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Media Guru

Guru Search Results: 193 matches were found

Wednesday, February 01, 2012 #8437
a program delivered a rating of 10% and reach of 8%. is it possible or not?? further to my question and your answer. please tell me if by one announcement you are referring to one program say " friends" and by multiple announcement you meant different programs i.e. "friends" and "lost". correct me if i am going wrong?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 01, 2012 ):
When we discuss reach, we are generally thinking about a schedule of spots in programs. So when you ask about a program rating versus reach, the Guru thinks about a single spot in a program. A commercial in Friends is treated as having the same rating as the program, unless you are looking into issues of data stream, as in Live, Live + Same Day, Live + 7, etc.

Or, if you are specifically asking about an episode of a program, when one episode of the program has a 10 rating, it has a 10 reach. Or if you are thinking about a program episode with an average quarter hour rating of 10, then the reach of the combination of all the commercial minutes in that episode could be greater than 10. But in this case you would add the ratings of all thiose commercial; minutes to get a larger ratings sum or GRP.

Now, perhaps you are talking of a lower rated program. In this case if the program rating is 2.0 and you have 5 announcements in it over a period of time, then you have a ratings sum or GRP of 10, and the reach of all 5 could certainly be 8. But the terminology must be specific.


Sunday, January 29, 2012 #8426
Hi Guru, i know that the formula for calculating combined reach of two media is (a+b)-((.axb). Please how do we calculate when the media that are used are more than 2? Say they there are three or four media used in a plan, how do we calculate the combined reach for the three or four media? thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 29, 2012 ):
Each medium is added to the combination in the same way. In other words, the first combination becomes your new "a" and the new medium is a new "b." This can continue for as many media as necessary. Just to be clear, the two media formula should be stated as (a+b)-(axb)


Monday, January 16, 2012 #8401
can we find out the Avg Fre and Reach if have GRPs per say 500 Given Universe = 50000 Gross impression = 250000 Reach = ? Avg Fre = ?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, January 16, 2012 ):
No, your data are not sufficent. Firstly, the media types used and the vehiclee within them can yield enormous variation for a given number of GRP.

Secondl,y You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar or online through eTelmar.

The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function. There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables


Friday, January 13, 2012 #8397
how to calculate a tv program reach

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 13, 2012 ):
If you mean what is the reach of oine airing of one program, rating = reach. If you mean a particular daily or weekly program over time, you need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar or online through eTelmar.

The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function. There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables


Sunday, December 25, 2011 #8377
Impressions calculate reach

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, December 25, 2011 ):
Reach is more usually calculated from GRP

Impressions ÷ population (for the same demographic) = GRP

but you really need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar or online through eTelmar.

The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function. There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables.


Thursday, November 03, 2011 #8278
calculating combined reach

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 04, 2011 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses about combining reach


Monday, July 25, 2011 #8151
Hi guru, What is the forumula to calculate effective reach...i.e. what % of my plan delivers against my target at the 2+, 3+, 4+, 5+ frequency level.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 27, 2011 ):
There is no general percentage to use. This is part of the very complex, overall reach calculation.

You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar or online through eTelmar.

The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function. There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables


Sunday, July 24, 2011 #8148
Hi Guru, as a brand manager in a leading packaged goods company, am a bit let down that so many media decisions are based on thumbrules than on validated quanitiative data. Are there any quantitative tools as definitive as LINK is for ad quality testing, that can help answer critical media planning questions below to maximise media dollars? 1/ Effective Frequency: Ostrow tool is not validated, application is highly judgemental, doesnt account for fact that exposure

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 24, 2011 ):
First off, let's consider your own creative-oriented bias here, no offense meant.

Within ad quality measurement there are some measures that are quantitative and within media planning there are some measures that are solidly quantitative. The problem is how the quantitative measures can "accurately" guide marketing action.

Just because you can use proven methods to reliably measure ad quality in terms of recall or intent to purchase and use that to select the better piece of copy, does not mean there is a better way to plan a copy pool, or forecast advertising results except with your own application of judgement to use of these tools.

Similiarly, media planners have identified solidly measurable, quantitative metrics like GRP, frequency and reach that, at least directionally, have known impact on plan success. Highly experienced media professionals like Joe Ostrow have built logical ( and, importantly, repeatable ) approaches to integrating these metrics with other marketing factors, such as competitve pressure, brand awareness, market share, category interest, etc.

Each Brands' unique combinations of market factors, ad quality, and goals, make it virtually impossible for a single organization to collect enough sets of media plans / marketing backgrounds / sales results to build a simple, proven model to guide all media decisions reliably. For a given set of results in the quantitative tools and a specific set of advertsing goals, the tools should reliably distinguish better choices. Advertinsg goals handed over to the media planners should guide many of these decisions. Budget vs reach goals versus marketing timing issues; branding vs retail promotion, etc. are key controlling factors in setting :30/:15 mix as well as timing of introduction of different copy. Experience, guided by logic and available quantitative tools are the best we are likely to do, in the Guru's opinion.


Monday, July 04, 2011 #8132
what is the implication of normalized GRPs in TV weight setting?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 04, 2011 ):
The Guru believes "Normalizing" is the term used in India with the same meaning as the U.S. term "equivalizing."

Equivalizing is used in comparing or combining schedules of different brands / seasons / years, etc. when different copy lengths are involved.

Click here to see past Guru discussion of eqivalizing.


Wednesday, May 25, 2011 #7929
re: #7926 Sorry about the lack of information: •Each of the four TV stations is within the same DMA; The cable schedule is based on a number of networks. •Using the report the client gave me, I plugged in the corresponding numbers for another month’s buy where I actually have the combined TV totals. TV’s reach/Freq/GRPs was 99.4 / 7.1 / 702. Cable’s was 61.2 / 2.1 / 129. •Using the client’s ‘formula’ the average reach would be 69.4 , average freq would be 2.4 and total grps would be 831. •It sounds to me in the above example, I should be weighting it per your suggestion. How do I do that?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 26, 2011 ):
Do you want the R&F of the market where the TV schedule ran or the national R&F combining cable and the one TV market?

  • If you want the schedule of the one TV market, and if the cable schedule is expressed in US R/F/GRP, assume the cable R/F/GRP is the same in your market as in the whole country.
  • With 99+ reach locally, this almost doesn't matter in this case (the Guru never reports reaches above 98%, as a matter of principle)
  • So the local market reach stays at 99, since there is no room for cable to increase it. The GRPs are additive, or 831 in total, and the frequency is 831 99 or 8.4.
  • If you want the US reach, and again if the cable is expressed as US reach, then use the weight of the market size agains the local reach.
  • Suppose your market is 4% of the US. Then, nationally, you would be adding 4% of 702, or 28 GRP to the cable 129, for a total of 157.
  • Now is the trickier part: your local TV reach adds a maximum of 4% of the local 99 reach points to cable's 61, or a max of 65 reach.
  • To properly combine the local and the cable you could run the combined cable and spot though an R&F program with the 4% of GRP figure. Realistically, of the 4 added reach points potential, you would probably gain 2 or 3. Of course this 2 or 3 or 4 depends on the market size. But assuming a very generous 4%, your R/F/GRP is somewhere between 63 / 2.5 / 157 and 64 / 2.5 / 157, so why fuss?
69% Reach is out of the question, even if your market is New York, with 6% of the US.


Wednesday, May 25, 2011 #7926
Hi there. Thank you for your guidance on the used car infomercials vs. used car spot schedule. They went with the latter :) Next question: I had a client average the reach % of 4 TV station schedules and 1 cable station schedule. They did the same for frequency. Then they added all the grps for all 5 schedules, and listed that on the report as well. They came up with 73.74% average reach, 3.54 average frequency and 1838 total GRPs. That HAS to be inaccurate because the reach x freq formula should still hold true, right? and they are dealing with two different universes as well? Is there a way to come up with average reach/freq for the TV+Cable schedules?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, May 25, 2011 ):
Congratulations on doing the right thing with the used cars.

Certainly what you describe is wrong, but there is not enough information to correct it.

  • If each station is in a different market, then it is proper to average the reaches, but they must be weighted by market size, and in this case, the GRPs would be averaged the same way.
  • Frequency would be GRP reach.
  • If these stations are in the same market then their reaches must be combined with a method that considers their duplication. In this case the GRPs are added. Again, GRP R = F.
  • The cable "station" is a puzzle here. Cable is usually a network, unless either a) you are talking about a local cable origination, such as New York's NY1 or News12 or b) a DMA interconnect or single system buy. If a such a local buy, then it's treated like the TV stations above. If it's a network buy, it's different markets and the weighting approach applies.


Wednesday, May 11, 2011 #7874
I asked the question below: Hello How do I calculate the discreet reach at 2 only (not 2+) for tv?. My additional question is if that if the software does not give us the reach at lower level, discreet reach etc., how do calculate it manually ?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, May 11, 2011 ):
The Guru is surprised your software doesn't have this feature. You might want to check with your vendor.

Frequency distribution, which is what we are talking about here, requires an immensely complex algorithm, which is why we use computers to work with it. You need software such as that offered by Telmar or online through eTelmar.

For example, as input, you need average spot audience, duplication between spots on the same station / network and duplication between each possible pair of different stations / networks. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function. There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables


Friday, May 06, 2011 #7869
How do I calculate reach and frequency for print

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, May 06, 2011 ):
You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar or online through eTelmar.

The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function. There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables


Saturday, April 23, 2011 #7858
Dear Guru, i am working on a paper talking about creating synergy in media planning using media combinations. Can u help me with some ideas or leads on this topic? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 24, 2011 ):
Some topline thoughts:

Media combinations with the same audience appeal have inherent synergy, of course, but going deeper means finding related content, such as CMT cable and CMT radio, or similar cable TV / radio combinations or related print / internet pairings or three-way relationships etcetera, where content reinforces message or reinforces audience involvement, or engagement.


Wednesday, April 13, 2011 #7850
how to calculate 4-week reach

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, April 13, 2011 ):
You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar or online through eTelmar.

The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function. There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables


Wednesday, March 09, 2011 #7835
Dear Guru, I am planning a schedule with print and internet in California only. My target is California residents age 18 and older. I am using MRI data for a print reach to a target of A18+ who live in California. I am using comScore Plan Metrix R&F data for a target of adults 18+ (national online audience). My questions are: #1 Can I combine these reaches using random duplication and caveat that we are making the reasonable assumption that the state only reach of teh properties we are buying match the national reach. #2 Can I combine these using Telmar's Quick Mix program? If so, would I use the MRI population since it matches our target audience of A18+ in CA? #3 When combining an internet number based on total population online with a print number based on ALL adults, do I need to weight the online number at all? Thank you for your help!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 09, 2011 ):
You first must decide whether you need to report reach on a total population or internet user basis. Total is more sensible.

You will convert your internet reach to a total population basis before you combine with print. Random combination is appropriate.

But you should consider whether reach in California is actually comparable to U.S. you should be able to find differences in internet and specific site penetration for California.


Friday, February 25, 2011 #7833
How do i calculate reach, if I only have the GRPs and total target population?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 02, 2011 ):
Reach is complex calculation. It considers dupication between each advertising occasion on the same vehicle and between occasions on different vehicles.

Realistically, you need software designed for this purpose, or tables prepared from the results of such software comparing GRP to reach results and considering key variables. See You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.

The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function. There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables

Or tables prepared from the results of such software comparing GRP to reach results and considering key variables.

Very crudely, you could estimate by combining the ratings of all your spots, according to Random probabilty. Click here to see past Guru resposes about this.. This would be an overstimate


Tuesday, January 11, 2011 #7824
I have been stuck at home for 3 days due to an snow and ice storm. I need to get my client the total reach and frequency for a cable network buy. I have the R&F for my cable network buy (one specific network) and I need to combine it with another cable network buy with mutible networks. I have the R&F for each buy. Is there a way to give them at least a close guestimate?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 12, 2011 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses regarding combining reaches

Review those that discuss "random combination." The method will overstate the combination of two cable schedules by perhaps 2 - 5%.


Monday, December 06, 2010 #7820
What are the pitfalls of using an ROI model to plan reach and frequency - Will I end up counting exposures in all media outlets?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 08, 2010 ):
This query seems to skip large logical assumptions between "ROI model" and "exposures in all meida outlets."

It all depends on the structure of your model. If the model is keyed to an ROI based on given R&F results, were the ROI results that were used to build the model based on R&F results from all media? Were there various media combinations?, etc.


Friday, October 08, 2010 #7805
how do you combine local market grps?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 08, 2010 ):
To combine local market GRPs, you need a weighted average using market populations for weights.

Suppose market A has a population of 100,000 and 50 GRP
Market B has a population of 200,000 and 20 GRPs
100,000 x 50 = 5,000,000
200,000 x 20 = 4,000,000

5,000,000 + 4,000,000 = 9,000,000
100,000 + 200,000 = 300,000
9,000,000 300,000 = 30 GRP average for the two markets. This process can be used for any number of markets.


Tuesday, September 28, 2010 #7804
Hi Guru, I have some questions in regard to test marketing: Once the test market has been determined, are the media mix or weight levels altered during the flight to determine the best combination or does the plan remain consistant through the entire campaign? Also, what is the standard duration of a test? Any guidance you can provide would be appreciated Thanks in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 28, 2010 ):
In general, one is testing a year's plan. This plan may have variance within it. If you wanted to test to find the best level, the norm would be to have different test markets with the differing levels.

The Guru believes that 13 weeks is a minimum test.


Wednesday, August 25, 2010 #7798
Dear guru: if our media mix include TV and NP,how to canculate the total effect of the campaign, which unit can be used,reach(000) or Gross impression? we can get the TV and NP data from two data system, thank in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 29, 2010 ):
Assuming "NP" means national print, you need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.

The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function. There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables. TV needs simlilar computer support.

Click here to see past Guru responses regarding combining reaches


Wednesday, August 25, 2010 #7797
Dear guru: we have launched one burst newpaper campaign which using more than 15 local newspaper to cover different market,and now,we want to know the effect of this campaign. please tell me how to canculate? appreciate!!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 29, 2010 ):
You can add total circulation to look at total impressions of the campaign. Or you can combine the populations of all the amrkets to build a univrse against which to turn these impressions into GRP. Depending on the size of the schedule, turning this into reach will be more or less complex.


Tuesday, July 27, 2010 #7791
We are trying to stay current with the latest media planning tools. Beyond MRI, Simmons and Scarborough, is there a media planning tool that combines consumer insight with media habits, and does a good job of including not only the growing digital options, but also grassroots/promotional media as well?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 29, 2010 ):
The Guru hasn't seen any "grassroots" in syndicated studies, but any of the resources you have mentioned might have some of the activities you aree thinking about, such as coupon redemption, attenance at NASCAR races or sporting events that you could crosstab with your media options.


Tuesday, April 13, 2010 #7775
What is a formula that can be used to calculate reach and frequency in just one newspaper?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, April 14, 2010 ):
If you mean reach and frequency for one insertion in one newspaper, the reach is the daily coverage divided by the relevant population (Metro, DMA, Trading area, etc). The GRP is equal to that and the frequency is 1.0.

If you mean multiple insertions in one newspaper, it is more complex to calculate.

You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.

The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function. There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables


Tuesday, January 26, 2010 #7753
What research tools are available to normalize results in regards to reach and frequency when combining traditional forms of media, emerging media, and interactive?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, January 26, 2010 ):
Our own eTelmar's new tool, Media 360, should do the trick (although the Guru is not entirely sure what you mean by "normalize.")


Friday, November 27, 2009 #7741
I believe a powerful media mix is customized, individually labelled direct mail, contextual on line campaign and radio for frequency. However, I can't find any stats to back up my gut feeling. Any suggestions?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 27, 2009 ):
This might well be a powerful mix for certain marketing goals. And, no doubt, lsss so for others. It is rather unquantified to expect it to be measured.

DM results are typically only available to the adveertiser itself so general norms are rare. And the permutaitons of combinations with two other media are too numerous to expect published stats.

Is 50% DM / 30 % radio / 20 % online comparable to 10% DM / 70% radio / 20% online?

Is one ideal for bank cards while the other is ideal for dogfood branding?


Monday, September 07, 2009 #7723
Dear MG!!! I've heard about TRA research. Can you explain to me how they match TV viewing data and purchase data? What do think about future of this research system? Thank you a lot!

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 07, 2009 ):
Details of their process is on their site at TRA Global.

Other research systems combining TV ratings and scanning of purchses have neen around for years, without ovewhelming success.


Thursday, July 30, 2009 #7718
I need reach and frequency on a campaign that includes 3 eighth page newspaper ads and 12 home page leaderboards. I would like to know how to calculate this as a combined campaign and what figures I would need to perform this calculation. Thanks for your help!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 30, 2009 ):
First, unit size is not a factor.

You need to determine the total print reach and the total online reach separately. You should have software for each medium, most likely from your audience measurement provider.

Or consider our own eTelmar. You may go here to see past Guru instructions on combining reach and frequency.


Wednesday, July 01, 2009 #7708
Guru, Can you help me with the formula to predict reach for television. i.e. What figures/stats are used within the formula and what is that formula? Your guidance is much appreciated!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 01, 2009 ):
Ratings / grps are the usual input. Duplication data, at least in the form of "curve" formulas is also needed. You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.

The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function. There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables


Thursday, June 04, 2009 #7699
We have been using the following formula to add reach from month to month for our online campaigns: (R1+R2)-(R1*(R2/100))*.96. After some research on your site, the initial part of the formula seems to be the formula for random probability but I'm not sure where the multiplying it by .96 came from. Any thoughts? Could that be another estimate on duplication?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 06, 2009 ):
Applying a factor like "0.96" is an old technique to adjust random duplication (which, as you say, is the first part of your formula) for the fact that duplication in some cases is somewhat greater than simply random.

Between different media, such as print and tv, it is thought to be truly random, that is, there is no greater likelihood that a newspaper reader of your campaign will see your tv campaign, than any other two random events.

However, between two elements of the same medium, like two TV dayparts, there is a more than simply random chance of duplication. That is the traditional case for using a factor like 0.96.

Between consecutive time periods of the same medium, as in your case, the Guru expectss a much greater chance of duplication. You are looking at new exposures of the same vehicle, which should be represented as accumulating along one sharply flattening asymptotic curve (see below). It's a "cume," not a "combination." Random combination is far too optimistic. Unduplicated users from the first few months to the next added would probably become virtually total unless each month used unique, unrelated sites.


