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Guru Search Results: 205 matches were found

Sunday, February 27, 2000 #3254
I would like to have information about typical rates of frequency that are considered necessary for advertising to be effective on different media. I would like information for television, radio, outdoor and print advertising. If there is such information, I would also like information for internet ads. In short, how many times does an ad need to be seen on different media before for an effective reach. Thank you...

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 27, 2000 ):
Most judgements about effective frequency are just that; judgements. The traditional number, 3, is based on century-old learning theory about repetitions of information needed for learning to occur. This theory is not medium-specific but has many other aspects.

Click here to see past Guru responses about this and the Ostrow model

Research by DoubleClick about "banner burnout" shows that internet ads lose effectiveness (in the sense of causing clicks) by the third repetition. Of course, if you want to apply this approach to internet advertisng then you would be considering the awareness-building and sales-driving aspects of banners, rather than click-thru.


Friday, February 18, 2000 #3233
Is there any study that compares the effectiveness of full-page magazine advertisements to fractional (1/2-page and 1/3-page) magazine ads? If so what are the conclusions and why? Thank You.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 18, 2000 ):
Go to Starch


Thursday, February 10, 2000 #3205
At what point (number of markets or percent of US population)is it more cost effective to buy network radio rather than spot radio.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 13, 2000 ):
Depending on the demographic, and relying on the standard of buying :30's in network vs :60's in spot, the cut off may come as early as top 10 markets / 30 % U.S.


Thursday, February 10, 2000 #3203
Dear Guru Could you tell me how to set reach objectives if I have sales objective in terms of no. of SKU and average purchase frequency.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 13, 2000 ):
If "average purchase frequency" means you know how many purchases are made by some percent of your target, then one approach might be to think that for every member of the target exposed (the effective frequency) number of times in a purchase cycle's length of time, you will make a sale to the same percentage of those exposed as the percent of the target group which is expected to to purchase in the time frame.

Of course this assumes that advertising is the only cause of sales or of incremental sales, but it should give you a framework upon which to build.


Friday, February 04, 2000 #3193
Dear Guru, I would like to know some of the criteria that makes out of a TV grid a "good one" or what criteria that a program should have to be successful . More presicly, I'm talking about a TV station broadcasting to the general public (Not a nich TV). Another question, how many spots maxiumum a station should air to respect the viewer's comfort and the advertising effectiveness.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 07, 2000 ):
Everything you ask about is relative.

Programmers watch trends in programming and imitate what succeeds on competing outlets. A good example is the startling success, in the US, of the quiz show Who Wants to Be a MIllionaire has led to similar shows, Greed, Twenty One and others soon to come.

Manipulating lead-ins, lead-outs and couonte programming is another technique: ABC has used Who Wants to Be a MIllionaire as lead-in to introduce new programs and to squelch pospularity of programs on competitors.

Numbers of spots also depends on the competition, to an extent. Devoting more air-time to commercials than another channel will damage appeal, and using too little time may force price increases beyond competitive pricing.


Monday, January 31, 2000 #3177
We are rolling out a large, interactive site targeted towards nurses and similar health care employees. What is the most effective process of gathering online advertising areas for this specific demographic?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, January 31, 2000 ):
There are some specific online planning sytems which list sites by audience target. One is FocaLink and @Plan are among these. These may not go into narrow B2B targets such as nurses.

Your best bet may be to try to imagine what sites will interest these professionals, for example NursingWorld. A search engine, like Google will be useful.


Sunday, January 30, 2000 #3171
Guru, I am currently trying to put together a newsletter for clients of my radio station. The newsletter would be about our new website and pertinent facts that would entice the clients to become more involved in the site. My questions is: What are the most important topics to cover when telling a client about how great and effective a website is?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 30, 2000 ):
The Guru asks:
  • What is "great" about your website

    and

  • Why should the client care?

Are the clients getting free ad space as merchandising for their radio schedules? Are you trying to sell them ad space on the web site? Is the website creating marketing tools for the clients? If none of these, why would they care at all about the web site?

So if one of those is the answer, then the greatness and effectiveness will be in the site traffic, number of vistors, length of visit, frequency of visit or sopme user interaction with the site that effects the client, like contest sign up, listener club sign up which creates a database available for client use, etc.


Thursday, January 27, 2000 #3168
Are you aware of any studies that examine the ability to recall Internet Addresses in TV commercials. I have only been able to find a few studies that examined cross-promotion (when a previously established company included internet addresses in their advertising). I would like to find a study that specifically focuses on Internet-only companies.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 29, 2000 ):
Something of the sort is available from a Cahners Business Information Advertising effectiveness study.

Otherwise, the most likely and complete source would be the The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Thursday, January 27, 2000 #3167
Hi Guru, I posed a question to you earlier today that might require some clarification. I'm speaking specifically about Internet advertising and am really looking for some guidelines in what are generally considered to be optimal levels for reach and frequency in a campaign. That is to say, how many times does a user generally need to see a banner before its value starts to diminish. Secondly, how many banners should one consider purchasing -- again as a general rule -- in order to maximize the flight's impact. Another way of looking at might be to say, if one were to buy one million impressions, what is the likely number of people who will have been impacted? I realize there is a wide range, based on the narrowness or broad-based appeal of the sites, but is there a general range that can be modeled from?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 27, 2000 ):
This is a very interesting question.
  • The irony of the concept of effective frequency on the web is that effectiveness, measured as click-thru, has been shown to drop through the first three exposures to a banner and then flatten. (see DoubleClick: "Banner Burnout")
  • The Guru is also quite leery of "modeled" web R&F that does not take into account specific sites used. Often, one advertiser gets more reach from only one-sixth as many impressions as another advertiser. For example Nielsen//Netratings posts their measured "Top ten advertisers of the month" with each one's impressions and reach. At this writing, December 1999 is posted. Amazon.com (#3) ran 620 million impressions and got 54% reach while TRUSTe (#1) ran 2.1 Billion impressions for only 37% reach. Even Barnes & Noble (#7) with 276 million built 38% reach


Thursday, January 27, 2000 #3161
Dear Guru, Am very interested in the effective frequency and recency planning debate. I would be very grateful if you could forward some articles or suggest sites where I could read about John Phillip Jones and Erwin Ephron on STAS and Recency Planning or Mcdonald and Naples on effective Frequency. Any other articles/sources would be of great interest to me Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 29, 2000 ):
AMIC's sister company, Telmar, recently celebrated its 30th anniversary with special "Anniversary Awards Papers" written by Jones (on STAS) and Ephron and posted here.

Click here to see numerous past Guru comments relating to recency and effective frequency.

The most complete collection of articles on these topics is the The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Some would be found in the Newsweek Media Research Index.


Wednesday, January 26, 2000 #3156
Media Guru, can you tell me an effective method for a relatively new, regional, biweekly arts & entertainment publication to familiarize itself to ad agency media buyers?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 29, 2000 ):
There are the usual handful of methods:
  • Trade advertising
  • Direct marketing
  • In-person sales calls

The most effective one for you may depend upon how broad a set of media buyers you target. Publication of this sort often sell most advertising to local advertisers who mostly have local buyers. Further, publication of this sort often have an audience which matches the typical media buyer demographics. A good approach would be to start mailing the publication to all the buyers in your area.

One caveat: Publications of this sort have lately run into circulation problems because their target is the same one which like to get entertainment information on the web. The Long Island Voice (an offshoot of the famous Village Voice) is one example of a recent failure in this arena. Since media buyers may be aware of this, take the problem into account in your story. One approach would be offering ads on your web site as merchandising (Of course you have a web site, right?)


Wednesday, January 26, 2000 #3155
can you provide information on the Media Multiplier Effect(any model to explain the concept).

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 29, 2000 ):
The The Magazine Publishers' Association has a discussion of the research on the Media Multiplier Effect in their Advertising effectiveness Study (by Millward Brown)


Tuesday, January 25, 2000 #3152
How effective is internet advertizing?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, January 25, 2000 ):
It depends upon your goals. Click here to see several past Guru responses about internet effectiveness.


Saturday, January 22, 2000 #3145
Another question : How is the recomendated efecttive frequency for a launching campaing, for maintennance, for a promotion. The efective frequency is relative, but the experience and the knowledge of the people there somilars in many countries. Please help me

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 23, 2000 ):
effective frequency always seems to start from the basic 3+ times which comes out of the original research. Then the next question is what reach level to set at this effective frequency benchmark.

Some planners set various other efeective frequency goals depending upon various marketing factors (see the Ostrow model).

Most simply, introductions and promotions would suggest higher effective frequencies while maintenance can use minimal levels.


Friday, January 21, 2000 #3140
i am doing a project on effectiveness of print medium vs Televion. i would like to know if you have any studies or articles on the same. i would also like to know the trends in advertising spends on both the mediums in various markets across the world especially India. could also please suggest various parameters of comaparing the effectiveness of the two media.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 23, 2000 ):
effectiveness studies would be available from Newsweek Media Research Index, ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization and The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter.

International agencies like YR and Saatchi compile and publish ad-spend data for various countries and regions.

Professionals working in one country and culture typically overlook the basic fact that the relative strengths and impact of the media differ in different cultures. They have the same physical nature, e.g print allows visuals plus detailed text, radio is sound only, tv offers visual/sound and action, yet the strengths may differ.

In one country broadcast is government controlled and print is the only viable commercial medium. In another, TV has only one commercial outlet and one government outlet in each area while radio has few outlets to compete. In yet another culture, radio is the best reach medium while TV has the biggest individual audience ratings and print is very weak.

The ultimate standard of effectiveness is sales, when that can be directly linked to advertising. Brand Awareness and Ad Awareness, Attitude and use, purchase intent, etc are also possible comparisons.


Thursday, January 20, 2000 #3137
Are there any studies on the effectiveness (in terms of cost and reach) of non-traditional mediums, such as, tradeshows and presspacks?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 22, 2000 ):
These marketing tools are evaluated more against direct results than reach. There should be some research on effectiveness at the The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Sunday, January 16, 2000 #3122
Dear Sir / Madam, The question that I have is related to media weight setting. q1) Often in the past we have used the market prioritisation technique in BDI / CDI. Having done this we simply super impose the market dynamics to arrive at a market task. Now the question is can we make the BDI / CDI numbers talk harder. Is there a relation between BDI and the frequency required.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 19, 2000 ):
BDI and CDI are typically used to establish the effort which will be made in each market in relation to the other markets. These indices reflect a market's contribution to national sales versus its portion of national population.

The application of the index typically addresses allocation of media dollars or impressions. It could just as easily be used to set average frequency or effective frequency goals, but since frequency grows in a non-linear fashion - the growth rate accelerates as GRPs accumulate, it is simply a more complicated basis for media application.


Friday, January 14, 2000 #3120
What is the minimun number of GRP's a radio schedule should have to reach A35-64? I have planned a minimun of 50 GRP's for various markets, but I do not know if this is too little, or too much.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 19, 2000 ):
The only generally accepted "minimum" in radio advertising is 12 spots per week per station. But GRP must be considered as well in judging communications value.

50 GRPs is almost too small a total schedule to bother with. Most advertisers, pulling a number out of the air would probably start with 100 GRP per week in a campaign if radio is the only medium being used. A total campaign of 50 GRP should reach about 20-22% of the target, at a low level of average frequency: about 2.3. This would not be expected to generate much consumer response.

4 weeks at 100 GRP/week will get about to 50% target reach at an average frequency of 8x.

Certainly budget is a constraint, but effective levels in fewer markets is better than wasting money in a longer market list.


Wednesday, January 12, 2000 #3117
Our client is a business to business, e-commerce marketplace for secondary capital assests. We are researching online advertising opportunities and would like to know where to advertise to hit Fortune 500 procurement officers/asset purchasers and liquidators and mom-and-pop machine tool shop owners. Are there other or better sites than vertical net. How effective is banner advertising on search engines based on a key word search? Where do I find what web sites people in this industry visit? Help!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 19, 2000 ):
There are two categories of sites to consider:

Sites that these people visit in their day to day work
and
Sites that would interest your target people, but are not specific to their professional activities.

In the former situation, these highly specialized sites are not likely to have enough audience to be on the "radar" of the syndicated web measurement services, like MediaMetrix or Nielsen//Netratings.

The latter category of sites requires you to use some imagination rgarding your targets' interests.

Keyword-based advertising on search engines is one good way to target by user interests. But keep in mind that banners should stand on their own, because less than 1% of those who see them are likely to click through.

Ad Knowledge offers a way to find sites by audience type.


Tuesday, January 11, 2000 #3108
I am working on a preliminary recommendation--a branding awarness campaign for a bank that currently does product advertising but no image advertising. Thre are three levels of spending that will be discussed. The question that I have is what freqency levels should be achieved to have not only a increase in awareness, but also influence the target to switch banks. It is a competitive banking market. What do you think of these reach and freq levels based on 4 weeks of advertising?? The media mix for the first 2 includes TV and Outdoor/Transit and the last Outdoor/Transit. There would be 1 TV commercial, 2 messages for Outdoor and 2 messages for transit. So, I am not concerned that much about wearout as having adequate effective frequency levels. Schedule #1 91% reach/14.6x; Schedule #2 is 90%/11x ; #3 is 79%/9.9x please let me know what you think of these frequency levels. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, January 17, 2000 ):
When you evaluate media schedules which include out-of-home media, considerations of "effective" frequency go out the window. The nature of these media is to amass enormous levels of frequency behind simple, undetailed messages. Statistically, any of these schedules would have plenty of effective frequency, although you haven't mentioned the effective frequency in your details. The most effective schedule would be one of the first two, and the best of those is the one with the higher reach and frequency. Apparently the second costs less than the first.


Monday, January 10, 2000 #3105
I'm trying to find information on the effectiveness of fax broadcasting. My client feels it is an inexpensive way to advertise (CPM) but I'm worried it my cheapen their high-end product. I know we're now able to target such fax advertising just as you would direct mail but...isn't it considered just as bad as SPAM?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, January 10, 2000 ):
The Guru would be surprised to find it's efficient, it must cost 3 or 4 cents per address which is $30- 40 per thousand.

Not only is it as annoying as Spam, it is also actually illegal - that is, advertising by fax to persons / businesses with whom you do not have an existing business relationship.

In fact, this law had been the early model for anti-Spam legislation.


Monday, January 10, 2000 #3104
Is there any information on "copy fatigue"...or how many grp's does it take before copy loses effectiveness? Any thoughts on this would be of great value. Thank you!

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, January 17, 2000 ):
It depends on the quality and nature of the copy as well as marketplace dynamics in the category, media mix, etc.

Research is available at The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Monday, January 03, 2000 #3088
Master Guru: I have a wireless telecommunications engineering firm that I am planning to take public the 2nd or 3rd quarter of this year. What kind of advertising would be most effective for me on the web and would banner ads help here at all? I have patented products and expect to carve out a small percentage of this Multi-billion dollar industry. At this time though, money is a considertion and we wish to get the most bang for our buck. Richie V.P. Operations-VosiTechnologies

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 05, 2000 ):
Not enough information for a reasonable answer. The key quetions should be:
  • Who is your marketing target?
    -It sounds as if you will be an industrial, Business-to-Business advertiser
  • Is your target using the web on an identifiable set of sites which could offer you well targeted advertising vehicles?
  • Do you have a link to which the banners will click through that delivers a valuable selling message?
    -This last one is easy to achieve and worthwhile, if you get the right answers to the first two.


Saturday, December 25, 1999 #3075
Dear Guru, there has many studies and discussions about the effective reach and frequency, GRPs level, etc for the TV media. Is there any for Newspapers? Any industry norm about what is the effective frequency for Newspapers

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, December 25, 1999 ):
The concept of effective frequency is based on psychological studies of learning which found three repetitions of information were required for the information to be "learned."

The original study, by Ebbinghaus, was conducted circa 1883. If the concept is valid at all, it is equally valid for print media as it is for TV.


Wednesday, December 15, 1999 #3055
Dear Guru, There is a general perception in the mature online market like u.s.a that the effectiveness of a banner is coming down with sites reporting less percentage of CTR nowadays. what is guru's view in this. Does guru see any alternative form of web advertising(other than banners) emerging?. if so, can you inform me the examples practised by sites in this connection?.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, December 19, 1999 ):
Yes, click-thru is declining. Interstitials, and more detailed and animated ads with full selling messages are alternatives.

If clicks are your only goal, you need to buy at $/click which makes economic sense.


