to quantify such a term in order to quantify the building blocks of getting there.
Let's suppose we decide the goal is 80% ad awareness among the target within a given campaign period. Therefore, your advertising must reach at least 80% of the target in that period, with enough frequency for the message to penetrate and stick, let's say at least three times.
Now, you can calculate that generating that reach in TV will call for a certain number of TRP (you can use the media software at eTelmar for calculations). Or you can examine getting that reach with radio or a combination of TV and radio. Outdoor will generate high reach more efficiently than either, with a #25 showing, but outdoor's necessary simplicity of message may not stand alone in filling your needs. Newspaper has its own contribution and you need to judge from a marketing perspective whther you need a small storelocator ad every day, a full page branding message once a week, or some other approach, if any.
 Tuesday, August 15, 2000 #3705

A retail client of mine is planning a short media campaign to support a 4day event (ThuSun). I'd like to show a reach curve or the like to illustrate the reach built by a 7day media support (MonSun) and a 4 1/2 day support (Wed  Sun Noon). Vehicles will be radio, TV, and newspaper. How can I do this?
 The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 18, 2000 ):

In total, there is not likely to be much demonstrable difference between identical quantities of media delivered over a MondaySunday period.
If you want to illustrate reach accumulation day by day, then you can calculate the reach of the schedule that runs on the first day of the campaign in each case, the schedule that runs on the first two days of each campagn, etc. Then you can plot the two curves, with reach on the Y axis and days on the X axis, using the charting tools of Excel, Powerpoint, Corel, or whatever you might have. It might look something like the chart below (not actual reach data).
 Wednesday, August 02, 2000 #3666

Ref. question 3663
Thanx for answering my question. I buy slots with high eff. index when my objective is to accumulate GRP's and drill my message into my consumers mind. This is the secondary stage where after creating the initial reach i focus on accumulating greatest total number of impressions (Funnel Treatment).
As for the decay factor it reflects the decrease in the recall leval when advertising is reduced or stoped. I normally use 10% decay level in IMphase(IM horizontal planning technologies)
The question that i want to ask you is what is the better way of flighting. There is a 70's 3+ eff frequency model by Prof. MacDonald which says that brusting is a better flighting patteren.On the other hand there is more recent Recency concept championed by Prof. JP Jones of Syracuse university of NY which says that as far as FMCG goods are concerned people are in the market every week and infect only needs one OTS to stimulate purchase.Please comment
MY second question is how do you calculate Eff Frequency. Normally i use Eff frequency model where i calculate the eff frequency by applying judgement and common sence in a disciplined manner using Marketing, Advertising and competitive factors
Thanx
Sarwar Khan
Media Manager
RLintas
Lahore,Pakistan
 The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 06, 2000 ):

1. In regard to 3+ effective frequency versus recency, the Guru tends to favor recency for "Fast Moving Consumer Goods." Recency is not really a contrast to the 3+ frequency theory, but an extension. As championed by Erwin Ephron, a core concept of recency is that once the third exposure is delivered, all additional exposures are at 3+.
2. Once again, there seems to be a semantic issue when you say "calculate" effective frequency. If you mean setting the frequency level to be considered effective, then your "judgment and common sence in a disciplined manner using
Marketing, Advertising and competitive factors are the right approach, and the Ostrow Model will be helpful. If instead, you mean to calculate the effective frequency delivered by your schedule, this has absolutely nothing to do with the subjective factors you have listed. A reach model determines how many persons are exposed to each discrete number of ad units in the schedule. That is if your reach is 75%, that means, explicitly, that 75% of the target has experienced one or more ad exposures. Within this, perhaps 70% of the target has been exposed to 2 or more, 66% to 3 or more, etc, up to the full number of units in the schedule. reach models allow for expressing all of these levels. "Effective reach" mean those reached at least the minimum number of times established as effective, most typically 3.
 Saturday, July 29, 2000 #3663

Dear Media Guru
I am a media planner from Pakistan.I need to ask what are the possible comparison tools that we can use while planning for different programs on television.At the moment while planning i calculate cost index, rating index, efficiency index, Avg GRP's, Maximum reach, and avg.viewing miniutes for each time slot.
Normally i advertise in time slots with high effeciency
index, is this a good comparrison tool for planning or
not.
Normally the decay factor that i take is 10% is this OK or not.
What are the different possible ways to break the adverising clutter on television and increase the possibility of high ad exposure.
Thax in anticipation
Sarwar Khan
Media Manager
RLintas (Pvt.)ltd.
Lahore Pakistan
 The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 29, 2000 ):

It always fascinates the Guru that countries sharing a common language can use it quite differently when applying it to the jargon of a particular business or interest.
What you are describing as "planning" seems to the Guru to be what he would regard as a buyer's selecting a schedule after a plan has been approved. You haven't mentioned what goals you are pursuing with your schedules. Selecting spots with the best efficiency index (audience versus cost) will get you the greatest total number of impressions, but possibly not the greatest net reach. The best rating is more often likely to lead to high reach, but perhaps not without due regard to efficiency and duplication. "Decay factor" is an unfamiliar term to the Guru. "Maximum reach" and "average viewing minutes" don't seem relevant to assessing individual spots as the Guru understands the terms. Overall, the Guru believes you should be comparing possible schedules, rather than individual spots to accomplish planning goals. Optimizers serve this purpose, but running reach analyses of several schedules can get you there, as well.
 Wednesday, July 26, 2000 #3654

Please provide formula to manually calculate reach & Frequency for press. Thanks
 The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 29, 2000 ):

This calculation is very complicated. If you don't have detailed tables of duplication factors between different publications and between various numbers of multiple issues of the same publication, only fairly crude formulae are available.
Click here to see past
Guru responses about reach calculation formulae.
 Tuesday, June 13, 2000 #3548

I am in the process of evaluating a print proposal submitted by a business to business annual register with company listings/profiles, accessible by category. In addition to receiving a P4C ad, my client wil also receive 8 bold type listings with descriptive information and 4 bold type listings(company name and phone # only) throughout various sections of the register. At first glance the package looks like a great idea. The circulation is nearly 100% targeted, the CPM (based on the P4C alone) is very low, and there are additional merchandising perks that will expose my client to their target for one full year. The problem is, I must put a "value" on each component of the package.
Do you have any ideas on how to place a value on the "bold type listings" described above?
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 15, 2000 ):

Your situation is analagous to evaluating reach versus GRPs or a full commerical in a special versus billboards.
Since the deal seems efficient and effective simplay based on the P4C, any value you give to the other elements can be arbitrary and will be just for the sake of dicsussion. Why not calculate the impressions of all the other elements and price them at 25% of the P4C cpm?
 Monday, June 12, 2000 #3547

I am buying radio in two different markets  one is a large market which is measured by Arbitron. The other is a small market where I get the ratings through Arbitron county measuring.
The two cities are only 45 miles apart and there is a large amount of radio overlap. Is there any way to figure an accurate combined reach & frequency? Thanks.
 The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 12, 2000 ):

First, define "market." If these radio markets are both in the same DMA, and you want DMA r&f, add the two stations' reach in thousands and divide by DMA universe. If they are in two different Metros, calculate reach within each and do a weighted average of the two:
 Metro "A" target population = 100,000
 Metro "B" target population = 20,000
 Metro "A" target reach = 40% (40,000)
 Metro "B" target reach = 55% (11,000)
 Combined, total coverage area reach = 40,000 + 11,000 ÷ 100,000 + 20,000, or 42.5%
 Tuesday, May 16, 2000 #3479

Are there parameters (highs and lows) for effective reach and frequency? In other words, is there a particular reach and a particular frequency that are considered "average" as they relate to broadcast media? How would one determine whether an advertiser is spending adequate funds to meet these "averages" when airing a broadcast schedule on a MonSun basis?
 The Media Guru Answers(Friday, May 19, 2000 ):