Monday, March 16, 2009 #7671
How can you calculate TV reach if you only know viewership, rating and share (obtained from Nielsen data)?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 17, 2009 ):
You can't. You need duplication between spots data. Or a model like our own eTelmar's.

A very crude overestimate might be done by random combinarion


Tuesday, February 24, 2009 #7667
Do you know where I can get the formula for random duplication? I am trying to combine Stations/Dayparts together to show one over all reach. Thanks in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, February 24, 2009 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses about random combination.


Monday, November 10, 2008 #7636
Good afternoon Guru, I have been trying to get information regarding newspaper readership when a holiday falls on the weekend. Do you know of anywhere I can find research that would indicate a fall in readership on these weekends. One of our clients is requesting not to run the Sunday after Christmas, we aren't sure but believe she feels most subscribers will be out of town therefore won't see the ad. We would like some "proof" of whether she is correct or not. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 11, 2008 ):
It's ludicrous on the face of it to say that "most people are out of town" on any given day. Where have they gone? To visit other people's homes where those people are out of town, too? To hotels where there is no staff because they all went out of town?

There might be some readership fall-off due to holiday travel. The Newspaper National Network might have data on readership variations for holidays. According to this Dept of Transportation data there were about 8 million 50+ mile trips (going or returning on the Sunday after Christmas a few years ago, and as we are all aware, travel is down now, in 2008. Even granting that people going or coming on the Sunday might combine with an equal number at the beginning or end of a trip on another day of the holiday period, it doesn't amount a majority of the US families. Beyond that, some have come from wherever to the town in question and will read the local paper and otheres will find their home town paper wherever they have gone; the Guru always does (a large portion of the trips counter are less than 50 miles).

You might also try travel associations for some statistics.


Monday, October 20, 2008 #7622
Hi, Me again #7621. I need to back up. If my frequency is 57 total spots per week - how do I calcuate the average? this is direct response - so do I divide by total days or specific time periods? When I divide by days (7)I get 8.14 - which still makes my reach terrible (4.91%). What am I doing wrong? Over a 4 week period my total GRP's are 40 and total spots airing are 57.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 20, 2008 ):
Although arithmetically, GRP ÷ frequency = reach, it does not mean you can get there the way you are going.

Reach is a complex calculation of the net number of different people exposed to your campaign, taking into account the duplication of audience between one spot and another on one station and between the audiences of different stations. Once you have determined reach, typically with a computer model, you can devide GRP by reach and get the average number of spots (frequency of exposure) seen by each of the people who were exposed at all. No manipulation of the numbers of spots you buy will get you to this average frequency that is a quotient of GRP and Reach.

You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.

The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function. There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables


Saturday, October 11, 2008 #7616
When planning traditional out-of-home media buys I use the eTelmar Outdoor Synergy system. From day one when I started working at my current media planning and buying group I have been told that the media delivery goal was to be between 60% and 80% market 5+ reach. In the cases where OOH is to be the only medium used the goal is to be between 70% and 80% and if OOH is to be used in combination with other media the goal is to be between 60% and 70%. My question is in regards to the "5+ effective reach" we use. I can't find anyone to tell me why we use "5+" versus "3+" and I was hoping maybe you could shed some light on it for me. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, October 11, 2008 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses about setting effective frequncy levels


Wednesday, September 24, 2008 #7608
If we don't have software to combine different reaches on a media plan, how do we establish an acceptable, unduplicated reach and frequency when buying both boradcast and cable, and combining it with print and internet? Also, can we have duplication in broadcast since TV is a "moment in time" rather than print pubs where you can subscribe to more than one but you aren't reading more than one at any given time? Do ratings account for multiple stations or networks viewed?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, September 24, 2008 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses regarding combining reaches.

Reach is calculated over a period of time, typically 4 weeks, so that TV as well as print may duplicate.

Ratings are about a point in time, multiple stations viewed are not a factor, except that ratings have generally decreased as viewing choices have burgeoned.


Thursday, September 18, 2008 #7602
I have a client who would like us to calculate the combined reach & frequency for a cable, spot radio and traffic radio campaign. Without a media mix program, how can I calculate reach & frequency across these various mediums? Are there standard formulas that I should be using?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, September 21, 2008 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses regarding combining reaches.


Tuesday, September 02, 2008 #7587
Dear MG! Can you explain to me - is it any differense between calculating Recah 1+ in media mix (by random probability) and Reach 2+,3+ and so on, or we can use the same sheme as for Reach 1+? Thank you a lot!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 04, 2008 ):
It's quite different.

Assuming you are talking about combining media, in the new 2+ group, you will have some of the two+ from the 1+ group in medium A , some from the original 2+ group some from the same sets in medium B and so on. It's a complex formula.


Thursday, August 14, 2008 #7578
I am trying to combine the 1+ reach for 3 TV campaigns with the same demo that ran at the same time. I know that I cannot simply add them up. Can you recommend a formula to acheive this number?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 14, 2008 ):
The three schedules should be processed as one through R&F software like our own eTelmar


Thursday, July 17, 2008 #7568
Hello Media Guru - I am trying to figure out the best way to combine national magazine reach and national internet reach. I know that I can use the random probability formula to combine two reach numbers. However, the problem I keep running into is that my base for print reach is total US (based on MRI numbers) and my base for internet reach is total US that is online (based on comScore numbers). Any suggestions on how to combine these numbers? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 17, 2008 ):
  1. Determine what % of your target is in the online universe, say it's 70%
  2. Multiply this factor against your internet reach. That is, if your internet reach is 50%, you are reaching 70% of that number on a total US basis. 50% X 70% = 35%
  3. Now you can combine your 35% internet US reach with your print reach by random probability. Apply the same universe factor to GRP. Internet frequency will not change


Wednesday, May 14, 2008 #7546
Is there a formula for Effective (or net) Reach at certain frequency levels? I can figure average R/F, manually, but I need a formula for pulling Effective

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 18, 2008 ):
> You really need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.

The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function. There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables


Saturday, May 10, 2008 #7545
My client, has asked us to include in our media plans, a combined r/f total. Meaning, she wants us to take the r/f that is planned for Cable, planned for print, planned for internet, etc. and combine them for a plan total? Is there a formula for this. Can it be done? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 10, 2008 ):
It's a fairly simple process; click here to see Click here to see past Guru discussion and demonstrations of the calculation.


Tuesday, January 15, 2008 #7477
what method can be used to combine frequency between billboards and transit

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, January 15, 2008 ):
The Guru is not clear as to your meaning when you say "combine frequency." Assuming you mean the combined average frequency of the total schedule;

in any media combination, the combined average frequency is determined in the same way;

  1. Calculate the combined reach, whether by using Sainsbury as in your two previous queries of yesterday and today, or any other method
  2. Sum the GRPs
  3. Divide the total GRPs by the combined reach to get average frequency


Monday, January 14, 2008 #7476
can the sainsbury formula be used for print, outdoor and radio

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, January 15, 2008 ):
As indicated within the prior Guru responses used to answer your query yesterday, #7475, "the Sainsbury formula is a method for combining the reaches of schedules in different media." In other words, yes.


Thursday, November 01, 2007 #7436
What is combined reach and frequency?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 01, 2007 ):
Assuming the Guru correctly understands your question, combined reach and frequency refers to the overall reach and overall average frequency of a schedule consisting of two or more media, such as televison and print. Click here to see an example


Tuesday, October 02, 2007 #7423
Can you tell me about cable "fushion" ratings. What are they and how are they measured?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 02, 2007 ):
Cable fusion ratings are estimates of local cable ratings in non-people-meter markets, based on combining Nielsen's local HH meter and national people meter demographic ratings.

This is done using a model created by NCC. Details are available at SpotCable.com "Fusion"


Wednesday, August 15, 2007 #7405
Can you tell me if the following thing is true? It comes from an article in the economist.com, which I've seen reprinted in a few places, including here: http://doublefusion.com/posts/economist.com--the-ultimate-marketing-machine24.php The article is all about how the internet is making advertising less wasteful. There's one particular sentence that I must be misunderstanding, which seems to say advertisers are paying for a CPM of $500 to get their ads on a website that comes up in a search. Here is the relevent section: "By contrast, the new advertising models based on internet technologies amount to innovation. Instead of bombs, says Mr Tobaccowala, advertisers now "make lots of spearheads and then get people to impale themselves." The idea is based on consumers themselves taking the initiative by showing up voluntarily and interacting with what they find online. In its simplest form, this involves querying a search engine with keywords ("used cars", say), then scanning the search results as well as the sponsored links from advertisers, and then clicking on one such link. In effect, the consumer has expressed an intention twice (first with his query, then with his click). The average cost to an advertiser from one such combination is 50 cents, which corresponds to a CPM of $500; by contrast, the average CPM in traditional ("exposure") media is $20. A consumer's action, in other words, is 25 times as valuable as his exposure. " Am I reading this right? Is this some kind of typo or drastic miscalculation? I've never seen anything like a $500 CPM anywhere (I'm not too confident on the $20 CPM for traditional media either, but it's the $500 that shocks me). Do $500 CPMs exist anywhere at all? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, August 15, 2007 ):
Search engine results should not be compared to other media on a cpm basis.

This is a highly advanced form of direct marketing. In ordinary media, such as magazines, cpm is based on a theoretical "opportunity to see," as if every reader of the magazine not only saw your ad but was shopping for the product when they saw it and then decided to call for information or visit your store. What percent of a magazines audience do you imagine would qualify on that basis? Probably less than 0.1%.

So a magazine with a $20 cpm would deliver a $20,000 cpm on that basis, to compare to your $500

In search engine results, you only pay 50 cents for those people who have decided to shop for what you are selling and then have visited your your online "Storefront."

So it's a good deal, and traditional cpm is an irrelevant measure in this case.

Isn't a consumer who actually browses your catalog or visits your store 25 times more valuable than one who may or may not have even seen your ad, much less cared about it?


Thursday, June 14, 2007 #7366
HI Guru, justwanted to know how do get information of the local websites, Basically im looking for reaching audience through internet medium locally, how do i go about with it? I know of google adwords (SEO) and dont want to go for that option, I want to buy banner ads pop ups and pop unders etc,The problem I'm Facing is i dont know the way to search local websites and the category of websites to go for, also Please advice if it will help if i go for local newspapers and radio websites in that case. Many thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 17, 2007 ):
Finding local websites may seem difficult because they are inherently smaller in audience than the large websites that you might find listed in a comScore Alexa or Nielsen//Netratings run.

The Guru's approach would be as follows: "Google" search terms that combine the geographic description with a likely site category for local interests. For example, let's consider Long Island, New York. Googling "radio Long Island" would show you Long Island Exchange high in the results list. This site provides links to sites of a few dozen radion stations listened to on Long Island, including some from nearby New York City. Googling "newspaper Long Island" produces ABYZnewslinks' Long Island newspapers' site links. Searching "shopping," "entertainment," "yellowpages," "sports," etc plus the geographic name works, too.


Wednesday, June 13, 2007 #7364
How do I determine reach and frequency of a media mix that includes television, radio, print and online? Also, how do I calculate newspaper reach? Is it the same as coverage? Can I calculate by demo? Thank you

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, June 13, 2007 ):
Once you have the pieces, combine using "random probability"

Coverage (a HH percentage) is the same as rating or one-time reach. Demographic reach may be determined in Newspapers.

See our eTelmar for reach calculation tools.


Thursday, May 31, 2007 #7345
Hi Guru, if national reach can be combined with local reach and vice versa, can reach numbers be combine across markets? For example, can you weight average the reach % numbers for SF and Austin, just as you would GRPs, in order to back into a blended 2-market R/F? Thanks in advance!!!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 01, 2007 ):
Yes, this is a correct procedure.


Monday, May 28, 2007 #7339
What is the "Sainsbury" formula and is there a difference between unique circulation and paid circulation? Thank you!

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 28, 2007 ):
The Sainsbury formula is a method for combining the reaches of schedules in different media. It varies from the simple random probability method which is based on the generally accepted assumption that there is no particular correlation between exposure to one medium and another. Sainsbury varies by adding a small adjustment to account for an assumed slightly more-than-just-random probability that those exposed to an advertiser's schedule in one medium will also be exposed to its schedule in the next medium. Typically, the adjustment is about a 5% deduction from the result of the random combination.

As you will see at the link shown, we may vary in our arithmetic expression of the probability equation (for the same result), so we can express the Sainsbury formula as (0.95 x random probability).

Unique circulation and paid circulation are unrelated terms.

  • Paid circulation refers to the number of copies which are actually bought for money at the newsstand or by paid subscription, rather than distributed free or at such a discounted rate that the circulation auditor no longer qualifies the copies as "paid."
  • "Unique" is more commonly an intrnet audience term. Perhaps you are thinking of "unduplicated" audience which only counts readers once, if they read two or more issues.


Monday, May 21, 2007 #7333
How can we combine reach between Radio & Television OR Radio & Newspaper OR RAdio & Outdoor ?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 22, 2007 ):
Click here to see more than 30 past Guru responses about combining reach


Wednesday, April 04, 2007 #7309
Who is the founder of Random Media combination theory? Thank you

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, April 04, 2007 ):
The Guru would not consider this a "theory" per se, nor that there is a "founder."

The "random" concept is basic statistics: when the probablity of occurrence of two unrelated phenomena is known, then the probablity of both occurring is calculated by the product of the two probabilites. In media terms, this means:

  • The reach of a given medium is the probability of the audience being exposed to the schedule
  • So 30% reach is 0.30 probability of exposure
  • The combined reach of a media schedule (say print) with a 30 reach and another media schedule for the same advertiser (say tv) with a 60 reach is actually calculated by figuring the probability that neither reached the target:

    0.7 probability that print didn't reach the target x 0.4 probablity that TV didn't reach the target = 0.28 probability that neither reached the target or 72% reach (1.0 - 0.28 = 0.72)

Multiplying the two reaches together gives the probability of both reaching the target, which is not reach, but duplication.

Of course, the reach of different media schedules reaching the same target are not truly unrelated phenomena, and various adjustments to pure random have been promulgated by many practitioners.


Monday, April 02, 2007 #7308
Dear Guru, I am the sales manager for a hard bound monthly magazine that is targeted to Gen Y users and expanding into several college markets through out the South East. Currently, my main challenge is to expand the advertiser base and bring on regional/national advertisers and my biggest obstacle is how to get my product in front of the proper contacts. So, do you have any advice for the following: 1. How do I know who to contact for each product/company? In some cases it is the company itself, many companies use ad agencies, some use a combination and still more use an assortment of agencies for different purposes such as reaching specific demographic audiences. So what is the best way to compile a target contact list and is there a resource available to expedite this? 2. What is the most efficient way of reaching as many media buying contacts as possible? Is there a centralized database, list serve, etc. that the industry uses or must they be approached one at a time? 3. Is there a resource available to help me figure out the client list/prospective advertisers that each agency represents? 4. Should we pitch our product line to an agency for their entire client base or should we do our research and select specific clients' from their base to pitch to? 5. I know in the online arena there are ad networks that purchase remnant ad space, is there such a thing for the print magazine industry? 6. Any other general advice you would offer to a newer but growing media company to help get its name out in front of the national advertiser base? Any guidance you can shed in these areas would be deeply appreciated. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, April 04, 2007 ):
  1. AdWeek Directories and Redbooks list advertsers and their agencies
  2. You might use direct mail or media planners' websites, like AMIC
  3. AdWeek Directories and Redbooks again
  4. Pitch only to potentially interested prospects
  5. The Guru is not aware of networks vending remnant print
  6. Advertise, attend trade shows.


Wednesday, March 07, 2007 #7296
what are the factors in effective media planning

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, March 08, 2007 ):
If you are referring to "effective reach" / "effective frequency" planning, it is a matter of combining media elements to deliver a given reach at a specified minimum frequency level. For extensive Guru comment on this click here to see more than 100 past Guru responses on this topic


Monday, December 18, 2006 #7248
Dear Guru We are planning to launch an automotive advertising Web portal in January serving Pittsburgh/southwestern PA. The primary income stream will come from local auto dealerships that will pay to advertise their used cars on the site. In order to justify their expense, I need to ensure that enough car shoppers visit the site to search for vehicles, resulting in sales leads for the dealers. I believe we will need to get about 1500 local visitors to the site each month in order to show enough value to the dealers. I have received much appreciated advice from the Guru in the past in which you recommended online advertising, which I plan to do using pay-per-click services through the search engines. I have also budgeted for TV and radio advertising, but you expressed concern with my planned ad frequency. Unfortunately, my budget is only about $12k/month. I currently have proposals from local broadcast TV and radio stations. Here are the stats on each medium: - Google, Yahoo and Ask pay-per-click ads, with an estimated 500 total clicks (cant seem to get more regardless of what Im willing to pay for each click) for about $1500. - Two-week radio schedule, 70 total spots (:15s), alternating weeks with a 5.0 frequency and 150k reach/wk (M25-54) for about $3k - Three-week TV schedule, alternating weeks with 95 total spots (:15s) and 750k gross impressions (M25-54) for about $7k My radio and TV commercials are :15s that can run independently or can be combined to create :30s. My questions are: 1) Do these TV and radio rates seem reasonable? 2) Is television advertising really worth so much more than radio advertising? 3) Assuming that the website/concept is useful and interesting, do you believe that this plan can return the 1500 visitor response that we need? 4) Would I be better off to focus my advertising dollars differently? Thanks for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, December 19, 2006 ):
  1. Rates seem reasonable
  2. Your TV seems to cost less than radio, on a cpm basis: TV is $7,000 for 750,000 impressions / cpm = $9.33. Radio is $3,000 for 300,000 impressions / cpm=$10
  3. The plan could generate the 1,500 visitors.

    Revisit your search engines' traffic estimator. When the the Guru tested "car" and "cars" on Google in Pittsburgh, he found about 250 clicks per day available. You may need different search terms.

  4. Consider where to find people interested in used cars. Isn't most used car advertising in newspaper classifieds currently? Consider print and online advertising in newspaper and newspaper websites' used car sections.


Friday, April 28, 2006 #7132
How do I calculate reach?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, April 28, 2006 ):
You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.

The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function. There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables.


Wednesday, December 28, 2005 #7073
Can you tell me how to calculate reach/frequency without a software program? We have the TRPs, daypart mix, and I'm sure we can find out population estimates for the demo. Thanks for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 28, 2005 ):
You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.

The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta Binomial function. There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables.


