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 Tuesday, September 14, 1999 #2792

What can you tell me about reachbased planning?
Thank you in advance.
 The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 14, 1999 ):

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The usual assumption is that print and broadcast duplicate with random probability, there is no special, greater or lesser likelihood that persons in the audience of the print schedule will also be or not be in the audience of the broadcast schedule.
Mechanically. the combination may be calculated in a few equivalent ways. The Guru finds it easiest to consider the reaches as decimals (50% reach = 0.50). Subtract the reach of print from 1 and multiply this by 1minus the reach of broadcast. Suppose print has a 40% reach and broadcast has 55%. By subtracting 0.4 from 1 (1  0.4 = 0.6), you have the probabilty of the target not being exposed to print. Subtract 0.55 from 1 to get the probability of not being exposed to broadcast (1  0.55 = 0.45)
Multiply these two together (0.6 * 0.45 = 0.27) and you have determined there is a 27% probability of people not being exposed to either of the combined media, or a 73% reach.
This formula is typically used in media software to combine different media. Certainly there are cases where there is a somewhat better than random probabilty of media duplication, such as TV Guide combining with a TV schedule, but that's the exception, calling for judgement.
 Wednesday, September 01, 1999 #2759

Is the random probability formula used to combine reach for different media also valid when looking at effective reach (i.e. 4+ level)?
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 02, 1999 ):

If you mean, can you combine the 4+ reach of one medium with the 4+ reach of another medium to get the 4+ reach of the two combined media, the answer is no.
Among those who were reached 2 or 3 times by each medium, some will now be reached 4 or more times and some will not, yet these people are not considered by combining only the two four+ groups. There are also those reached only once by the first medium and three times by the other, etc. A new, overall calculation of the frequency distribution must be done, to determine the 4+ of the combination.
 Thursday, August 19, 1999 #2727

The formula for calculating the reach of media vehicles is (a+b)a*b.
Please tell me the "N" formula for it,
or you have a different formula for calculating reach?
 The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, August 21, 1999 ):

Your formula is for " random probabilty," which is used to combine two different media, based on the assumption that their audience duplication is purely at random. This formula is not appropriate to combining different vehicles in the same medium, which typically have more than merely random duplication.
There are various, quite complex formulae for computing reach of various vehicles of the same medium, among them the Beta Binomial, Lamda function, and others. The Guru is not familiar with your reference to "the 'N' formula."
 Tuesday, July 27, 1999 #2661

Dear Guru,
I believe that Starmedia.com is ahuge success in South america.Can you tell me what were the marketing inputs?What is their positioning? And what did they do differently?
 The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 28, 1999 ):

Starmedia is a web Portal serving South America in Spanish and Portugese only.
Their greatest success may be financial, rather than as media. Other, similar, Spanish Portal sites, like Yupi make advertisng claims to be the most popular.
A Portal is a site generally combining search engine, information resources and features like shopping or chat. Portal refers to the overall concept that these sites want to be set as the "homepage" in your browser, and become your entryway to the internet. The difference the Guru sees in Starmedia versus other portals is a different language.
 Monday, May 10, 1999 #2502

I've always looked at communication goals in terms of effective reach. Determining effective reach goals can be different agency to agency. That is fine.
My issue has to do with combining broadcast media with print media. Can there be an effective reach goal when these media types are combined? In a discussion with
my media Director, they felt that there can only be a 1+ goal. That the concept of effective reach curves were developed on a broadcast model and that print cannot be
combined. If not why? I would love your opinion and insight. Thanks.
 The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 11, 1999 ):

First, the 3+ concept goes back 115 years, to a researcher named Ebbinghaus, who found three repetitions of a series of nonsense syllables was needed for "learning" or memorization.
combining media to achieve 3+ goals depends on a variety of philosophical judgements:
 Is the message sufficiently similar, between broadcast and print, so that repeats of either count equally toward establishing the information in the consumer's mind? (unlikley)
 Determining what level of reach should be achieved at 3+ and/or whether 3+, 4+ or another level should be set as "effective" usually depends on issues like the competitive pressure in the media used, clutter in the media selected, message complexity, category appeal, category novelty, etc. Many of these evaluations would have different results in different media.
It seems to the Guru that the issue is not whether to look at 1+ versus 3+ but whether to consider effectiveness mediumbymedium or in total. The bottom line would depend on whether the communication focus is on the specific message, which leads to mediumbymedium evaluation, or more on brand or ad awareness, which leads to combined media evaluation.
 Monday, May 10, 1999 #2499