Tuesday, December 14, 1999 #3053
I have a production department and account manager that want to produce a :60 TV spot. I know that we need a :30. I need to give them (and the client) a concrete argument as to why :60's are too expensive to produce and place and the effectiveness of a :30 is what we need. I know that :15's can be 70-80% as effective as :30's - but I don't know numbers on the effective of :60's - help

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, December 19, 1999 ):
When :30's were a new idea, research showed them to be about 75% as effective as :60's. Now that they are coin-of-the-realm, the ratio has probably improved. Even if less than half as effective as a :60, the reach/frequency and recency contibutions of running twice as many spots would outweigh this unit impact issue.

It is a mistake to consider only one execution vs another when it is the campaign that should be evaluated in measuring effectiveness.

The research should be at the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Thursday, December 09, 1999 #3042
Dear Guru- I have heard there are thousands of ways to advertise on the internet for free. What are they, and do you think any of them are effective? How many impressions do you think can be generated with little or no money to spend. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 09, 1999 ):
There may be thousands of sites, but the Guru doubt's there are thousands of ways. Here are some:
  • Free on-line classifieds on community and local newspaper sites
  • Free on-line classifieds when you pay for print advertising in major newspapers
  • Free banner ads as merchandising for buying paid space in traditional media, particularly magazines. Free job lisitng ads in many places, including AMIC's Ad Jobs area.
  • Link exchanges which are banner trades with other sites.
  • Cross-links with other sites.
  • Putting up your own ad-bearing site in the free web-site space allowed to customers by many, if not most, ISP's

The Guru does not think many of these options generate large numbers of impressions. They may be effective, given a small scale goal.


Tuesday, December 07, 1999 #3033
Without the budget for post-flight call out surveys what formulas or 'rules' can I use to anticipate message saturation and burn. What reach or net reach level over what period of time would be probable to achieve a 80% awareness within the target. Also what is considered too much exposure for one message before you reach a point of diminishing returns. I know that the the better measurment here is research before and during the campaign, but there must be some bench marks that are industry accepted. Can you share these and share a public location for other general assumptions like this. Thank you in advance Guru... J

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 08, 1999 ):
  1. Ad awareness will never be greater than reach, so start from a plan that delivers at least 80% reach
  2. To establish measurable awareness, some repetiton will be needed, so think about getting an 80% reach at a set effective frequency level. The Guru has previously discussed use of the Ostrow Model to set this goal.
  3. A message is worn out when its ability to generate sales falls off. This being hard to predict, many advertisers have used past experience to set media-measurement based cut-offs. These have included a limit of 2000 GRPs and a frequency cap of 20 in the second highest quintile. In reality, the size of the copy pool, the qualities of the copy, the target, the overall media mix, and product category may all lead to wide variations in wear out. The two standards mentioned above were both commonly used in basic package goods TV advertising in a mix with print and a TV copy pool of 2-3 executions.


Thursday, December 02, 1999 #3016
How do you feel branding issues will be answered in on-line media. Currently it is mainly response driven advertising. What are likely to be the best ways to improve the brand's images rather than just driving traffic to a site? Also is there any research on the effectiveness of brand driven web advertising campaigns?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 08, 1999 ):
Branding can be influenced by media as well as message. True, banners don't do much by themselves to convey a branding message, but one test done by AOL and posted in their media kit area shows some results of awareness generated by banners.

A banner must capture attention to be effective in direct response or in branding. Using an interstitial, which is in effect, a full page ad, as the banner's click target, instead of a normal web site can allow a full branding message to be communicated.

The Guru does have his doubts about the potential click rate of a banner which says "Click here to see our ad," but finding sufficiently interesting ways to say it is what creativity is all about.


Wednesday, November 24, 1999 #2998
hi media guru please guide me : how can i know how much frequency, reach, and grp is needed for an old brand which first advertise on t.v? ( the target audience: main shoper with young children - 4-8 years old) thank you

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 28, 1999 ):
This is a judgment call. The Ostrow model can help guide setting of effective frequency goals.

Reach then becomes what you can afford or what you need in terms of numbers of sales to become successful judged against anticipated consumer response as a percentage of target consumers reached effectively.

Further, one must keep in mind, since you are writing from outside the U.S., that cultural situations and media environments have a big impact on the matter.


Friday, November 19, 1999 #2991
Media Guru, I have heard that banner advertising on-line is a waste of money. Do you know if there are any facts supporting the ineffectiveness of banner advertising? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, November 22, 1999 ):
effectiveness depends upon expectations. If your goals depend on consumer action, i.e. click-thru, you have to determine whether the expected 0.5% click rate will be enough. If you pay a $25 impressions cpm, you might be paying $5 per click. If 10% of those who click will buy, then you need to net over $50 per sale to call the advertising "effective."

If you intend to use banners for branding, you need to compare awareness results with other media. Some research has been done by DoubleClick and The Internet Advertising Bureau to demonstrate branding effectiveness.


Friday, November 19, 1999 #2989
Media Guru, Our client is asking us why we use reach & frequency to analyze the effectiveness of our media plans. We are not aware of any other tools/methods that have been developed. Can you give us some pointers on how best to answer this question? Thanks in advance!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 19, 1999 ):
Reach and frequency are used to help predict the effect of plans and, more appropriately, to compare the available alternate plans, when communications power is the issue.

Media plans are actually advertising communications plans: "how many people of the targeted demographic receive the message and how often?" is the most basic quantification of the expected acheivements of the plan. In the process of selecting targets amd media, other issues of prospect quality and ad impact are addressed, but the final wieghts and measures are reach, frequency, and their product, gross impressions.

During and after execution, of course, sales and awareness measures are more direct evaluative tools.


Tuesday, November 16, 1999 #2977
Details of Ostrow's effective frequency model

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 21, 1999 ):
The Ostrow model aims at establishing the minimum level of frequency to be deemed effective so that the plan can maximize reach at that level of frequency. The model can be traced back to his speech, "effective Frequency" at an Advertising Research Foundation Key Issues Workshop, June 4, 1982.

Typically, the model involves evaluating a series of relevant factors on a scale of say, 2 to 6, and averaging the factors to determine the appropriate level of frequency to set as effective.

In the 1982 speech the factors discussed were of three kinds: marketing, message / creative and media.

Marketing

  • Established brand vs new entry
  • Brand share
  • Brand loyalty
  • Purchase cycle
  • Usage cycle
  • Share of voice
  • Target group learning capacity

Message / Creative

  • Complexity
  • Uniqueness
  • New vs continuing campaign
  • Image building vs specific sell
  • Message variation (copy pool)
  • Wear out
  • Copy unit size/length

Media

  • Clutter
  • Editorial / program environment
  • Attentiveness
  • Continuity vs flighting
  • Number of different media
  • Repeat exposure opportunities
.

For the full speech, the transcript proceedings of the workshop are available from the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Tuesday, November 16, 1999 #2976
Dear mr Guru, I work for a newspaper. I'm looking for information about the link between the size (mm/col) of an advertisement in a newspaper (e.g. 1 full page) and the effectiveness (impact, attention, perception, etc) of that ad. Can you help me getting that type of information?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 16, 1999 ):
Starch comes to mind first. Also check The Newspaper Advertising Association


Friday, November 12, 1999 #2964
Can research determine which media is best to drive traffic to a local retail business? If there is a particular medium or media, what research approach can best determine which media works? Please consider that this a local business that currently advertises in radio, newspaper and billboards and is very successful at driving traffic to retai outlets that are not highly visible in their marketplace.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 16, 1999 ):
A specific individual business can use research to determine this.

Most simply, it is easy to include something in the advertising which makes people want to tell the business's operators where they heard of them. Or staff can be instructed to inquire where customers heard. More expensively, a commissioned study can probe awareness and shopping behavior from a random sample or a customer database sample. In any of these cases, the research must be carefullly studied and interpreted, to distinguish the results of branding efforts from promotions.

If the business has a long history of establishing its name and offerings in the community through radio and outdoor campaigns, the research might still find that "What brought the cusotmer in today" was a newspaper or Yellow Pages ad. Analysis might well show that the newspaper or Yellow Pages ad would have had little impact without the other media's branding effects.

Different businesses enjoy different effects from various media. A roadside, impulse business, like a highway restaurant chain can get immediate results from highway billboards which would have much less benefit for an in-town, white tablecloth eatery. A branding-oriented newspaper campaign for the latter would likely be more effective than one for the highway chain.


Monday, November 08, 1999 #2942
Dear Media Guru, I am seeking information regarding message retention in print advertising. I would like to know if there has been any research done on the number of messages that a print ad can contain before it loses its effectiveness. In an other words, if a print ad is cluttered with a number of messages, does that make any of the messages less likely to be retained? Thank you!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 11, 1999 ):
The Guru has not heard of that research, specifically. It seems to be one of those "it depends" kind of things: a Chevrolet ad can probably be successful talking about style plus fuel/maintentance economy plus price plus design plus dealer convenience.

An ad for something with more price-oriented purchase decisions, such as long distance companies, probably is less successful making points beyond price.

Starch is known for print copy-point retention studies and there's always the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Thursday, November 04, 1999 #2934
Hi Media Guru, I’ve been asked to see if any research exists, either quantitative or qualitative that addresses the following issues for newspaper advertising: 1)effectiveness of mono advertising vs spot vs full colour 2)Left hand vs right hand page advertising Any gems? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 04, 1999 ):
If it exists, The Newspaper Advertising Association will have it.


Tuesday, October 26, 1999 #2907
Respectable guru, I am writing from a country where outdoor is still sold by number of sites. What would be the pro's and con's for a 14 day campaign with 200 sites against a 30 day campaign with 100 sites (in the same area for the same cost)? What would be the relation between reach and frequency in both cases? Are you aware of any web sites with research on this topic? Thank you for your answers.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 27, 1999 ):
The Guru imagaines that in your situation, the daily effective circulation (DEC) of the sites is not known. This data is the basis for GRP based out-of-home buys in the U.S.

If we assume that the average DEC is equal for all 200 sites and the 100 sites, and that the 100 are evenly dispersed among the potential 200 locations the Guru would opt for the longer schedule. The net reach over each schedule should be similar and the longer presence should produce more sales.


Thursday, October 21, 1999 #2896
Do you have any research that reports effectiveness of transit advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 24, 1999 ):
The vendors, like TDI, have such research. An independent source is the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230


Tuesday, October 19, 1999 #2886
What is the appropriate time that a broadcast or cable schedule should air to be effective?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 20, 1999 ):
There is no set rule. First you have to determine how you will define "effective." If you are selling a parity package goods product with a frequent purchase cycle, you may need to be on the air continuously to maintain market position. If you are promoting a retail or entertainment event, anything more than two weeks prior to the target date might be wasted.


Thursday, October 14, 1999 #2875
what is comparative advertising and how do a lot of companies still manage to do the same inspite of the fact that it is illegal in many countries. Can I have access to avi files just to see what a comparative advertising is all about.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 17, 1999 ):
Comparitive advertising literally compares the advertised product to its competitors:"Our brand is twice as effective as that brand." The Guru imagines that some advertisers use the technique where it's legal and not where it isn't legal. The illegal form may be just comparisons to named competitors and not comparisons to generically referenced competitors, such as "the leading brand," the "higher priced brand" and so on.

The Guru is not aware of any free site that allows you to call up ad avi's by style or other such criterion.


Thursday, October 07, 1999 #2855
How does one set effective frequency and effective reach targets? Are there any models which can help set these targets? And is this approach(effective freq.) media neutral or does it apply differently to different media?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 07, 1999 ):
The Ostrow model is one such model.

The concept of effective reach/frequency is based on repetition of messages as the key to consumer action, and so should be media neutral. However, since the nature of various media makes one generate higher frequency than another at the same reach level, plans often take different approaches to "effefctive." For example, a plan based on major magazine which average a 20 coverage among the target, will rarely generate even a 3 verage frequency in four weeks, while a radio plan for the same target might equal the magazine plan's reach in its first week and double the average frequency.

Planners work with the rules and rationales which make the most sense in a given situation.


Tuesday, October 05, 1999 #2847
How effective are off-the wall (i.e., aerial banners, blimps, in-flight ads, newspaper bags, buses, etc.) media?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 06, 1999 ):
effectiveness of such media varies. It can be fabulous or a flop. Key issues will be matching target to the vehicle and understanding the relationship with the audience.

Aerials and blimps have a long history of apparent success on the beaches promoting beach realated goods from sunscreen to beer, plus local concerts and clubs. The same vehicles might be far less successful for on-line brokerage or high-ticket luxury goods.

College wall boards are often succesful with products aimed at college students.

In flight and transit media are much less "off the wall." The Guru has seen subway car-cards generate a full, local market Nielsen share point increment in 6 weeks for a basic household food staple, with a message aimed solely at Hispanic consumers.


Tuesday, October 05, 1999 #2846
Is there any study to show that spots in prime time(say 8pm to 11pm) are more effective than those telecast in off prime (say 1pm to 3 pm or 6 pm to 8pm)?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 06, 1999 ):
Over the years there have been many such studies. Some focus on attentiveness or ad recall, some on other metrics. Best compilations would be Newsweek Media Research Index or Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Monday, October 04, 1999 #2843
Guru - I have been put in the situation of planning, negotiating and buying online advertising. I'm having difficulty in determining the appropriate number of impressions to purchase for a two week flight of an entertainment property. I understand every site is different, but is there a benchmark to follow? Someone once said that the minimum level of impressions to be effective is 10% of the site's available impressions. This seems high. Also, is there a syndicated source that lists the total number of impressions available per month? Can online impressions be purchased against a specific demo (i.e. Men 25-54)? Thank you for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 04, 1999 ):
There are many buying-minimum rules of thumb that seem arbitrary on first consideration, like '12x per week per station' in radio, but have a logic if someone clearly explains it.

However, this "10% of the available impression" idea is certainly not one of these. It's not only arbitrary, but relatively ridiculous.

Consider a site like Yahoo, which may generate well over 1 billion monthly impressions. 10% of that is 100 million. If you bought that weight at a $30 CPM, that would be $3,000,000 per month. Are there many advertisers spending at that rate? And, if you think about other top sites, it becomes even more fantastic.

According to Nielsen//Netratings, top, deep-pockets, online advertisers like Microsoft, Amazon.com. AOL and Yahoo each ran about 200 to 600 million impressions in August. And of course, they didn't do that on just a few sites.

What would a 10% rule achieve? Identification with a specific site? Perhaps some very targeted sites which fit your campaign creative very well are worth sponsoring at this level. Or do you think each person exposed is aware of how many other people are seeing other banners on the same site?

By the way, the Guru would be interested to hear anyone's justification of a '10% of available impressions' rule and will post here any that make sense.

It's also worth noting another point here: Bigness is of questionable value in selecting on-line media vehicles. Exposure isn't figured in the same way as for other media: In a magazine, each ad page is treated as if it had the average audience of the issue; within some tolerance, this is realistic. But in a popular web site with potentially hundreds of pages, neither the home page nor those within the site get all the monthly impressions the site accrues. Any one page might get less than one percent of the total, and a rotating banner might get less than one percent of the page where it's shown. One million impressions can be bought from a site with one billion to sell or with just two million. If the targeting is controlled, there is equal value.

Sometimes page or section content will allow targeting to be assumed. On some sites, registration data, or 'cookies', or IP tracking can allow ads to be served to specified categories of visitors.


Monday, October 04, 1999 #2842
I am doing research for a german based software company, that is about to go international with its produkct. Hereford I am completing a media plan. The countries I am mainly intrested in are Those in europe and in North America. I would like to know where I would get relevant infor mation about; How effective are different types of media in the different countries and what target groups do I reach if I use that type of media. I would prefer this data to be specified for individual magazines, newspapers, tv stations ect. I have read thru your past answers, and my main problem at the moment is that I don´t have a large budget to pay a market research company. I am still a student doing this as a final assignment (thesis) for college. I hope you can be of any assistance. Thanks. Arno

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 06, 1999 ):
In the U.S., universities which teach advertising and marketing often have in their library past years' sets of the broad product and media usage studies from MRI or Simmons. Perhaps your school has the same or a relationship with a U.S. university.

By the way, data would not be about TV stations, but about networks and programs. The U.S. has over 1000 TV stations.


Monday, September 27, 1999 #2830
I have read all your responses regarding recency. If you wouldn’t mind answering a few more, this is a multiple question predominantly regarding recency as a planning theory. 1) What Telemar program deals with TV R&F on a weekly basis? 2) Do the same audience accumulation formulas work for a one-week cume vs. 4wk or 52 wk? 3) When now planning an a weekly basis rather than a flighted basis are frequency guidelines or goals a consideration in the recency planning theory? 4) Has there been a clear industry swing relative to EF or recency yet? 5) A 1997 JAR article by Erwin Ephron cited some minimum target reach guidelines like 35 weekly, 65 four-week and 80 quarterly. Has there been anything more definitively determined since then (I noticed reply 2631 7/14/99 lowering the weekly reach to 30)? 6) For those espousing recency, is the trend to a 52 presence or extended flighting like 8-10 continuous weeks of each quarter? 7) On the effective Frequency side, where the defacto goal has centered around the 3+ level, has the time frame shifted to anything other than a 4-week period?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, September 29, 1999 ):
1) Media Maestro and TV Buyer handle TV R&F.