Friday, November 11, 2005 #7043
Dear Guru ,how can i calculate 5+ reach with in a given GRP and universe for a TV PLAN.May be it depends on the program and channel mix but I want to know the basic calculation ,plz

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 13, 2005 ):
You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.

The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function. There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables


Thursday, October 27, 2005 #7033
What are the typical stardards in evaluating a Direct Mail piece as a media opportunity? Is there a standard rule of thumb for an average CPM?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 30, 2005 ):
The key elements for a DM piece are the offer, the creative and the quality of the list. Only the last is a "media" decision.

The CPM combines the production cost of the piece including postage and the cost per thousand of the list. Production and postage will be the greater costs. A highly selective list might cost $100 per thousand, while the production and postage could be upwards of 50 cent a piece ($500 per thousand).


Friday, August 12, 2005 #6993
Back when I started in media (1984) I learned a way to hand-calculate combined reach/frequency. Say adding together a tv and radio schedule. I unlearned it over the years, especially when I had software that did it for me. Now I don't have the software anymore and have been asked to do a combined R/F. Do you have that formula? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 12, 2005 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses about combining reaches


Thursday, June 09, 2005 #6947
We have put together a campaign consiting of print & television in a few spot markets. Is it possible to determine the reach & frequency for those persons who will only see the TV and only see the print? How is it possible to know who has seen only print & only TV?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 11, 2005 ):
  1. Calculate TV reach
  2. Calculate print Reach
  3. Calculate combined reach (presumably, you have gotten this far)
Now it's simply addition and subtraction:

Suppose you have found the following:

TV reach = 50
Print Reach = 40
combined reach = 70.

Therefore, 20 reach points of the print are added to TV (saw only print) and 20 duplicated (also saw) TV.

Further, 30 points of the TV are added to print (saw TV only), and that same 20 points as above are duplicated.

So it breaks down to

TV only = 30 reach points
Print only= 20 reach points
saw both = 20 reach points
Total reach = 70


Wednesday, May 25, 2005 #6937
Thank you for your answer about internet grps(#6936). Another question would be, can we calculate reach for internet? and how about reach for a hispanic target

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, May 25, 2005 ):
Calculating reach is ususally done in one of two ways:
Using a respondent level audience measurement such as Nielsen//Netratings or comScore-MediaMetrix, one tracks the actual use by the relevant demographic within the sample against the schedule run.

More practically, one obtains a series of such measurements and builds a model, so that one can then genralize from schedules run in the future, using variable such as # of impressions, number of sites in the mix, share of page loads on the sites, etc.

The issues are what portion of the sites' reach does your schedule get and what is the duplication between sites' audiences.

For example, Yahoo might reach 40% of all those online in a month, but your buy will probably appear in less than 0.1% of all Yahoo page loads. And how many of the persons exposed to your Yahoo buy will also be exposed to your buy on MiGente.com?

Since Hispanic audience is measure by both services, the Hispanic issues are no more difficult in this scenario.

As a ballpark sort of estimate, most major sites ought to be able to tell you the number of unique visitors exposed to your schedule. This number, divided by the relevant universe will give you an estimate of reach on that site. You can combine sites' reaches by random probability unless you can get site duplication estimates from the sites.


Tuesday, April 19, 2005 #6903
Dear Media Guru, Please help me figure out the combined reach and frequency of a multi-station TV buy. To find the average frequency, would I add the frequencies of the stations and then divide by the number of stations? Do I then multiply it by the total number of GRPs to calculate the reach? Since I do not have access to a software program, I need to calculate this manually. I'm in desparate need of your help since these figures are due soon. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 24, 2005 ):
Frequencies are never additive. A specific model is the only accurate way to combine station reaches. The reach may be divided into the sum of GRP to calculate the average frequency.

A very rough estimation of combined reach might be calculated by a string of random probabilty parings (i.e. pair two stations and then combine the next with those and combine the next with the cume of the three and so on). Because this is "random" and does not account for the greater likelihood of any TV viewers to view other tv, the result will be overstated, by at least 10%.


Monday, April 04, 2005 #6881
Hi, Guru. Thank you for the answer about combined GRPs. I'm estimating the media mix in first meaning of two mentioned by you. And my point of view on this calculation is the same like yours: GRPs are GRPs - they are not more than GI in 'shorter numbers'. Probably, i didn't explain the question correctly. I have a discussion with friend of mine - she insist that since measurements for different media in the mix are providing by different research companies (which means that respondents are also differ), it is strictly forbidden to sum up GRPs of each media in the mix into the 'Total GRPs' of the campaign, as each GRP has its own base (respondents of one research company are not participating in other company's survey). I would agree with this if we would talk about two different markets - in this case, of course, GRPs of each market should be weighted to count the total GRPs. But for the same market... in my point of view, since all surveys are representing the same target group at the same market, it means we are looking at the same people and can easily estimate how often they are contacting with the message whereever they meet the message. (Again, my goal is just estimate the quantity of contacts, not the quality). Thanks, Luba.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 05, 2005 ):
.Of course it is not "strictly forbidden" or we could never do media planning, only schedules in individual media. It might be an ideal to have one media source that measures all media, but it is not practical. The rule of thumb in the Guru's book is to use the primary measurement source for each medium. For example, in the U.S. one source MRI, has certain audience information for magazines, radio, and TV. However it is only considered a primary source for magazines. The primary source for radio is Arbitron or MediaAudit, and for TV is Nielsen, which provide much greater detail and much more frequent reports on audience as is necessary for more volatile media.

Looking at it the other way, Arbitron's sample is "different" persons from one report wave to the next, yet we consider each wave comparable.

Although the samples of each medium's research are literally different people, each study is intended to project the behavior of same total population group. (As you note, this is why it doesn't work in different markets; the total popualtion groups would be different people.

Each study, typically follows an established and accepted methodology, presumably. So, bottom line, GRPs may be compared and combined for media planning purposes.


Friday, April 01, 2005 #6875
Hi, Guru. I need to calculate the media mix. I have a set of media, some of them are measured by one research company, some of them by another, some of them are not measuring at all, but i can estimate their reach for my target audicence. All media are using on the same market at the same time. There is no problem to estimate the combined reach for the whole media mix. The question is - is it correct to combine the GRPs, gained by each media to the 'Total GRP of the campaign", which can help to estimate the frequency of the full campaign (for all media in the mix together)? Thanks, Luba.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 03, 2005 ):
From one perspective, a GRP is a GRP, simply and litereally a "gross" representation of all audience impressions. This view is most applicable for the purpose you are considering, leading to a frequencty calculation against the reach calculation.

On the other hand, it is not uncommon to apply weights to GRPs representing their medium's relative attentiveness or message retention, etc. But this approach is most applicable at the stage where media are being comared for inclusion in the plan or allocating a proportion of budget


Tuesday, March 01, 2005 #6817
Dear Guru, If one advertiser places multiple campaigns through the same media buyer, is the post-buy analysis usually done campaign by campaign or it can be done for all campaigns running over a period of time. For example, all campaigns in the past 4 weeks, quarter, year, etc.?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 01, 2005 ):
Usually by campaign or by quarter for longer campaigns. combining campaigns for different brands would blur actual performance.


Wednesday, February 09, 2005 #6787
What is the formula for combining two R&Fs?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 09, 2005 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses about "random probability"


Saturday, December 18, 2004 #6721
Hi Media Guru. We're a national advertiser who uses one agency for TV planning and another for buying. Typically, what role does the planner play. I've found I'm mostly getting recommendations on how to flow the media (e.g., GRPs p/wk, number of hiatuses) and broadcast-type (syndication, cable, prime or sports). Where the buyers reco. networks, evaluate value add and negotiate the buy. I feel like I'm not getting much value from the planners. What's your thoughts on what the planners role shuold be on planning TV?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, December 19, 2004 ):
"Value" is a matter of what you get for your money. If media planning is an included service of an agency you are using for everything short of TV buying, than the planning may be a good value. If, however you are using a totally separate agency for TV planning, which means only "GRPs p/wk, number of hiatuses) and > broadcast-type (syndication, cable, prime or sports)." than it is hard to think it's a good value. The value of media planning is to look at all communications needs and recommend what should be done across all media, not simply TV. On the other hand is your plan looks at all of this, then one agency should be capable of doing what are now separated TV planning and buying functions. This does not necessarily mean that either your current TV planning or buying agency is the right one to combine the functions.


Wednesday, May 19, 2004 #6499
We are currently purchasing local broadcast television combined with local cable television in a large number of markets. We have been grappling with the question of how to report the ratings achieved by each medium. Our initial thought was to add the broadcast DMA ratings to the DMA equivalent ratings of the cable activity in order to keep the figures "apples to apples." How do other agencies report cable ratings back to their client? (Local cable reports their audience delivery a number of ways including: DMA ratings, cable universe ratings, cable zone ratings within cable universe, etc.). However, there are some cases where we may be purchasing select cable zones in a market, rather than the entire market's cable interconnect. In these cases, the cable television activity probably won't be efficient when compared to the broadcast TV DMA CPPs. On the other hand, purchasing the entire broadcast television DMA probably isn't an efficient way to reach just the geography surrounding a few stores. How do other agencies rationalize purchasing select cable zones (surrounding store locations) to their analytical clients? In these cases, the DMA CPP comparison probably isn't realistic. What this boils down to is a basic question--is local cable forced to compete on exactly the same playing field as broadcast television? Are both forms of media judged against the same CPP goals or is cable allowed to compete based on a different CPP (based on the cable universe or percentage of cable penetration)? Does this answer change if purchasing an entire market's interconnect versus a single zone or multiple zones? How is cable television posted when buying an interconnect? When buying a zone or zones? What other factors should be considered in this analysis (i.e. are we overlooking anything)? How is the budget (or TRP goals) allocated to between cable and broadcast television?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 20, 2004 ):
The Guru reports ratings on the basis that makes sense for the clients' marketing needs. If the client is a retailer, ratings localized to cable zones in store trading zones make sense and will reflect the efficiency of this localization, while also put the waste of DMA ratings into perspective. On the other hand a national consumer goods marketer with interest in entire DMA's should use DMA ratings as a comparison basis.


Friday, January 23, 2004 #6356
In a recent conversation I have locked horns with a large agency media director. The issue is on local cable ratings. It is my understanding that Nielsen (or other) does not currently differentiate between local cable viewers and ADS (i.e. dish) viewers in providing their cable rating estimates. Thus, a cable rating includes viewers not exposed to your specific (or any local) message. As a rating is derived from the number of people "watching" against the total universe, I believe that you must subtract the ADS viewers and adjust the supplied rating accordingly. ie. 100,000 cable homes with 20% ADS(assuming all networks have equal ADS %s). A 1.0 rating = 1,000 viewers. Since 20% ADS only 800 views can see your local insertion. Your true rating on the actual cable system becomes a .8 against your cable universe, not a 1.0. The directors contention is that a 1.0 rating is a 1.0 rating on both local cable and a 1.0 rating for ADS and, thus, it is still a 1.0 rating in the cable universe. Again, it is my understanding that the cable universe does not include ADS homes yet the Nielsen (or comparable) rating does. Help. Please enlighten me. Thanks. p.s. this seems true even if you take a DMA cable rating and adjust to the cable universe rather than a cable universe cable rating..

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 23, 2004 ):
The Guru loses track of your issue somewhere, but these facts might help:

A standard Nielsen report uses a Cable+ADS universe for a DMA and reports Cable+ADS ratings (ratings and universe will always match in a given report).

Therefore, a "cable rating" in a DMA which is actually a cable+ADS rating, is correct for program audience but overstates cable commercial audience in the way that you suppose.

(By the way, it is not a 1.0 for cable and a 1.0 for ADS, but an average of the two that comes to 1.0 for the combined universe) Since you are buying local cable commercials from a cable system, they will not run in local ADS (satellite) programs unless you also buy these. Even if you did, the Guru does not expect that they would run simultaneously.

The good news is that Nielsen will sell you a pure cable report.


Saturday, January 10, 2004 #6336
Dear Guru: One of the cornerstones of recency is the idea that advertising works in a short period (up to 7 days). At the same time in his writings by Mr. Ephron always mentions 4-week reach and 13-week reach. Can you explain the reason for that. Thanks, R.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 10, 2004 ):
More important in recency is that the most recently seen ad is most effective.

4 week and 13 week reach are long-time industry standards, greatly predating recency theory. They are based on being able to combine media types in a common period of time and relate first, to the monthly cycle of many magazines, which were a much more dominant medium 60 or more yars ago, and second, to the common, quarterly (i.e. 13 week) planning / budgeting cycle.


Tuesday, December 16, 2003 #6315
How do you calculate combined frequency. If I have a cable plan in a market with a frequency of 2.6 and a broadcast tv plan with a frequency of 6.6 - what is the combined frequency?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, December 20, 2003 ):
The Guru will assume you are referring to average frequency, typically considered for a four week period. One actually calculates the combined Reach and GRPs and then figures the "combined" frequency. Consider the following table. If you had run 400 GRP in broadcast and had 61 reach there would be 6.6 average frequency. If you also had 100 GRP of cable and a reach of 38, there would be an average frequency of 2.6.

GRPs are simply additive for a total of 500. Reaches must be combined by a system that recognizes duplication; "random probability" will overstate a bit when you are working with two related elements such as different kinds of TV. Probability might have estimated a combined reach of 76 here but let's suppose your algorithm estimates 72.

In any case, the combined average frequency is calculated thus: divide the combined GRP (500) by the combined Reach (72) which equals 6.9; see below:

Element
Reach
Freq.
GRP
Broadcast
61
6.6
400
Cable
38
2.6
100
Total
72
6.9
500


Saturday, November 29, 2003 #6282
Is there a method for "manually" calculating the reach/frequency of network TV/radio? I know other options exist (Telmar, for example) but would prefer to have my students do it this way if possible.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 30, 2003 ):
25-30+ years ago, planners worked with tables of GRPs by medium or program frequency, etc, baseds on averages of many fully calculated actual measurements but not full scale calculation, which would involve treating each commerical individually. While there might be some value in learning how to take a set of observations and develop a curve, trying to make these base calculations for each plan seems pointless.

The purely manual calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function. There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables


Wednesday, November 26, 2003 #6275
Dear Media Guru, We did a multiple regression analysis to correlate the Nielsen Awareness scores achieved by a brand with the media weights delivered by the brand. The entire category advertises only on Television. The dependent variable was the current awareness score for a brand (Y). The independent variables examined for the analysis were Share of Voice achieved by the brand in the Category in the week (X1), Awareness in Previous Week(X2) and 1+ Reach achieved by the brand in the week (X3). This analysis was done for a eight-week period. The tracking continues. Hence, we are planning to extend the analysis and build a more robust base on which the analysis can be extended. The R-Square values we obtained after multiple tests for Current Awareness with all three independent variables is 0.94 The R square values for any other combination is below 0.3 The question is a) Is this a collectively exhaustive list of what can cause impact on the awareness score ? b) Is there any flaw in the method used ? Regards RSV

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 28, 2003 ):
The method seems reasonable. The only other variables which immediately occur to the Guru are
  • # of competitors.
  • Ratio of share of market to largest SOV competitor. (i.e. 25% SOV might have a different impact against four other smaller competitors than against just one at 75% SOV).
  • Some measure of commercial impact, like recall


Tuesday, November 25, 2003 #6274
If a rating point is the percentage of the audience that could see the message, then what is the difference from reach? I work at a small agency, and we have gotten rid of our software. I used to be able to plug a plan in, and it would compute my reach and frequency, based on the ratings. How can I figure this out without software, if I know the rating points and GRP's?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 28, 2003 ):
Each advertising exposure has certain rating points. For a single such exposure, Rating equals Reach.

For a Schedule, each of the various exposures will duplicate a portion of the audience of the other exposures. The sum of the ratings, less the Duplicated audience is the reach. The sum of the ratings is open-ended. Reach can approach - but not exceed - 100% of the target.

The calculation is complex, and software is worthwhile, especially pay-per-use software like our own eTelmar.

For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function. There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables.


Wednesday, November 19, 2003 #6257
What magazines advertise home media and electronics

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 20, 2003 ):
There are enormous numbers of these. Many have your kewords in their titles. SOme have "stereo" or "audio." Search the web for combinations of those words + magazine or use Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS).


Friday, November 07, 2003 #6235
Hi Guru Is there research on effectiveness of advertising in cinema's (i.e. compared to TV)? Do you know something about research on the relation between medium reach and advertising reach in cinema? Can you tell me about the effectiveness of the combination of cinema and TV, radio, print or outdoor? Can you tell me about the quality of the reach of a cinema commercial? What do you think of the future of the cinema as an advertising medium? I'm a media planner from the Netherlands Thanks a lot Kind regards Michiel Veugelers

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 09, 2003 ):
Cinema advertsing has not amounted to much in the US, where advertising is virtually everywhere. It has been more important in Europe. Perhaps ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization has some data.


Friday, October 10, 2003 #6197
Our office has noticed a significant inflation in the Charlotte market for '04 planning. We understand the combination of it being a political and Olympic year would contribute to a portion of the increase, but a 30% inflation (as compared to 7-10% in our other markets) seems out of line. Do you know of any other significant contributing factors for this area's increase?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 13, 2003 ):
First, check whether the blip affects all media. Then consult SQAD, which tracks speciific markets' inflation oddities.


Tuesday, September 30, 2003 #6182
Dear Media Guru, In our market we have two companies that offer radio traffic sponsorships. I have been asked by a client to compare the two in order to show which one offers the best exposure and the best "bang for the buck." One company offers live :10 reads on over 19 stations the other offers taped :15s on 9 stations. I know that I can use strata to combine all the stations for each group to get an overall rating average, but I am wondering if I should weight the ratings since these are not :60s. What do you advise? Also, besides, grps, cpp and cpm is there any other data that I should include in my comparision to show the strengths or weaknesses of each group? Thanks! KJG

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, October 04, 2003 ):
Weighting is reasonable. Do the "live" versions allow last minute changes? If "live" means simple announcer script, but taped meand full production, you need to quantify the difference. It might be more significant than just the length difference.