How do you calculate reach "inmarket", and are you to combine that with the national numbers? How is this done? Thanks. We are trying to show total "inmarket" delivery. Also, back to the average 4 week dilemma, is it only relevant when looking at sustaining levels of a continuity plan? Or would you show average four week even in a launch, retail, or promotional type heavyup situation? Thanks as always.
 The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 10, 1999 ):

Suppose you had national media with a reach of 40% and a local media plan delivering 50%.
You would combine the national reach of 40% with the local 50%. If you care to go the extra step, you could analyze local variation in delivery of the national plan and adjust the local delivery of the national media before combining with the local. Or if you run only national media you can look at the locally delivered weight to caculate the inmarket reach resulting from national media, as if it were local spot media.
Four weeks is a traditional standard measurement period. This standard goes back to the days of the dominance of monthly magazines as an advertising medium. There are numerous ways this rule of thumb is used. Some look at "4weekswhenin" and examine four weeks worth of average activity no matter ho many active weeks a plan has. This focuses on the rate of advertising rather than the quantity. Other focus on cume of whatever number of weeks. One has to make a judgement of what tells the story best. The judgement can be made differently when you are comparing possible plans and when you are trying to quantify potential effects on awareness, sales, etc.
 Friday, April 30, 1999 #2481

Is there any way to calculate duplication across a media plan using several media (e.g. print and radio and TV), or can I only get a duplication analysis within a media (radio duplicaton and then another duplication factor for print, etc , etc)
I use telmar for research with simmons and arbitron access and we also use JDS for buys.
 The Media Guru Answers(Friday, April 30, 1999 ):

The standard assumption in media planning is that duplication between different media is purely at random. Therefore, the random probability formula is used:
 Express the reach of each medium as a decimal (50% reach = 0.5)
 Multiply the reach of one medium by another to determine the duplication.
 Subtract the duplication from the sum of the two reaches to get the net reach
So, if you have a 40% reach in TV and a 55% reach in Print, multiply
0.4 x 0.55 to get 0.22
subtract 0.22 from 0.4+.55 and get 0.73 or 73% reach of the combined media.
There are a variety of ways to do the calculation. The Guru actually prefers to use the probablilty of not seeing each medium (reach as a decimal subtracted from 1.0) When these are multiplied they give the net probability of not seeing any of the media. When this result is subtracted from 1, the final result is net reach. This style is particulary useful for combining several media at once.The example would combine this way:  10.4 = 0.6
 10.55 = 0.45
 0.6 x 0.45 = 0.27
 10.27 = 0.73 or
73% reach.
Telmar's "media Mix" program uses these assumptions.
 Wednesday, March 17, 1999 #2398

Is it statistically correct to merge television Reach and
frequency and Reach and Freq. delivered by Print vehicle?
is so how, what is the rationale behind the process as
the basic samples for readership and viewership
studies are usually very different.
do readership studies in the west capture product ownership
and usage data ? and if so, do planners use such data to
redefine their TG definitions for eg. the ideal TG for the
replacement market for TVs could well be owners of Television
sets over 45 years old !!
thanks,
Rahul
 The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 17, 1999 ):

combining TV and Print reach and frequency is a philosophical issue not a statistical one.
Though the original research used different samples, both were designed to project the behavior of the same population. By the time you're dealing with reach and frequency, things are quite removed from the ratings research; you're working with models, not respondent data.
Objections to combining Print and TV are usually based on the difference in message qualities.
Yes, U.S. syndicated readership studies such as Simmons, MRI and The Mendelsohn media Research Affluent Study include product usage data and these are frequently used to define planning targets.
 Sunday, February 14, 1999 #2331

How can i measure and incorporate the effectiveness of outdoor mediai(hoarding,transit etc)in a conventional media plan?
 The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 15, 1999 ):

Do you actually incorporate the "effectivenss" of other media in your plans?
Outdoor is measured, and you should be buying outdoor by audience size as you do other media. 30sheet and 8sheet outdoor, for example, sell in "showings." The current standards of "Showings" call for expressing showing in GRPperday. In other words, a "50 showing" of outdoor means that the locations you buy have a combined "daily effective circulation (DEC)"  or number of daily impressions  equal to 50% of the population.
Some people may discount the passive, short copy outdoor medium by a certain percentage, say 50%, when combining with or comparing to other media such as broadcast and pagedominant print.
 Monday, August 18, 1997 #1392

Is there a company, or a source, which is capable of
measuring Reach/Frequency of any/all media
combined?
 The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 18, 1997 ):

The ADPlus system, from our sister company Telmar, can combine reach and
frequency from all media. Some media must first be
calculated by other systems and then be brought into
ADplus for combining
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