The Guru finds the concept of average irrelevant in this context.Such measures are relevant in relation to competition and one's own communications goals. What does it benefit an auto brand if the "average" advertiser has a reach of 50% at 3+ frequency when all automotive competitors are delivering 75% at 3+?
As to turning spending into effective reach and frequency, that's typically part of a media plan. Budget gets expressed as schedules of TV, radio, print, etc. reach and frequency are calculated by available software for these GRPs. Effective reach / frequency is an inherent part of the calculation.
 Tuesday, May 02, 2000 #3439

Regarding effective reach and effective frequency, are there general accepted boundaries of these measurements as they relate to radio and television? How do you compute effective reach and frequency?
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 04, 2000 ):

The Guru has seen effective frequencies from 2 to 9 used in plans. Most often, 3 is the "bogie" but 4 and 5 are not uncommon.
In the Guru's opinion, the effective levels make sense when applied to a majority of the target, that is, 50%+. As far as computing effective r&f, the capability is typically built into reach and frequency calculators. As part of calculating reach, the frequency distribution is calculated. This is a calculation of the discreet number of persons reached by each ad in the schedule. Thus one can compile the number (or %) of target persons reached "at least" the set number of times.
 Monday, May 01, 2000 #3434

I am trying to determine how best to manually calculate reach and frequency for Out of Home Media.
Would you be able to help and provide me with reach curves and turnover ratios for OOH media.
Thank you.
 The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 02, 2000 ):

Outofhome (outdoor poster media) is usually bought in #25, #50 or #100 "showings." These are based on daily effective circulation, or traffic, equal to 25, 50 or 100 GRP per day, respectively.
Within the state of the art, in rough terms, these levels usually mean 4week reach and frequencies of approximately  80 / 8.8 / 700
 87 / 16.1 / 1400 and
 92 / 30.4 / 2800.
As should be apparent, there is not much room for fine tuning, nor much reason for considering other GRP levels.
 Monday, April 17, 2000 #3401

Dear Guru,
I need to develop a cost estimate and approx. reach/freq. for a US television buy in the top 40 markets. Here's what I have and what I still need to know:
I have the markets and approx. CPP per daypart from SQAD. I need to know how to calculate a rough estimate of reach & freq for 1 week to 1 year based on 200 points per week in each market. Can a network (CBS etc)place the entire buy, or do I have to do this per market. I'm one person and can't spend too much time executing this (if it happens). Any advice would be great. Thanks
 The Media Guru Answers(Monday, April 17, 2000 ):

No, networks don't place spot buys. You can use spot reps or media buying services. Find these in Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) or
The Standard Directories of Advertising Agencies and Advertisers ('The Redbook')
Either one can help you with reach and frequency, or eTelmar.com offers an inexpensive, online reach calculator. If you are buying 200 points per week for a year in the top 40 markets, you are spending in the 10's of millions, at least. This is ample to hire a buying service or at least some experienced freelance help. Either one would save you far, far more in media costs than the expense of their fees.
 Wednesday, April 12, 2000 #3392

Guru, I've never used a planning program as most of my planning has been national print and outdoor, local broadcast, and things I've felt I can handle on my own.I've seen so many planning programs and websites for planning it's hard to tell the good from the bad. Have you ever evaluated planning programs and, if you have, can you recommened one or two? Thanks
 The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, April 12, 2000 ):

To the Guru, the term "planning program" means programs like Telmar's AdPlus or Telmar's full set of individual media analysis programs or the eTelmar online suite of media programs.
Such programs calculate reach, frequency, effective reach, frequency distribution, and quintiles for individual media plus combinations of media as well as crosstabulations and rankers from media audience databases. Flow charting is also a typical option. These programs don't actually create media plans, that is determine how much budget to invest in each medium, ad units to use, and scheduling. There are such programs on the drawing board, but require that the planner quantify and factor those concepts which would be subjective judgements.
 Thursday, March 16, 2000 #3326

Dear Guru:
I would like to know if there is any equation to calculate media mix reach?
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, March 16, 2000 ):

There are several, equivalent ways to express the arithmetic to combines media according to random probability, which has been found generally adequate for the purpose of multimedia combination.
Here's an easy one:  Work with two reaches at a time
 Treat the reach of each medium as a decimal (50 reach is 0.5)
 Add reach of medium A and medium B
 Multiply reach of medium A by reach of medium B
 Subtract the product of the multiplication from the sum of the addition
Example:  reach of medium A = 40, reach of medium B = 55
 0.4 + 0.55 = 0.95
 0.40 x 0.55 = 0.22
 0.95  0.22 = 0.73
 Combined reach is 73
To add additional media, treat the combination as medium A and the next medium as B.
In some cases, a planner may have access to research which shows that an adjustment should be made for actual, measured, duplication between different media, rather than use the "random probability" formula above. In that case, more sophisticated reach calculating software packages, such as those from
Telmar allow you to make the calculation and build in known adjustments.
 Tuesday, March 07, 2000 #3291

Is there a formula which calculates effective reach and
frequency? I know that reach x frequency=grp's, but how
can I determine what the effective reach and frequency
would be for 100 grp's or 150 grp's?
 The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 10, 2000 ):

Of course there's a formula, but it can be immensely complicated. In fact, media planners rarely, if ever, considered effective frequency before computers became a part of everyday reach and frequency calculation in the 70's.
Your "reach x frequency=grp's" is not a formula, but merely the arithmetical relationship of these quantities as they are defined. GRPs are the convenient weights and mesures we use in media buying. They are simple statistical measurements, whereas reach and frequency are more complex statistical models In some cases, there are relatively simple reach formulae derived from compiling the actual, measured reaches of actual schedules with known GRPs.
The formula is nonlinear. To find the effective reach of a schedule, you first determine level of frequency to consider "effective" and then examine the frequency distribution of the schedule to see how many people have been reached that number of times The frequency distribution shows exactly how many people have been exposed to each integral number of announcements in a schedule. The math is based on nonlinear functions. For any given reach and GRP set, the frequency distribution can vary considerably depending on the media combined and the dayparts within the media.
 Thursday, January 20, 2000 #3136

Is there a simplified reach and frequency calculation formula that allows for the number of stations (TV or radio) as well as the target audience size?
 The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 22, 2000 ):

reach and frequency calculations have become quite complex today and are typically done by computer. Because reach is curvilinear, the formula can be quite complex, even without this issue. A different algorithm is needed for each dispersion scenario.
A good system will account for number of stations, at least in radio; AMIC's sister company, Telmar has such a system.
Since reach calculations are typically done with percentages of universe, like rating and percent reach, target audience size is not specifically relevant. Different curves will have been deduced for different targets, based on their accumulation patterns, which may not exhibit a direct correlataion to size. If reach in thousands is needed. it is simple to calculate by multiplying perent reach against target population.
 Wednesday, January 05, 2000 #3096

Oh Great Guru 
I need to calculate GRPs, but I don't have reach or frequency on some tv buys. I do have CPM, total impressions and impressions/week and the total population of the demographic. Can you supply a formula for calculating GRP based on what I have?
 The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 05, 2000 ):

(Impressions divided by population) x 100 = GRP.
For example, if impressions are 2 million and population is 1 million, GRPs = 200.
 Tuesday, November 02, 1999 #2927

I am basing a media plan on the recency theory and wanted to know how to calculate cost per reach and/or cost per reach point for my broadcast buys?
 The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 02, 1999 ):

The Guru has discussed this previously.
Click here to see past Guru responses
 Friday, October 29, 1999 #2919

Hi Guru! I'm trying to calculate magazine CPMs. Should I use the ABC Audited numbers, or the total audience numbers (some magazines have high "handoff" rates)?
 The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 29, 1999 ):

Consumer magazine CPMs are ususally compared based on total audience. High passalong readership is good up to a point. You're most likley trying to reach
people not necessarily owners of copies of magazines.
 Thursday, October 28, 1999 #2916

Hi Guru,
How is the CPM rate calculated by the web publishers?. what are the criteria adapted by them to arrive on their CPM rate?(say $30 or $40 for every 1000 impression).
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 28, 1999 ):