Wednesday, September 10, 2003 #6149
In regards to buying spot tv and spot cable tv - At what point is it more efficient to plan in network buys to either replace or compliment spot buying? Is it the number of markets client has locations? Our client who places spot buys in 55 DMA's, cannot grasp the benefit of a more efficient buy on network and is stuck on having, what he calls "waste" in markets with no locations. Please help!! You have a GREAT site!!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 11, 2003 ):
Assuming you have the same weight goal (GRPs) in all markets, when the combined cost of your selected markets exceeds the cost of that weight level in network, network is more efficent. On this basis, "the waste" just becomes free advertising that does not matter. It is not a matter of the number of markets. One advertiser might have a budget for 55 small markets that wouldn't cover 10 large markets. If there are no locations in the other markets, ill will might be a problem, especially in consideration of future growth. Efficiency is simply not the only consideration.


Tuesday, June 10, 2003 #6006
Dear Guru, I have the circulation figures and the readership duplication percentage of various dailies. How can I calculate the net reach? What are the other variables required to calculate net reach? Thanx, Toolie, Bangladesh.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 15, 2003 ):
You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.

The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function. There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables


Thursday, May 29, 2003 #5984
Want to know the calculation of different GRPs to get required reach on 2+ or 3+ OTS e.g. on 400 GRPs gets 60% reach on 3+ OTS

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 31, 2003 ):
You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.

The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function. There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables


Thursday, April 10, 2003 #5929
Dear Guru: What is the piggybacking strategy (in marketing/media/communication fields)?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 13, 2003 ):
In media, piggy-backing refers to such actions as combining two :15 second commercial executions into one :30 commerical to get the pricing advantage of a :30. By extension, piggy-backing can mean any ad riding along with another.


Friday, April 04, 2003 #5918
How are the overall reach and frequencies derived in a buying program for a particular flight? It is not a sum of the r/f for individual stations, or an average thereof. Is there a formula for this?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, April 05, 2003 ):
The reach of each media vehicle must be combined with the others in a way that accounts for duplication.

You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.

The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function. There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables


Wednesday, March 19, 2003 #5888
I'd like to know how you determine what your GRP goals should be for TV. I know that Total GRP's are equal to reach x frequency. However, if I want to reach 95% of adults 35+ each flight month while achieving a 4.0 weekly frequency, how do I determine those goals? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 22, 2003 ):
The fact that reach x frequency = GRP is merely an arithmetic relationship, it is not predictive. Not all combinations of dayparts and programs with the same total GRP deliver the same R&F.

You need to examine various schedules with Reach & Frequency software, such as that from our sister company, Telmar.


Saturday, March 08, 2003 #5871
Dear Guru, I encounter some more questions which I am unsure. I learnt that we can calculate combined reach of different media vehicles in one medium and combined reach of different media (e.g. TV, Magazine etc.) and same for frequency. However, how can I applied tohse in an advertising flowchart? where I need to indicate monthly reach, monthly frequency and GRPs for different media vehicles+media (?) To do it manually, do we really calculate first combined reach and frequency of all media vehicles within 1 medium first than use the final combined reach % to calculate with other media to get the Montly reach & frequency & grps in the adv flowchart....it will be quite tedious....I am confused...please help!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 09, 2003 ):
The Guru does not understand your confusion. You say you understand how to calculate the reach of several vehicles in one medium and how to combine the reaches of several media.

One thing you must understand is that reach is always calculated over a specified period of time. The standard period is four weeks. Often, when print is the only medium involved, one month is used because this is virtually the same as four weeks and monthly magazines fit readily. However, it should be recognized that variations in issue dates muddy the time cycle, and that monthly magazines' audiences cume over a longer period than one month.

In any case, whether the flow chart is divided into 12 months or 13 four-week periods, the process is simply a matter of looking at the schedule that will run in each of these periods and calculating the R/F/GRP for each. The is not any kind of standard that establishes that a flow chart should show R&F for every month. When schedules are fairly consistent, it is probably more common to show the average 4-week R&F within each quarter, or whatever is needed to give a clear understanding of the plan's communications levels.

And yes, if you are doing the work manually, it is tedious.


Saturday, February 15, 2003 #5841
Can you please tell me how to do the Sainsbury formula in order to calculate campaign reach & frequency?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 17, 2003 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses about Sainsbury.

To do the kind of calculation you probably want, you need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.

The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function. There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables


Friday, February 07, 2003 #5815
We've been asked to estimate reach/frequency/etc. for a plan that includes USA Today, newspapers in 8-10 major markets, spot radio in 5 markets, metro traffic in 8-10 markets, and national magazines. I think this is impossible, but can you think of any way I can provide the client with a decent estimate? I was thinking I could start by pulling delivery for USAT, magazines, New York Times, and then somehow estimating the rest.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 08, 2003 ):
The Guru sees no problem, and so does not quit understand your question perhaps. Assuming you know what reach and frequency is, you can readily determine the reach of each one of the media you mention. Most simply, you can combine them by Random Probability . Most reach and frequency systems on the market, like our own eTelmar, can do this for you. The only "trick" is accounting for the different geographies, but that's just artithmetic, and easy if you look at all the percentage reaches as their equivalent in thousands.


Monday, January 06, 2003 #5720
We are a small agency who deals primarily in spot buys. I am putting together a network cable TV buy for a client. Network selection is largely based on MRI data against the target. I have R/F goals that were established based on a cursory "borrowed" run on an optimizer program. I know I can ask the networks to run R/F on the schedules I put together, but how can I get a combined R/F on the entire multi-network buy? We don't have a program that does that for network. Is there a formula? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 12, 2003 ):
Networks than can provide R&F runs can provide combined schedules. Systems vary, inout assumptions are important and some networks know how to slant results. Ask more than one network to do the same combinations as a check.

Our own eTelmar system can do R&F on a pay-per-use basis at a nominal cost.


Thursday, September 26, 2002 #5532
How can I calculate reach & frecuency?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 26, 2002 ):
You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.

The calculation is extremely complex. In print, for example, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function. There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables


Tuesday, September 10, 2002 #5510
Several of my AEs INSIST that there is a way to combine different media R/F over different time periods. Can you help me with what to tell them... why it won't work, how it would skew the numbers, etc... so I don't have to fight this fight every few weeks?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 16, 2002 ):
There is a way, mathematically at least. Conceptually, one medium reaches a certain group of people and the other reaches the audience which it reaches. There will be some duplication between these two groups of people reached. Broadly, the difference in time won't cause a major difference in the mathematical results.

The problem is that when planning combined media, we look for cumulative effect on consumer perception. Obviously, it's different when the consumer sees TV alone in February and magazines alone in April, rather than beinbg exposed to both over the same period. The difference is not in reach so much as impact. Perhaps it is important to keep the standard labels on your numbers, i.e. "Average 3 week reach," and "average 4 week frequency." When they don't occur together, the labels need to reflect that fact.


Friday, August 16, 2002 #5468
I need to know, What is the data that I can use to calculate newspaper reach?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 16, 2002 ):
As in your adjacent query, you need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.

The calculation is extremely complex. As input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function. There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables.

Try The Newspaper Advertising Association for some general estimates.


Thursday, August 15, 2002 #5467
Is there any specific form to estimate print media reach?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 16, 2002 ):
You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.

The calculation is extremely complex. As input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function. There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables


Thursday, July 25, 2002 #5436
Do you think PR will kill advertising? What role will PR play in the coming years??

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 27, 2002 ):
No, why would that even be a question? PR and advertising have co-existed for over 100 years. The uses of the two evolve and the wise marketer combines them.


Wednesday, July 03, 2002 #5398
how could I create a reach curve if I dont have any information of "frecuency and reach" available. What kind of assumption should I suppose? Thanks Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 05, 2002 ):
"Creating a curve" is about graphing some data so that other data can be interpolated. In other words, when you know the reach or frequency from a few different schedules of GRPs, you then can predict the results of others.

Lacking any data, what assumptions might you make?

  • The general shape of a reach curve is more or less like the one shown below

  • Generally, the curve rises rapidly at first and then flattens, because it is 'asymtotic,' in mathematical terms
  • The top of the curve cannot exceed the reach potential of the medium.
  • The starting point will have reach equal to the rating of a single announcement, but the curve is drawn from a (0,0) origin.
  • The smaller the average rating, the slower the rise.
Reach curves are usually created from the frequencies observed in the known schedules, because the graph of frequencies is a straight line, so its 'slope,' to use another mathematical term is easier to deal with.

Reach with no observations is a complex calculation. You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar. In one example, as input you need average announcement audience, duplication between announcements of the same vehicle and duplication between each possible pair of different vehicles. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function. There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables


Tuesday, February 26, 2002 #5117
Dear Guru! Sorry for unclear question about media mix. I would like to know is it a possibility to estimate the whole advertising campaign in different media by using common indexes (GRPs, frequency, reach etc) if there are no data from the same source - people-meters (TV), diary (press and radio)?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 27, 2002 ):
Yes. It is a standard procedure to combine media and has been for decades. There are some basic assumptions of statistical overlap, making a crude combination through probability arithmetic fairly indicative, and making modern media software, such as that offered by Telmar, reasonably specific.


Wednesday, February 13, 2002 #5082
Where can I find a complete list of Media Companies and their clients? The Red Book doesn't show all media companies.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 13, 2002 ):
If you mean companies which own media, you would have to combine data from various Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) resources or The Gale Directory of Publications and Broadcast Media.


Thursday, January 31, 2002 #5039
calculate reach and frequency

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 31, 2002 ):
You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.

The calculation is extremely complex. As input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function. There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables


Tuesday, January 22, 2002 #5026
Now that Outdoor can be mixed with other media, what is your thinking on how do the number of uses effect the frequency distribution? Should we be transferring GRP's, number of days or number of boards times days? How does this effect the frequency of the programs?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 31, 2002 ):
Outdoor could always be mixed with other media, so the Guru presumes you mean that the media software you use now has the ability to calculate reach and frequency for the combined media. Your question is probably answered in the software's manual.


Tuesday, January 22, 2002 #5025
What do I need to calculate reach for print and what is the formula?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 23, 2002 ):
You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.

The calculation is extremely complex. As input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function. There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables


Saturday, January 12, 2002 #5000
Dear Guru, where can I find information about multi media planning (when I buy all media for GRPs and plan them together to gain aggregate effictiveness: Reach, Frequency, etc.)

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, January 15, 2002 ):
Planning per se is about multimedia combinations, or reasons to use only one. Start basic media planning texts, you will find in theAMIC Bookstore (in association with Amazon.com)


Thursday, December 20, 2001 #4956
how does reach and frequency build?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, December 21, 2001 ):
This differs from medium to medium and among specific combinations vehicles.

Generally, the audience of each added advertisement has increasing duplication with those already reached. The curve below is typical.


Monday, December 17, 2001 #4952
I was curious if there is a website you could recommend for marketing or advertising news that's a bit strange or out of the ordinary? Thanks, Brad

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, December 21, 2001 ):
"News" and "strange" is a tough combination. AdCritic may be temporarily inactive.


Tuesday, November 20, 2001 #4900
I am trying to estimate past Reach & Frequency for a transportation trade industry print campaign -- and based on that set R&F goals for 2002. I have gathered the following information: Target universe in US, Asia and Europe; each publication's circulation to that target (where available); duplication (very limited availability of this from these pubs). Given this information, what formula could I use to (gu)estimate Reach & Frequency for this Trade plan? Alternatively, what other measures could I offer to my client to measure a recommended media plans effectiveness (i.e. Competitive SOV)?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 21, 2001 ):
The simple formula begins by calculating audience-divided-by-universe to estimate ratings (probability of exposure). Multiplying together all the negative probabilities gives you the reach, disregarding specific duplication. In other words, if you get a rating of 14% of target, the negative probability is 86%. Then, two issues of that publication have a combined negative probability of 0.86 X 0.86 or 0.7396. Thus the probable "reach" is 1 - 0.7386 or 26%. This reflects a rando likelihood of dulication of roughly 14%. In reality, there is more than just this random duplication between two issues of the same trade title, probably 50%+, so a better estimate of the reach would be 14% + 50% of 14%, or 21% reach.

For a good guestimate, combine all your insertions this way, using 60% duplication between repeats in the same title and 30% between different titles. Use judgement about titles from different countries which may have virtually no mutual duplication.

SOV is another comparitive tool. Going beyond relative communication and relative spending gets quite speculative.


Monday, November 05, 2001 #4865
Guru, what's the methodology for reach & frequency. I have two schedules, one gets an 77 reach/3.1 freq, the other 85 reach/4.2 freq. and a cume of 87 reach/5.6 freq. A client just asked why such a small increase from year to year.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 07, 2001 ):
The Guru's answer is based on the assumption that you mean:

"In year 1, I ran a schedule which cumed 77 reach, with 3.1 average frequency (and presumably about 240 GRP), and

In year 2, I ran a schedule with a cume reach of 85, and an average frequency of 4.2 (about 360 total GRP), and

the cume across the two years reported as 87 reach / 5.6 average frequency (487 GRP). So why is this cume only 87 when I had 85 in year 2 alone, on top of the 77 in year 1?

.

  1. First, if the cume is the combination of the two schedules, there is an arithmetic error somewhere in the cume. The GRP (reach X frequency) of the cume must be the sum of the two individual schedules, which would be about 600 GRP.
  2. Reach grows more slowly as you near the potential. Why? When you reach 85% of the target, most of the people reached are among the 77% you reached previously. At it's simplest, based on pure probability, your 85% reach in year 2 means that year 2's schedule reaches 85% of the 77% already reached and 85% of the 23% not yet reached. This would add 20% to year 1's 77% for a cume of 97%. But the nature of media is that some people consume some media regularly and others not at all. So duplication in a given medium is more than pure probability. Thus reach is only 87% in cume.
  3. If you had used completely different media in each year the cume would more nearly apporach the 97% probability.
Reach methodology differs between media types.


Tuesday, October 16, 2001 #4798
Could you please give me all examples of TV flights pattern: GRP min/max levels, guerilla tactics, else ?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 16, 2001 ):
Flight patterens can be any imaginable combination of active and inactive weeks from 1 on / 12 of to 12 on / 1 off. Anything more extreme shouldn't be considered flighting. The on/off patterens do not have to be equal or consistent.

Some think GRPs should be at least suffieceint to reach 30% of target weekly in a continuity plan. There is no real upper end except the "point of diminishing returns" where adding reach is prohibitively expensive or no longer possible. Even then, some would add weight just for frequency in promotions.

Guerilla tactics are marketing, not media issues.


Friday, September 14, 2001 #4717
Media Guru, First thanks for a great service - I am an experienced broadcast and interactive services executive and I continued to learn new things from this site. Question - I am helping roll-out a new service based on kiosks with high speed Internet connection which combines Point of Sale display, on screen advertising (both full screen and interactive) and consumer data collection, analysis and report generation. How best to develop wholesale costs for the media space? I'm assuming it is most like alternative out of home and should be looked at as a cross between outdoor, interactive and tradtional spot. Any ideas where to start or other media that might be comparable for analysis? Thanks and keep up the great work.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 15, 2001 ):
Thank you for the kind words.

The Guru isn't sure he understands your term "wholesale" in this context. However, based on outdoor and current generic internet pricing, a cpm well under $5 is reasonable.

You will find some media cost data in AMIC's Ad Data area.


Friday, June 29, 2001 #4538
Hello again, I have two questions about calculating reach and frequency that I have been unable to find in the archives of past responses. Perhaps you can help? 1. I normally use the formula (a+b)-(.a*b) to determine combined reach of two mediums, such as radio and print. How do I calculate the combined reach of more than two? The plan I am working on includes spot TV, spot radio and local newspaper. 2. Is it possible to determine a combined reach for more than one market or should each market be reported separately? In the past, I have provided separate delivery for each market in the same plan with a total number of gross impressions for the whole plan. Is this correct? Thanks in advance!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 29, 2001 ):
1. This common formula is based on an assumption that different media duplicate their audiences according to random probability. Therefore if you follow this assumption, media may be added to combinations of media in a "chain" of the same formula. So, once you have combined TV and Radio, you can use this combination as your "a" and then combine it with newspaper as "b."

2. You can combine reaches across markets by doing a weighted average. Multiply the reach in each market by the percent of U.S. in each market. Add all the products and divide by the sum of the % U.S.


Friday, June 29, 2001 #4536
HOW TO JUDGE A GOOD MEDIA PLANNING

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 29, 2001 ):
Please begin by reviewing the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan.

A good media plan

  1. Sets Media Objectives to answer the marketing or advertising strategies that have been given as input
  2. Logically connects Objectives to Strategies to tactics and execution (media selections).

This means that any marketing/advertising objectives mentioned in the backgroun for the plan must be addressed by media objectives and/or strategies in the plan. Some plans go wrong by reviewing too much marketing background that isn't relative to the media decisions.

Every stated media objective must be answered by strategies aimed at meeting that objective. By the same token, every stated strategy must related to soem stated objective. For example if a strategy is to concentrate advertising in the southwest, there should be an objective to build sales in weak areas or support sales in strong areas or some such. This strategy should also be suported by sales data for regions, or whatever is relevant to the point.

Similarly, media selections should be supported by their relationship to strategies. For instance, media should not be included to "reach working women" unless some objective or strategy calls for this emphasis and shows why this is a segment meriting special support.

Reach or efficiency of media or combinations should be demonstrated, if asserted, but neither should be a decison factor unless a strategy calls for it.


Monday, June 25, 2001 #4515
Dear Guru, I have found out that media plans made by planners was not based on what we have learn about the concept of Marketing, and that is planning based on specific target market/segment that their clients wanted to reach. For example, a client wants to reach woman 20-45, and children 5-10 middle to upper (Social Economic Status Classification A, B). What planners will do is running ACNielsen's software combining those demographic caracteristics all together : Woman/Children/AB/5-10/20-40 to find the best media/program that would reach the highest rating and reach instead of running it separately : 1. Woman 20-40, A 2. Woman 20-39, B 3. Children 5-10, A 4. Children 5-10, B My proffesional opinion on the way planners plan, was wrong! They would end up with : 1. combination of reach (Woman, AB 20-40, Children 5-10, AB) 2. Not knowing the exact result of how the product reach at Woman A, an B, also at Children ; not to mention the age yet! 3. A reach that is actually low for each segments, because of insufficient media selectivity. I understant that planners will not like this fact, because they would have put more effort in the future. But tell me your opinion on this ? (theoretically & proffesionally)

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 25, 2001 ):
First, as the Guru sees it, you are not thinking about a media plan, you are talking about determining the schedule of a media buy, resulting from a plan.

Once a target is determined, how to best reach that taget withing the media selected can be approached in various ways. Here you are talking about two compleletly separate targets, not levels of specificity; a group of children and a group of adult women.