2) No, formulas differ for one week, 4 week, and long term. 400 GRP, spread ove differend programs might come close to exhausting the reach potential of one week's TV audience, but not if spread over 4 weeks or longer.

3) Recency planning is focused on weekly reach, and incorporates the concept that every exposure after the third one is at the 3+ level.

4) Some have adopted recency, some cling to effective reach. The Guru is not aware of any polls of agencies or advertisers, but suspects that recency is still growing in acceptance, but is a minority approach.

5) The reach minima are a bit loose, and 30 vs 35 is not a major point of contention.

6) The idea of recency is that being there whenever a purchase decision is made is ideal. Flighting, when continuity is affordable and there is no major seasonality is contrary to the principle.

7) Four weeks has always been somewhat arbitrary, likley stemming from the one-time dominance of monthly magazines. But it is a convenient benchmark. A logical approach can set a level other than 3+ or other than 4 weeks, etc.


Wednesday, September 22, 1999 #2814
Hi Guru The ad agency I work for has a theory that cable GRP's and radio GRP's effectivenesss are significantly less than network and spot television. On our flow charts we only calculate 1/2 half of these points. I have heard this theory before but I've never seen a plan that cuts the GRP's in half. What do you think?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 23, 1999 ):
The Guru has been aware of theories that use effectiveness factors in comparing media. Sometimes GRP are adjusted on the flow chart, but since the flow chart often serves as the buying control document, more often the adjustments are shown in reach and frequency comparisons.

There can certainly be an argument that radio has less effectiveness than TV, commercial exposure versus commercial exposure, all else being equal. But, the argument doesn't seem to be rationale for cable TV. The commercial is the same, the presentation is the same. Unless there are objective measures of attentiveness or clutter or recall used, why is cable less effective? Individual commerical audience size is not relevent to message effectiveness of the medium; one consumer is not aware of how may others are watching the same program.


Wednesday, September 22, 1999 #2813
I'm stting a marketing strategy to sell houses located in Mexico to Americans (mostly mexican Americans and foreign born) I know where they are, what kind of media de you reccomend to be cost effective? Thanks in advance

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 23, 1999 ):
For the best cost effectiveness, the Guru would begin with Spanish languiage radio in the U.S. / Mexico border markets.


Monday, September 20, 1999 #2808
Hi Guru!For maintainence level of advertising for an established brand, on TV why is an OTS of three considered to be a minimum ? Or does no such rule of thumb exsist?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 20, 1999 ):
The 3x rule-of-thumb is based on studies dating back over 100 years to a researcher named Ebbinghaus. He determined that it required 3 repetitions of a string of nonsense syllables for them to be retained by experimental subjects.

Advertising researchers extended the research to posit that only after three exposures to a message would a consumer understand, recall and be prepared to act on the information. Media planners then started using an average frequency (as in "Reach and Frequency") of 3 as a minimum.

More recently, the concept of effective reach has used the theory that only those exposed at least 3 times should be counted as "effectively reached." So, for example, a media plan with an average four week reach / frequency of 76 / 5.2 might reach 50% of the target 3 or more times.

Some planners will evaluate several issues surrounding the copy, competition and media options to decide what effective level is appropriate and set a level of 4 or 6, etc. Of course, this is meaningless without also setting a reach goal at the stated frequency level. A plan that delivers 50 reach at 3+ might also deliver 42 at 4+, 33 at 5+ etc, so there is an issue of the goal versus the level at which the plan is examined.


Tuesday, September 14, 1999 #2795
Dear Guru, I am writing to you from the Middle East. First of all I am very excited to discover the AMIC site. I have recently been exposed to various documentation on the recency theory. Alongwith the documentation I have seen something called reach curves. The reach curves I have seen are typically for 1+, 2+, and 3+ levels for all adults and all women audiences. I understand it is an easy way to translate effective Reach goals into GRP goals e.g. X GRPs will get you Y% 3+ reach against the target. It also clearly depicts the point of diminishing return. I am eager to know how I can develop reach curves for my market. Can this be done by us in the media department or do we need to approach some company which specializes in this area. What sort of data is required? Just to give you a background, we are not a metered market. TV audience measurement is conducted thrice a year using face-to-face interviews with a representative sample. Viewership is typically available by 15 minute time segments for all channels across various demos. Thanks in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 14, 1999 ):
Reach curves have been in use since long before computers were used in media departments and long before metered measurement.

Curves are created by using the reach of actual schedules. For example, in the U.S., Nielsen would report the actual reach of specific brands' schedules, based on examining the net unduplicated viewers in their reasearch data who viewed the program schedules used by the brand's commercials.

Once you have several schedules ( 8 or so will do) with actual reaches and frequencies for various GRP levels, you can use the regression analysis data function in a spreadsheet, like MS Excel or Lotus 1-2-3, to calculate a formula which describes the curve. This formula can literally draw the curve on a graph, or let you build a table of GRP / Reach pairs. By the way, it is the frequency and GRPs which are used in building this regression, because while reach is a curve, frequency is a straight line.


Thursday, September 09, 1999 #2778
Dear Guru I' m interested in any information about 'effectiveness measurement' on online advertising.What are the most important criteria measuring effectiveness of online advertising?Where can i found more about this subject?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 13, 1999 ):
"effectiveness measures" are many and "most important criteria: depends upon your goals. Some internet campaigns are solely on achieving click-thru, which is easily measured. Others might be based on building awareness, recall, or direct sales effects.

Good sources of on-line ad effectiveness research are C.A.S.I.E. (The Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive Entertainment) and the Internet Advertising Bureau

As always, the most complete compilation of this research will be at the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Wednesday, September 08, 1999 #2777
Re: Ad rotation in business-to-business publication for first-time advertiser What is the best rotation for two print ads in a business-to-business trade advertising campaign running during a one-year schedule? Ad #1 runs 3X, ad #2 runs 3X, and rotate the remainder of the year? Or rotate evenly? Or 2X each, etc.? What is most effective for building ad recall? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 13, 1999 ):
The Guru doesn't see any basis for 'rules of thumb' here. Considerations might include:
  • How similar or different the ads are in content and/or impact
  • Reasons to emphasize one message over another
  • Seasonal marketing issues
  • Depth of magazine list
  • Prior awarness
  • etc.


Friday, September 03, 1999 #2766
Hi Guru, What exactly is the Ostrow Model ? How useful is it to the clients ? Is it the last word ? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, September 03, 1999 ):
The Ostrow Model with which the Guru is familiar is a grid used to set the correct level of effective frequency at which plans will be evaluated.

20+ factors relating to competitive climate, product involvement, clutter, commercial length, commercial pool, etc are each rated on a scale, say from 2 to 6, which is then averaged to set the frequency level.

Is it the last word? Is it useful to clients? There is always another theory about anything. The usefulness is in creating a reational, well thought-through basis for establishing communiations goals, so that planners can present a logical approach to clients. The approach makes good sense, for those who follow the effective reach style of planning.


Wednesday, September 01, 1999 #2759
Is the random probability formula used to combine reach for different media also valid when looking at effective reach (i.e. 4+ level)?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 02, 1999 ):
If you mean, can you combine the 4+ reach of one medium with the 4+ reach of another medium to get the 4+ reach of the two combined media, the answer is no.

Among those who were reached 2 or 3 times by each medium, some will now be reached 4 or more times and some will not, yet these people are not considered by combining only the two four+ groups. There are also those reached only once by the first medium and three times by the other, etc. A new, overall calculation of the frequency distribution must be done, to determine the 4+ of the combination.


Monday, August 30, 1999 #2751
please e-mail me the latest information about effective frequency as it relates to magazine advertising... required # of insertions to break through, etc.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 02, 1999 ):
Guru answers are only received on this page.

Click here to see past Guru responses about effective levels in print or try the Magazine Publishers of America


Monday, August 30, 1999 #2750
Let me elaborate further on the question posed by Ajay (Question sent from India , which was answered on 8d August). In India, the data collection and hence reporting of the peoplemeter data is on a weekly basis, unlike the daily collection and reporting in most other markets. Since we follow a weekly collection, the sample is determined for each of the seven days. (after rejecting viewing which does not satisfy the threshold levels of various criteria that the viewing data is supposed to fulfill). As is obvious, this effective sample could be different across the days. Hence, we actually could end up having 7 different samples for each of the seven days. The question now arises as to which of these seven figures to use for projection to the universe. This is the part where the difference in the reach and rating calculations occur. A rating figure is calculated based on the sample for each day. Hence , on Monday, if the effective sample is 95, then this 95 is projected to the universe figures. On Tuesday, the effective sample could be 96 - then this 96 is projected to the universe figures. And so on. Hence the actual weights attached to the sample could vary, though the universe figures remain the same. Once the sample figures have been projected, the ratings are calculated. These rating figures can then be averaged across days , if desired, since a rating figure can be averaged across time periods. On the other hand, a reach figure cannot be averaged. Hence, if the sample is different across each of the days, the dilemma is as to which of the effective sample to use for the projection purpose. Hence they designate one day as REFERENCE DAY. The effective sample on the reference day is the one which is used for projection purposes and hence for all further calculations for reach figures. The reference day changes depending on the period chosen. In India, the research agency has fixed the reference day to be the last day of the period chosen. So, if I vary my period of analysis, the reference day changes and hence my reach figures change. This is where the confusion occurs ! Since a rating calculation does not have a reference day, the ratings don't change, irrespective of the period chosen. So please let us know if this is the norm followed across countries ? Is the concept of reference day valid ? How do other countries deal with this ?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 02, 1999 ):
The Guru is not aware of this method in use elsewhere. It does not seem that it would have significant effect unless there are substantial daily variations .


Monday, August 16, 1999 #2721
How do you plan your media buy using the "recency" philosophy when advertising products with a long cycle re-purchase period such as an automobile?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 16, 1999 ):
The central concept of recency is that the message received closest to a purchase decision is the most effective message. Continuous advertising will reach more people at any given time and is best for products purchased all the time, no matter how long the purchase cycle. That is, no matter whether it's 4 weeks or four years. So the only question is whether there are always people in the market for cars. This doesn't mean you shouldn't vary levels at peak selling times.


Friday, August 13, 1999 #2715
Dear Media Guru: I'm doing some research for a large grocery store chain. Do you know of research showing the effectivenss of weekly food circulars? Also, do you know of studies done on grocery store advertising or successful grocery store TV ad campaigns? Thanks!!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 15, 1999 ):
Best source would be the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Friday, August 06, 1999 #2697
Where can i find research on the effectiveness levels of a :30 TV spot vs. a :60 TV spot (general and direct)?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 08, 1999 ):
You need the resources of Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) and International Media Guide.


Friday, August 06, 1999 #2693
I would like to know the following: 1) how to set the effective reach/frequency for various category of Products viz fmcg, durable, etc. 2) what would be the ideal effective r&f for various categories 3) should the selection of program be based on cprp or do you have any Other method. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 06, 1999 ):
1) & 2) effective reach does not depend on category, but on analysis of several factors:
  • Complexity of message
  • Ad unit
  • Competitive pressure
  • Clutter in the media used
  • Budget
  • Etc.

Some of these factors will be generalizable for categories, but they will be narrow categories, like "imported sports cars priced from $50,000 to $75,000," and not as broad as "durables."

Click here to see past Guru comments on effective reach

3) Program selection may be based on CPRP, but there are several other factors:

  • Suitability of program content
  • timing
  • program content synergy with ad message
  • package pricing of total buys with and without the program
  • contribution to reach, etc.


Monday, August 02, 1999 #2682
what is considered the effective number of insertions over a year in 1.) daily newspapers, 2.) monthly magazines, 3.) bi-monthly magazines, 4.) weekly magazines. My client's campaign is business to business. We buy print such as WSJ, Forbes, etc and trade print. I can answer this on a common sense basis, keeping in mind the 3+ effective frequency theory, but is there research on what levels are most effective/optimal?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 06, 1999 ):
First, review adjacent Query #2693 for comment on setting effective frequency.

Traditional planning has various theories about minimum levels in print media. It used to be common to set a minimum of one issue out of four in publications with frequencies ranging from weekly to monthly. Weekly frequency was more the norm in newspapers.

But this all has to be taken in a context of

  • whether print is the only medium
  • whether print is the primary or secondary medium
  • How deep is the print list

effective 4 week frequencies above 3 are difficult to acheive in the print media you list; effective reach like this is more the province of broadcast, while print is more often aimed at depth of message.

For research on print reach / frequency and effectiveness try Newsweek Media Research Index and the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Sunday, August 01, 1999 #2676
Hey, I would like maximum information on comparisons of 15 and 30 seconds ads in the aspects of - consumer recall, efficiency and if using both 30 and 15 secon ads is effective? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 01, 1999 ):
Try Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Wednesday, July 28, 1999 #2664
hello, I'm doing research on radio advertising effectiveness. The main question is: which factors influence, in what way, the effectiveness of radiocommercials? There is not much literature available on this subject, so I want you to ask if you know some relevant books, articles, websites or anything that can help me? thanks a lot. Jolanda van As, scientific researcher

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 31, 1999 ):
There should be a wealth of information and guidance available from the The Radio Advertising Bureau (RAB).

In addition try Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. and ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization.


Wednesday, July 28, 1999 #2663
Dear Guru, Thanks a lot for this service. I would like to gain more information regarding the effectiveness of branding & sponsorship of high rated TV programme vs spot buy. Also would request to tell me ho effective if branding of high viewership prime time program [ 40% viewership] as against a branding of non-prime time program with a viewerhip of 25%

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 31, 1999 ):
The Guru's opinion is that regular sponsorship of a specific program or program type (beauty pageant, auto racing, etc.) can contribute to branding.

On the other hand, rating size, per se, is not much of a factor. The consumer is little aware of how many other people are watching the same program as he or she is.


Tuesday, July 20, 1999 #2647
"why" and "when" a company should advertise on the Web? Please inform me on any relative sites!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 23, 1999 ):
The process of deciding why and when for the web is the same as for any other medium, is the audience your target and does the medium deliver the message effectively. We shouldn't see the web as a big mystery beyond this. It has many unique features, but it must still pass basic media criteria.

Who is the audience? It's young, upscale and a bit male skewed, though there are older skewed and female skewed sites. It's 100% computer users. It's international, but still mostly U.S.

What kind of messages can it deliver effectively? Not full sound and motion. Though this is possible, not nearly everyone has the capability. Technology and entertainment are definitely right for the web. Anything where interactivity is helpful.

You may find other useful information elsewhere on AMIC and at the DoubleClick or IAB sites.


Monday, July 19, 1999 #2643
Dear Guru! I've got the following question. Our client has a product to advertise. He has set advertising goals for the ad campaign. We defined the level of effective frequency needed to reach these goals. 1. What is the range of effective reach? For example, 30%

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 23, 1999 ):
Media plan communications goals should specify a level of effective reach along with specifying the effective level of frequency.

Basic, as well as more advanced media software, calculates reach and frequency, frequency distribution and reach at various (effective) frequency levels. Input is typically GRPs.

Setting an effective reach goal can be based on gut, such as reaching the majority of the target at effective frequency levels in 4 weeks, or based on sales predictions. For example, this might be an estimate that 10% of those reached efectively will buy and X number of sales are the goal. Then 10 times X are the number who must be effectively reached.


Thursday, July 15, 1999 #2636
Is there any research that explores TV versus TV+Radio advertising? I would like to know if and when radio should be added to TV advertising. Any advice on analyzing this would be extremely helpful. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 15, 1999 ):
Generally, assuming TV is your primary medium and your goal is to maximize reach, adding a new medium begins to be worth considering when the reach curve of TV flattens. Compare how much reach the "next" dollar ads when it's in TV to the amount of reach the dollar would add in radio (reasonable numbers of dollars must be examined).

For effectiveness research, go to the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Wednesday, July 14, 1999 #2631
While there are different parameters ( creative, media, marketing ) to set the effective frequency for a media plan there seems to be no parameter for setting reach. What are the different ways to arrive at reach objectives for a plan

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 15, 1999 ):
There are many approaches.
  • awareness goals: Ad awarness won't get higher than reach, obviously
  • comfort levels: When working with an effective frequency level, the Guru wants to reach the majority of his target effectively over four weeks
  • Affordability
  • recency: Recency says that maintaining some level of weekly reach is more effective than flighting, for products with regular purchase (threshold is 30 reach per week)
There are numerous variations.