The CPM = Ad Cost ÷ Ad impressions. Many sites quote ad rates in terms of CPM. That is you can order the number of impression you want your banner to receive, and get exactly that number priced at "x" CPM.
Several issues are taken into consideration in setting CPM prices:  Competitive pricing  a site can't successfully charge double the CPM of another with similar audience and content.
 Traffic  up to a point, more size is considered to have a premium value. Then there will be econimies o scale
 Unique audience hard to reach demographics are more valuable
 Tuesday, October 19, 1999 #2880

Guru,
I’m trying to put together a print ”insert” plan for
a magazine and I have a little problem with calculating the duplication for the plan. The magzine circulation is 100.000 ex, target audience reach 40%
(1 insert), target selectivity/profile 80%. By adding a second ”round” of inserts in the same magazine the total reach ad up to 48% (same selectivity). How do I calculate the no ”extra” inserts distributed by the
second ”round” of inserts?
BR
CD
 The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 19, 1999 ):

If you reach 40% of your target with one insertion and a net of 48% of your target with two, then the duplication is 32% of the target:
Two insertions has a gross exposure of 80% (40 + 40) and if the net is 48, the duplicated is 80  48.
 Wednesday, September 22, 1999 #2815

Can you please refresh my memory and tell me how to
calculate multiweek reach and frequency across television
and radio? Thank you
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 23, 1999 ):

If you mean combining these media, the formula has been addressed. Click here to see past Guru responses.
If you mean how to get multiweek reaches for either medium, you need reach curves or software, the extension formulae are tow complex for casual use.
 Wednesday, September 22, 1999 #2814

Hi Guru
The ad agency I work for has a theory that cable GRP's
and radio GRP's effectivenesss are significantly less
than network and spot television. On our flow charts
we only calculate 1/2 half of these points. I have
heard this theory before but I've never seen a plan
that cuts the GRP's in half. What do you think?
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 23, 1999 ):

The Guru has been aware of theories that use effectiveness factors in comparing media. Sometimes GRP are adjusted on the flow chart, but since the flow chart often serves as the buying control document, more often the adjustments are shown in reach and frequency comparisons.
There can certainly be an argument that radio has less effectiveness than TV, commercial exposure versus commercial exposure, all else being equal. But, the argument doesn't seem to be rationale for cable TV. The commercial is the same, the presentation is the same. Unless there are objective measures of attentiveness or clutter or recall used, why is cable less effective? Individual commerical audience size is not relevent to message effectiveness of the medium; one consumer is not aware of how may others are watching the same program.
 Tuesday, September 14, 1999 #2795

Dear Guru,
I am writing to you from the Middle East. First of all I am very excited to discover the AMIC site.
I have recently been exposed to various documentation on the recency theory. Alongwith the documentation I have seen something called reach curves. The reach curves I have seen are typically for 1+, 2+, and 3+ levels for all adults and all women audiences. I understand it is an easy way to translate Effective reach goals into GRP goals e.g. X GRPs will get you Y% 3+ reach against the target. It also clearly depicts the point of diminishing return.
I am eager to know how I can develop reach curves for my market. Can this be done by us in the media department or do we need to approach some company which specializes in this area. What sort of data is required? Just to give you a background, we are not a metered market. TV audience measurement is conducted thrice a year using facetoface interviews with a representative sample. Viewership is typically available by 15 minute time segments for all channels across various demos.
Thanks in advance.
 The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 14, 1999 ):

reach curves have been in use since long before computers were used in media departments and long before metered measurement.
Curves are created by using the reach of actual schedules. For example, in the U.S., Nielsen would report the actual reach of specific brands' schedules, based on examining the net unduplicated viewers in their reasearch data who viewed the program schedules used by the brand's commercials. Once you have several schedules ( 8 or so will do) with actual reaches and frequencies for various GRP levels, you can use the regression analysis data function in a spreadsheet, like MS Excel or Lotus 123, to calculate a formula which describes the curve. This formula can literally draw the curve on a graph, or let you build a table of GRP / reach pairs. By the way, it is the frequency and GRPs which are used in building this regression, because while reach is a curve, frequency is a straight line.
 Tuesday, September 14, 1999 #2792

What can you tell me about reachbased planning?
Thank you in advance.
 The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 14, 1999 ):

>
The usual assumption is that print and broadcast duplicate with random probability, there is no special, greater or lesser likelihood that persons in the audience of the print schedule will also be or not be in the audience of the broadcast schedule.
Mechanically. the combination may be calculated in a few equivalent ways. The Guru finds it easiest to consider the reaches as decimals (50% reach = 0.50). Subtract the reach of print from 1 and multiply this by 1minus the reach of broadcast. Suppose print has a 40% reach and broadcast has 55%. By subtracting 0.4 from 1 (1  0.4 = 0.6), you have the probabilty of the target not being exposed to print. Subtract 0.55 from 1 to get the probability of not being exposed to broadcast (1  0.55 = 0.45)
Multiply these two together (0.6 * 0.45 = 0.27) and you have determined there is a 27% probability of people not being exposed to either of the combined media, or a 73% reach.
This formula is typically used in media software to combine different media. Certainly there are cases where there is a somewhat better than random probabilty of media duplication, such as TV Guide combining with a TV schedule, but that's the exception, calling for judgement.
 Monday, August 30, 1999 #2750

Let me elaborate further on the question posed by Ajay (Question sent from India , which was answered on 8d August). In India, the data collection and hence reporting of the peoplemeter data is on a weekly basis, unlike the daily collection and reporting in most other markets. Since we follow a weekly collection, the sample is determined for each of the seven days. (after rejecting viewing which does not satisfy the threshold levels of various criteria that the viewing data is supposed to fulfill). As is obvious, this effective sample could be different across the days. Hence, we actually could end up having 7 different samples for each of the seven days. The question now arises as to which of these seven figures to use for projection to the universe. This is the part where the difference in the reach and rating calculations occur.
A rating figure is calculated based on the sample for each day. Hence , on Monday, if the effective sample is 95, then this 95 is projected to the universe figures. On Tuesday, the effective sample could be 96  then this 96 is projected to the universe figures. And so on. Hence the actual weights attached to the sample could vary, though the universe figures remain the same. Once the sample figures have been projected, the ratings are calculated. These rating figures can then be averaged across days , if desired, since a rating figure can be averaged across time periods.
On the other hand, a reach figure cannot be averaged. Hence, if the sample is different across each of the days, the dilemma is as to which of the effective sample to use for the projection purpose. Hence they designate one day as REFERENCE DAY. The effective sample on the reference day is the one which is used for projection purposes and hence for all further calculations for reach figures. The reference day changes depending on the period chosen. In India, the research agency has fixed the reference day to be the last day of the period chosen. So, if I vary my period of analysis, the reference day changes and hence my reach figures change. This is where the confusion occurs ! Since a rating calculation does not have a reference day, the ratings don't change, irrespective of the period chosen.
So please let us know if this is the norm followed across countries ? Is the concept of reference day valid ? How do other countries deal with this ?
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 02, 1999 ):

The Guru is not aware of this method in use elsewhere. It does not seem that it would have significant effect unless there are substantial daily variations .
 Monday, August 23, 1999 #2734

Dear Guru, in regards to broadcast, my company advertises on national cable networks only. Our media buying company submitted a postbuy analysis for 2Q, but did not include reach/frequency info. When I asked for this information, they said "it's not standard to give cable r/f" is this true and if so, why? Thank you.
 The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 23, 1999 ):

The Guru agrees that it is not "standard" to include delivered r&f in a post analysis. It is probably not relevant, if the buy was built around a planned r&f and the post shows that the buy delivered as estimated.
However, what is standard, is for a service to respond to a client's question. If the buy delivered out of line with the estimate, the service should, at minimum recalculate the r&f. If the issue is running an actual r&f of the schedule, based on spot by spot use of the Nielsen cume system, significant expense might be involved, and this could be open to negotiation.
 Thursday, August 19, 1999 #2729