One would not expect there to be programs with appeal to both groups. But if single televison homes were common in your country there could well be programs watched by mothers and children together.

Nevertheless, it should be far more effective to buy the best programs for the adult woman group and the best for the kid group than to try for programs getting both audiences. If the software to which you refer is an optimizer it would theoretically examine various programs to find the best schedule, not judge each program on its owm. The key to optimizers is especially to consider what each Added program contributes to buying goals, not each program in a vacuum. Recenf articles in the U.S. indicate that optimizers are used much more as conceptual new business-getting tools than in actual buying situations.


Tuesday, June 05, 2001 #4457
Can you please tell me what is meant by cross-media advertising packages?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 05, 2001 ):
Generally, this refers to advertising media sold across the various properties of media mega conglomerates, like AOL Time-Warner, combining online, print and broadcast vehicles.


Monday, May 07, 2001 #4373
Why is television the priority branding medium?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 08, 2001 ):
TV is the priority branding medium in many cases. In the abstract, TV is the most powerful form of communications with the best ability to build a brand. Its combined audio / visual impact is unmatched by other media.


Friday, May 04, 2001 #4368
Media Guru, please help. How do I calculate reach and frequency for a two-week, two-newspaper buy? We are placing 4 ads per week (total of 8 ads for the schedule) on Newspaper #1, which has a maximum reach of 9% of our target. Newspaper #2 will carry 2 ads per week (4 ads for the schedule) with a maximum reach of 23% of our target. Please advise. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 06, 2001 ):
Find some example newspaper R&Fs at The Newspaper Advertsing Associations Marketscope site.

In very general terms, you can estimate some parameters. If newspaper A has a 9% maximum reach, it probably has a single copy reach of around 7%.

If B has a maximum of 23%, then it likely has single copy reach around 20%. So the outside bounds of reach for your schedule are a minimum of 20, but more likely closer to 25, the random combination of the two papers' single copies. The outside maximum is 32 ( the 9% plus the 23% maxima), but more likely closer to 30 (random again).

A solid estimate of 25-30 reach for your schedule should be good enough, but you could use the eTelmar pay-per-use system for a specific calculation.

Frequency, of course, will be the sum of the single copy audeinces of all insertions (GRP) ÷ the reach estimate.


Wednesday, March 21, 2001 #4280
Concerning Local Cable ratings, there seems to some confusion as to the availability of Nielsen demographic ratings. While I know that HOUSEHOLD Local Cable ratings are availbale on Nielsen's HH overnights, how are demographic ratings developed? I have heard of two methodologies: 1) Apply DMA VPVHs to the HH overnight ratings 2) Use Nielsen diary info to determine demographic Local Cable ratings. From my experiences, Local Cable is severly underreported thorugh diary measurement. Therefore, I believe the use of HH overnights would be preferred. Can you provide some insight into Local Cable rating accuracy and methodology? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 25, 2001 ):
Household overnights are only available where Nielsen uses set meters to measure the Household audience. These meters automatically send their daily readings to Nielsen's computers so that Nielsen can then issue ratings "overnight."

According to information at Nielsen's web site:

" In 49 of the largest markets, we have a sample of homes with set meters (not people meters) which provide the tuning status (set on/off, channel and time) of TV sets in the home. We collect information about who is viewing from separate samples of homes in these markets with diaries for each TV set. We combine the meter and diary information in a way which projects the diary viewing data adjusted to the meter tuning data."

The Nielsen NSI service reports cable in local market reports when the audience meets reporting standards.

So, in any case where HH overnights would be available, NSI is adjusting diary demographic findings to reflect (preferred) meter measurment of households.


Tuesday, March 13, 2001 #4251
Hello Media Guru -- Hopefully you can help me. We are currently in planning and we are analyzing our competitiors When - In Avg Weekly and Avg 4 wk deliveries by Quarter and Full Year. We have pulled their GRPs by week for Network by daypart, Syndicated and Cable so we have the National TV deliveries. We have pulled their Print schedules off of Stradegy and now want to come up w/the same deliveries (When-in Avg weekly and Avg 4 wk by Quarter and Full Year)for Print in order to combine the TV and Print deliveries. Is there a method that you suggest? Thank you in advance-- Bridget

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 13, 2001 ):
It isn't clear which steps cause your problems.

If you're being strict, for average 4-week a simple arithmetic adjustment from average month to average 28 days will suffice. For average print week, you could take the year's schedule and divide it into 52 roughly equal groups, then average the R&F of all 52. If print is flighted, then you should calculate for active periods and average with zero weight for as much time as there is hiatus.


Tuesday, March 13, 2001 #4250
My ad agency is putting together a media plan for a client. Currently, the client is spending about 15% on radio and 85% budget on broadcast television. I am recommending a combination of radio, cable and broadcast. I am trying to show a combined reach and frequency. I am able to do this for radio and broadcast tv with my media software. How can I add in the reach and frequency of cable (since universes are different)? My cable rep says she can enter my entire schedule (broadcast & cable) to come up with reach and frequency. Is this possible? Won't I be neglect in showing reach to those HH without cable???Please respond ASAP. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 13, 2001 ):
The Guru can recall when some managers opposed the introduction of computers because people would no longer know basic media math.

Keep in mind that the real story is how many people you reach. Once you determine that, it is simple arithmetic to express that number as a percentage of a target group, as we are used to seeing reach.

It is also standard to show reach within the cable universe and in the remaining U.S. For example, you might show that you reached 75% of the cable universe and 60% of the remaing U.S.

And. . . if the cable universe is 80% of the U.S. then your average U.S. reach is 72%

0.8 x 75
+ 0.2 x 60 =
72


Wednesday, January 17, 2001 #4106
Guru(s), is effective frequency planning really dead? I have been reviewing the literature and it would seem that the concept of effective frequency is now outmoded and has been misinterpreted, over-simplified etc. I have been a proponent of the effective freq. approach in combination with Ostrow Model. I am loath to abandon, but don't want to be a media anachronism. Your thoughts would be much appreciated. (I have a presentation on Friday, during which I am sure to be grilled on the topic. R.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 18, 2001 ):
Effective frequency goals are apparently fading from favor in planning for products with continuous purchase patterns. There are sometimes good reasons, in time sensitive or highly seasonal categories, for example, to consider effective frequency. The distinction is a matter of professional judgement and assessment of marketing goals. This should outweigh planning trendiness, in the Guru's opinion.


Monday, January 08, 2001 #4087
Guru, First off, just wanted to let you know that I find this to be one of the most usefull sites on the web - as a management consultant in need of a crash course on media planning, the information found in these pages has proven invaluable...Now, on to my question: I am working on the launch of a branded consumer services play (auto related), and am trying to build a marketing budget from the bottom up, rather than as a strict % of sales. I have modeled an overly simplified media plan, and am looking for guidance on placeholders to use for weights (TRP) for TV and Radio, # of weekly inserts for newspaper, and showing level for outdoor. I know there are numerous factors and considerations I am leaving out (I know the GURU doesn't like sweeping generalizations), but I need a place to start. Goal: generate "substantial awareness" (think Midas, Maaco). Thanks for your insights.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 11, 2001 ):
The Guru thanks you for the compliments.

Keep in mind that while "substantial awareness" may be a snappy phrase for discussion of plans, you need to quantify such a term in order to quantify the building blocks of getting there.

Let's suppose we decide the goal is 80% ad awareness among the target within a given campaign period. Therefore, your advertising must reach at least 80% of the target in that period, with enough frequency for the message to penetrate and stick, let's say at least three times.

Now, you can calculate that generating that reach in TV will call for a certain number of TRP (you can use the media software at eTelmar for calculations). Or you can examine getting that reach with radio or a combination of TV and radio.

Outdoor will generate high reach more efficiently than either, with a #25 showing, but outdoor's necessary simplicity of message may not stand alone in filling your needs.

Newspaper has its own contribution and you need to judge from a marketing perspective whther you need a small store-locator ad every day, a full page branding message once a week, or some other approach, if any.


Wednesday, December 13, 2000 #4041
My question is regarding print measurement. For a consumer print campaign (magazines, regional) I've been asked to provide a pithy statement (to be read by a board of directors with limited marketing savvy) adressing the effectiveness of the proposed print campaign. Our account planner asked for reach and frequency, which I don't believe I can provide. I can provide circulation and readership (which would equate to reach, I believe, but that doesn't account for duplication). I am to complete the sentence "This plan results in..." Am I missing something? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, December 17, 2000 ):
You have not made clear why you believe you cannot provide reach and frequency. Once you have the readership of individual publications you can begin to combine their audiences in a rough way, by "random probability." This method will understate duplication somewhat, because related publications and particularly multiple issues of the same publication duplicate more than merely randomly. Using duplication between simialr national magazines, as documented by services like MRI, you can reasonable estimate the duplication in your own schedule and thereby estimate your reach and frequency.


Monday, November 13, 2000 #3965
Can you give a definitive explanation of media quintiles (radio, tv, newspaper)?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 16, 2000 ):
Quintiles are used in two key ways:
  • Quintiles of media, and
  • Quintiles of schedules

Quintiles in either case involve dividing the people under consideration into five (quint-) equal groups for analysis. Why five? Why not? it has become the established method. Three groups would often be more useful: "average," "above average" and "below average" are easier to conceptualize. And some advertisers have considered "nine-tiles."

In media quintiles, the users of a medium, like radio, are divided into five equal groups, arrayed according to their heaviness of use, for example, the 20% of the population who listen to less than 3 hours of radio per week, those who listen to 3 to 6 hours, up through those who listen to 50+ hours. The range of hours of listening are set so that each range takes in 20% of the population. Then, other aspects of the behavior of these groups may be evaluated and lead to media or marketing decisions.

For example, if the lightest radio listeners are also light TV viewers, but the heavy newspaper readers, newspaper may be the best way to add reach to a radio plan and more evenly distribute frequency of exposure across all the people reached.

Quintiles of schedules are similar, but only consider those reached by a media schedule. For example if you had a radio schdule of 500 GRP in four weeks with a reach of 70 and a 7.1 average freqency, you might find that the lowest frequency 20% of your schedule reached (14 reach ou of the 70) had an average frequency of 1.0 and the highest frequency quintilehad an average frequecy of 19.8. When you add newspaper to the plan you can examine each quintile of the combined reach and will likely find the least reached group of the new total has a better average frequency.


Thursday, September 14, 2000 #3795
Is there a site that ranks high-tech business-oriented magazines by subscription size? Is there a site that ranks cable and tv programming by largest high tech management viewers?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 16, 2000 ):
The magazine data can be acquired from BPA International. The cable data maight be available in MRI or Intelliquest might nhave the cable data, but not online. It is likely that the small size of your demographic cell combined with the small audiences of cable programs will allow only unstable measurements, if any.


Tuesday, August 08, 2000 #3684
CPMs for portals are often quoted as being in the $20 to $40 dollar range. As ane example, Yahoo! are shown with an effective CPM of more than $40 in the AdZone analysis for June 2000. However, taking the figures for ad revenue and page impressions in the latest Yahoo! financial figures (for Q1 2000) gives a CPM of only about $4.00. Why the big difference?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, August 08, 2000 ):
What you are asking is probably more of an accounting question than a media question, but:
  • If you are looking at the same source of Yahoo financial data as the page the Guru checked, you are looking at NET revenues, while the arithmetic of CPM times Impressions would yield Gross revenues. Of course that should not lead to a 90% discrepancy, but perhaps it could account for 50%, and . .
  • AdZoneInteractive's Ad Data uses published rate card CPMs, and rate card rates are certainly higher than real deals, which might be T 50% of rate card for big advertisers, and
  • If you watched carefully while drilling down to the financial data from the home page, you would have noticed that you generated several Page impresions with no Ad Impressions. There were also no outside banner ads on the Yahoo home page. combined with unsold inventory, perhaps more than 50% of Yahoo page impressions generate no ad revenue.
So if Net is half of Gross, and real rates are half of rate card, and half of impressions aren't sold for advertsing, then it all hangs roughly together.

I.e $40 x 50% (net vs. gross) x 50% (rates) x 50%(unsold) = $5


Wednesday, July 19, 2000 #3630
Can you think of any resource that lists all Radio networks, including a brief description and generic cost information. The SRDS lists the networks, but it has limited information.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 23, 2000 ):
Answer: The Guru has not encountered any resource with both types of information. You may need to combine data from multiple sources. In addition to Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS), consult SQAD and M Street Corporation.


Tuesday, June 20, 2000 #3563
Follow on question about SQAD CPP table columns-- particularly interested in understanding the times when one daypart transitions to another. Could you provide the time ranges for each designation?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 20, 2000 ):
  • In the Eastern and Pacific Time Zones, Early Morning means the Monday-Friday 6am to 10am period around programs like the Today, Show, Good Morning America etc before
  • Daytime network, with its games, talk and soaps, from 10a to 4p Mon-Fri
  • Early News is usually 6-7
  • Prime Access is 7 to 7:30 Monday-Saturday
  • Prime is 8-11 Monday to Saturday plus 7-11pm Sunday
  • Late Night is 11pm to sign-off.
  • combined fringe is Late Night plus Early Fringe, which is the period between Daytime and Early News, plus the otherwise undefined weekend hours.


Monday, June 19, 2000 #3560
I can't find information in your glossary on the column abbreviations for the Costs Per TV Household Rating Point data from SQAD. Are they elsewehere on the site and if not, could your provide a brief tutorial?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 19, 2000 ):
The columns headings are:

  • Rank, which is based on the
  • Household population shown under "Pop" in the next column
  • EM is Early Morning
  • DAY is Daytime
  • EN is Early News
  • PA is Prime Access
  • PR is Primetime
  • LN is Late Night and
  • CF is combined Fringe


Monday, June 12, 2000 #3547
I am buying radio in two different markets - one is a large market which is measured by Arbitron. The other is a small market where I get the ratings through Arbitron county measuring. The two cities are only 45 miles apart and there is a large amount of radio overlap. Is there any way to figure an accurate combined reach & frequency? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 12, 2000 ):
First, define "market." If these radio markets are both in the same DMA, and you want DMA R&F, add the two stations' reach in thousands and divide by DMA universe. If they are in two different Metros, calculate reach within each and do a weighted average of the two:
  • Metro "A" target population = 100,000
  • Metro "B" target population = 20,000
  • Metro "A" target reach = 40% (40,000)
  • Metro "B" target reach = 55% (11,000)
  • combined, total coverage area reach = 40,000 + 11,000 100,000 + 20,000, or 42.5%


Wednesday, May 24, 2000 #3492
Dear Guru, How the results of TV sposnsorship can be measured and evaluated? Is it possible to compare it somehow with ordinary spots advertising? In Russia we have monitoring of TV channels. All events - programmes, breaks & commercials (all types - including spots, sponsorship etc) are fixed in the database. combining it with the PeopleMeter ratings theoretically we can calculate everything. The main problem is that I do not know how can I calculate rating for sponsorship. Should it be rating of the whole program or rating of the real moments of sponsorship or something else? Maybe you can advise some literature about the subject? how it is done in other countries? Thank you in advance Ksenia

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 29, 2000 ):
Generally, when considering the total commerical audience of a sponsored program, the total program audience rating is used. But if your people meter data allow you to accumulate the net of all commercials and sponsor mentions, use that.

Evaluating the total benefit of sponsorship goes beyond these data. The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. and ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization would have relevant research.


Thursday, May 04, 2000 #3444
Hi Guru - I'm doing a radio campaign for a small restaurant chain. I have about 3 different station options that will work well. My dilema is that the station that comes out the best is an Oldies format. Not my first choice for a "guy sportsbar". My first choice was a combo of stations - NTR, AC and oldies bringin up the rear. My boss wants to just use the oldies station based on the numbers. I say, since all of the numbers look good - let's go with the 3 station buy. This is not a numbers argument and I don't know what to use to convince him. Any suggestions, or does it matter? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 07, 2000 ):
You don't say on what basis oldies "comes out the best." The Guru would imagine it's based on target rating, target composition, target efficiency or some combination of these.

You also don't say what the communications goals are, reach, effective reach, pure target impressions weight or something else.

You don't say why you don't think an oldies station would be good for a guys' sportrs bar, but the Guru would expect it's probably misguided, as in you like sports bars and you don't like oldies. The Guru has encountered this kind of thinking before; for example in NY or LA buyers who think country music is strictly for lowbrow blue-collar workers and farmers, not considering the format's dominance across many strata in most of the rest of the country.

If all the numbers you can think of favor the oldies nad you don't have research such as Scarborough or MRI to tell you that oldies stations are not listened to by guys who like sports bars, maybe you should just go with the numbers. If reach is an issue buy all three stations.

Generally, when the Guru has encountered a buyer putting "instinct" ahead of numbers in making decisions, it has turned out to be very simple unscientific, personal preference at work.


Thursday, April 27, 2000 #3425
Are there general guidelines for media planners so that they will know how and when to consider ethnic or cultural groups in the planning process? Are there any planning tools?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 27, 2000 ):
The three major ethnic/cultural groups are currently almost one-third of total population ( see AMIC's Abbott Wool's Market Segment Resource Locator ): African American is 13%, Hispanic is 12% and Asian American is 4%. The rule of thumb is always "consider" ethnic and cultural groups. There are several common or basic product categories in which these groups have a 150 - 300+ index of usage versus the remainder of population. These include fruit juice, baby products, rice, corn meal, and many brands of beer, popular foods or over-the-counter pharmceuticals.

General advertising doesn't reach the linguistically isolated portions of these markets (50% or more of Hispanics and various Asian national groups). Even those reached, among all the ethnic/cultural segments, are less impacted due to lack of appropriate cultural cues in the general advertising or the media environments.

Upon due consideration, the planner may find that for his or her particular advertiser, no special effort is required. But, the planners may also find that there is a 12% segment of their universe consuming 25% of their product, and reachable through efficient media. It is not really unusual for the "first mover" in one of these market segments to gain 10% market share among the segments, which equates to a gain of more than 1% national share, something that couldn't have been achieved for three times the budget in general advertising.

Non-ethnic segmetns such as the mature market may also bear consideration.

Telmar's media software includes a Spanish TV reach and frequency system, called STRETCH, created by Telemundo

Hispanic Broadcasting System (formerly Heftel) has created En Total which does general Hispanic radio calculations and media combinations.

The African American, Spanish, and Asian-American media all offer research analyses.