Wednesday, July 14, 1999 #2630
I am looking for research / answers to the question: "How affective is Airport Advertising?" In particular with reference to Business Class

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 14, 1999 ):
The Guru doubts that effectiveness research has been done which segments the Airport advertisng audience according to the class of service used on the day of exposure. If ant exists it would probably be available from the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Othe possible sources are ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization or the airport advertising media mentioned in past Guru responses


Monday, July 12, 1999 #2624
I own and run a small podiatrist clinic. I have a modest advertising budget of $3000-5000 a quarter. I have placed ads in free local newspapers, but my best returns are from referrals and from my ad in Yellow Pages. May be I am doing something wrong. What strategy would you suggest to increase the effectiveness of my advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 12, 1999 ):
Keeping in mind that the Guru gives media advice, the first thing that occurs to the Guru is that location is likely the first consideration of anyone choosing a podiatrist from an ad. So keep your ad placements nearby. Many areas have more than one "Yellow Pages," a neighborhood one and a city or county one. At each geographic level ther may be one from the regional Bell operating company, another from a national publisher like Yellow Book and in some areas Hispanic Yellow pages, women's yellow pages, etc. Cover all the bases.

Free papers are often considered less effective in certain advertising categories, and medicine may be one. Try an ad in the daily paid paper.


Friday, July 09, 1999 #2620
Hello GURU ! I have 2 questions for you : 1. One of the media analysis we do in our agency,mainly for TV, consists in comparing a competitor's share of spending (calculated as his % of advertising expenditure within the total category) with his share of voice (calculated as the % of his 30 sec equivalent GRPs within the category). Is this correct in your opinion ? 2. How do you define SOV ? Is this the % of the GRPs one achieve within a category or is it the % of money invested by an advertiser within a category in a certain period ? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 11, 1999 ):
1) What do you do with the results of this comparison? How does the ratio of SO$ to SOV help you make decisions? The :30 equivalent step is reasonable, but how do you do that effectively outside of broadcast?

2) Some use SOV to refer to share of spending, others use it to refer to share of weight. The Guru believes share of weight is more descriptive of the marketplace perceived by the consumer, but the person controlling the budget, that is, the client, more often cares about money. They can see the impact of money on the bottom line more easily than they can understand the differences in impact of their :30s versus a competitor's :15s or competitor's radio versus their own magazines.


Thursday, July 08, 1999 #2617
I am looking for internet research database/site for a specific query on the effectiveness of using celebrities in ad campaigns. I need research articles rather than examples of celebrity testimonial advertisments.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 08, 1999 ):
The best source is the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. But that data is not on-line.

It's possible that American Demographics has coverred this and put a summary on thier site.


Tuesday, July 06, 1999 #2608
Our company is presently trying to locate a list of kids aged roughly 12-19 for a direct mailing. Do you know where we might find such a list? We are also interested in knowing what the most popular magazines are among kids in this segment (for advertising purposes). Lastly, we would like to determine what it costs to advertise (gross, not CPM) via the following media: TV (specialty channel), radio, Internet (banner), magazine (popular), billboard, and space. Any help you could give us on these questions would be appreciated. Thanks in advance for your assistance. Sincerely, Drew Spence Market Research Associate Lac-Mac Limited drew@mail.lac-mac.com

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, July 06, 1999 ):
Most list brokers would have a teenage list available. Try American List Counsel for starters.

. Seventeen ,Teen,YM,TeenPeople are among the most popuular, especially with female teens. Male teens gravitate to more broadly targeted titles like SportsIllustrated.

To discuss ad prices in the media you mention, you really must consider something other than simple gross. If the Guru tells you a :30 on a specialty channel cost $100 or $1000, how can you evaluate what you must spend to communiucate something?

Internet banners are sold in cpms and numbers of impressions, not flat gross dollars usually; major sites have more impression than you might buy so you buy a portion of the available impressions. You can get teen oriented sites' banners for $15-30 per thousand. But just putting a banner on all the teen pages of Yahoo could cost $1,000,000 per month.

or more. Billboards might cost $250 apiece, but you won't buy just one, you buy a quantity of daily effective circulation expressed as GRPs. A teen cpm might be $5-$10


Saturday, July 03, 1999 #2603
I am writing a paper and need to know the annual amount spent on :couponing both magazines and newspapers and total amount spent on product sampling broken down by in store and out of store expenditure. Is it increasing or decreasing and what studies can I reference to attribute this? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 03, 1999 ):
The Guru doubts there are any real measurements. There may be estimates available from resources such as Ad Age or PROMO Magazine or effectiveness studies in the archive at the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Thursday, June 10, 1999 #2569
Where can I find information regarding the use of traffic and pedestrian counts for measuring outdoor advertising effectiveness? I am also interested in the methodology for gathering this data in a reliable way.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 11, 1999 ):
The Outdoor Advertising Association of America will have the information you need, as will major outdoor vendors.


Thursday, June 10, 1999 #2568
What media are most effective to reach the 65+ market? This is a local/regional campaign, so national media aren't a consideration. I'm looking for any research that shows 65+ audience media usage habits. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 10, 1999 ):
When you eliminate the national media like Modern Maturity , it's difficult. Of course, Modern Maturity, the world's largest circulation magazine, does offer regional editions.

MRI and Simmons report media habits by age. Locally, you are more likely to want to look at radio formats and TV programs with an appeal to your target. Start by identifying one staion in each medium which you are likley to use and requesting research help. Try a talk radio station and ask for Scarborough data.


Monday, June 07, 1999 #2558
Dear Sir, regarding effective frequency there are some tools like Ostrow's grid. But I could not find any explanation about how to set effective reach level. Using a grid one can find a frequency level like 4+ but what the effective reach should be set at this freguency level? What are the considerations?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, June 09, 1999 ):
There is a lot of judgment here, plus the realities of budget. When setting an effective reach, saying only those reached at least "x" times count. So first, how high a reach can you afford? Of course with flighting this answer can vary, too. The Guru basic rule of thumb is to start by effectively reaching most of the target; 50 reach or better.


Wednesday, June 02, 1999 #2554
Dear Guru, Thank you a ton for your service. Can you inform me the effective web advertisement management software used by popular sites (like yahoo, altavista, wall street journal etc..).

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 05, 1999 ):
Alta Vista is serviced by DoubleClick. FocalLink is another ad server.


Tuesday, June 01, 1999 #2551
I have some questions about preparing for the upcoming Olympics/Election Year for local spot TV buying and planning: 1) Should you buy early? How early? 2) Is it important to stress to clients that they should pay for Olympic programming? Should not? Why? 3) Where can I find research on effectively using hiatuses during election periods? 4) Where can I find research on programs that traditionally do well despite Olympics rating skews and election clutter? 5) Find research showing types of programming to avoid? 6) Tips on Planning during these years? Adequate anticipation of rate increases? Thank you very much!

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 05, 1999 ):
1. Buy Early. If you are buying significant volume, move before the network upfronts move. To a great extent it's the impact of Olympics / Elections on network inventory that makes spot tighten excessively. For sure, ther won't be any firesales at the last minute and buying as late as usual will mean facing higher costs.

2. Any plan should be recommending programming options according to how they serve marketing and communications goals. It isn't a buying issue, it's a planning issue. The Olympics are just another programming option during a few weeks of the year.

3 - 6. As always the best source of all the types of research you list is the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. But the Guru will offer some comments.

3. Most plans have hiatuses anyway. If you can plan them at the worst time of Olymcis / elections' effects, so much the better.

4. So much has changed since the last Olympics / elections tear that history may not be useful. Cable has about 30% of Prime time viewing these days, much more than last cycle. There is only one Olympics season during this election year instead of the historical two.


Thursday, May 27, 1999 #2538
how much efective frequency in TV I need in case that Launching for a month Promotions for a moth and others

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 29, 1999 ):
The Guru has probably discussed effective frequency questions more than any other topic. Setting the "right" level depends on assessing several factors.

Click here to see past Guru responses


Thursday, May 20, 1999 #2516
I'm trying to learn the basics of media research. How does one calculate ROI on media effectiveness and where can I get information on how/ why to conduct market research? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 23, 1999 ):
The Guru has discussed ROI several times. Click here to see past Guru responses about ROI

For information on marketing research, try the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Wednesday, May 19, 1999 #2515
I want to know about the procedure involved in doing the advertising on internet. Which are the factors that has to be considered by a client or a agency to go for internet advertisng? Also how effective is this mode of communication? Don't you think it is more of personal selling ?The another thing is that how adevrtising has changed in the last decade interms of creativity and new ideas with the advent of internet?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 23, 1999 ):
The factors involved in selecting the internet as a medium ar e the same as any other medium:
  • Does the medium reach the target audience?
  • How efficiently?
  • Does the internet environment help the advertising message to make an impact?
  • Are there aspects unique to the medium that create added marketing opportunities, like interactivity, audience involvement, direct selling?

The effectiveness depends on the goal. Brand building may be less effective than in other media, direct reponse more so. Computer-related products may be more successful than those whose relevance is less universal among the internet user.


Monday, May 17, 1999 #2509
Media Guru - I just read your responce to question #2507. Numerically, your answer may be correct that turning 200 pulsed TRP's into 100 continous TRP's may be more effective. (recency theory) It may not however be realistically the best course of action. Recency assumes that your advertising is ongoing reminder advertising and that your brand is well established. Also, purchase patterns and frequency are important. In terms of media, you have to consider what will 100 TRP's afford you? If you are in 2 or 3 dayparts in TV you will have a handful of spots, that the prospect will be lucky to see. I think that recency has to be balanced out with other marketing and media factors, including impact.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 18, 1999 ):
As the Guru said in that response, the concept applied "particularly if your product is something people are buying continuously or regularly."

Recency does not make assumptions about product establishment -- though some practicioners may. In fact the original statement of the thesis emphasized the point, for effective frequency adherents, that after the third exposure, every exposure was at "three plus" and looking at abstractions like three plus in a set time frame was not necessary. About 60 GRP per week has been identified as a workable threshold of effectiveness.

Regarding dayparts, any mix of daypart is likely to deliver an average rating in the 5 to 8 range. Unless you have frequency goals by daypart (why?), 100 vs 200 seems a moot issue.

The net effect on consumers, at the end of four weeks, whether you have run 100 GRP per week or 200 GRP in weeks #1 and #3 only, will be about the same, in accumulated reach and average frequency.

The biggest difference will be in average reach per week (or per day). Your point makes a big issue of a time frame called a week, which is just an abstraction and a common convenience in looking at schedules.

Thinking of the schedule you would select to run 200 GRP in 7 days, why must it differ if spread over 14 days?


Wednesday, May 12, 1999 #2507
For several years, I have bought my client's spring and fall campaigns on an alternating schedule i.e., one week on and one week off @ 200 TRPs per week. Historically, we take a four month hiatus between campaigns. Recently, someone told the client that it would be more effective to buy three weeks consecutively at lower TRP levels. Either plan would be restrained by a stated budget amount. Do you have an opinion about each of these strategies or your ownpreference in television buying strategy when trying to stretch the time on-air?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 16, 1999 ):
You haven't stated how many weeks of 200 on and off you run.

But, assuming you take a one-week-on / one-week-off schedule of 200 and change it to 100/week continuous, this will probably be more effective, particularly if your product is something people are buying continuously or regularly. Since reach can only go just so high, the average reach per week of 100 GRPs continuous will be higher than the average weekly reach of one week at 200 and one week at 0 GRP. So the continuous schedule has a better chance or reaching someone just as they are about to make a purchase decision.

This is the essence of the "recency theory."

Click here to see past Guru responses about recency


Wednesday, May 12, 1999 #2505
what is effective reach?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 16, 1999 ):
The Guru has discused this often. Click here to see past Guru responses about effective reach


Monday, May 10, 1999 #2502
I've always looked at communication goals in terms of effective reach. Determining effective reach goals can be different agency to agency. That is fine. My issue has to do with combining broadcast media with print media. Can there be an effective reach goal when these media types are combined? In a discussion with my Media Director, they felt that there can only be a 1+ goal. That the concept of effective reach curves were developed on a broadcast model and that print cannot be combined. If not why? I would love your opinion and insight. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 11, 1999 ):
First, the 3+ concept goes back 115 years, to a researcher named Ebbinghaus, who found three repetitions of a series of nonsense syllables was needed for "learning" or memorization.

Combining media to achieve 3+ goals depends on a variety of philosophical judgements:

  • Is the message sufficiently similar, between broadcast and print, so that repeats of either count equally toward establishing the information in the consumer's mind? (unlikley)
  • Determining what level of reach should be achieved at 3+ and/or whether 3+, 4+ or another level should be set as "effective" usually depends on issues like the competitive pressure in the media used, clutter in the media selected, message complexity, category appeal, category novelty, etc. Many of these evaluations would have different results in different media.

It seems to the Guru that the issue is not whether to look at 1+ versus 3+ but whether to consider effectiveness medium-by-medium or in total.

The bottom line would depend on whether the communication focus is on the specific message, which leads to medium-by-medium evaluation, or more on brand or ad awareness, which leads to combined media evaluation.


Wednesday, May 05, 1999 #2489
My partner and I are suggesting our cleint some TV specials as part of our recommendation in which we want to include creative media. Our client concern is that she does not think specials are good enough, since her product have TV presence throughot the entire year. Our recommendation is based not on frequency but on reach and the opportunity to sponsor events in which the target population will be effectively reached. Do you have any other theoretical explanation we can give to support our plan?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 06, 1999 ):
The appeal of specials is certainly that they add excitement and may focus on a particular target. If they are truly unusual, you hope to get a gratitude factor from the audience.

In the Guru's opinion, relying on a few specials rather than more continuous advertising is not as likely to be "effective." When a product is sold year round, on a regular basis, there is a need for continuous advertising presence. effectiveness of reach comes from either frequency or recency in relation to sales opportunities.


Friday, April 30, 1999 #2480
What would you advise as an effective plan on determning an efficient ROI on the net

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, April 30, 1999 ):
If the question is "how does one measure ROI for intertnet advertising?" the key to the answer is in how you set your goals.

In the simplest scenario, your goal is to sell a product or service. If your advertising is web banners, and the banners click through to a page where the product is sold and there is no other source of the product, obviously sales dollars ÷ ad dollars is the calculation you need.

In any other case, it's the same as determining ROI in all marketing scenarios. Did you advertise to biuld image or awareness? Do pre/post research on the change in awarenss or perception and comapre against $ spent.


Friday, April 16, 1999 #2454
What would you say are the three keys to determing timing and selecting geography, when developing a media plan?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, April 16, 1999 ):
Timing:
  • Seasonality: Is there a time when the product is more likly to sell?
  • Is the purchase cycle of the product such that low level continuity is more likly to deliver the exposure closes to purchase decision?
Geography:
  • Determine the level of media weight needed to be effective, however you have defined effective.
  • Rank markets by opportunity to sell -- this can be merely size or based on development index, efficiency indexed to size, etc.
Build up the coverage area geography from the top of your opportunity list down, as far as you can afford the media weight you have set, within the timing you have set.


Wednesday, March 31, 1999 #2423
One of the counter claims that clients come up with when we recommend the Web for banners is that they do not yet have a web site . Is it necessary for someone to have a web site before putting up a banner ? If not, what are the alternatives ? Since banner exposures work far more effectively than do click throughs (IAB Survey ) , shouldn't there be some way of getting out of this "Banner-click-web site " syndrome ? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 31, 1999 ):
People's experience as consumers on the web has taught them that banners click through to web sites.

The same people's experience as media professionals has mostly not exposed them to the research that shows banners build awareness better than the ½ percent clickthrough builds anything else.

Some sites, like Business Marketing's Net Marketing and AOL.com and IAB have such research posted. Clients may be directed there.

Some sites, like AMIC , will create a page for a banner advertiser so that a click has a target. The page can be the equivalent of a full-page magazine ad. Other advertisers might do the same with a multimedia interstitial.


Thursday, March 25, 1999 #2412
1) Are the terms OTS, impressions, hits and exposures interchangeable? 2) Are there media industry norms (or even studies) that indicate a correlation between a number of OTS or exposures and audience (reader) behavior. I understand there were a number of Politz studies conducted in the 60s which suggested that one exposure produced a dicernible response and two exposures produced about double that response. Also there are European reports stating that a magazine ad should provide at least 5 OTS in order for the reader to digest or understand the ad message -- is '5' the number? Are there industry norms, and if so, do they differ by media vehicle? Thanks in advance!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 26, 1999 ):
1) Other than "hits," you may generally consider those terms interchangeable. "Hits" is a much abused term peculiar to the internet. Some people do use it when the mean impressions, but technically "hit" is defined as "an entry in a server log."