Dear Guru,
1 Please let me know SQARE model that SQAD use to calculate CPP for TV and Radio. Please let me know the detail or any link I can find more information or books...
2 Do you know any model for reach vs GRPs? Our client ask us to show the data like that. The problem that we try to find the suitable daypart mix, station mix, medium mix that is good for our advertising strategy but we don't have any optimiser programs. We have only ratings data like Telescope and Prinscope of ACNielsen. Do you know any example to solve this kind of problem?
3 Our client also want to have a model to set advertising budget to get for example 80+ reach but we can not know until it happen. How to solve this issue?
warmest regards,
Thai Vang
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 19, 1999 ):

A general explanation of SQAD's model is available from SQAD. They will give you the same information they would give the Guru. But the essence is manipulating actual buying data in real situations, provided confidentially by actual media buyers.
GRP's and reach do not have any standard realtionship, except within given media and population parameters. You are writing from Viet Nam, where Televison audience cume patterns are likely to be quite different than in the U.S. Even within the U.S., Hispanic TV reach curves are very, very differerent than the General Market TV reach curves. The way to build a model, to oversimplify, is to collect a great number of actual reaches of real schedules, and then plot their frequency against reach in a regresssion analysis, which gives you the formula for the "curve." Frequency is plotted, rather than reach, because frequency is a straight line while reach is a curve. The curve formula then allows you to create a model with a reach solution for any GRP input. The more variables you use to build different curves, the more sophisticated your model can be.
 Thursday, August 05, 1999 #2690

Dear Guru,
I am a media planner in India.
We have a research agency which provides us data on television viewership. The data is collected by a peoplemeter which has a picture matching technology. The problem I am facing is that the TRPs Or TVRs as they call them are calculated on the basis of the sample on that particular day, whereas reach for a programme/ spot is calculated based on the sample on the sunday of the last week of your analysis. To give an example, if I have a spot on the 1st of June and I select my period of analysis as 31/5/99 (Monday) to 13/6/99 (Sunday)a period of 2 weeks. The TRP for my spot would be calculated based on the sample of the 1st of June, but reach would be calculated on the basis of the sample on the 13th of June.
This gives me two major problems. The 1st being that my TRP and reach figures have little relation. The 2nd being that the reach figure given for the given spot on the 1st of June would vary depending on the last week of my analysis.
This is a problem that manifests itself when I try to plot reach curves. If I state that my brand has achieved 50% reach by June, I could be in trouble the next month where the reach figure might actually drop purely because of a change in sample size. I would like to ask you if you face the same problem in your country. Or is there a better system to report data. My research agency says that this is the best method, I refuse to agree. Please do enlighten me.
Regards
Ajay
 The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 08, 1999 ):

The system you describe does not make any sense to the Guru. Ratings and reach should be based on the projection to the population represented by the sample, so changes in daily sample size would not be a factor in the base. Usually, samples across days can be added to increas the sample for a period of time.
 Monday, August 02, 1999 #2678

Hi. Are there any clear rules for calculating the level of spending increase needed to achieve an X% increase in brand awareness?
Thanks
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 05, 1999 ):

Certainly, no "clear" rules. For one thing, it changes depending on the current level. I.e. a 100% increase in awarenes, from 10% to 20% requires a different spending change than a 50% increase from 60% to 90%.
The choice of added media and base media are also key factors. The Guru speculates that the closest you can get, to calculating a percent increase in awareness through advertising spending is to calculate the cost of making the same increase in reach, sustained over a time frame comaprable to the base period.
 Monday, July 19, 1999 #2643

Dear Guru! I've got the following question.
Our client has a product to advertise. He has set
advertising goals for the ad campaign. We defined
the level of effective frequency needed to reach
these goals.
1. What is the range of effective reach? For example,
30%
 The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 23, 1999 ):

Media plan communications goals should specify a level of effective reach along with specifying the effective level of frequency.
Basic, as well as more advanced media software, calculates reach and frequency, frequency distribution and reach at various (effective) frequency levels. Input is typically GRPs.
Setting an effective reach goal can be based on gut, such as reaching the majority of the target at effective frequency levels in 4 weeks, or based on sales predictions. For example, this might be an estimate that 10% of those reached efectively will buy and X number of sales are the goal. Then 10 times X are the number who must be effectively reached.
 Thursday, July 08, 1999 #2616

Hello Guru! I would like to ask you what is a 30 sec equivalent GRP and why is that calculated if the spot length (as per some of your previous answers) do not influence yhe level of reach&frequency ? Thanks
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 08, 1999 ):

:30 equivalent is a buyer's convenience. Assuming the standard unit purchased is a :30, instead of dealing with different unit rates in the same program, a :15 is treated as if it had half the rating. It's strictly an efficiency/value issue and has no impact on reach or frequency. Remember that the ratings we have are actually the ratings of programs or time periods and not commercials; commercials are just assigned the rating of the time slot wherin they air, so commercial length is irrelevant to rating.
 Friday, June 11, 1999 #2570

how do you figure out net impressions for newspaper. also, how do you show that you are delivering proportionate impressions to the populations of the different markets? would you show the population as a % of impressions?
thanks
 The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 15, 1999 ):

If you mean "net" literally, this is the reach of your plan expressed in numbers of consumers instead of percent. There are various newspaper reach methodologies. If you mean total impressions, newspapers you are buying should have detailed audience data, from resources such as Scarborough.
If by "proportionate" you mean to deliver impression in the same distibution of age and gender as the population, one wouldn't expect to deliver impressions proportionate to the market: different population segments have greatly different newspaper reading habits. If you mean the total impressions distribution across a market list should parallel the population distribution between markets, then simply calculate the marketbymarket population percent distribution and buy newspaper schedules to that proportion. For information about newspaper planning and research tools, visit the newspaper media software page of AMIC's sister company, Telmar or for readerspercopy averages and other research sources, see the The Newspaper Advertising Association site.
 Tuesday, June 08, 1999 #2562

I have an outdoor question. If showing size refers to the reach per day, i.e. 25# reaches 25% of a market per day, why aren't the estimated TRPs per month simply 25 x 28 = 700. Most studies I see quote a lower TRP level for a 25 showing. What gives?
 The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, June 09, 1999 ):

The Guru has come across this problem and found the answers.
There are two answers, one sensible, one nonsense, but both real.
Sensible: The "25 showing" is a standard number of panels, based on 25% of adult population. So if your target is Women 1834, there may be a different number of women 1834 GRPs in a showing actually bought as 25 Adult 18% GRPs. This is perfectly sensible, and happens ain all media, but the sellers and buyers of other media are fully conversant with these facts.
Now for the nonsense answer, which is most likely the basis of the number you were given. Various research companies, such as MRI have measured outdoor as part of multimedia reports and these generalized reports are being used to estimate target reach for a marketpace showing. Often a completely different source for average frequency is used and these two factors are multiplied to calculate GRPs. It seems invariably to be much lower than the GRPs you would get by the realistic method first described, and so makes outdoor seem less efficient than it should. The misused sources could, instead be used to provide relative exposure indices between demographics, allowing a simple conversion of GRPs. The Guru hopes the Outdoor industry improves in this area.
 Monday, May 10, 1999 #2499

How do you calculate reach "inmarket", and are you to combine that with the national numbers? How is this done? Thanks. We are trying to show total "inmarket" delivery. Also, back to the average 4 week dilemma, is it only relevant when looking at sustaining levels of a continuity plan? Or would you show average four week even in a launch, retail, or promotional type heavyup situation? Thanks as always.
 The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 10, 1999 ):