Wednesday, April 26, 2000 #3424
I'm doing a campaign for a small restaurant chain with a relatively small budget. The goal is to drive traffic for lunch. I'm going to run in the AM and afternoon drives. Is it really necessary to have a 3 frequency if I'm going to be on the top 3 stations on the same programs each day at the same time over a period of 8 weeks? The schedules that I'm getting back show in the low 2's.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 27, 2000 ):
The common reference to a goal of "3 frequency" which you may have heard stems from century-old learning theory which found that 3 repetitions of information were required for it to be "learned" and acted upon. Many media planners use this theory and so specifically consider how many members of their target they are reaching at least 3 times.

You, however, seem to be looking at the average frequency of a schedule, which is different. Any schedule with at least three annoucements will have some portion of its reach exposed to 3 repetions. You need to decide what portion of your audience should be reached three times. YOu need to judge this by looking at the combination of all stations: you may be looking at individual stations reach and frequencies.

Finally, you may consider the full 8 week schedule. A station may be reporting to you only the one week reach and frequency, if you haven't specified, all stations, full cume.

With a schedule of just two dayparts on three stations you are probably getting a fairly low reach at high frequency and this is a completely different sort of consideration than the "3 frequency" issue.

Many planners today are abandoning the effective reach (3+) approach in favor of "recency," the concept that the exposure closest to a purchase decision is the most effective one. You plan might agree more with this approach if it has enough weekly reach.


Tuesday, April 25, 2000 #3420
We are putting together a sponsorship package that incorporates TV spots, our company newsletter, our website and our fleet vehicles -- is it possible to estimate a combined reach/frequency for all four mediums combined?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 25, 2000 ):
The TV is easy, using standard methods, of which you are probably aware.

The other estimates must start from simple counts of the newsletter circulation, web traffic and - the toughie - persons exposed to your fleet. Most simply, after getting a standard TV reach, convert the other media impressions to ratings and combine by "random probability."


Wednesday, April 12, 2000 #3392
Guru, I've never used a planning program as most of my planning has been national print and outdoor, local broadcast, and things I've felt I can handle on my own.I've seen so many planning programs and websites for planning it's hard to tell the good from the bad. Have you ever evaluated planning programs and, if you have, can you recommened one or two? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, April 12, 2000 ):
To the Guru, the term "planning program" means programs like Telmar's AdPlus or Telmar's full set of individual media analysis programs or the eTelmar online suite of media programs.

Such programs calculate reach, frequency, effective reach, frequency distribution, and quintiles for individual media plus combinations of media as well as cross-tabulations and rankers from media audience databases. Flow charting is also a typical option.

These programs don't actually create media plans, that is determine how much budget to invest in each medium, ad units to use, and scheduling. There are such programs on the drawing board, but require that the planner quantify and factor those concepts which would be subjective judgements.


Monday, March 27, 2000 #3341
Hello I am currently enrolled in the 3-year advertising program at Mohawk College in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. In response to a class project and of great interest to me, I am in search of answers to the following questions regarding obtaining a career in the Internet advertising field. 1. What programs are used in the creation of Internet advertisements? 2. What are the job titles and descriptions of jobs within Internet advertising? 3. What are the specific qualities looked for when hiring a person for Internet advertising? 4. How does Internet advertising differ from other forms of advertising? 5. What should a student keep in mind and focus on while attending school in order to further their changes in Internet advertising related career? 6. Is there an organization solely devoted to Internet advertising? 7. What forms of Internet advertising are offered? (Ex. WebPage design yes, banners, etc) 8. When should a company inquire about Internet advertising as a form of advertising? 9. How long has Internet advertising been around and how has it grown throughout the years?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 27, 2000 ):
Since this is the Media Guru, we will address those of your several questions which relate to media issues.

  1. Not a media question
  2. Other than "webmaster" all internet advertising media titles are approximately the same as in other media: General manager/publisher, sales manager, sales account executive on the website side; Media Director, Media planner, media buyer on the buying side. Some companies may have invented special titles either to reflect their individuality or special business structure, such as "Channel manager" when selling multiple sites that can be grouped topically
  3. There should be no specific qualities sought in hiring media people for internet purposes rather than any other media, other than possibly better computer skills and internet familiarity. It was not unusual, in the early days of internet advertising, for employment ads to be signed only with a website or email contact information, so that those who didn't understand such information wouldn't apply.
  4. The chief differences of internet advertising versus other media include:
    Interactivity: Any consumer action in response to an ad generates a reaction by the internet
    combines the full animation potential of TV with the detail capability of static print
    Consumer action in response to an ad 'place-marker', i.e. the banner, is required before the full ad, i.e. the click-thru target, is exposed
    Unlike other media where the medium's full audience is attributed to each ad, the internet allows us to count actual ad exposures
  5. A student should take any internet courses offered in addition to the full standard advertising curriculum, if working in internet media is the only goal.
  6. There are several organizations devoted solely to internet advertising: The Internet Advertising Bureau, which is the Web site owners trade group, C.A.S.I.E. (The Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive Entertainment) which is primarily, if not exclusively internet focused, is the advertiser/agency internet trade group. Of course there are numerous internet sales representative organizations and ad agencies/media services.
  7. Internet advertising forms include websites, banners (meaning any less-than-full-page ads displayed on websites) interstitials, and e-mail advertising. Within e-mail advertising are three principal types: ads as sponsorships, inserted into subscription email newsletters and discussion group posts, Opt-in email, where the recipient has actually agreed to receive by email commercial information from the sender, and SPAM, or Unsolicited Commercial Email, which is commercial messages posted to newsgroups or sent by direct email. This last is completely disreputable and banned by most consumer ISPs.
  8. An advertiser should consider internet advertising alongside all other media when selecting media for any plan. Internet media should be used when it offers an advantage in efficiency (quite rare), an opportunity to reach an otherwise difficult-to-reach prospect, or the opportunity to deliver a message of a kind or in an environment which enhances message impact.
  9. Internet advertising of one sort or another has probably existed since the early days of the internet. As a real medium, internat advertising is traced to the beginnings of the commercialization of the World Wide Web at the end of 1994. The year 2000 will generate over US$5 billion online ad revenue


Thursday, March 16, 2000 #3326
Dear Guru: I would like to know if there is any equation to calculate media mix reach?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, March 16, 2000 ):
There are several, equivalent ways to express the arithmetic to combines media according to random probability, which has been found generally adequate for the purpose of multimedia combination.

Here's an easy one:

  1. Work with two reaches at a time
  2. Treat the reach of each medium as a decimal (50 reach is 0.5)
  3. Add reach of medium A and medium B
  4. Multiply reach of medium A by Reach of medium B
  5. Subtract the product of the multiplication from the sum of the addition

Example:

  • Reach of medium A = 40, reach of medium B = 55
  • 0.4 + 0.55 = 0.95
  • 0.40 x 0.55 = 0.22
  • 0.95 - 0.22 = 0.73
  • combined reach is 73

To add additional media, treat the combination as medium A and the next medium as B.

In some cases, a planner may have access to research which shows that an adjustment should be made for actual, measured, duplication between different media, rather than use the "random probability" formula above. In that case, more sophisticated reach calculating software packages, such as those from Telmar allow you to make the calculation and build in known adjustments.


Wednesday, March 08, 2000 #3296
Guru, does the sum of individual monthly effective reach equal the total compaign effective reach? (e.g. 3 month campaign - month 1=10%, month 2=10%, month 3=10%. Total campaign = 30% effec. reach?? Should/could there be a discrepancy as large as 10% between the sum and the total? Thanking you in advance, R.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 08, 2000 ):
The Guru wonders how you could get such an idea. In your theory, reach would be 120 after a year! Reach, as you surely know, is a percentage of the universe, and cannot excedd 100%

As in any other combination of reaches, there is some duplication between the effective reach of one month's schedule and the next.

The difference between reality and your addition could easily surpass 100% over time.


Tuesday, March 07, 2000 #3291
Is there a formula which calculates effective reach and frequency? I know that reach x frequency=grp's, but how can I determine what the effective reach and frequency would be for 100 grp's or 150 grp's?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 10, 2000 ):
Of course there's a formula, but it can be immensely complicated. In fact, media planners rarely, if ever, considered effective frequency before computers became a part of everyday reach and frequency calculation in the 70's.

Your "reach x frequency=grp's" is not a formula, but merely the arithmetical relationship of these quantities as they are defined.

GRPs are the convenient weights and mesures we use in media buying. They are simple statistical measurements, whereas reach and frequency are more complex statistical models In some cases, there are relatively simple reach formulae derived from compiling the actual, measured reaches of actual schedules with known GRPs. The formula is non-linear.

To find the effective reach of a schedule, you first determine level of frequency to consider "effective" and then examine the frequency distribution of the schedule to see how many people have been reached that number of times The frequency distribution shows exactly how many people have been exposed to each integral number of announcements in a schedule.

The math is based on non-linear functions. For any given reach and GRP set, the frequency distribution can vary considerably depending on the media combined and the dayparts within the media.


Thursday, March 02, 2000 #3273
Hi Guru, It's relatively easy to get numbers on click thru rates. Do you have -- or are you aware of where I might find -- statistics on conversion averages? Thanks!!

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 04, 2000 ):
Online retailers don't generally release these figures; they have no reason to do so. But on January 2, the NY Times had an article analyzing Christmas ad spending for dot-coms, visits versus ad impressions, plus percent of on-line shoppers who made a purchase at a few dozen of the leading consumer ecommerce sites.

This combined Nielsen//Netratings web audience measurments with an Ernst&Young study of global online retailing. The Times article can be analyzed in various ways, and the Ernst & Young report gives a 1 to 10% conversion average across retailers interviewed.


Monday, January 31, 2000 #3176
Dear Guru, I am in charge of IT for a small advertising firm. I need to compile a comprehensive list of software solutions for media buying/planning/research/management. I need to be as exhastive as possible while weeding out the weaker solutions. Do you know of any good sources of information for this question? What are the top five solutions (including Internet/"zero client" solutions?). Thank you in advance,

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, January 31, 2000 ):
The solutions of which the Guru is aware are our own Telmar, as well as IMS, Strata, MediaPlan, Simmons' Choices and MRI's MeMRI

Some do it all, some only handle broadcast rankers and audience analysis, some only handle print. Some focus on detail in one medium or another.

As far as the Guru knows, only Telmar's system, which can run on a PC or via the internet, and IMS, offer multimedia analysis. Also, as far as the Guru knows, only the new, combined offering from Telmar/Strata does it all, covering planning, buying, research and managment needs.


Saturday, January 22, 2000 #3144
Hello Guru : Ive many questions : 1 Do you know how i can add the impacts in TV, Radio, Newspapers and Magazines. Exist a table of factors for obtain this results

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 23, 2000 ):
"Impact" is a term with no standard defintion. First you will have to quantify the term before any intelligent answer could be given.

For example, if you decided impact equalled reach, weighted by historical selling ability, you could first establish each medium's weighted reach and then combined these media impact scores by a probability equation just as you would combine reaches. But a different way of defining impact might lead to another approach.


Monday, January 17, 2000 #3124
Hi, Media Guru... I am new to media planning and need to know how to figure out how to distribute the budget among media. We have decided to use Direct Response TV ads and Radio, but how do I determine how much of the budget to put in either? I understand the definitions of the terms reach and frequency but do not know how to use these tools. Also, is there an online (free) resource that can help me come up with psychographic data either in general for a demo or by market and demo? Thank you in advance for your help!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 21, 2000 ):
When the planner has a free hand, media mix is determined by examining various combinations to see which best meet the Media Objectives and Strategies.

You may go through an examination of efficiency, communication impact, environmental support, etc, of broad types prior to testing various mixes for reach and frequency or other measurable contributions.

In the case of direct response, you probably have some track record of the relative selling ability of each medium on which to base an intial distribution. After start, careful tracking of response will lead you to modify budgets. This direct tracking of sales, typical in DR, makes reach and frequency analysis moot.

The Guru does not believe there are any free online market psychographic/demographic resources.


Monday, October 04, 1999 #2844
What is the best way to reach Adults 18-24 with out using television?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 04, 1999 ):
Most efficient? Selected out-of-home.

Most targeted? Some magazines or college newspapers.

Broadest reach in a single medium? Probably radio.

Best total reach? A combination of the above.

Other qualifications of "best" might yield additional answers.


Friday, October 01, 1999 #2840
What is the difference between achieving a 10.0 rtg. on one spot of Seinfeld, vs. a combined 10.0 rtg. on Oprah, The Today Show and Just Shoot Me? Are we reaching a larger audience? Is there a way to measure duplication of the three programs? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 01, 1999 ):
A combined 10 rating points accumulated across three programs will also represent 10 GRP, or an equal gross audience, but because of duplication the reach will be somewhat less than 10 and frequency somewhat more than 1.0. The reach will be at least equal to the rating of the highest rated program of the three.

The syndicated ratings reports, i.e. Nielsen, measure the duplication; the planner's standard reach & frequency tools estimated the net audience, accounting fo this duplication.


Wednesday, September 29, 1999 #2836
How often are the SQAD cpp's "Refreshed"? What does the designation "CF" stand for? It appears to signify late fringe or late night. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, September 29, 1999 ):
SQAD TV CPPs are updated monthly. "CF" is combined fringe, the early fringe/late fringe average.


Wednesday, September 22, 1999 #2815
Can you please refresh my memory and tell me how to calculate multi-week reach and frequency across television and radio? Thank you

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 23, 1999 ):
If you mean combining these media, the formula has been addressed. Click here to see past Guru responses.

If you mean how to get multiweek reaches for either medium, you need reach curves or software, the extension formulae are tow complex for casual use.


Wednesday, September 15, 1999 #2799
I would like to know if there are any international learnings on the media usage for formal readymade garments category. Three issues require clarifications: 1. Is there any specific combination of media that differentiates media usage for readymade garments. for 2. Any kind of innovations that are unique to RMG category. 3. Are there any specific seasonality patters. Regards

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, September 19, 1999 ):
In the U.S., Simmons, MRI, and The Mendelsohn Media Research Affluent Study will include various items of ready-made garments in their product and media usage studies. Their affiliates and analogues in other countries do so as well. "ready made garments seems overly broad as a category. Suits, pants, shirts and dresses for males and females are all distinct in therr patterns. Formalwear may be too small a category to track.


Tuesday, September 14, 1999 #2793
What is the protocol for adding print delivery to a broadcast reach and frequency analysis? Does it skew the analysis or can it be done accurately with media planning software?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 14, 1999 ):
Very simply, reach-based planning sets the reach / communications goal as the priamry focus of the plan. For example, rather than focus on CPM, the cost per person reached takes precedence over cost per person exposed (which is what CPM measures).

So, the first vehicle or medium in a plan might have the best CPM, but the second one is the one which, in combination with the first, produces the most overall net reach for the combined spending.


Tuesday, September 14, 1999 #2792
What can you tell me about reach-based planning? Thank you in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 14, 1999 ):
> The usual assumption is that print and broadcast duplicate with random probability, there is no special, greater or lesser likelihood that persons in the audience of the print schedule will also be or not be in the audience of the broadcast schedule.

Mechanically. the combination may be calculated in a few equivalent ways. The Guru finds it easiest to consider the reaches as decimals (50% reach = 0.50).

Subtract the reach of print from 1 and multiply this by 1minus the reach of broadcast. Suppose print has a 40% reach and broadcast has 55%.

By subtracting 0.4 from 1 (1 - 0.4 = 0.6), you have the probabilty of the target not being exposed to print. Subtract 0.55 from 1 to get the probability of not being exposed to broadcast (1 - 0.55 = 0.45)

Multiply these two together (0.6 * 0.45 = 0.27) and you have determined there is a 27% probability of people not being exposed to either of the combined media, or a 73% reach.

This formula is typically used in media software to combine different media.

Certainly there are cases where there is a somewhat better than random probabilty of media duplication, such as TV Guide combining with a TV schedule, but that's the exception, calling for judgement.


Wednesday, September 01, 1999 #2762
Greetings Gurus! I am trying to impact enrollment in our university from a specific geographic. I know that the so-called "Generation Y" is a great consumer of the internet. How would you suggest I go about targeting my demographic (probably not a difficult task) combined with geographic to reach the target via the internet? Many thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, September 03, 1999 ):
Relevant lifestyle sites and lifestyle sections of large, portal sites will attract your age target. There are city and state specific sites, though virtually anyone might visit them. Large sites can target impressions delivery so that your ad is exposed only to visitors from the selected geography.

The problem with that option is that such a high percentage of your age target will be using AOL or similar, national ISPs. All AOL users appear to be coming from AOL's Virginia headquarters. To get around that, you can place ads inside AOL (rather than on AOL.com).


Wednesday, September 01, 1999 #2759
Is the random probability formula used to combine reach for different media also valid when looking at effective reach (i.e. 4+ level)?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 02, 1999 ):
If you mean, can you combine the 4+ reach of one medium with the 4+ reach of another medium to get the 4+ reach of the two combined media, the answer is no.

Among those who were reached 2 or 3 times by each medium, some will now be reached 4 or more times and some will not, yet these people are not considered by combining only the two four+ groups. There are also those reached only once by the first medium and three times by the other, etc. A new, overall calculation of the frequency distribution must be done, to determine the 4+ of the combination.


Thursday, August 19, 1999 #2727
The formula for calculating the reach of media vehicles is (a+b)-a*b. Please tell me the "N" formula for it, or you have a different formula for calculating reach?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, August 21, 1999 ):
Your formula is for " random probabilty," which is used to combine two different media, based on the assumption that their audience duplication is purely at random. This formula is not appropriate to combining different vehicles in the same medium, which typically have more than merely random duplication.

There are various, quite complex formulae for computing reach of various vehicles of the same medium, among them the Beta Binomial, Lamda function, and others. The Guru is not familiar with your reference to "the 'N' formula."


Tuesday, July 27, 1999 #2661
Dear Guru, I believe that Starmedia.com is ahuge success in South america.Can you tell me what were the marketing inputs?What is their positioning? And what did they do differently?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 28, 1999 ):
Starmedia is a web Portal serving South America in Spanish and Portugese only.

Their greatest success may be financial, rather than as media. Other, similar, Spanish Portal sites, like Yupi make advertisng claims to be the most popular.

A Portal is a site generally combining search engine, information resources and features like shopping or chat. Portal refers to the overall concept that these sites want to be set as the "homepage" in your browser, and become your entryway to the internet. The difference the Guru sees in Starmedia versus other portals is a different language.