Whenever a visitor requests a page on a site, as by clicking on a link, the server log records a "hit" for the text of the page, and hits for each frame and hits for each little bullet or other icon and a hit for each ad. A single page on one of today's commercial sites may consist of several dozen items which would all create "hits" in a server log when only one page impression is happening. The internet is also unique in its ability to serve content with a different ad each time a new user arrives at a page. So page impressions and ad impressions will not agree as they do in magazines or broadcast.

"Hits" originated in the early days of the world wide web, when browsers read text only, like the venerable "Lynx," and a page was just one block of text, so "hit" then equalled "impression," more or less. Hits include server log error messages as well, which are of no value to anyone.

2) The study of effective numbers of exposures goes back at least as far as the scientist Ebbinghaus (1883) who tested how many repetitions of nonsense syllables were required to achieve learning. This was the origin of 3 as a magic media number there have been infinite numbers of other studies, more advertisng and sales focused since.

Note that European media and Europe's media environment are different than the U.S. It is a common trap to assume that media perform the same tasks with the same effectiveness when used in different cultures. The U.S. Hispanic market is a good exanple, with TV, radio and print all delivering very different reach / frequncy, reach potetial and overlap than do the parallel general market media.

The best source of studies on the topic are: Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter, Newsweek Media Research Index and ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization. The Guru has discussed this frequently.
Click here to see past Guru responses about "effective frequency"


Wednesday, March 24, 1999 #2409
Dear Guru - This may seem like a vague question, but what is meant by "adjusted GRPs?" I am looking at a combined TV and print plan that delivers 425 avg. 4-week GRPs against W25-54, and under "adjusted GRPs" it says 336. These are 52-week plans, and there are only :30 units (no copy split). Your help is much appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, March 25, 1999 ):
Your question isn't vague, but "adjusted" is. Somone has done you a disservice by presenting something labeled "adjusted" with no explanation. There are numerous bases used to adjust GRPs including:
  • Variations in measured daypart attentiveness
  • Variations in measured daypart recall
  • judgement regarding sales effectiveness of different media
  • copy length/size versus some established standard
  • etc
. Various advertisers have set policies on these matters and planners trained on those advertisers' business report Reach/Frequency/GRP including these adjustments almost without thinking about it. But the first time someone sees such data, they deserve an explanation.

There are no universal standards for "adjusted GRP."


Thursday, March 18, 1999 #2399
We are currently working with a sit-down restaurant client who has asked us to investigate a market-by- market media mix "optimization" using spot TV and Spot radio. Because the cost of radio is about half of what we are paying in TV, the optimizer continually picks radio as the dominant medium. We know, however, through experience that once we turn on the TV program, results usually happen. Is there any guidance you can provide that would help us in quanitfying this mix outside the realm of what the pure numbers tell us?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 20, 1999 ):
Optimizers, at least worthwhile ones, can be set to "optimize" to any of several criteria. It sounds like you are optimizing only for net audience (reach) efficiency, so radio has an advantage.

The Guru doesn't quite understand what "once we turn on the TV program, results usually happen" means. Has radio not been tried?

Apparently, the client believes reach is the key driver of success, while you believe there is an effectiveness issue inherent in the media types. You need to quantify this difference (is a radio reach point only 75% as sales effective as a TV reach point?) and get the client to accept the quantification, then include the factor in your optimization. Consider also the effects of mix on frequency.


Tuesday, March 16, 1999 #2394
Hello Media Guru, I am a consultant advising a sales team that sells airtime on in-store radio services in the UK. The recency model seems to lend itself to this particular media format. Are there any details available on US examples of this type of medium, and case studies etc they may have? Thanks Clive Reffell

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 20, 1999 ):
Certainly in-store radio ties in with the idea that the most effective advertising is the last exposure prior to the purchase. Yet, in-store radio has never been a great success in the U.S.

The best source of case studies may be POPAI, The Point-of-Purchase Advertising Institute.

Also visit Music Technologies International.


Monday, March 15, 1999 #2392
What do you know about radio effectiveness? I know my question is a kind of broad but please help me with whatever you know.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 20, 1999 ):
The Guru loves queries which invite him to write a textbook (overnight).
  • Radio is effective. There are numerous radio success stories, most famously, but not exclusively, based on great creativity and well known voices such as Stan Freberg or Stiller and Meara.
  • Too often, radio is judged by comparing a TV commercial execution to a radio commercial execution and ignoring the key point that in a schedule a radio spot may run three or more times as often or three times as many GRPs for the same budget. In other words, even if a TV commercial is more effective than a radio commercial, a radio schedule may be more effective than a TV schedule.
  • Radio commercials have sometimes tested as well as TV spots in some standard measures such as Day-After-Recall.
  • Most important: There are as many bad TV commercials as good radio spots and vice versa. Good radio will always outperform bad TV.


Monday, March 15, 1999 #2390
hi i want to do a research about the connection between the loyalty to a particular series to there willing to buy the product or service that is advertised or the connection between the viewer attention to the programm to the campaign effectiveness i am lookung for literary stuff, article and web site about this subject and also research that already been done thanks a lot merav

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 15, 1999 ):
The best source is Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter and possibly Newsweek Media Research Index.


Friday, March 12, 1999 #2386
What is your opinion of non-traditional media - namely disposable coffee cups. We recommended coffee cups to the client (it definately makes sense from an objectives standpoint), but one of the clients responded that he thought they were "cheesy." We disagree, and I am writing a recommendation to sell this idea. I greatly value your opinion. What do you think? Some big ticket advertisers have used this medium multiple times. Thanks Guru.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 12, 1999 ):
It could make good sense for some advertisers who would find coffee cups a very supportive environment, e.g. coffee, milk, sugar, sugar substitute, donuts, pastry advertisers, etc.

It might also seem "cheesy" for some big ticket advertisers like Mercedes Benz, Cadillac, or the Waldorf Astoria.

The Guru does not believe every action taken by "big ticket" advertisers is a good model. A great deal of their spending is based on a strategy of not knowing how to get all the enormous ad budget spent. Non-traditional media is most effective when it finds a strong fit with product message or target. Consider which advertisers use skywriting, blimps and airplane-towed banners: it's usually the ones relating to outdoor/beach fun and entertainment like film, bber, soda, beach front bars and nearby, open air concerts.


Tuesday, March 02, 1999 #2365
I am looking for a seminar/course/program which teaches "internet/web/on-line media planning & buying." Please e-mail me at your earliest convenience: mia@siquis.com Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 03, 1999 ):
The Media Buying Academy is one of several traveling media schools which might include a course in internet media. There are others, as well. And watch the trade press, like MediaWeek and Ad Age for announcements of workshops.

The Guru doesn't believe one can really learn effective internet buying and planning without a basic understanding of general media planning.


Saturday, February 27, 1999 #2357
Mr. Guru, I am a student and am currently working on a campaign for a car company. My team and I would very much like to use the internet as a major media vehicle, but do not have enough information to give an accurate recommendation. Can you please give me any information or websites on: cost, who's on the net, CPM, what kind of advertising can be used, and why it would be an ideal vehicle(or how I can find out). Can you please send this information to my E-mail address: AiWare@. . .

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 28, 1999 ):
It must be remembered that the Guru does not provide personal answers, only what is posted on this page.

The Guru wonders why you would "very much like to use the internet" if you lack information about cost, audience, advertising possibilities and benefits. Companies like Nielsen, MediaMetrix, MRI and Simmons can give a broad strokes picture of which sites appeal to your target and to what extent your target uses the web. Major web sales rep sites like DoubleClick, 24/7,and 2Can, can give you an idea of pricing and other aspects of advertising.

The Advertising Research Foundation library and C.A.S.I.E. (The Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive Entertainment) have research regarding web effectiveness.


Thursday, February 18, 1999 #2347
As a buyer I have always been given the necessary information needed to put together a buy. I am currently in a new position, and I am being asked to provide information that I've never concerned myself with before, or gotten involved with the how's or why's of the decision. I'm in dire need of help. Here goes: I have been asked to determine the number of GRP's that should be used in a proposal for a new client. I have not received any budget information. The schedule will run 6-8 months, my demo is A 25-35 and the GRP's should be spiked during the 1st & final week of each month. Also, I am to include TV, Cable, and Radio. My question is: Do I simply request avails from the various TV & radio and cable stations within the market, put together a proposed schedule based on the avail information I receive, and add up the number of GRP's accordingly? HELP!!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 18, 1999 ):
Congratulations, today you are a media planner. But apparently you are working with people lacking professional advertising experience or perhaps a retail client.

You either need some marketing goals input or you need to suggest some goals and get agreement before proceeding. You have been presented with a question equivalent to "how many pounds of nails are needed to build a building?"

You need to know how big a building, what materials it will be made of, how many nails in a pound, to what use will it be put and how big must it be?

To recommend schedule weights you need either a budget or a communications goal to deliver. In media / marketing terms you need to establish -- whether you are given direction or someone accepts your suggestions:

  • What has priority: Reach or frequency?
  • is there a minimum reach or effective reach to attain; per week, in four weeks, or in total?
  • To help answer those questions, if no simple answer is available, you might ask is it a new or established product or service?
  • What levels are used by the competition, if any?
  • Are there any specific product awareness, ad awareness or sales volume goals?
  • (In planning advertising, assume everything is a result of advertising: there is no awareness among people not reached; there are no sales to people who are not aware of the product.)

Knowing all this, you could examine reach frequency and continuity impact of various levels and combinations of your media choices. In other words, you somehow need to establish what must be accomplished by the GRPs, before you can decide how many to use.

It is puzzling, in this great information vacuum, that someone has decided to "spike" certain weeks. Apparently there is some information around which you haven't yet been given.


Monday, February 15, 1999 #2336
How are effective frequency and reach levels determined for new product categories?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, February 16, 1999 ):
The Guru has discussed this frequently. Click here to see past Guru responses on effective reach


Sunday, February 14, 1999 #2331
How can i measure and incorporate the effectiveness of outdoor mediai(hoarding,transit etc)in a conventional media plan?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 15, 1999 ):
Do you actually incorporate the "effectivenss" of other media in your plans?

Outdoor is measured, and you should be buying outdoor by audience size as you do other media. 30-sheet and 8-sheet outdoor, for example, sell in "showings." The current standards of "Showings" call for expressing showing in GRP-per-day. In other words, a "50 showing" of outdoor means that the locations you buy have a combined "daily effective circulation (DEC)" -- or number of daily impressions -- equal to 50% of the population.

Some people may discount the passive, short copy outdoor medium by a certain percentage, say 50%, when combining with or comparing to other media such as broadcast and page-dominant print.


Thursday, February 11, 1999 #2323
What is the main difference between recency theory and aperture theory?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 13, 1999 ):
Both theories agree that advertising delivered nearest to a purchase decision is most effective.

Recency empahsizes the idea that purchases are happening all the time and continuity gives more chances to get an exposure close to a purchase.

Aperture theory says that there are particular best times for an advertising message to be delivered, whether because there is an identifieable time when a purchase decision is being made or a time when a specific message type is more effective. E.g. the cleaning characteistics of windshield washer fluid are most important in summer and the antifreeze characteristics are moe so in winter.


Thursday, February 11, 1999 #2322
Ephron(1993)suggests that the more a planner goes for frequency on television, the less effective he will progressively be, because the extra GRPs will fall increasingly into the "black hole" of the heavy viewers' viewing times, when they already have more enough OTS. In the context of "Effectiv Frequency", do you think concentrated frequency with a low reach is usually "better" than a lower frequency with a higher reach?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 13, 1999 ):
In the context of effective frequency, yes, more frequency with less reach is better than less frequenct with more reach, but that isn't the point of effective frequency. effective frequency is the concept of focusing on the reach which is delivered at enough frequency.

effective frequency is one basis of Ephron's theories. The key point he adds in movimg to recency planning is that frequency is additive over time; once a message has passed the effective threshold, each additional exposure is with effective frequency, especially when advertising is continuous. There is no need to consider only four week


Thursday, February 11, 1999 #2321
I have been trying to understand Plan Optimisers for quite some time now.I still am unable to understand. Especially in a complex media scenario like India where languages differ from region to region and different cities have to be covered and a lot of non- quantitative factors like regional sensitivity have to be considered , how can we effectively use Optimisers that are predominantly manufactured in the west?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 13, 1999 ):
Quite possibly, you cannot. Optimisers are meant to deal with quantitative issues of media selection, getting the most reach or effective reach or quintiles-of-frequency balance for the money.

Many seemingly subjective elements of the media possibilities, like the effects of regional sensitivity, can be judgmentally quantified and processed by an optimizer.

When languages differ, it is comparable to geographic differences: they are different universes and call for separate plans.


Monday, February 01, 1999 #2301
is there a way to advertise swiftly and effectively on the web, for free?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 04, 1999 ):
To paraphrase the old saying, you can have it fast, you can have it good and you can have it free, pick any two.

There are many sites that allow free, instantly posted advertising within certain areas, like AMIC's Ad Jobs. But traffic in that area is far less than a paid banner's general rotation, for example.

Targeted sites like AMIC can also post banners in their most effective areas, but charge for advertising.

Why would anything with all the values you specify be free, unless you are in a position to trade reciprocal links or banners?


Wednesday, January 27, 1999 #2291
Is there any research out there regarding the effectivness (or non-effectiveness) of :15 TV ads compared to :30's? I am also trying to find out when does it make sense to run a :15. If you could answer these questions or point me in the right direction, I would appreciate it.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 27, 1999 ):
Most research on the :15 vs :30 issue dates back several years to the rise of the :15.

The Guru has discussed this frequently. Click here to see past guru responses on :15's


Friday, January 22, 1999 #2285
Dear Guru, This is a bit of a theoritical problem.I am currently working on a shaving cream brand which has been on decline for a few years now. Currently it has a market share of 3.9% and is ranked 7th.The markets where it is doing relatively better are actually the smallest markets, but here too, it is not better than 5th on market shares. It has a media budget which is about 1/5th of the biggest spender, which incidentally is not the market leader. My dilemma is - in the given scenario, for a relaunch, where should media focus be - on the overall smaller markets but where the brand is but marginally stronger or on the bigger markets for the category, where a greater potential lies ? The distribution strength is the same in all markets and no directions have been provided by the marketing team on priority markets. Thank you Guru. My name is Abu Huzaifa and i am media planner in Bombay, India.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 22, 1999 ):
Firstly, these are really marketing issues, not media issues, but to try to look at it from a purely media perspective, consider:

Think beyond the "bigger opportunity of the larger markets," because the impact you can deliver in a market is important. In other words, do you get more consumer response to 100 GRPs against 2 million people or 200 GRPs against 1 million people?

For example:

1. Assume that every impression delivered, no matter the market size, has the same potential to generate sales and / or share growth - where will your budget buy the greatest number of impressions?

2. Assume that the ability of the impressions to generate sales growth is influenced by current share of market. Estimate the value of this effect, plus or minus. Apply this weighting to the impressions you can buy and recalculate sales potential, according to paragraph 1.

3. Or assume that every exposure after the third one (or a level of your choosing) is some degree more effective. How many "effective impressions" can you deliver to each market set?


Wednesday, January 20, 1999 #2279
Can you help me with the following? I am creating a custom magazine for the education market which spotlights highly successful educational programs that use technology effectively. My audience is decision makers who use or buy technology in educational systems. My advertisers will be technology companies. How do I determine advertising rates, or probably more to the point, how do I find someone to hire who can do this for me? (and do it right?) Thank you in advance. I have been doing research for days and coming up with nothing credible. Diane

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 20, 1999 ):
The rates can be determined at first by comparing to magazines of the same size and content / target audience.

There are independent magazine representatives who could help you. You will find lists in the front of the appropriate Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) resource.


Sunday, January 10, 1999 #2257
Dear Guru. I am a media planner in India. Need some information on latest effective frequency models. The Ostrow model as described in the Scissors and Bumba is the only one I have seen. Are there any other models developed? Also it would nice if you could pass on some info on recency planning theory.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, January 11, 1999 ):
The Advertising Research Foundation library would be the best source for alternative models.