Suppose you had national media with a reach of 40% and a local media plan delivering 50%.
You would combine the national reach of 40% with the local 50%. If you care to go the extra step, you could analyze local variation in delivery of the national plan and adjust the local delivery of the national media before combining with the local. Or if you run only national media you can look at the locally delivered weight to caculate the inmarket reach resulting from national media, as if it were local spot media.
Four weeks is a traditional standard measurement period. This standard goes back to the days of the dominance of monthly magazines as an advertising medium. There are numerous ways this rule of thumb is used. Some look at "4weekswhenin" and examine four weeks worth of average activity no matter ho many active weeks a plan has. This focuses on the rate of advertising rather than the quantity. Other focus on cume of whatever number of weeks. One has to make a judgement of what tells the story best. The judgement can be made differently when you are comparing possible plans and when you are trying to quantify potential effects on awareness, sales, etc.
 Friday, April 30, 1999 #2481

Is there any way to calculate duplication across a media plan using several media (e.g. print and radio and TV), or can I only get a duplication analysis within a media (radio duplicaton and then another duplication factor for print, etc , etc)
I use telmar for research with simmons and arbitron access and we also use JDS for buys.
 The Media Guru Answers(Friday, April 30, 1999 ):

The standard assumption in media planning is that duplication between different media is purely at random. Therefore, the random probability formula is used:
 Express the reach of each medium as a decimal (50% reach = 0.5)
 Multiply the reach of one medium by another to determine the duplication.
 Subtract the duplication from the sum of the two reaches to get the net reach
So, if you have a 40% reach in TV and a 55% reach in Print, multiply
0.4 x 0.55 to get 0.22
subtract 0.22 from 0.4+.55 and get 0.73 or 73% reach of the combined media.
There are a variety of ways to do the calculation. The Guru actually prefers to use the probablilty of not seeing each medium (reach as a decimal subtracted from 1.0) When these are multiplied they give the net probability of not seeing any of the media. When this result is subtracted from 1, the final result is net reach. This style is particulary useful for combining several media at once.The example would combine this way:  10.4 = 0.6
 10.55 = 0.45
 0.6 x 0.45 = 0.27
 10.27 = 0.73 or
73% reach.
Telmar's "Media Mix" program uses these assumptions.
 Thursday, April 15, 1999 #2450

thanks for your answer about the reach per point from the 14/4/99 but how can i calculate it it it write to devide reach in trp for example if the reach is 50 and the trp is 100 so the reach per point will be 0.5
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 15, 1999 ):

Yes, divide reach by TRP to get reach per point.
 Friday, March 19, 1999 #2400

I need to know the calculation to work out margin of error for TV reach and frequency results. E.g. what is the margin of error of 40% @ 2+ depending on the size of the sample, penetration etc.
 The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 20, 1999 ):

Assuming you are using a model to calculate reach and frequency, your error is no longer an aspect of sample size but of the reliability of the model.
For instance, suppose your schedule consisted of 20 advertisements with an average rating of 10. And, based on sample size, the 10 rating was +/ 2 rating points (or 20% relative error). But your total schedule of 200 GRP is not going to be +/ 40 points. Because error is plus or minus, there is an equal chance that one 10 rating is really PLUS 2 and the next 10 rating is really MINUS 2. So, in a schedule, most of the error cancels out. This is one reason why ratings minima for buying are often shortsighted.
When it comes to reach analysis, someone might have built a model by compiling several actual schedules measured by the original research and finding a formula for the straight line formed by the average frequency of each. Since the actual schedules came from the orignal research, the sampling error of each (minimized by the plus or minus aspect of the schedule elements, as above) could have been calculated. But now the "curve" coming out of the model is only judged by its ability to match back to actual schedules.
 Wednesday, December 02, 1998 #2194

Dear Guru, can you name any media analysis tools and media predictive tools that media planners use on a regular basis without being too technical, of course. Many thanks
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 03, 1998 ):

Here are several:
 reach: the number of different target households or persons exposed to a campaign (most often expressed as a percentage of the target universe, and most often calculated over a 4week period).
 Frequency: The average number of exposures of the campaign to those reached.
 Gross Rating Points (GRP) / Target Rating Points(TRP): Essentially interchangeable terms for the sum of the audiences of all the ad units in the campaign, expressed as a percentage of the target universe.
 Gross Impressions: Same audience count as GRP/TRP but expressed in whole numbers rather than percents.
 CPP / Cost per GRP and CPM / Cost per thousand impressions: should be self evident from the previous. These are referred to as the "efficiency."
 Effective reach: Those in the "reach" who experienced a specified minimum number of exposures (effective frequency)
All the above stem from the audience research tools and investment figures. So called "reach and frequency" systems typically generate all these figures. Other tools, especially in print media are also occasionally used. These may include "time spent with" media vehicles, "page openings", attentiveness, etc.
 Wednesday, December 02, 1998 #2193

Dear Guru!
We were asked to prepare a presentation for one of our clients about media planning,
since he works with several agencies and wants to concentrate
the media planning in one of the agencies' hands.
I visited the "parts of a Media Plan" which I found very helpful. Do you have some
other tips?
Specifically, we were asked to present a formula for a
benchmark acocrding to we recommend to define what reach
is needed for a campaign. Basically, we define it according to
various factors such as competitors' share of voice, share of
market goals etc. but we don't know any formula.
We should be grateful if you supply any guidelined in this matter.
 The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 02, 1998 ):

You just need to formularize the thinking you are already doing.
For example, you could say that your formula to set reach for a campaign to equal competitor's share is:
Competitor's reach times an index calculated by comparing the goal share to your current share. (i.e. to increase share 25%, exceed competitor's reach by 25%).
The Guru is not recommneding this particular formula, just illustrating how to turn philosophy into something apparently quantifiable.
Another approach is to build a matrix of your factors and set a 5 point scale for each; for example competitor's share: 0 point if it's equal to yours 1 point if it's 10% better, 5 points if it's 50% better, etc.
Suppose you have 8 factors based on the sort of considerations you mentioned. Suppose further that you set a minumum for all campaigns of 50 reach (reaching the majority of the target). Now add a reach point for every point in the matrix. You have a maximum of 40 added points (90 reach), and an apparently highly logical "formula" for getting there.
The cleverness will be in setting up each 5 point scale. Or perhaps youy will have fewer factore and more possible point on each scale.
 Wednesday, December 02, 1998 #2192

Dear Guru. It is not still clear to me how to
measure or calculate reach of the ad campaign
using media mix. For example, my ads on TV provided
90% reach, and ads in print reached 25% of the
target audience. What is the total reach, frequency
of the campaign? What other indexes can we find for
such campaign?
And my second question is about outdoor advertising.
It is essential to measure the effectiveness of the
ad campaign comparing awereness and sales before and
after the ads placing. But that is somehow the post
campaign analisys and my client would like to see some
feagures before the campaign starts (precampaign).
What indexes (like reach, frequency, GRPs, OTS) can
we provide to the discription of the outdoor
ad. campaign? Thank You very much.
 The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 02, 1998 ):

reach of a medium in a plan is simply a statistical probability. Further, it is generally thought that each medium overlaps each other medium randomly.
So, in your example, if you consider the reach of each medium as a decimal, the probability of not being exposed to TV is 0.10 and of not being exposed to print is 0.75.
The probability of not being exposed to either one, is therefore 0.10 times 0.75 = 0.075.
Therefore, total reach of the mix is 92.5 (if 0.075 or 7.5% don't see it then 92.5% do see it).
Other basic "counts" for a campaign are impressions (OTS), cost per rating point and cost per thousand impressions.
All of these counts; reach, frequency, GRP, OTS, etc are possible for outdoor, if the research has been done, in your country, to count the audience of the locations used.
 Tuesday, November 10, 1998 #2144

I need to find out more information on how to figure
reach and frequency, especially four week averages as
it applies to print, radio and television.
What is the best source to use for finding R/F analysis
including some work samples.
Help me Guru, I want to be like you!
 The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 10, 1998 ):

When the Guru started out, reach and Frequency was calculated manually with the aid of tables and factors. Since then media have become more complex and measurement more detailed. Complicated, multistep algorithms such as numerous iterations of the Betabinomial function must be calculated.
Now, the computer is virtually the only way reach and Frequency is analyzed.
Some of the measurers such as Simmons, and MRI have systems for r&f on the media they measure. A few, rare, media such as Telemundo Spanish TV Network, offer sytems (STRETCH2) for their medium. Most common is the specialized, allmedium software system, such as the one provided by AMIC's sister company, Telmar.
 Tuesday, September 22, 1998 #2052