Friday, June 25, 1999 #2593
What minimal circulation a free ethnic community newspaper should have to attract an ad agency's attention? For instance, there are 4 newspapers with a circulation of 5 000 each, serving a 50 000 people community in a 3 000 000 city. Would a combined space sale proposal in all four newspapers be of interest to an ad agency?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 25, 1999 ):
If the agency cares about reaching the specific ethnic group and the newspaper is one of the largest media reaching that group, the agency will care about the newspaper, whether its circulation is 5,000 or 25,000. If the newspaper is offering 5,000 circulation when other newspapers offer 25,000 or other media like tv or radio have far greater audience, then you have an uphill battle.

And if the ethnic group is very small and the newspaper is also very small, the agency may not care anyway, unless your reader can be presented as a highly desirable prospect for the agency's advertisers. And finally, free distribution just makes things harder. But in many cases such papers are very successful. The Hispanic newspapers of Essex and Hudson counties in New Jersey are an enlightening study.


Monday, June 14, 1999 #2574
What are the standard 'age ranges' that correlate w/ advertisor-targeted demographic groups? for example <12, 12-17, 18-25, 26-30,31-40, etc. thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 14, 1999 ):
In the U.S. the common standard is
  • 2-5
  • 6-11
  • 12-17
  • 18-24
  • 25-34
  • 35-49
  • 50-64
  • 65+
a frequent alternate for the ages between 35 and 65 is

  • 35-44
  • 45-54
  • 55-64

Depending on purpose, adjacent groupings are often combined


Thursday, May 27, 1999 #2535
Dear Media Guru I am working in india where the Viewership data is provided by ACNielsen & IMRB which is the indian affiliate of BMRB. Previously peoplemeter data provided by IMRB alone used the concept of TRP while today the combine uses the concept of TVR Is there any difference between the 2 concepts or is it more a case of semantics ? I do remember someboday saying that TRPs were used for dairy data while TVRs is a peoplemeter related viewership figure. Thanks andre@rediffmail.com

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 27, 1999 ):
Confusingly, sometimes the same terms are used with different meanings in different countries. Even by the same vendor. The Guru does not relate the difference to diary vs meter, and has discussed TVR before.

Click here to see the past Guru response.


Monday, May 10, 1999 #2502
I've always looked at communication goals in terms of effective reach. Determining effective reach goals can be different agency to agency. That is fine. My issue has to do with combining broadcast media with print media. Can there be an effective reach goal when these media types are combined? In a discussion with my Media Director, they felt that there can only be a 1+ goal. That the concept of effective reach curves were developed on a broadcast model and that print cannot be combined. If not why? I would love your opinion and insight. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 11, 1999 ):
First, the 3+ concept goes back 115 years, to a researcher named Ebbinghaus, who found three repetitions of a series of nonsense syllables was needed for "learning" or memorization.

combining media to achieve 3+ goals depends on a variety of philosophical judgements:

  • Is the message sufficiently similar, between broadcast and print, so that repeats of either count equally toward establishing the information in the consumer's mind? (unlikley)
  • Determining what level of reach should be achieved at 3+ and/or whether 3+, 4+ or another level should be set as "effective" usually depends on issues like the competitive pressure in the media used, clutter in the media selected, message complexity, category appeal, category novelty, etc. Many of these evaluations would have different results in different media.

It seems to the Guru that the issue is not whether to look at 1+ versus 3+ but whether to consider effectiveness medium-by-medium or in total.

The bottom line would depend on whether the communication focus is on the specific message, which leads to medium-by-medium evaluation, or more on brand or ad awareness, which leads to combined media evaluation.


Monday, May 10, 1999 #2499
How do you calculate reach "in-market", and are you to combine that with the national numbers? How is this done? Thanks. We are trying to show total "in-market" delivery. Also, back to the average 4 week dilemma, is it only relevant when looking at sustaining levels of a continuity plan? Or would you show average four week even in a launch, retail, or promotional type heavy-up situation? Thanks as always.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 10, 1999 ):
Suppose you had national media with a reach of 40% and a local media plan delivering 50%.

You would combine the national reach of 40% with the local 50%. If you care to go the extra step, you could analyze local variation in delivery of the national plan and adjust the local delivery of the national media before combining with the local. Or if you run only national media you can look at the locally delivered weight to caculate the in-market reach resulting from national media, as if it were local spot media.

Four weeks is a traditional standard measurement period. This standard goes back to the days of the dominance of monthly magazines as an advertising medium. There are numerous ways this rule of thumb is used. Some look at "4-weeks-when-in" and examine four weeks worth of average activity no matter ho many active weeks a plan has. This focuses on the rate of advertising rather than the quantity. Other focus on cume of whatever number of weeks. One has to make a judgement of what tells the story best. The judgement can be made differently when you are comparing possible plans and when you are trying to quantify potential effects on awareness, sales, etc.


Friday, April 30, 1999 #2481
Is there any way to calculate duplication across a media plan using several media (e.g. print and radio and TV), or can I only get a duplication analysis within a media (radio duplicaton and then another duplication factor for print, etc , etc) I use telmar for research with simmons and arbitron access and we also use JDS for buys.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, April 30, 1999 ):
The standard assumption in media planning is that duplication between different media is purely at random. Therefore, the random probability formula is used:
  • Express the reach of each medium as a decimal (50% reach = 0.5)
  • Multiply the reach of one medium by another to determine the duplication.
  • Subtract the duplication from the sum of the two reaches to get the net reach

So, if you have a 40% reach in TV and a 55% reach in Print, multiply
0.4 x 0.55 to get 0.22
subtract 0.22 from 0.4+.55 and get 0.73 or
73% reach of the combined media.

There are a variety of ways to do the calculation. The Guru actually prefers to use the probablilty of not seeing each medium (reach as a decimal subtracted from 1.0) When these are multiplied they give the net probability of not seeing any of the media. When this result is subtracted from 1, the final result is net reach. This style is particulary useful for combining several media at once.The example would combine this way:

  • 1-0.4 = 0.6
  • 1-0.55 = 0.45
  • 0.6 x 0.45 = 0.27
  • 1-0.27 = 0.73 or

    73% reach.

Telmar's "Media Mix" program uses these assumptions.


Wednesday, March 24, 1999 #2409
Dear Guru - This may seem like a vague question, but what is meant by "adjusted GRPs?" I am looking at a combined TV and print plan that delivers 425 avg. 4-week GRPs against W25-54, and under "adjusted GRPs" it says 336. These are 52-week plans, and there are only :30 units (no copy split). Your help is much appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, March 25, 1999 ):
Your question isn't vague, but "adjusted" is. Somone has done you a disservice by presenting something labeled "adjusted" with no explanation. There are numerous bases used to adjust GRPs including:
  • Variations in measured daypart attentiveness
  • Variations in measured daypart recall
  • judgement regarding sales effectiveness of different media
  • copy length/size versus some established standard
  • etc
. Various advertisers have set policies on these matters and planners trained on those advertisers' business report Reach/Frequency/GRP including these adjustments almost without thinking about it. But the first time someone sees such data, they deserve an explanation.

There are no universal standards for "adjusted GRP."


Wednesday, March 17, 1999 #2398
Is it statistically correct to merge television Reach and frequency and Reach and Freq. delivered by Print vehicle? is so how, what is the rationale behind the process as the basic samples for readership and viewership studies are usually very different. do readership studies in the west capture product ownership and usage data ? and if so, do planners use such data to redefine their TG definitions for eg. the ideal TG for the replacement market for TVs could well be owners of Television sets over 4-5 years old !! thanks, Rahul

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 17, 1999 ):
combining TV and Print reach and frequency is a philosophical issue not a statistical one.

Though the original research used different samples, both were designed to project the behavior of the same population. By the time you're dealing with reach and frequency, things are quite removed from the ratings research; you're working with models, not respondent data.

Objections to combining Print and TV are usually based on the difference in message qualities.

Yes, U.S. syndicated readership studies such as Simmons, MRI and The Mendelsohn Media Research Affluent Study include product usage data and these are frequently used to define planning targets.


Thursday, February 18, 1999 #2347
As a buyer I have always been given the necessary information needed to put together a buy. I am currently in a new position, and I am being asked to provide information that I've never concerned myself with before, or gotten involved with the how's or why's of the decision. I'm in dire need of help. Here goes: I have been asked to determine the number of GRP's that should be used in a proposal for a new client. I have not received any budget information. The schedule will run 6-8 months, my demo is A 25-35 and the GRP's should be spiked during the 1st & final week of each month. Also, I am to include TV, Cable, and Radio. My question is: Do I simply request avails from the various TV & radio and cable stations within the market, put together a proposed schedule based on the avail information I receive, and add up the number of GRP's accordingly? HELP!!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 18, 1999 ):
Congratulations, today you are a media planner. But apparently you are working with people lacking professional advertising experience or perhaps a retail client.

You either need some marketing goals input or you need to suggest some goals and get agreement before proceeding. You have been presented with a question equivalent to "how many pounds of nails are needed to build a building?"

You need to know how big a building, what materials it will be made of, how many nails in a pound, to what use will it be put and how big must it be?

To recommend schedule weights you need either a budget or a communications goal to deliver. In media / marketing terms you need to establish -- whether you are given direction or someone accepts your suggestions:

  • What has priority: Reach or frequency?
  • is there a minimum reach or effective reach to attain; per week, in four weeks, or in total?
  • To help answer those questions, if no simple answer is available, you might ask is it a new or established product or service?
  • What levels are used by the competition, if any?
  • Are there any specific product awareness, ad awareness or sales volume goals?
  • (In planning advertising, assume everything is a result of advertising: there is no awareness among people not reached; there are no sales to people who are not aware of the product.)

Knowing all this, you could examine reach frequency and continuity impact of various levels and combinations of your media choices. In other words, you somehow need to establish what must be accomplished by the GRPs, before you can decide how many to use.

It is puzzling, in this great information vacuum, that someone has decided to "spike" certain weeks. Apparently there is some information around which you haven't yet been given.


Tuesday, February 16, 1999 #2340
Hello! I'm a student at Bournemouth University in UK and I'm studying Advertising and Marketing Communications. I have to decide my dissertation's subject and the truth is I find really difficult to decide among the following areas: advertising on the Internet, integrated marketing communications, interactivity and new means of communications and relationship marketing or a combination of some of these. I know its a bit strange and unusual question but I would really appreciate it if you could give some more specific ideas; for example, current concerns. Thank you in advance!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 17, 1999 ):
The Guru believes that all these "hot" topics are rather over-examined these days.

A more interesting piece of work might be done on the changes in traditional media as they react to these trendy newcomers.


Sunday, February 14, 1999 #2331
How can i measure and incorporate the effectiveness of outdoor mediai(hoarding,transit etc)in a conventional media plan?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 15, 1999 ):
Do you actually incorporate the "effectivenss" of other media in your plans?

Outdoor is measured, and you should be buying outdoor by audience size as you do other media. 30-sheet and 8-sheet outdoor, for example, sell in "showings." The current standards of "Showings" call for expressing showing in GRP-per-day. In other words, a "50 showing" of outdoor means that the locations you buy have a combined "daily effective circulation (DEC)" -- or number of daily impressions -- equal to 50% of the population.

Some people may discount the passive, short copy outdoor medium by a certain percentage, say 50%, when combining with or comparing to other media such as broadcast and page-dominant print.


Thursday, January 14, 1999 #2261
The Media Guru response of Dec. 4/98 was that "common products . . . bought recently" are best candidates for recency planning, as opposed to products involving "considered purchase," such as automobiles. Not every- body buys even "considered purchase" items on the same day, so does it not make sense to spread impressions over entire year, perhaps on basis of % sales by month? My experience in grocery packaged goods designing Test vs. Control experiments on different ways to execute "recency" supports Erwin Ephron's work. Same approach should apply to even automobiles, it seems to me -- unless someone has conducted experiments proving the contrary. Have you seen such evidence, or are you speculating. There are many myths about recency. My experience is in Canada, where I am a consultant specializing in recency.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 15, 1999 ):
That Guru response combined readings of Erwin's published work on recency, conversations with Erwin, and some of the Guru's own thinking.

Your excerpt is inaccurate, however. The Guru referred there to "common products bought regularly."

In that response, the Guru also stated that recency does not require even levels of continuity, but that seasonal sales peaks can certainly be reflected in plan levels. This would likely fit the automotive situation.


Thursday, December 24, 1998 #2236
Dear Guru, One of our clients is interested in "pricing guidelines" in the media according to a designated sought reach; He wants to change the pricing method he was working according to with the tv franchises, and seeks for a way that media prices will derive from the reach defenition. All his products are targeted to the same target audience so he believes he can convince franchises to determine prices accordind to a basic monthly reach he will undertake to accumulate every month. Since this is totally new to us, we will be grateful if you can help us. Are there any case studies we can learn from?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 24, 1998 ):
The Guru thinks this is simpler than it may seem. In television, generally reach is quite easy to estimate from GRPs when schedule parameters are known. Therefore, either the agency or the station can look at the reach goal, know the GRPs required, and use established cost per GRP to express cost for achieving the reach goal.

You should keep in mind that in cases where multiple stations are used, the overall reach is a matter of a combination of their schedules.


Friday, December 11, 1998 #2216
Dear guru- we are trying to figure out how to combine impressions for radio and newspaper across 18 markets. should we combine each market separately? or should we combine all markets for each media vehicle? what is the best way to do this? thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, December 11, 1998 ):
It depends on what use you want to make of the data. Impressions may be added across media and across markets.

The tricks come when you want to turn them into GRPs. Then you must compare impressions against the population for the relevant geography to get GRPs for that geography.


Friday, October 30, 1998 #2118
This is a two part question: PART 1: Attendant to the: (1) clutter in primetime television and (2) the erosion of the 4 network's share of audience, are there any current studies out that addresses the effectiveness of advertising on network TV in prime? PART 2: If the effectiveness of advertising in prime on the net is being affected, then how much less effective does advertising in spot tv (in prime) become? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, November 02, 1998 ):
Answer to Part1:

The Guru has not seen studies of the specific factors and chain of causation you desire to examine. It seems most likely that the two causes you cite would work entirely separately to erode the effectiveness of prime time.

The two key benefits of prime were generally taken to be

  • attentiveness, which is likely to be hurt by clutter and

  • high ratings, not important in themselves, but leading to what is often cited as a planning goal, -- high reach. This becomes less avialable with the decline in network share.
The diligent planner will seek various combinations of vehicles to deliver the desired reach within budget, and put the supposed "prestige" of prime time in perspective. (Do viewers of E.R. accept the commercial more readily because they know they are part of a larger than ususal viewing audience?)

Answer to part 2:

Spot prime will or will not be effected to the extent it suffers from the same clutter and erosion. (See the adjacent query about clutter and attentiveness for related information). Your definition of spot prime will effect your answer, too. If you define spot prime as only that which runs on the 4 networks affiliates, that means the effect are more similar. But if spot prime on "independent" stations counts that changes the picture. After all, a good portion of the 4 networks' erosion is due to the WB and UPN shows like Buffy, Felicity, Dawson's Creek, Charmed, etc.


Thursday, October 15, 1998 #2099
How do you find out about the entry level creative jobs in advertising? I have tried classifieds but there is nothing. What are some good resources to find out about the industry? I have looked at every bookstore, newstand etc. for industry magazines like advertising age but no one sells tham and I can't afford to subscribe.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 16, 1998 ):
The newspapers are a good source. The Sunday New York Times, for example, usually lists more entry level ad jobs than Ad Age and AdWeek combined. The leading newspapers of other major advertising centers like Chicago, Los Angeles, Atlanta, etc. will also have such ads. Not knowing where you live, the Guru also would point out that many larger libraries, even suburban ones, get Ad Age, AdWeek and the NY Times.


Wednesday, October 07, 1998 #2081
Are Television Rating Points really effective in measuring viewership? If not, is/arre there any other method/s of measuring the same?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 07, 1998 ):
combining "rating points," "measuring" and "effective" in the question confuses the issue.

Let us define viewership simply as the number of people watching programs. "Rating points" isn't the measurement, it's merely the system of quantities used to describe the results of measurement, as "pounds" describes the result of the measurement made by the butcher's scale.

The various ratings measurement systems; i.e. meters and diaries, have their pluses and minuses in accuracy and reliability, but rating points is a simple and well understood way to describe the audience measured: The number of viewers expressed as a percentage of the possible viewers, or population.


Tuesday, June 09, 1998 #1886
how do i calculate reach of TV+PRESS, Is there a formula

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 09, 1998 ):
As a rule, TV and press are thought to duplicate in a random pattern. That is, the random duplication formula is appropriate. The reach of each medium is treated as a decimal. To calculate net reach, we combine the probabilty of each medium's NOT reaching the target, to get the combined probability of neither reaching the target. The remaining people are the ones reached.

The formula works as follows when TV reach is 45 and press reach is 37.

People not reached by TV would be 0.55 of the target

People not reached by press would be 0.63 of target

Total people NOT reached are 0.55 x 0.63 or

0.35 of target.

The remainder of target is reached (1.0 - 0.35 = 0.65)

so reach is 65


Monday, June 01, 1998 #1879
Dear Guru, I have a local client who is looking at gradually expanding into the US / European business markets. They are looking to gradually start generating awareness in these areas. The target market is businesses / individuals interested in doing business in Africa. We have been asked to compile a report onthe following: a) Media choices - TV vs. Print etc b) Broadcast sponsorship opportunities (Sport, business programming etc.) c) Advertising Costs and potential reach, frequency for campaigns in these markets. Which medium / combination of media should they be looking at initially, and why? Where do I source information on global rates, audiences, trends? Thanks for a great service!

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 02, 1998 ):
You may refer to Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) for the U.S. media lists and Intrernational Media Guide for Europe.

You may find that trends are best assessed by reviewing the archives of each country's ad trade media, such as Ad Age in the U.S. or Campaign in the U.K. If you can get the media factbooks compiled by major international agencies like Saatchi (Cordiant) or Young & Rubicam, there will be convenient trend data presented.


Saturday, May 30, 1998 #1617
what is the history of print media?.where does it stand today?.what it will be its future,say ten years time from now.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 02, 1998 ):
The question is so broad that no meaningful answer is possible. Since you are writing for India, the relevant history may be different than for other countries.

Print advertising, in the from of signs goes back many hundreds of years. The ruins of Pompei contained signs advertisng businesses and prostitutes.

Not long after Gutenberg created moveable type, Newspapers were invented, and newspaper advertising is almost as old, probably over 300 years.

Print today has different strengths in different countries and cultures within those countries.