The Guru has often discussed recency. Click here to see past guru responses on recency planning


Friday, December 04, 1998 #2198
Dear Guru. Thank you for your answers - they are very helpfull to me. My question is on "recency". 1.What groups of products best fit for "recency" planning. 2."Recency" planning needs continuity. But it is not evident what frequency level is needed at every moment of such continious ad campaign. It seems reasonable to set more frequency at the launch period and then decrease frequency for mantainance. Also we should take into consideration seasonality. Thus our campaign becomes pulsing but not continious. What are your comments? Thank you very much.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, December 04, 1998 ):
1- Recency seems to best fit common products that are bought regularly; in other words, a purchase is stimulated by running out of the current supply. This means food and HBA products, primarily. More "considered purchase" products, like automobiles, may not be a good fit.

2- Erwin Ephron, principal proponent of Recency, has commented to the Guru that about 30 reach on a weekly basis is a threshold level. This might mean 50-60 GRP depending on the media used amd target.

Part of recency theory, in relation to frequency levels and effective reach, is that after three exposures have been delivered, every subsequent exposure is supported by adequate frequency. Recency generally applies to brands with established awareness; when you raise the issue of product introductions, it is a different situation.

Seasonality is the principal exception to recency. There is no point in delivering the most recent ad exposure at a time when no purchase is likely. It is important to distinguish products with seasonal fluctuations, like deodorant, from products with very specific seasons, like barbecue charcoal.

Also consider that Recency does not mandate even levels in its continuity. The weight can be raised above the threshold when appropriate.


Wednesday, December 02, 1998 #2194
Dear Guru, can you name any media analysis tools and media predictive tools that media planners use on a regular basis without being too technical, of course. Many thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 03, 1998 ):
Here are several:

  • Reach: the number of different target households or persons exposed to a campaign (most often expressed as a percentage of the target universe, and most often calculated over a 4-week period).
  • Frequency: The average number of exposures of the campaign to those reached.
  • Gross Rating Points (GRP) / Target Rating Points(TRP): Essentially interchangeable terms for the sum of the audiences of all the ad units in the campaign, expressed as a percentage of the target universe.
  • Gross Impressions: Same audience count as GRP/TRP but expressed in whole numbers rather than percents.
  • CPP / Cost per GRP and CPM / Cost per thousand impressions: should be self evident from the previous. These are referred to as the "efficiency."
  • effective reach: Those in the "Reach" who experienced a specified minimum number of exposures (effective frequency)

All the above stem from the audience research tools and investment figures. So called "reach and frequency" systems typically generate all these figures.

Other tools, especially in print media are also occasionally used. These may include "time spent with" media vehicles, "page openings", attentiveness, etc.


Wednesday, December 02, 1998 #2192
Dear Guru. It is not still clear to me how to measure or calculate Reach of the ad campaign using media mix. For example, my ads on TV provided 90% reach, and ads in print reached 25% of the target audience. What is the total reach, frequency of the campaign? What other indexes can we find for such campaign? And my second question is about outdoor advertising. It is essential to measure the effectiveness of the ad campaign comparing awereness and sales before and after the ads placing. But that is somehow the post- campaign analisys and my client would like to see some feagures before the campaign starts (pre-campaign). What indexes (like reach, frequency, GRPs, OTS) can we provide to the discription of the outdoor ad. campaign? Thank You very much.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 02, 1998 ):
Reach of a medium in a plan is simply a statistical probability. Further, it is generally thought that each medium overlaps each other medium randomly.

So, in your example, if you consider the reach of each medium as a decimal, the probability of not being exposed to TV is 0.10 and of not being exposed to print is 0.75.

The probability of not being exposed to either one, is therefore 0.10 times 0.75 = 0.075.

Therefore, total reach of the mix is 92.5 (if 0.075 or 7.5% don't see it then 92.5% do see it).

Other basic "counts" for a campaign are impressions (OTS), cost per rating point and cost per thousand impressions.

All of these counts; reach, frequency, GRP, OTS, etc are possible for outdoor, if the research has been done, in your country, to count the audience of the locations used.


Tuesday, December 01, 1998 #2189
Dear Guru. I've got several questions. 1. What is the difference between the following three types of compensation for the ad agency services: commission, fee and percentage? Are there any other compensation systems used by the ad agencies? 2. What is the right way to evaluate the efficiency of the advertising campaign: a) held in several cities at the same time (each city has its' own media vehicles and their ratings are measured for the target audiences based in those cities); b)using several medium at once (i. e. TV and print). 3. How can we measure the effectiveness of the outdoor ad campaign? Thank you in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, December 01, 1998 ):
  1. Commission is based on a percentage of the agency's spending on the advertiser's behalf. The spending will primarily be media purchase and (in the U.S.) traditional commission, usually included in media rate cards, is 15% of the gross spending. Other expenditures, such as production, are marked up 17.65% of the net spending; this is exactly equivalent to 15% of the gross.

    Fees are flat amounts of compensation for performing agency tasks. On very small accounts, 15% commission may not cover the work required to create and place advertising. On very large accounts, 15% far exceeds what would compensate the effort.

    By Percentage the Guru imagines you mean an agreed commission other than the 15 / 17.65% structure.

  2. Efficiency is typically expressed in one of two ways: CPP - Cost Per gross rating Point or CPM - Cost Per thousand audience impressions (Roman numeral "M")

    In comparing markets, CPP is problematic because the universe number for calculating the Points - or percentage of universe - changes. However, CPM just uses impressions, which can be added and compared across markets. Other issues, about units and print versus broadcast can merit separate consideration, but these would be beyond efficiency.

  3. effectiveness measures depend on a definition of the effect desired; is it awareness or sales or share? To best measure outdoor specifically, you need to set up your standard of effect and measure it with and without outdoor.


Thursday, November 05, 1998 #2123
Dear Guru, we work with a medical-device company. Our primary target audiences are physicians. We have been utilizing b-b pubs as our primary form of marketing communications but are looking for other means to communicate our messages. One consideration has been direct mail. I have been unable to locate any usable reseach that would indicate that direct mail is a successful means to communicate with physicians? Are there any research studies, that you are aware of, that would help to answer the question is direct mail effective when targeting a physician audience and if it is an effective means do standard frequecy rules apply? My current belief is that direct mail is not an effective means, for this audience, if the message content is image. Possibly something to consider if the message content is that of direct response. Thanks in advance....

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 05, 1998 ):
The Direct Marketing Association (DMA) ought to have some infromation for you.

Other media to consider are physicians radio networks and video tape releases.


Friday, October 30, 1998 #2118
This is a two part question: PART 1: Attendant to the: (1) clutter in primetime television and (2) the erosion of the 4 network's share of audience, are there any current studies out that addresses the effectiveness of advertising on network TV in prime? PART 2: If the effectiveness of advertising in prime on the net is being affected, then how much less effective does advertising in spot tv (in prime) become? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, November 02, 1998 ):
Answer to Part1:

The Guru has not seen studies of the specific factors and chain of causation you desire to examine. It seems most likely that the two causes you cite would work entirely separately to erode the effectiveness of prime time.

The two key benefits of prime were generally taken to be

  • attentiveness, which is likely to be hurt by clutter and

  • high ratings, not important in themselves, but leading to what is often cited as a planning goal, -- high reach. This becomes less avialable with the decline in network share.
The diligent planner will seek various combinations of vehicles to deliver the desired reach within budget, and put the supposed "prestige" of prime time in perspective. (Do viewers of E.R. accept the commercial more readily because they know they are part of a larger than ususal viewing audience?)

Answer to part 2:

Spot prime will or will not be effected to the extent it suffers from the same clutter and erosion. (See the adjacent query about clutter and attentiveness for related information). Your definition of spot prime will effect your answer, too. If you define spot prime as only that which runs on the 4 networks affiliates, that means the effect are more similar. But if spot prime on "independent" stations counts that changes the picture. After all, a good portion of the 4 networks' erosion is due to the WB and UPN shows like Buffy, Felicity, Dawson's Creek, Charmed, etc.


Friday, October 30, 1998 #2117
I have a client that would like to do an image radio schedule for the first time. An 8 week schedule was proposed - he wants to cut it to 6 weeks for budget reasons. The reach and frequency for both schedules are similar. Is there research to show him as to why the longer schedule will have more impact and long term effectiveness?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 30, 1998 ):
There seems to be a missing factor. If you were running 100 GRP per week for 8 weeks and cut back to 100 GRP per week for 6 weeks, GRP would be reduced by 25%. Therefore, reach or frequency would have to change significantly, if not both.

I.e: suppose your 8 week plan had a reach and frequency of 60 / 13.3 with 800 GRP. If you reduced the plan to 6 weeks / 600 GRP and the reach did not go down, frequency would drop to 10 -- a 25% change. If the frequency did not go down then the reach would have to decline to 45, again a 25% decline. Realistically both reach and frequency should exhibit obvious drops.

Perhaps someone is mistakenly comparing average 4-week reach in the two plan. That comparison would be irrelevant, but be "similar" if not identical.

If you mean that the 8 weeks schedule is compressed into 6 weeks, then there would be an avergae 4 week difference but no budget reduction.

In this case, however "recency" theory would prefer the 8 week version becasue it provides more chances to deliver advertising to the consumer at a time of decision making. This theory may not be appropriate for "image" campaigns.


Wednesday, October 14, 1998 #2094
Dear Guru! Could you explain the speciality of billboard advertising, focusing on the time length of the campaign. I suppose there is an optimal length of a campaign, and after that the reach is not growing (or just a little). In the European market we can find 1 week 2 week and 1 month long campaign too. Are there any available research on this topic? Thanks Tamas

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 15, 1998 ):
In the U.S., an outdoor campaign is usually bought as a 25, 50 or 100 "showing". "Showing" means GRP's per day, based on camparing DEC (daily effective circulation) to the population universe.

A "50 showing" outdoor campaign will achieve 85% or better reach in one month, so obviously there cannot be much reach growth from there. A 25 showing isn't much lower and a 100 showing isn't much higher.

Campaigns usually run 3 or more months. The cost of production typically works against less than 30 day postings.

Even though outdoor delivers very high reach at low cpm, in the Guru's experience it is rarely employed just for this reach building, because it offers limited message length and detail.

Harris Donovan of Canada has an Outdoor Reach and Frequency system.


Wednesday, October 07, 1998 #2081
Are Television Rating Points really effective in measuring viewership? If not, is/arre there any other method/s of measuring the same?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 07, 1998 ):
Combining "rating points," "measuring" and "effective" in the question confuses the issue.

Let us define viewership simply as the number of people watching programs. "Rating points" isn't the measurement, it's merely the system of quantities used to describe the results of measurement, as "pounds" describes the result of the measurement made by the butcher's scale.

The various ratings measurement systems; i.e. meters and diaries, have their pluses and minuses in accuracy and reliability, but rating points is a simple and well understood way to describe the audience measured: The number of viewers expressed as a percentage of the possible viewers, or population.


Wednesday, October 07, 1998 #2079
I am very curious about Internet advertising. I have the following questions to ask : Are there any studies that explore which variables determine effectiveness (defined as the ability to generate click-ons)in Internet advertising ? Can you refer me to any case studies or examples of outstanding Internet advertising ? Were I to plan for an Internet-based campaign,can you provide me with a check list of issues to keep in mind?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 07, 1998 ):
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Tuesday, October 06, 1998 #2073
In media jargon, what does recency planning mean?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 06, 1998 ):
Most simply, it's the idea that the message heard closest to the time of purchase decision is most effective. This leads to plans that optimize continuity instead of focusing on achieving a minimum level of GRP's or minimum effective reach for some affordable number of weeks.

The Guru has addressed recency often; try searching the term in the Guru Archives Search Engine.

Recency has also been a hot topic on our MediaPlanning and Award-papers e-mail discussions.


Sunday, October 04, 1998 #2070
My client is a large medical-surgical products manufacturer. Their audience is nurses and sometimes physicians. Their budgets are small, they advertise several products with separate b-to-b campaigns. They are urging me to recommend online instead of or in addition to business print. This does not seem effective to me given their small budgets. Do you have any info on how I could recommend an effective online ad effort instead of using print?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 04, 1998 ):
Is the goal of adding on-line to add reach or to reduce costs?

In either case, the first step is to identify media which draw an audience of "nurses and sometimes physicians."

Then, the efficiency in audience impressions per dollar can be evaluated as can the total audience which is reachable.

Your first step may well be to locate the websites of the print media you use (and if you find these, they may offer free on-line ads as merchandising for your print schedule). Other possiblities are the sites of non-competitive advertisers who share your target.

Once you have explored these possibilities, you can decide whether you can make an effective recommendation or can support a decision against on-line.


Thursday, September 17, 1998 #2048
We have a client who is interested in utilizing Network Radio over a two-month period (January and February) to help maximize the awareness of a new brand. Is there any research that correlates radio TRP levels with brand awareness levels to give us some direction on how many points we should buy for the period without generating too much wearout? we should buy? brand.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, September 23, 1998 ):
Awareness is more likely to correlate with reach/frequency than TRP's. Only those reached can be aware. The same level of TRPs might reach 40% of a target or 60% depending on the schedule.

The Guru has seen research that shows that any level below 100 TRP a week in TV allows awareness to decay.

Most research on wearout which the Guru has seen ties wearout to frequency i.e. a commerical is worn out (loses sales effectiveness) after "X" exposures. This may be expressed as the frequency in the next-to-highest quintile. I.e. the 40% most exposed to the commercial would have "X" or more exposures. 25 exposures might be the threshold level you choose. This level would occur at about 200 TRP/week for 8 weeks, which is more than the Guru would guess you would buy.

By the way, one Adult 18-49 plan with those quintiles would have a 66 reach. Another plan with the same TRP's and different schedule could have an 85 reach and just 22 exposures in the next-to-highest quintile.


Wednesday, September 16, 1998 #2045
what is persuasion rating points?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, September 16, 1998 ):
Persuasion rating point is not a standard term. It would seem to imply an adjusted rating point based on testing of the effectiveness of specific media in specific situations. For example, the Roslow Study, for Univision, summarized in the Abbott Wool's Market Segment Resource Locator area of AMIC, measured effectiveness of English language advertising among Hispanics, using persuasion as one of three metrics.

Based on theis study and other data, many advertisers use an effectiveness adjustment when planning Spanish language media.

E.g: If I (the advertiser) want to have 100 GRP per week among my Hispanic target, before buying Spanish media, I wish to account for the fact that Hispanics watch some of the English language media in which I advertise. From Nielsen's NHTI I can see that for every 100 general market media rating points I buy in English language media, I get (for example) 60 Hispanic rating points.

But I know from the aforementioned studies that the GRPs Hispanics receive in English are less persuasive that GRPs of Spanish media. So I apply an effectiveness adjustment to calculate effective Hispanic rating points to which I might refers as "persuasion rating points".

Now the 60 GRPs among Hispanics might become only 33 persuasion rating points. So instead of buying only 40 Spanish language media rating points (100 Goal minus 60 delivered), I should buy 67 (100 Goal minus 33 delivered), to have an effective (persuasive) media plan.


Tuesday, August 25, 1998 #2014
Hi, I would like to know anything regarding setting the minimun level of TRP's, or minimun reach goal. We know how to set the optimun level, but there is a minimun? One point where is better not to advertise at all. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 31, 1998 ):
Any GRPs generate some reach and frequency.

Any reach generates some consumer impact. Setting minima is a matter of judgment and logic.

If you are an adherent of the effective reach theory, you will determine what is your effective level (3+ or more) and what portion of your target you need to reach at that level, to make advertising worthwhile. This determination will tell you either how much time you can be active in advertising or across how much geography. The Guru favors 50% as the portion of target to set as minimum to reach effectively.

If you believe totally in the recency theory, any is a reasonable minimum, because each impression has its greatest chance to produce a sale this way, as it is more likely to produce unduplicated reach at any point in time. Yet, few planners can avoid feeling there should be a minimum, probably because they want to see measured sales movement for some period of time.

In either case, seasonality and purchase cycles will inform the decision.


Tuesday, August 04, 1998 #1991
Dear Guru! What could you say about STAS ( Short Term Ad Strength)model usage in media planning istead of effective frequency approach.How could you estimate STAS advantages, limitations and forecast its delevopment in the future for the different countries. Thanks. TE. 1)

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, August 04, 1998 ):
For the latest on STAS, see the Telmar Awards Paper by J.P. Jones, creator of STAS. Other articles explaining STAS have been published in the Journal of Advertising Research from the Advertising Research Foundation.