I am working on a national cable buy. First question, please explain VPH. I have been asked to provide the following information:
How many households will my schedule reach and how many times. Of course, I have to have all this information by tomorrow at noon.
I have selected my networks and have asked for proposals from each network. The networks inform me that it will take
several days to pull a reach and frequency. So my question to you is, can I take the HH's thousands and add them? It this the right way to
approach this project.
How will I calulate for a frequency. I can give the client the total number of spots, but is there a way to calculate frequency?
Please Help?
Thanks.
 The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 22, 1998 ):

VPH is "viewers per Household" and is used as a simple way to express persons audience in relation to housholds. In other words, if a network has a measured average quarter hour (aqh) audience of 1000 Households and a measured aqh among women 1849 of 550, then its VPH for women 1849 would be .55
Estimates of reach are based on modeling from actual past schedules and are typically calculated with computers. These calculations take only minutes, but you are probably facing a backlog in your vendors' research departments or, typically, a turnaround time policy which can be overriden if you apply the right charm or pressure to your sales reps.
Because these models reflect varying audience duplication between one spot and the next and between one network and another, adding household impression would be wrong. Such a calculation would produce "gross impressions" which is much greater than reach.
Frequency is calculated by dividing reach into gross impressions (or percent reach into gross rating points), so you need reach to calculate frequency.
If you have any media planning software at all, such as Telmar's AdPlus or Maestro, you would find that these system usually have a general calculator of cable reach built in.
 Tuesday, September 08, 1998 #2031

Dear Guru,
I'm new in the Advertising field. I would like to know
how to calculate the Target Market reach1+, reach2+,
abd the Average Frequency.
TIA.
 SKY
 The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, September 09, 1998 ):

The answer depends upon what data you are starting with. At its most simple,
"1+" reach is the same as just saying "reach". If you know the GRPs, and the reach, then the average frequency is calculated by dividing reach into GRPs.
At bottom however, in each medium, TV, radio, print, etc. reach was actually measured at some point, rather than calculated . That is, using respondent level measurement, such as Nielsen or MRI or Simmons, actual schedules advertiser were evaluated for gross audience accumulated and the net reach accumulated, as well as how many people saw exactly one advertisement in the schedule, how many saw 2, how many saw three, and so on. As the Guru stated above, reach is defined as those who saw one or more (1+) advertisements. 2+ or 3+, etc, is determined by adding those exposed to each discreet number of ads.
Taking the results of many of these schedules as a scatter graph, a classic reach curve may be plotted. Or, by arraying GRPs and frequencies in a table, a formula equivalent to the curve can be determined statistically. This formula then becomes a "model" for calculating reaches of other schedules in similar media. Formulae for 2+, 3+ frequencies can also be calculated. There are no simple formulas for doing this. "Beta Bimodal" is one statistical function frquently used. These functions and models are usually built into large computer media planning systems like Telmar's.
 Sunday, July 26, 1998 #1974

Dear Guru!
I have cilent that wants to know the accumulated reach of a 5 months campaign.
The campaign was based on a recency strategy; 4 "flights", each flight  3 weeks, and a break of
about 2 weeks between one flight to another.
It seems to me not right to sum up the reach of all 4 flights as a total, but to show each flight by its own results
Can you please give your professional advice in this issue?
Thanks a lot, Irene, Israel.
 The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 26, 1998 ):

A "recency" strategy generally calls for continuous advertising, not flighting. However this is neither here nor there in responding to your question.
A fourweek reach has long been the basic standard of evaluation of a campaign, most likely based on the one time dominance of monthly national magazines in the plans of major consumer goods advertisers  in the U.S., at least.
"Recency" argues for concentrating on the reach
at the point in time closest to the purchase decision, so average reach during the typical purchase cycle is a reasonable way to focus on a recency plan. Of course, in reality, despite an average purchase cycle, in most cases, decisions are made every day. You may end your fourweek purchase cycle of laundry detergent tomorrow while your neighbor's four week cycle ends a week from Tuesday. Equally, there may be a day of the week of more opportunity than others, when the product is purchased during a main grocery shopping trip.
A five month cume reach can be calculated. Its usefulness is questionable when recency is the guiding principal, but for other issues, like awareness, it may be relevant.
 Tuesday, June 09, 1998 #1886

how do i calculate reach of TV+PRESS, Is there a formula
 The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 09, 1998 ):

As a rule, TV and press are thought to duplicate in a random pattern. That is, the random duplication formula is appropriate. The reach of each medium is treated as a decimal. To calculate net reach, we combine the probabilty of each medium's NOT reaching the target, to get the combined probability of neither reaching the target. The remaining people are the ones reached.
The formula works as follows when TV reach is 45 and press reach is 37.
People not reached by TV would be 0.55 of the target
People not reached by press would be 0.63 of target
Total people NOT reached are 0.55 x 0.63 or 0.35 of target.
The remainder of target is reached (1.0  0.35 = 0.65) so reach is 65
 Friday, May 29, 1998 #1613

1.what is osto's model?
2.In case of an absence of duplication data for publications, how do l calculate
the effective reach using 2 or more media vehicles? in such a scenario, is it safe
to use the random theory even if multiple readership is negligible?
 The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 02, 1998 ):

1) The Guru is not familiar with Osto's model. It may be specific to India, from where you are writing.
2) The Random method is a starting point. If you can find two other similar publications with measured duplication, you can use the duplication ratio from those publications. If you literally mean "effective reach," that is, reach at or above a minimum exposure level, then you need a more complex formula or a computer program like Telmar's ADplus.
 Monday, March 23, 1998 #1548

what is the correct television weight for a campaign
 The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 30, 1998 ):

The "Correct" weight depends on many factors, there is no
one correct weight.
One way, but certainly not the only way, to calculate an
appropriate level is to follow this checklist:
 (A) How many new sales / product units, etc are
your monthly sales goal?
 (B) What percentage of the prospects who are
successfully exposed to your campaign are likley to buy what
you are selling?
 Divide (A) by (B) to determine with how many prospects
per month your advertising must effectively communicate.
 Using the reach and frequency calculating system of
your choice and your judgement of "effective levels of
communications, calculate what level of weight delivers the
desired effecively reached audience.
 Sunday, November 30, 1997 #1466

Hi Guru:
I am a marketing student and now doing a promotional
campaign. My team needs to develop a media flowchart
with reach, frequancy, GRPs, and yearly schedule by
by month. I know there are softwares that does that,
but we are only students and have no money to buy
professional softwares like that. I would like to
know if there is freeware that we could use to
develop this chart or if there is anything we could
refer to. Thanks a million. Please let me know
ASAP cos this is due pretty soon.
Sarah
 The Media Guru Answers(Monday, December 01, 1997 ):

As with most specialized software that makes a job easier
and a result prettier, there's also a tedious, less attractive
choice.
Telmar's ADplus /
Flowmaster is one of the best programs for media
flowcharting. However, with no budget, you can probably do
an adequate job for your school project with whatever
spreadsheet program your computer has installed: Lotus
123, MS Excel, or MS Works, etc.
Just set your columns to 2 characters wide (enough for
dates) for each week and you can create a flow chart.
Activity bars can be filled in with special characters or
shading.
Any text can be accommodated and total can be calculated;
heavier lines dividing months and quarters are also easily
done.
 Wednesday, November 19, 1997 #1459

Does it make any sense to calculate GRPs not having reach and frequency stated?
My campaign brings me 530 GRps  whatdoes it mean for me? Could I calculate OTS if I have only GRPs?
Thank you
 The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, November 22, 1997 ):