Where broadcast media are not government owned and there are stron freedom of the press laws, combined with high literacy rates, print stands well in relation to other media.

Where government control of broadcast media is strong and the press is free, print is realtively stronger. Where literacy is lower, print is weaker.

The Guru does not see much ov this changing in ten years. In the U.S., for instance, there is research which shows that no more than 50% of adults are ever likley to participate in the internet as we now know it. If Broadcast and cable TV continue to fight for the same audience, print will remain stable.

In other countries, if litereacy is on the rise, print will likely prosper, if nothing changes about broadcast/ The irony about the "TV-like" internet, is that it does require literacy to use effectively.


Wednesday, March 04, 1998 #1520
we are planning to begin copy testing TV commercials in cinemas. The idea is to use existing cinemas situated in malls. The people in the mall will be asked to pop in for a few minutes. They will be shown few spots together, as if it were a real combination of commercials recently shown on TV. They will then be asked to reply to a few questions. Naturally, this method selects people who are willing to expose themselves to the test. Other methods currently at work are more 'coercive'. Interviewers actually go to people's homes and show them commercials. What method would you approve? How can we improve our took? Iris K.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 04, 1998 ):
The Guru's thoughts:

  • A more appropriate scenario would be to invite people to a "movie screening." Then have your commercial among a few at the beginning of the screening and have some trailers for new movies as well. In this way, it's a more realistic replication of the real life viewing situation and does not bring excess attention to the commercials.
  • You say you're going to test "TV Commercials" in cinema. As long as there have been cinema commercials, the conventional wisdom has been that you must not use the same commercial as people would see on TV. A cinema commercial must be bigger, better, edgier, more daring or else the resentment naturally arising from finding commercials in the theater will work more srtrongly against you.


Friday, December 12, 1997 #1475
Dear Media Guru: This query addresses: How are advertising agencies generally organized? and How do I determine the proper person to present a proposal for a media buy? I work for a five-year-old minor league baseball team that has, until now, concentrated its efforts in selling advertising upon local businesses. However, we are the top entertainment attraction in our region, and we feel our market size combined with our reach and influence in the market should warrant our attracting some business from regional and national advertisers. Our availabilities include print, radio, billboard, and promotions. What would you suggest is the best strategy for approaching regional/national advertising agencies regarding the opportunities we have available? Should we work to contact the people in each agency who are responsible for making buying decisions for each individual client? Or would establishing a relationship with those individuals who are familiar with buying our market on behalf of many different clients be more productive in the long run? Thank you in advance for your assistance.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, December 12, 1997 ):
Agencies generally have a media department or at least a Media Director / Media Buyer who is responsible for evaluating a media proposal. If an agency is so small it doesn't have any media titles, the acount executive for a given advertiser would be the appropriate person.

Be sure to do your homework and be ready to talk about which clients at the agency wold benefit from your proposal and why. It is generally annoying to agency people to have a media seller show up with a non-specific proposal and ask "which of your clients would want this?"


Wednesday, November 19, 1997 #1460
I am trying to calculate the value of various components of a partnership (co-op) program. I am particularly interested in knowing how to go about calculating the value of in-store POP/signage. Could you please help me. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, November 22, 1997 ):
There are two key issues:

How many exposures you get, and

The value of those exposures

It should be simple enought to determine how many people will see your POP; the vendor should have store traffic data.

The value is judgmental. Using as a base something standard like a TV :30 is a starting point.

For how many seconds will a POP sign engage the viewer?

5?

10?

That numbers of seconds' ratio to the :30 is a first step in calculating relative value.

Then, what is the selling power of a sign versus a full sound/motion TV commercial?

50%?

60?

30?

All these factors should tell you thata single POP exposure is worth "X"% of a TV :30 exposure. combined with the exposure count, you have your valuation.


Monday, August 18, 1997 #1392
Is there a company, or a source, which is capable of measuring Reach/Frequency of any/all media combined?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 18, 1997 ):
The ADPlus system, from our sister company Telmar, can combine reach and frequency from all media. Some media must first be calculated by other systems and then be brought into ADplus for combining


Friday, August 08, 1997 #1386
I wanna know if exists any similar combination for media as exists with marketing-mix with the 4 P's (product, placement, price and promotion).

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 08, 1997 ):
Though not as alliterative, the comparable media factors might be:

  • Ad unit
    (length/size/coloration)
  • Frequency
  • Target
  • Geography
  • Media Mix

All this is, of course, a sub-set of marketing's "Promotion" element.

Other factors in media, which you would be used to encountering in plans' Objectives and Strategies sections, come before or after these decision points. For instance, Budget, which controls the degree of freedom possible in selecting options for the list and Reach / Effective Reach which is essentially a result of the decisions made about the listed factors.


Saturday, March 15, 1997 #1303
Dear Guru. I have some questions about RADIO media-planning: 1. Could you recommend the book(s) which contains: a) definitions of the standard coefficients: GRPs, Reach, Frequency, Time Spend Listening (TSL), Average Rating b) Information about statistical models used for computing these numbers c) Sample outputs from radio media-planning software 2. I have download an educational software from University of Texas. Do you know any other places where can I import demo or edu software for media-planning 3. TSL is additive what means that: a) TSL for (say) 3 hours is a sum of appropriate 12 quater data b) TSL for a whole day is a sum of 12 x 4 quater values c) TSL for (say) three stations is a sum of appropriate three components But what is the behaviour of the Average Rating in these three, described above, cases?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 24, 1997 ):
Radio planning is covered in general planning texts, such as Sissors and Bumba, mentioned in the adjoining Guru answer. The booklet provided by the RAB (Radio Advertising Bureau) will give you the definitions you want. So would a technical reference manual from Arbitron. Since TSL, (time spent listening) is behavior expressed as a quantity and attached to one station at a time by one listener, the TSLs may be added together. This is different than ratings which are percentages and can only be combined or averaged with weightings according to the population groups projected.


Tuesday, February 18, 1997 #1041
What is a good way to combine advertising with Spanish? Are there many opportunities at ad agencies writing copy in Spanish? Also, is there much opportunity finding a job in marketing research in this area?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 21, 1997 ):
There are numerous Spanish specialist advertising agencies,and Hispanic divisions of major agencies. The Agency Redbook,(Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies) which should beavailable at your library will list these. Similarly there aremany Hispanic specialist marketing research firms. The NYAMA'sGreenbook listsresearch firms with a topical index.

Also look, within AMIC, at Abbott Wool's Market Segment Resource Locator which has links to Hispanicagencies, and research firms.


Friday, February 07, 1997 #1060
With the multiplication of TV with network, cable, direct through satellite, etc, radio already fragmented and press, what in your opinion are the more efective media investments? The traditional or new media? If new media? Which?. If a combination? A hint on what proportions?50% traditional against 50% new?.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 08, 1997 ):
The Guru believes broad generalities in answer to such questions are always mostly wrong.

Effectiveness of media investments always "depends." Who is your target? / what is the target's involvement with the specific medium? / how do the medium or individual vehicles of the medium fit with your message or creative or marketing strategy? / how does your product relate to the medium?

To bring people not very involved in the web to your web site you probably need traditional media mixed with web ads. To sell web related products, advertising on the web is probably the best investment. Media are not abstractions, they must be matched to targets and marketing goals.


Friday, August 30, 1996 #1157
Dear Guru,We are planning a campaign in the market, where no consistent media research data is available. What we have at the moment is following:1. 2 heavy competitors (one is our client)2. The competitor is running a campaign in the key city of the region using 3 local channels with a combined monthly reach of 93% of the city and the surrounding area, which equals 12.5% of the regions' population. The competitor is spending ca. USD 90K per month.3. We have the objective of running a regional rather than local campaign and, at the same time, outvoice the competitor by 30%.4. To our choice are 3 regional channels with a combined reach of 40.7% in the regionQuestion: what budgert should we be looking at on a monthly basis, given that the average ratio of the local rate card to regional one is 1:1.5?

Sorry for asking for a piece of alchemy and thank you in advance,
Bob

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 30, 1996 ):
The simplest conceptual answer is to spend 30% more than the competitor in the key city: USD117 This way you outspend him where he's active and meet the 30%+ goal. Otherwise, assuming the regional buy includes the key city, your budget is still 117, with some in regional media and some in the more efficient key city media, so that you have at least a 10% edge in key city impressions.

If the rate card is telling you that a $150 spot buys thewhole region at the same rating that $100 buys the key city's 12.5% of the region (if the Guru followed your data correctly), then 1.3 x 1.5 x 90, or 175.5 is the budget to deliver 30% more impressions in the key city and an equal level across the region.


Monday, August 05, 1996 #1170
Our client is interested in selling web site advertising to local advertisers in serveral markets throughout the U.S. How do we go about finding a local Web advertising sales rep for these areas?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 08, 1996 ):
The easiest method is to use a search engine like Yahoo and combine a search for web reps with the specific locality you need.

Otherwise, a geographic list of ISPs such as The Listwill guide you to access providers by area, who will know what sites they have which carry advertising.


Monday, July 22, 1996 #1177
I am looking for a list by industry of gross revenue and the percentage spent on advertising.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, July 23, 1996 ):
Advertising Age frequently publishes this sort of data as a chart. . . or two charts which can be combined into the info you need.


Monday, July 22, 1996 #1649
I am looking for a list by industry of gross revenue and the percentage spent on advertising.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, July 23, 1996 ):
Advertising Age frequently publishes this sort of data as a chart. . . or two charts which can be combined into the info you need.


Monday, April 29, 1996 #1237
I represent a company that is creating a pre-paid calling card (PPCC) where all of the time is sponsor/advertiser supported. The users of the card will be a very targeted audience appealing to a good number of potential sponsors/advertisers. Each month, card users would be given 60 minutes of free time. When a user "signs on" to make a call, he/she hears a brief (8 - 10 seconds) promo/message from on the of the sponsors/advertisers. Our estimates are that a sponsor would get their message to a user at least 2x/month in audio format and 1x/month in print. In addition to these "impressions", the sponsor would get information about each user/subscriber including name, address, phone number, e-mail address (if applicable), etc. Additionally, sponsors would get detailed usage reports show which messages were played when, to whom, etc. My question is about pricing: we are thinking of charging a sponsor $1.50 - $1.75/subscriber/month (60 minutes). Our feeling that this application combines direct marketing tools (lists - compiled and response) and broadcast/mass marketing. Does our pricing seem in line?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 30, 1996 ):
Your pricing works out to $500 - $580 per thousand impressions, whereas typical mass media for selective audiences (special interest magazines) are about one tenth of that. If your delivery data capture is enormously valuable to someadvertisers in unique situations, there may be takers at these prices.


Monday, April 29, 1996 #1723
I represent a company that is creating a pre-paid calling card (PPCC) where all of the time is sponsor/advertiser supported. The users of the card will be a very targeted audience appealing to a good number of potential sponsors/advertisers. Each month, card users would be given 60 minutes of free time. When a user "signs on" to make a call, he/she hears a brief (8 - 10 seconds) promo/message from on the of the sponsors/advertisers. Our estimates are that a sponsor would get their message to a user at least 2x/month in audio format and 1x/month in print. In addition to these "impressions", the sponsor would get information about each user/subscriber including name, address, phone number, e-mail address (if applicable), etc. Additionally, sponsors would get detailed usage reports show which messages were played when, to whom, etc. My question is about pricing: we are thinking of charging a sponsor $1.50 - $1.75/subscriber/month (60 minutes). Our feeling that this application combines direct marketing tools (lists - compiled and response) and broadcast/mass marketing. Does our pricing seem in line?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 30, 1996 ):
Your pricing works out to $500 - $580 per thousand impressions, whereas typical mass media for selective audiences (special interest magazines) are about one tenth of that. If your delivery data capture is enormously valuable to some advertisers in unique situations, there may be takers at these prices.


Monday, April 29, 1996 #1704
I represent a company that is creating a pre-paid calling card (PPCC) where all of the time is sponsor/advertiser supported. The users of the card will be a very targeted audience appealing to a good number of potential sponsors/advertisers. Each month, card users would be given 60 minutes of free time. When a user "signs on" to make a call, he/she hears a brief (8 - 10 seconds) promo/message from on the of the sponsors/advertisers. Our estimates are that a sponsor would get their message to a user at least 2x/month in audio format and 1x/month in print. In addition to these "impressions", the sponsor would get information about each user/subscriber including name, address, phone number, e-mail address (if applicable), etc. Additionally, sponsors would get detailed usage reports show which messages were played when, to whom, etc. My question is about pricing: we are thinking of charging a sponsor $1.50 - $1.75/subscriber/month (60 minutes). Our feeling that this application combines direct marketing tools (lists - compiled and response) and broadcast/mass marketing. Does our pricing seem in line?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 30, 1996 ):
Your pricing works out to $500 - $580 per thousand impressions, whereas typical mass media for selective audiences (special interest magazines) are about one tenth of that. If your delivery data capture is enormously valuable to some advertisers in unique situations, there may be takers at these prices.


Friday, February 16, 1996 #1760
Dear Mr. Guru, Thank you for your last reponse on how to calculate GRP's. You had mentioned that you had explained it fully except for Neilson's calculation methodology. I would be interested in hearing more about this method of calculation as well. Also, is there a "better" way to measure the actual "Impact" an ad campaign has had if you know the actual length of each ad, the frequency the ads ran and the channels(and shows) that they ran during. ie. frequency X length X Audience(rate for each time slot)?? This is obviously a simplified formula, but your feedback on this would be greatly appreciated. Lastly, for television advertising, what are some of the other accepted methods of measurement. Thanks (Again) darrylw@conceptus.on.ca

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 16, 1996 ):
It is Neilsen's survey methodology that wasn't covered. They would use the same calculation formulae. The full description of Neilsens methodologies for People Meter, household meter and diary would cover several pages. Contact Neilsen who will be happy to send you methodology booklets.

Regarding "impact" there are as many ways to evaluate this as there are advertisers.

Some advertisers use a factor for copy length based on norms from recall tests. For example, 75% of a :30 is a typical value for a :15.

Some use attentiveness by daypart.

Some use a combination of the two factors.

Some apply the factors to GRP as an indicator; some apply to GRPs and then estimate reach from those adjusted GRPs as an impact indicator.

The frequency of a schedule, as discussed so far, refers to the average frequency of exposure for all pesons reached.

There are those who use "effective reach," counting only persons reached at least 3 times (or any designated minimum) when evaluating the impact of a schedule.


Thursday, February 01, 1996 #1768
In developing Web pages for our clients, the question of "the importance of placing reciprocal hotlinks on our Web site" always comes up. Is there any research available that proves it is worth the time/money investment to place links on your site that lead to related sites on the Web?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 02, 1996 ):
There is just barely beginning to be research that verifies site visits, which would seem to be the minimum starting point to put a value on reciprocal links.

General feelings among marketers seem to be that the more links the better, if your primary mission is to generate visits to your site. The guru will attest that there has been an increase in visits to his site as other sites have linked to it. Browsers and web servers would need to be able to track "previous site browsed" to track links. Of course survey research and "guest books" are a possibility.

There seem to be two principal kinds of comercial sites:

1. A site meant to promote your own company by virtue of offering information of interest to potential customers or information about your products and services.

2. A site meant to draw visitors by virtue of offering entertainment content, and which profits by selling advertising in the site

Some sites of course, Like AMIC, combine the two.

In either case, but especially the second, it is a concern if links on your site send visitors away from your site without exploring.

Reciprocal links must be carefully selected if your site is committed to a theme or category of content. Many general sites will link to specialized ones but the reverse link may seem odd from the base of a specialty site.

Perhaps the best research is a sort of literature review which can discern the thinking of marketing pros on this question.

"Market-L," the major marketing discussion e-mail list operating on the internet, has been considering this topic this week. The Market-L Archive is available for review. Join the discussion of Market-L by sending a message saying 'SUBSCRIBE (your real name)" to listproc@mailer.fsu.edu

Another list which has discussed this topic is Inet-Marketing. The Inet-marketing Archive can be searched as well. To join this list, send an empty e-mail to im-sub@i-m.com


Monday, January 08, 1996 #1794
Please explain the future of advertising in media terms? Is internet going to take over other media or is it just going to be another media ?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 02, 1996 ):
There is little prospect of the internet "taking over" other media in its current incarnation.

Look at the history of advertising technology, its always moved FROM media that had more cost and work attached TO media that had less cost and work to enjoy:

First there was print. One had to buy a newspaper or magazine everytime one wanted to use it. One had to do the "work" of reading.

Radio was a one time outlay, and almost no effort to digest, except for conjuring up a picture in the "mind's eye"

TV again was a one time outlay and gave you the picture with the sound leaving no work for the mind.

The internet requires ongoing subscription payments, in many cases (AOL/Prodigy/Compuserve/ISP) payments increase with increased use. Then there's "work" typing. clicking and selecting. The cost of owning necesssary equipment and learning to use it is another barrier.

No doubt technology will ease the cost and work burdens of using the internet but it is more communications than entertainment. It is perhaps analogous to catalog shopping versus retail advertising combined with the store shopping experience: another useful and rapidly growing marketing vehicle, but not the ultimate one.

Some compare the 'net to cable. Microsoft is said to be visualizing 50% computer HH penetration soon, which is in the cable ballpark. But cable still has barely 50 channels competing for audience in any system. The web represent 10's of thousands of commercial sites for a brower to try to find.

Also, today the baby boom is hitting 50, and it's the big population group. Computer use is still primarily a feature of the next consumer wave.

The 'net is not to be ignored, but it's not likely to be the next Television (or even the next Cable) for a while.


Monday, November 13, 1995 #1821
How responsive are shoppers in a convenience store to on-screen advertising? Our method combines Audio and visual messages.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, November 13, 1995 ):
This would probably be comparable to P-O-P video used in drug and grocery stores. There have been studies of such systems. The ARF library, which is for members only, is the foremost collection of such material. AAAA and ANA members can access the ARF library through those organizations. Another good resource is the Newsweek Media Research Index, as well as is any library's index of AdAge articles.


Thursday, April 13, 1995 #1852
When you are measuring delivery of media, can you combine various media to come up with a single answer? If so, is it reliable? What is the most economical way for a small agency to pick up software that can accomplish this. By combined media, I am referring to traditional medai such tv, radio, magazines, etc.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 13, 1995 ):
The Reach of various media may be combined once the reach and frequency for a media schedule has been computed. Check out Telmar's ADplus product for an inexpensive approach to your problem.



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