Tuesday, August 04, 1998 #1990
Hello, Guru. How could we estimate TV sponsorship effectiveness for different types of sponsorship- promo mentions, billboards, tags, logo in corner, brand in corner,product placement, presents, branded dressing, etc. In relation to ratings estimation for promo mentions, billboards I found out that is would be 25% value of '30 sec. spot per item. Could you, please, introduce me into current methodologies used, research institutes conducted this kind of investigations and ,that is more important for me, findings in audience estimation per '30 sec. spot base ( or other bases). Thanks in advance. TE

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, August 05, 1998 ):
Apparently, you are looking for a value rather than literally "effectiveness." The 25% of a :30 value of a billboard would seem to be based on time equivalence. The same calculation could work for the other items that have an amount of time associated. Of course items that are pure visuals, like logos need to be devalued versus complete sight/sound/action items.

Judgement is your best tool.


Monday, August 03, 1998 #1987
Dear Guru, I am new to media planning and have been asked to predict the major changes for media planners over the next five years. can you give me any starters? Thanks in advance

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 03, 1998 ):
Since this must be a training exercise for new planners, isn't asking the Guru cheating? But since this sort of exercise is silly anyway, the Guru will go along; after all nobody would have predicted the media planners' involvement in on-line, five years ago.

Come to think of it, on-line may have been the only major change of the past five years.

For example,the incremental importance of cable and the slow decline of broadcast ratings is not a major change for planners. They face the same questions, but the answers have changed somewhat.

The new millennium, whether one considers the "popular" start date of January 1, 2000, or the actual date of 1/1/2001 will, no doubt, be a time to look for new approaches and focus more on the future. Marketers will finally recognize that the various major ethnic markets: Hispanics -- newly the largest ethnic group -- plus African American, Asian American and smaller minorities will encompass most Americans in the first decade of the new century. This will mean planners must pay far more attention to assessing the importance of and covering these market segments.

Also in the next five years the Guru sees the debate between advocates of "Recency" plannning and those backing "effective reach" being settled. Categories of marketing or rules on which to base application of one or the other will be clearly defined and two distinct styles of planning will emerge.

Finally, coming back to online, the internet's amazing growth will max out. No more than 50% of the population is likely to be on-line. The internet universe and internet ratings, on a U.S. basis, will be readily available, so that on-line media will become just another element of media plans. Specialist agencies will fold into general agencies and internet media will have no more mystique than out-of-home.


Friday, July 31, 1998 #1981
Is there a formula that would indicate increases in effectiveness if a direct mail campaign is supported by other media? Example: TV and radio campaign to increase awareness of a product followed by a targeted mailing with a call to action. Thanks, Guru

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 31, 1998 ):
The Direct Marketing Association (DMA) would be the best source for such information.


Wednesday, July 29, 1998 #1978
If I'd like to compare cost-efficiency of certain radiostation and certain TV station, would it be correct to apply some coefficient for radio GRP's (like 0,3 radio grp's vs 1 TV's)? Is there any reliable research findings concerning the question of comparable value of, say, the same kind of units but for different media? Thankful for your answer, Elena, Moscow

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 29, 1998 ):
Cost efficiency is typically used to compare media while intentionally ignoring "qualitative" differences. Of course, planners like to assign values to represent the differing value of communication power or whatever.

What is your measurement standard in a media plan? Reach, effective reach, sales per grp?

It is quite unlikely that a TV grp has 3 times as much of anything - recall / sales motivation / etc. And one must keep in mind that GRPs have their effects as part of schedules, not one at a time. Even if one radio announcement was 30% as strong on some basis as one tv annoouncement, the accumulation of effect over the course of a schedule would become much less, especially if radio's lower cost per GRP allowed a bigger schedule for the same money, which is why efficiency is compared in the first place.

Short answer - develop comparisons of efficiency and effectiveness separately. Then use effectiveness as an index on efficiency if you must.

ESOMAR , the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research organization or the Advertising Research Foundation may have studies on the relative effectiveness question.


Friday, July 24, 1998 #1972
As an agency, we believe that we have made a smart and cost-effective media buy for 1998. We would like to show our client how smart the buy is in what really matters to them: dollars. Our media buy was not made to copy another so we have no base of comparison. As "an account guy" I don't have the total media knowledge of how to show savings. I have suggested building a model that shows a client that would make a buy within the market paying "average CPPs." With these average CPPs we could turn around and compare the CPPs we paid per daypart and show a savings. Is there a better way, in your mind, to show dollar or percentage savings?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 24, 1998 ):
SQAD is the leading purveyor of market average CPPs for General market TV and Radio, Hispanic and other broadcast elements. Recent, sample SQAD costs are available in AMIC's Rates, Dates and Data area.


Monday, July 20, 1998 #1962
Thanks for your response to my question (#1955.) I was refering to average frequency NOT effective frequency. In addition, our buys are targeted to the same demo, Men 25-54. Do these clarifications add any new light to your thoughts? I maintain that an average frequency of three (3) per radio station per week requires reducing the number of stations purchased which in turn reduces my reach and overall delivery. Any new thoughts. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 20, 1998 ):
The problem seems to be lack of a specific communication goal.
  • Is the plan goal maximum reach?
  • Is the plan goal optimal reach at an average frequency of 3 or more?

Once there is agreement on this, it is a simple matter to construct paper buys to illustrate what is acheived buying with and without the requirement of an average reach of 3 on each station and how each contributes to agreed goals (a buyer should not decide independently that reach is the overall goal).

The Guru notes that he does not generally support buying to goals based on set frequency per station. Some stations with low turnover will build reach slowly while frequency mounts quickly. A 3 frequency will come too early in that station's reach curve, while another station builds reach quickly and frequency slowly.


Thursday, July 16, 1998 #1954
Dear Media Guru: Our client has asked that all radio stations on a spot radio buy MUST have a 3 frequency per week. I maintain that this mandate is too limiting (and is a sellers perspective) as it requires reducing the number of stations used and increasing the number of spots on the stations being bought. I do agree that a 3 frequency for the entire buy makes sense, but not by station. What are your thoughts?? Thanks so much.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 16, 1998 ):
Is that a minimum average frequency or a minimum (effective) frequency?

The idea of exhausting a station's cume before moving to the next most efficient station can make sense, as a buying strategy.

If stations are reaching definably different market segements which are individually important to your planning, and you need to reach these segments equally, than the station-by-station standard might make sense.

But if all stations are targeted to the same demo and only differ by rating size or formats which are not relevant to brand marketing, then only the overall frequency ought to matter.


Monday, June 22, 1998 #1915
Do you know of any awareness tracking studies or models that relate recall by medium to purchase intent? Would it be feasible to carry out this kind of effectiveness study to determine what kind of results a media placement agency is delivering to clients?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 25, 1998 ):
No doubt some users of recall tests have made an effort to relate recall to sales or purchase intent. This involves using their own, proprietary test scores and sales data. It is possible that the Advertising Research Foundation Library or the archives of their Journal of Advertising Research or conference presentations include the sort of analysis you need.

However, whether this is a basis for judging the performance of a media service is another question altogether. Has the media service been instructed to buy for optimal recall? Has the media service been instructed to buy to optimize purchase intent? In the Guru's experience, these are rarely part of the media goals conveyed to a buyer. More often, buying efficiently or to achieve a reach, frequency or effective reach goal is the instruction.

Further, if you wish to make recall or purchase intent your standard of evaluation, it only makes sense if you share the model you wish to use with your buying service


Thursday, June 11, 1998 #1895
A] How can a newspaper and a magazine be analysed for their advertising effectiveness on parameters such as 1. Reproduction quality 2. Clutter level 3. Editorial content B] Suppose 20 magazines and newspapers are being analysed, can each one be rated according to the above parameters? c] What is the method of rating these publications?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 25, 1998 ):
Any analysis of advertising effectiveness against such standards has two elements
  • an effectiveness measure and
  • a quantification of the standard

Sales tracking, purchase intent research or recall studies might be appropriate as the effectiveness measure.

As to the parameters of the media, you would probably want to develop your own scales of judgement as objectively as possible. For example, if you rate reproduction quality on a scale of 1 to 10, and compare the ratings for ads of several campaigns to their scores on your effectiveness scale, perhaps using a regression analysis in a spreadsheet program, you can see the correlation of the variables.


Tuesday, June 09, 1998 #1887
I have been assigned the task of putting together an internet plan. I haven't the first clue where to start. Let me give you a little background. My client is a local hospital that is interesedt in marketing to business owners/presidnets/ceo's/human resource director/benfits administors. The ojective is to create top of mind awareness that our hospital is the hospital of choice when selecting Health Plans. Again, this is a local client. Please can you give me some direction. Where do I start. Thanks for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, June 10, 1998 ):
There is very little research available on internet audience at the micro-geographic level. There is very little available that might cover a segment as small as president / ceo / HR director. The Guru is saying "very little" while really thinking "probably nothing."

MediaMetrix or Relevant Knowledge are most likely to have some pertinent information.

  • Presidents and CEO's are generally found to be the last people in their companies to be computer users.
  • The internet is inherently a non-geographic medium since the entire nation and world have equal access to any web site, and a hospital has a relatively tiny service area

  • Some major markets do have extensive, multi-purpose local sites, and
  • some sites have the ability to serve an ad based on the location of the visitor. This is severely compromised by such problems as all AOL users appearing to be located in Virginia. Other national internet providers' customers carry the same sort of obscured location.
  • Ideally, you might find ad-bearing sites which appeal to business and HR managers which can tell you where, geographically, their visitors come from, or local interest sites which, by virtue of registration know the business role of their visitors.

Generally, the Guru does not believe that local retail advertisers with very narrow targets will find the internet to be an efficient or effective advertising vehicle, compared to traditional local business media, such as Crain's or The Network of City Business Journals


Wednesday, June 03, 1998 #1882
how much more effective is an exposure on print compared to TV in case of consumer durables?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, June 03, 1998 ):
A TV exposure is generally more effective than a print exposure. However:

  • There can be very bad TV executions and very good print executions, which outweigh the general rule.
  • A TV :15 may not be more effective than a 4 color bleed gatefold off the 2nd cover.
  • Media plans don't usually operate in an exposure vs exposure mode. A given budget might buy 25 TV exposures for every print exposure or vice versa, depending on ad units, programming, geographic coverage, etc.


Saturday, May 30, 1998 #1617
what is the history of print media?.where does it stand today?.what it will be its future,say ten years time from now.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 02, 1998 ):
The question is so broad that no meaningful answer is possible. Since you are writing for India, the relevant history may be different than for other countries.

Print advertising, in the from of signs goes back many hundreds of years. The ruins of Pompei contained signs advertisng businesses and prostitutes.

Not long after Gutenberg created moveable type, Newspapers were invented, and newspaper advertising is almost as old, probably over 300 years.

Print today has different strengths in different countries and cultures within those countries.

Where broadcast media are not government owned and there are stron freedom of the press laws, combined with high literacy rates, print stands well in relation to other media.

Where government control of broadcast media is strong and the press is free, print is realtively stronger. Where literacy is lower, print is weaker.

The Guru does not see much ov this changing in ten years. In the U.S., for instance, there is research which shows that no more than 50% of adults are ever likley to participate in the internet as we now know it. If Broadcast and cable TV continue to fight for the same audience, print will remain stable.

In other countries, if litereacy is on the rise, print will likely prosper, if nothing changes about broadcast/ The irony about the "TV-like" internet, is that it does require literacy to use effectively.


Friday, May 29, 1998 #1613
1.what is osto's model? 2.In case of an absence of duplication data for publications, how do l calculate the effective reach using 2 or more media vehicles? in such a scenario, is it safe to use the random theory even if multiple readership is negligible?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 02, 1998 ):
1) The Guru is not familiar with Osto's model. It may be specific to India, from where you are writing.

2) The Random method is a starting point. If you can find two other similar publications with measured duplication, you can use the duplication ratio from those publications. If you literally mean "effective reach," that is, reach at or above a minimum exposure level, then you need a more complex formula or a computer program like Telmar's ADplus.


Saturday, May 23, 1998 #1602
I am looking for any guidelines / research about: 1- number of spots for radio (sustaining level, 50% heavy up, 100% heavy up 2 - if I have continues strategy what maximum gap of not being on air may I allow without harm to sales (one week, two, three?) 3 - in my country (Russia) we have practice in outdoor not to place competitors on two opposite sides of billboard, ahzt I think is not correct, as each face of billboard works for different directions and can not compete with each other. What is the practice regarding this in other countries. Thank you very much.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 26, 1998 ):
1) The Guru doesn't judge radio effectiveness in terms of numbers of spots. If one schedule of 12 spots, for example, has an average rating of 0.5 (one-half of 1 percent of the target audience), which is common, it cannot be considered equal to another station's 12 spots with an average rating of 2.5 (also reasonable for top stations in the US). The first accumulates 6 GRPs and might reach 3% of the target, the second accumulates 30 GRPs and might reach 12-15% of the target.

So GRPs' or other audience measure are more realistic ways to determine levels. Having done this, if you determine that 100 GRPs, for example, is the correct sustaining level, then by simple arithmetic, 50% heavy-up is 150 GRPs and 100% heavy-up is 200 GRPs

2) Awareness begins to decline as soon as there is any advertising gap. Current thinking is that sales of a continuously purchased product are better supported by continuity at whatever level is affordable rather than an arbitrary minimum effective weekly level, separated by periods of inactivty. The U.S.'s Advertising Research Foundation has considerable literature on the topic and so might ESOMAR , the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research organization

3) The Guru agrees with you regarding opposite sides of a billboard. The competitive protection policies the Guru is familiar with in the U.S. only deal with advertising seen by the same audience, that is, traffic headed in the same direction. Usually there will be a certain range specified, such as "Within 500 feet" for metropolitan 8-sheet boards, which are about 5x12 feet and can be placed in dense concentration within cities.


Thursday, May 21, 1998 #1600
Gurus, thanks for the extraordinary service and the opportunity to bounce ideas/ask questions of media experts. My question has to do with screen advertising...those sometimes tacky slides shown in movie theatres before the previews, before the movie. I know one needs to consider the audience size, demographics and psychographics (dictated by the movie shown). Do you have any input or research on the effectiveness of this kind of advertising? Anything on the environment (actual, plus the advertising environment) in which the messages are presented? Any guidelines as regards pricing? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 21, 1998 ):
In the Guru's experience, the "tacky slides" are likely to be ads by small, local advertisers. Tracking of results by these advertisers is not likley to ne available. On the other hand, the full scale, filmed commercials are usually handled by major reps, like Cinespot (212-679-2000) or Screenvision (212-752-5744), who would have research data available.

These are also the best resources for price estimates. The Guru would anticipate a broad target cpm in the $20 range, depending on several variables.


Thursday, May 14, 1998 #1592
Dear Guru, There are two questions I wish to address to you: 1. Is there any rule of thumb regarding the weight of 10'' spots? How effective can a relatively 'small' campaign composed chiefly of such short spots can be? By a small campaign I mean one that has arounc 300-400 GRP. 2. When it comes to factors that either enhance or lessen the effectiveness of a campaign, are there any conventions regarding the use of relevant factors? The order in a break may be a more familiar example but there are other factors that one may incorporate to a media plan, e.g whether the commercial is new or not. Thank you so much for the attention Iris Kalka Pelled3 Communications

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 14, 1998 ):
1) The Guru's rule of thumb in general, is if the effectiveness - relative to a :30 - is better than the price ratio, a :10 can be a good investment. In the early days of :15s in the U.S., they were evaluated as about 75% as effective as :30s, and sold for 50%, so they were popular. The Guru believes he has seen research to say a :10 is worth 75% of a :15.

However, you are posting from Israel. Your local standards may be different, because of the different culture and different media environment, clutter, media mix, etc. If you can ascertain a local effectiveness ratio, you can make an informed decision.

In any case, the Guru believes these short executions are best used as a supplement to longer copy. The Guru does not believe most creative people would be comfortable with only :10 copy and just 300-400 GRP. 2) The number of factors, such as break position, age of commercial, complexity of message, product interest, etc, which can be influential is almost infinite. The relative influence is a judgement call. Evaluating through a logical process, by establishing your rules and executing them, is best.

The Guru has seen these factors used to develop an effective frequency basis for a media plan's communication goals. In this way all considerations come down to a single number.


Monday, May 11, 1998 #1588
Is this any accepted measurement standard in place to effectively price web-page advertising? Also, has any service been able to obtain more direct response information, re:web-site hyperlinks, other than just counting "hits"?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 11, 1998 ):
Web (banner) advertising is typically priced in one of 4 ways:
  • CPM- (cost per thousand ad exposures)
  • Flat fee ( usually calculated, by the seller, and compared, by the buyer, on an exposure basis)
  • Cost per click ( based on the number of times the banner gets clicked by a visitor to the site where it is displayed)
    This is not a very reasonable method, since the responsibility for making the copy attractive enough to stimulate clicks and fresh enough to keep stimulating clicks properly belongs with the advertiser, not the medium
  • Transactional ( where the payments to the site are based on the visitor's action when arriving at the advertiser's site; including making a purchase, requesting information, or navigating within the advertiser's site)

"Nobody" really counts "hits" anymore. Page exposures of the site and exposures of ads are the coin of the realm.