GRPs are simply a summation of all the audiences of all the
ads in a plan. They give you the "boxcar" size of a plan
without any detail. This can be used to compare to other
campaigns or other times, in crude terms.
If by OTS, you mean "Opportunities to See," which is
equivalent to Impressions, then the calculation is simple.
GRPs are a percentage of the population. Whatever your
GRP's target group, you need to know the total "universe" of
that population for which the GRPs are stated. Then, if you
have 500 GRPs, you have impressions equal to the population,
times 5.
 Saturday, October 18, 1997 #1438

Dear Guru
Could you please give me your views/suggestions on the following:
1. How can you set media objectives for a banking client in a market with only two major competitors; both of whom do not have a clearcut advertising campaign? Would a % above last years GRP levels be appropriate; in proportion to the market share desired? What other parameters should I consider?
2. Qualitatively or quantitatively, how can front page solus positions in newspapers be compared with inside pages and ear panels?
3. And lastly, how do you add TV and press GRPs; for a specific audience?
Sorry about the long query.
Thanks in advance
 The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, October 18, 1997 ):

As a rule, the Guru sets media objectives based on
marketing goals, not competitors' activity. Some
marketing goals do indeed lead one to comparsions with
competition, and awareness of competitors' plans is always
a consideration.
If the key marketing goal is share growth, then a
proportional increase in weight is one approach. But
consider that share, like reach, exhibits an asymptotic
curve. In other words, it can't pass 100%, so the higher it
goes, the more effort is required to "move the needle."
Consider: You first assume that "X" amount of GRP's are
required just to maintain share, on the assumption
that competitive activity doesn't vary (and that advertising
is the only variable influencing share).
Have you considered whether current share is
proportional to share of GRP weight among competitiors?
Would 50% more GRPs grow share by 50%?
No, if only because it increases the size of the total advertising
arena. Your 50% increase in GRP does not increase your
share of GRP by 50%, so calculate the right
number to increase share of GRP, if you follow that
philosophy.
But since there are competitors, perhaps it takes 50%
more weight to gain 25% more share?
Newspaper positions can be compared on a basis of noting,
reading, recall, etc. In each country or culture (you are
writing from India), the relative power of media and the
way consumers relate to them are different.
In the U.S., for example, a front page ad in a newspaper
would be quite unusual if not unheard of.
Contacting the U.S. Advertising Research
Foundation or ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Marketing Research organization, or
your own country's newspaper advertising association may
turn useful up research on positioning.
The Guru treats GRPs of different media as simply additive.
When there are established effectiveness factors, as some
advertisers have developed, GRPs may be accordingly
adjusted before adding, in comparing plans.
 Thursday, October 09, 1997 #1427

Does the length of the commercial determine the amount of grps reached? If I schedule a 30ss and achieve X amount of grps, and schedule a 15ss the same amount of times I achieve the same amount of grp's as with the 30ss?
 The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 10, 1997 ):

Very simply, yes. Whether they are watching for 15 or 30
seconds, the audience of the commercial is the same, so
the GRPs are the same(never mind theories of channel
switching, or we'd be adjusting commercial audiences based
on partial viewing).
What can be confusing is that TV buyers often use formulas
requiring :15's to be treated as if they had half the
rating of a :30 in the same time slot, so that they can
most readily calculate a ":30 equivalent" c.p.m. or Cost
Per Point.
 Monday, August 18, 1997 #1392

Is there a company, or a source, which is capable of
measuring reach/Frequency of any/all media
combined?
 The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 18, 1997 ):

The ADPlus system, from our sister company Telmar, can combine reach and
frequency from all media. Some media must first be
calculated by other systems and then be brought into
ADplus for combining
 Thursday, June 19, 1997 #1366

Dear Guru,
I have a set of urgent questions to ask of you. I have a meeting tomorrow, and need your help!
1. How is effective reach calculated?
2. reach v/s Frequency  when should one be given priority / importance over the other?
3. Is there any way of taking creative into account while analysing competition? If yes, can a system of weights be worked out?
4. How do you reconcile to the vast difference between reach/frequency deliveries from a Peoplemeter system as opposed to the Diary system? My client refuses to accept a 4+ reach of 30% being accustomed to levels of 70% for the same plan!
Would greatly appreciate your immediate reply.
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 19, 1997 ):

1) In any schedule of several commercials, some of the
target group will see only one, some will see two, some will
see three, some will see four, some five, etc, etc.
The
actual measurement is based on tracking the cume of
several different advertisers schedules in a single
measurement period such as one month of the PeopleMeter.
A mathematical model that will match the measured
GRP/Frequency is calculated so that plan deliveries can be
predicted. Going more deeply into the actual measurement, it
can be determined how many people of each demographic group
were exposed to each commercial in the schedule and a model
calculated which will predict that performance for a plan.
For example, below is the typical output of a computer
models' frequency distribution, showing what percent of the
target saw exactly n commercials and what percent saw
n+. (this example is from Telmar's ADplus):
Frequency (f) Distributions

% who saw

#seen exactly at least
  
Target: f rch rch
P1849   
0 69.1 100.0
1 11.5 30.9
2 6.0 19.3
3 3.7 13.4
4 2.6 9.6
5 1.8 7.1
6 1.3 5.2
7 1.0 3.9
8 0.7 2.9
9 0.6 2.2
10+ 1.6 1.6
20+ 0.0 0.0
2) reach vs Frequency: The determination of emphasis here
can be a complicated analysis making up the greater part of
a plan's documentation, under the heading of
"communications strategy." A commercial so powerful that
it's sell is overwhelming in one exposure might take the
"Let's buy one spot in the Superbowl" route as did the
Macintosh computer with the classic "1984" execution.
In more competitive situations, competitors' levels are
taken into account, clutter in the media of choice, copy
quality, etc. Obviously a balance must eventually be struck
between reach and frequency based on judging all these
factors.
3) There are several ways to take creative into account
while setting up reach vs frequency goals; The
complexity or simplicity of the message The number of
commercial in the pool how close your commercial is to
the established "wearout" level The balance of :30 to
:15 etc, etc. can all be assigned factors and totalled or
averaged to give a reach vs frequency emphasis factor a
similar exercise can also set effective frequency
thresholds
4) There should not be "vast"
differences between effective reaches based on people meter
and diary systems if schedule GRP and other aspects are the
same. 5 or 10% would be the range the Guru would
expect. A plan with a 70 reach at the 4+ level would be
delivering in the range of 98% total reach. It sounds
as if your client may be confusing a plan with 70 reach and
an average frequency of 4 with 70 at an
effective frequency of 4. Or perhaps
confusing 4week reach with a long term cume?
 Tuesday, May 13, 1997 #1345

Since "PRICING WEB SITE ADVERTISING" was first
published (it's not dated but I'm guessing '96?) have
there been any 'advances' in the methodology for
pricing web advertising beyond either the ModemMedia
model or the alternatives suggested?
I am not an advertising professional (and they said us
geeks use obscure achronyms?), and I am also looking
for a concise FAQ type document that might explain the
formulae and jargon (CPM, Frequency, Impressions in
your excellent online dictionary and Depth which
isn't) within the context of web advertising. Are there
and other specific media terms (new or old) that are
pertinent in a web advertising context (I got page
view and hits)? Thank you.
 The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, May 14, 1997 ):

The AMIC article was wriiten in the latter part of 1995, not
long after the appearance of the Internet
World May 1995 article which it discusses.
By the way, please be aware that AMIC has added a new area, called ITrac, which discusses web terms and measurement
and which includes a Web Glossary
In terms of newer thinking, consider the critqued article's central
concepts:
1.Determine the ratio of hits between the web site's log and
the number of file "hits" that make up the page carrying the
ad. Divide logged hits by number of hits making up the
page to calculate what we can call "page views." Then
call page views "reach."
Since then, the software which interprets log files has
developed so that it can distinguish pure "hits" from the more relevant page requests
or "page views" . Hits today is taken to refer to any
line in a log file, even errors. (Ad) Page requests is the
analog to traditional media's "impressions".
2.Determine repeat viewing of that
page and call that frequency. We more commonly use
"frequency" in terms of whole campaigns 3.Determine the
success of viewings of that billboard ad in moving readers
to the actual web site and call that "depth." This
measurement concept has come to be called "clickthrough" or ad click rate. Depth was a term
only used as defined in this Internet World article.
Today pricing is generally based on cost per thousand
(CPM) impressions. Rates seem to range from $15 cpm for the
broadest, general audience sites' rotating banners, through
$50 or so for search engines' keyword banners up to $100+ for
"premium audience" on highly targeted business to business
web sites.
Another pricing model growing in popularity is "price per
click," which charges for each vistor who clicks on a
banner. The problem here is that the site hosting the
banner must rely on the creative to generate viewr response
 it isn't all the effect of the web site itself. Therre
is considerable literature today about how to influence
clicks, as well as a growing body of research which argues
for the awareness building effects of the banners,
regardless of clicking response.
Finally, simple revenue based models are the rising
concept. In this, sites hosting banners are compensated
with a portion of the transaction revenue generated by web
surfers they send to retail type sites. An offshoot of this
is a model for ad placement agency compensation based on
the revenue generated by their placement of ads at
recommended sites.
 Saturday, February 22, 1997 #1039

I am trying figure out the best way to calculate reach & frequency for the following:
Television Flight: 4 consecutive weeks (250 TRP's per week) Then scaling back and running 175 TRP's per week  Every other week for the following 8 weeks. How do you calculate r&f when your schedule runs on an every other week basis?
 The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 24, 1997 ):

There is no basis for believing that an alternate week schedule of 700 total points (175 per week for 4 of 8 weeks) cumes to a different total than 87.5 grp per week for 8 weeks, as long as the scedules are otherwise identical in numbers of different announcements, and numbers of different episodes of the same programs.
It is true that if the schedules per week of activity were solarge as to exhaust reach potentials, the answer might bedifferent, but this is far below such levels So the total schedule of the first four weeks at 250, plus the 4alternating weeks can be calculated as if there were lower levelconsecutive weeks.
 Monday, January 27, 1997 #1067

My client is requiring me to use adjustment percentages whencalculating grp's in print. I was always taught that reach x frequency= GRP's. Now if I calculate the adjustment to my grp's, the formula no longer works. Is this correct, or do I have to do something else to my reach/frequency? Help!!!
 The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, January 28, 1997 ):

There are various approaches. If the GRP adjustment is just an index reflecting characteristics of the vehicles and their audiences, it may be sufficient to show R/F/GRP/AdjGRP
If the adjustments are meant to change actual value of the GRP, it is usual to recalculate reach from the new, adjusted GRP. Since print r&f is usually calculated from actual schedules, via a "black box" algorithym, rather than from a grp "curve," this may be impractical. If your system allows you to enter factors for each publication before calculating reach, that may solve your problem. Lastly, even with adjusted GRP to represent some abstraction, the people reached would not be reached at a different average frequency, so one quick and dirty answer, if you must use adjusted grp, is just to divide them by the original frequency, to get reach. It's similar to the concept of changing a spot coverage area, broadcast r/f to its national equivalent: The GRPs are weighted by the coverage area % and the frequencyremains constant, to calculate the reach.
 Tuesday, November 05, 1996 #1113

I developed and launched a relatively successful websitethat reaches a very specific audience of users. Demographicshave been developed through an online survey, as well asdetailed "hit" statistics provided by the ISP. Althoughthe audience is relatively small compared to other typesof media, it comprises a highly desirable consumer group.How can one calculate the tangible ($$$) value of banneradvertising on such a site (to companies who wish to reachthis specific audience?
 The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 06, 1996 ):

There is considerable controversy regarding the value of Banners. If they are merely logo's which, when clicked take the vistor to the spoonsor's own site or an actual ad. But your question goes to the next stage, the relative value of a highly selective but small audience. The Guru recommends checking the pricing of space in magazines which are selective for the same audience as your site, and comparing that pricing to prices of general audience magazines. The comparison should be on a costperthousandaudience basis, which will allow you to price your site's visitors or bannerclicks according to the same index versus reported general audience sites such as Netscape or Yahoo.
 Friday, March 08, 1996 #1266

Guru:Is there a formula for calculating reach & frequency for trade vehicles.
 The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 10, 1996 ):

There is no truly simple formula for calculating reach and frequency of any medium. The key datain print r&f are pairwise duplication between different vehicles and between two or more insertions in the same vehicle.
As the number of insertions in a plan increase, the number of data elements to include in a formula increase. The number of possible pairings for just a 10 insertion plan is 45 ((n x n1) / 2). Telmar among others, offers software designed to quickly perform these calculations on defined schedules of media measured by SMRB, MRI, MMR, J.D. Power or others. Using measured media as prototypes, reach of various schedules you might want to consider could then be calculated. From these numerous calculations, you could, by regression analysis, develop a "simple" formula of the form y=ax+b to calculate frequency based on GRP of typical plans of the sort you run in these media (y is frequency; x is grp; a and b are factors from the regression). A formula of this kind is very specific to the audience dynamics of the media vehicles involved. Please understand, this is not a recommended technique, merely a response to your question.
 Friday, February 16, 1996 #1760

Dear Mr. Guru, Thank you for your last reponse on how to calculate GRP's. You had mentioned that you had explained it fully except for Neilson's calculation methodology. I would be interested in hearing more about this method of calculation as well. Also, is there a "better" way to measure the actual "Impact" an ad campaign has had if you know the actual length of each ad, the frequency the ads ran and the channels(and shows) that they ran during. ie. frequency X length X Audience(rate for each time slot)?? This is obviously a simplified formula, but your feedback on this would be greatly appreciated. Lastly, for television advertising, what are some of the other accepted methods of measurement. Thanks (Again) darrylw@conceptus.on.ca
 The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 16, 1996 ):

It is Neilsen's survey methodology that wasn't covered. They would use the same calculation formulae. The full description of Neilsens methodologies for People Meter, household meter and diary would cover several pages. Contact Neilsen who will be happy to send you methodology booklets.
Regarding "impact" there are as many ways to evaluate this as there are advertisers. Some advertisers use a factor for copy length based on norms from recall tests. For example, 75% of a :30 is a typical value for a :15. Some use attentiveness by daypart. Some use a combination of the two factors. Some apply the factors to GRP as an indicator; some apply to GRPs and then estimate reach from those adjusted GRPs as an impact indicator. The frequency of a schedule, as discussed so far, refers to the average frequency of exposure for all pesons reached. There are those who use "effective reach," counting only persons reached at least 3 times (or any designated minimum) when evaluating the impact of a schedule.
 Thursday, February 15, 1996 #1761

I would like to know a DETAILED calculation for GRP's for Television advertising. I assume the frequency is the number of times the ad ran across all channels. But how do I calulate the reach for a T.V. AD. Is it based on the rate cards of the networks?(if so, how) or is it based on direct audience measurement. As much detail as possible would be greatly appreciated. darrylw@conceptus.on.ca
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 15, 1996 ):

Calculation of GRP does not depend on knowing reach, though reach x frequency is ONE formula. reach is the more complex calculation, GRP is relatively simple (see other formulae in the adjoining question).
reach has no relationship at all to rates, nor to commercial length, for that matter. Audience research surveys such as Nielsen can tell us the audience of individual programs. The net unduplicated audience, or reach, of actual advertisers' schedules, examined over time covered by a given survey period, typically four weeks, can be determined. When many such scehdules, usually thousands, have been examined in that way, "curves" on a graph can be drawn representing the intersections of reach values with schedules' GRPs. The graph curves because each added announcement adds fewer new, unduplicated people toi the reach of the schedule. The curve can be expressed as a formula y = ax+b, which then can be built into the computer model which media planners use to quickly calculate reach from given GRPs and sometimes other descriptive details of scheduling, such as average ratings, numbers of different networks or programs, etc. The Guru is now nearly out of details unless Nielsen survey methodology is of interest.
 Wednesday, January 18, 1995 #1878

How do I calculate GRPs?
 The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 18, 1995 ):

reach x Frequency = GRPs
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