The latter two models above are direct response measures.


Thursday, May 07, 1998 #1584
1.how to achieve better reach in lesser media budget? 2.please provide some tips on clever media planning. 3.who is best media planner as per you and why?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, May 08, 1998 ):
1. If reach is the only concern then it is usually easy to find media with higher reach per dollar. For example, outdoor delivers enormous reach and has the lowest cpm of all traditional media.

Smaller units also stretch budgets without losing reach. Fractional pages or TV :15's instead of :30's, radio :30's instead of :60s also help.

But of course, there are other, copy effectiveness and impact issues associated with these media choices. There is always a trade off; you can't get more reach in the same media for less money, unless you can persuade the sellers to lower the prices.

2. Clever media planning includes some of the ideas above, but also requires a planner to sell the ideas for their benefits, and get past the negatives. The goal of media planning is to deliver on the marketing objectives.

"Clever" is doing it in non-standard ways. Can you persuade the media to create special programming which ties into your campaign? Can you show the media a benefit to them in carrying your ads so that they want to resduce the price or give more than the usual value added elements?

If the Guru has one real tip on clever planning it is: Learn to use and understand the research which is available. Few in media today do. An knowledge of what research is available and how to apply it to media decision making will make a planner stand out, and appear clever and creative, because that planner, in fact, will be so.

3. The Guru himself is the best planner he knows. The nature of the media planner's position in the ad business is to be subordinated to creative and account services. There is little chance for planners to become known beyond their agencies. No doubt the "best media planner" lurks in unsung obscurity in a hundred agencies.


Monday, May 04, 1998 #1579
Guru, A partner and myself have recently started a company that specializes in custom audio for radio and television advertising (eg. jingles,custom music beds,voice-overs, or anything audio). My question is this: How do we go about finding the agencies or businesses that could benefit from this service? Our goal is to be the most cost effective professional service provider in this field. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 04, 1998 ):
The The Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies lists contact information, services and staffing of Advertisng Agencies


Monday, March 23, 1998 #1548
what is the correct television weight for a campaign

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 30, 1998 ):
The "Correct" weight depends on many factors, there is no one correct weight.

One way, but certainly not the only way, to calculate an appropriate level is to follow this checklist:

  • (A) How many new sales / product units, etc are your monthly sales goal?
  • (B) What percentage of the prospects who are successfully exposed to your campaign are likley to buy what you are selling?
  • Divide (A) by (B) to determine with how many prospects per month your advertising must effectively communicate.
  • Using the reach and frequency calculating system of your choice and your judgement of "effective levels of communications, calculate what level of weight delivers the desired effecively reached audience.


Monday, March 23, 1998 #1541
I need latest info on the recency theory for tv media planning and the general opinion of the industry on this theory.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 30, 1998 ):
Trade publications like Ad Age, Mediaweek and Jou rnal of Advertising Research cover this topic regularly, with articles from Erwin Ephron, Walter Reichel and John Paul Jones.

Newsweek Media Research Index and theAdvertising Research Foundation Library also archive such information.

The Guru believes the industry is still divided on Recency vs effective Reach.


Thursday, March 05, 1998 #1521
What is recency planning and is it different from the method of acquiring effective frequency as a media objective

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, March 05, 1998 ):
Recency planning is quite different than effective frequency planning.

Recency planning is based on the premise that the ad exposure closest to the time of purchase decision is far more effective than any other.

Hence flighting, to build up to a given effective frequency, for a shorter period of time will sell less product than having some activity at any time when purchase might be occurring.


Tuesday, February 10, 1998 #1503
I have recently moved to the US after working with JWT, India for 5 years. While familiarising myself with the new terminology was easy enough, i need a better handle on the media industry- any articles on audience fragmentation,case studies on effective media strategy, or indeed any reading that you think would give me a holistic picture of the industry would be very helpful. Also,any pointers on where i could get hold of case studies on Nike,Levis,Budweiser,Volkswagen,Apple etc(I realise that is not a media related question, but would be grateful for help). Lastly, any research paper on how teenagers consume advertising. Thanks for your time and help.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, February 10, 1998 ):
There is no one book that answers all your questions. The Advertising Research Foundation Library, however can provide much of what you need. The Newsweek Media Research Index will also be useful.


Tuesday, January 20, 1998 #1490
What are the advantages of a client having an Agency of Record (AOR)?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 22, 1998 ):
The Agency of Record is the one authorized to order media for the client. In a sense every client has an agency of record. The term has come to mean situations where the buying agency is not necessarily the creative agency and is common when a large advertiser whose brands are handled by several agencies designates one of the agencies to handle all business in a particular medium. The advantage, in theory, is that the AOR has more "clout" in negotiation. A second advantage, especially in TV is being able to allocate spots from a large pool of purchases to brands in a way most efficient and effective for all.


Tuesday, December 02, 1997 #1469
I am conducting a study on factors influencind effectiveness of ads on FM Radio. I will be measuring ad-recall, w.r.t factors like ad-length, ad-position, ad block length, likeability. I am scouting for secondary info, but i do not seem to find any. I would like a copy of Mr. Colin McDonald's study on factors affecting ad-recall. Could you tell me as to where i could find the study and other relevant info. thanks. rahul_thaps@hotmail.com

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 03, 1997 ):
The best source is likely to be the Advertising Research Foundation library.


Thursday, November 27, 1997 #1463
What about wear on and wear out

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 27, 1997 ):
"What about" is a question that invites too broad a response. The Guru has discussed wear out frequently: see Oct 27, below, and the Guru Archives under Media Planning, Media effectiveness, Media Math and Media Research.

"Wear on" is not a familiar term to the Guru, perhaps it is peculiar to Italy, from where this query comes.


Tuesday, October 21, 1997 #1439
Dear Guru: Do you know of any facts or statistics that explain how ad clutter (especially in local television news) affects the retention and overall effectiveness of the spot? I'm particularly interseted in the automobile category (local dealers, dealer groups, and manufacturers), since there is an overwhelming amount of it in our local tv news programming.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 21, 1997 ):
From time to time, TV "attentiveness" figures have been produced by S immons and MRI. among others.

Generally, the figures seem to correlate inversely with commercial load, and to some extent, directly, with rating size.

The Advertising Research Foundation or Newsweek Media Research Index may have some of the published reports.


Saturday, October 18, 1997 #1438
Dear Guru Could you please give me your views/suggestions on the following: 1. How can you set media objectives for a banking client in a market with only two major competitors; both of whom do not have a clear-cut advertising campaign? Would a % above last years GRP levels be appropriate; in proportion to the market share desired? What other parameters should I consider? 2. Qualitatively or quantitatively, how can front page solus positions in newspapers be compared with inside pages and ear panels? 3. And lastly, how do you add TV and press GRPs; for a specific audience? Sorry about the long query. Thanks in advance

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, October 18, 1997 ):
As a rule, the Guru sets media objectives based on marketing goals, not competitors' activity. Some marketing goals do indeed lead one to comparsions with competition, and awareness of competitors' plans is always a consideration.

If the key marketing goal is share growth, then a proportional increase in weight is one approach. But consider that share, like reach, exhibits an asymptotic curve. In other words, it can't pass 100%, so the higher it goes, the more effort is required to "move the needle."

Consider: You first assume that "X" amount of GRP's are required just to maintain share, on the assumption that competitive activity doesn't vary (and that advertising is the only variable influencing share).

Have you considered whether current share is proportional to share of GRP weight among competitiors?

Would 50% more GRPs grow share by 50%? No, if only because it increases the size of the total advertising arena. Your 50% increase in GRP does not increase your share of GRP by 50%, so calculate the right number to increase share of GRP, if you follow that philosophy.

But since there are competitors, perhaps it takes 50% more weight to gain 25% more share?

Newspaper positions can be compared on a basis of noting, reading, recall, etc. In each country or culture (you are writing from India), the relative power of media and the way consumers relate to them are different.

In the U.S., for example, a front page ad in a newspaper would be quite unusual if not unheard of.

Contacting the U.S. Advertising Research Foundation or ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Marketing Research organization, or your own country's newspaper advertising association may turn useful up research on positioning.

The Guru treats GRPs of different media as simply additive. When there are established effectiveness factors, as some advertisers have developed, GRPs may be accordingly adjusted before adding, in comparing plans.


Monday, September 22, 1997 #1417
I'd like to ask about how to make a successfull site, or some address where can I find some information, tips to make my commmercial site better. I hope You can give me Reports, or BluePrints, or something like these.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 22, 1997 ):
There are some interesting data linked from CommercePark

CASIE, the Coalition on Advertiser Supported Interactive Entertainment, compiles available research on web audience accumulation and ad effectiveness.


Friday, August 22, 1997 #1400
Where could I find information regarding how automotive companies (i.e. Toyota, Oldsmobile, & Cadillac), handle their media planning and buying on a local/regional level?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 22, 1997 ):
Contacting the radio and TV stations or reps in the regions in which you are interested should tell you who is buying for each auto company in a given area. Only two or three calls to the major reps, should produce all the information.

The planning techniques may well be closely-guarded proprietary information.

Whether A/S style budgeting, investment spending, share gap, etc., etc. is used. Whether computer models and optimizations are used or not. Whether regions have freedom or just participate in nationally-based plans.

Whether agency leads in media selection or the advertiser.

Whether media types are purely based on creative considerations or media effectiveness and targeting ability.


Thursday, August 21, 1997 #1397
Where could I find information regarding how automotive companies (i.e. Toyota, Oldsmobile, & Cadillac), handle their media planning and buying on a local/regional level?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 22, 1997 ):
Contacting the radio and TV stations or reps in the regions in which you are interested should tell you who is buying for each auto comapny in a given are. Only two or three calls to the major reps, should produce all the information.

The planning techniques may well be closely guarded proprietary information, whether A/S style budgeting, investment spending, share gap, etc., etc. is used. Whether computer models and optimizations are used or not. Whether regions have freedom or just participate in nationally-based plans. Whether agency leads in media selection or the advertiser. Whether media types are pruley based on creative considerations or media effectiveness and targeting ability.


Friday, August 08, 1997 #1386
I wanna know if exists any similar combination for media as exists with marketing-mix with the 4 P's (product, placement, price and promotion).

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 08, 1997 ):
Though not as alliterative, the comparable media factors might be:

  • Ad unit
    (length/size/coloration)
  • Frequency
  • Target
  • Geography
  • Media Mix

All this is, of course, a sub-set of marketing's "Promotion" element.

Other factors in media, which you would be used to encountering in plans' Objectives and Strategies sections, come before or after these decision points. For instance, Budget, which controls the degree of freedom possible in selecting options for the list and Reach / effective Reach which is essentially a result of the decisions made about the listed factors.


Monday, June 23, 1997 #1369
Newspaper advertising is often referred to as a "shopper's medium" and many advertisers list specific items with price points for those shoppers. Do you know of any statistics that indicate a percentage how many people fall into that "shoppers" category for various products (i.e. auto, grocery, clothing, retail merchandise, etc.) vs. those people who are more apt to shop at a particular store because of its location, reputation, overall prices where this type of advertising may not be as effective?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 23, 1997 ):
The The Newspaper Advertising Association is most likely to have research on this topic. A second choice would be the Advertising Research Foundation


Thursday, June 19, 1997 #1366
Dear Guru, I have a set of urgent questions to ask of you. I have a meeting tomorrow, and need your help! 1. How is effective reach calculated? 2. Reach v/s Frequency -- when should one be given priority / importance over the other? 3. Is there any way of taking creative into account while analysing competition? If yes, can a system of weights be worked out? 4. How do you reconcile to the vast difference between reach/frequency deliveries from a Peoplemeter system as opposed to the Diary system? My client refuses to accept a 4+ reach of 30% being accustomed to levels of 70% for the same plan! Would greatly appreciate your immediate reply.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 19, 1997 ):
1) In any schedule of several commercials, some of the target group will see only one, some will see two, some will see three, some will see four, some five, etc, etc.

The actual measurement is based on tracking the cume of several different advertisers schedules in a single measurement period such as one month of the PeopleMeter.

A mathematical model that will match the measured GRP/Frequency is calculated so that plan deliveries can be predicted. Going more deeply into the actual measurement, it can be determined how many people of each demographic group were exposed to each commercial in the schedule and a model calculated which will predict that performance for a plan.

For example, below is the typical output of a computer models' frequency distribution, showing what percent of the target saw exactly n commercials and what percent saw n+. (this example is from Telmar's ADplus):

                    Frequency (f) Distributions 
                           ------------------------------------- 
                                  % who saw
                                 ---------------
                          #seen exactly  at least     
                          ----- -------  -------
               Target:      f     rch    rch    
               P18-49      ---   -----  -----   
                            0     69.1  100.0   
                            1     11.5   30.9    
                            2      6.0   19.3    
                            3      3.7   13.4   
                            4      2.6    9.6   
                            5      1.8    7.1    
                            6      1.3    5.2   
                            7      1.0    3.9   
                            8      0.7    2.9   
                            9      0.6    2.2   
                           10+     1.6    1.6   
                           20+     0.0    0.0    

2) Reach vs Frequency: The determination of emphasis here can be a complicated analysis making up the greater part of a plan's documentation, under the heading of "communications strategy." A commercial so powerful that it's sell is overwhelming in one exposure might take the "Let's buy one spot in the Superbowl" route as did the Macintosh computer with the classic "1984" execution.

In more competitive situations, competitors' levels are taken into account, clutter in the media of choice, copy quality, etc. Obviously a balance must eventually be struck between reach and frequency based on judging all these factors.

3) There are several ways to take creative into account while setting up reach vs frequency goals;

The complexity or simplicity of the message

The number of commercial in the pool

how close your commercial is to the established "wear-out" level

The balance of :30 to :15

etc, etc. can all be assigned factors and totalled or averaged to give a reach vs frequency emphasis factor

a similar exercise can also set effective frequency thresholds

4) There should not be "vast" differences between effective reaches based on people meter and diary systems if schedule GRP and other aspects are the same. 5 or 10% would be the range the Guru would expect.

A plan with a 70 reach at the 4+ level would be delivering in the range of 98% total reach. It sounds as if your client may be confusing a plan with 70 reach and an average frequency of 4 with 70 at an effective frequency of 4. Or perhaps confusing 4-week reach with a long term cume?


Friday, June 13, 1997 #1365
Dear Guru, Could you please give your opinion on what can be viewed as a recommended level of GRP, frequency and effective frequency for a highly competitive advertising category on TV. As an example we can take a carbonated soft drinks' category. What should be the planning guidelines? When and why we should use flighting (pulsing) or what is the rationale for a continous campaign. Additionally to TV which other media should we use and why? Thank you in advance, Bob

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 13, 1997 ):
You are actually asking for the complete Objectives, Strategies and communications tactics of a full scale media plan, without offering enough background.

Nevertheless, here are some considerations:

One theory of competitive media planning calls for delivering a minimum of 10% more impressions than the key competitor, in head to head media. This assures beating the competition in GRP, reach and effective reach.

Budget is a consideration. If there is not enough money to compete as above nationally, then selecting geography where the delivery advantage can be maintained should allow you to beat the competition, bit by bit, until you can afford national support.

When there are time-sensitive promotional issues, then pulsing can be an effective way to deliver more impressions over the crucial period. Recent media theory has emphasized the benefits of continuity, because "the impression delivered closest to the purchase decision is the most effective impression." In the soft drink category, where purchase decisions are constant, continuity may be generally preferable to pulsing.

In other, highly competitive, seasonal categories pulsing may be needed.

As far as recommending other media, that calls for more information, but please look at the Guru's Media Advertising Strenghths


Thursday, May 29, 1997 #1358
Is there any model or guideline that help me to allocate the media budget between regional media and local media, i.e. how much should be put behind regional media vs local media

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 02, 1997 ):
There are several models for accomplishing this media task. There are basic decision points that must be addressed before doing the actual calculations:

-Will you allocate impressions or dollars? (dollars leads to more efficient plans overall)

-Will you set goals for local delivery based on population, sales, brand development, category development or some other basis for assigning value to local markets?

A delivery goal is established for each market or region: e.g. let each DMA receive a percentage of all the plan's impressions equal to the DMAs percentage of the product's sales or the market's percentage of US population, etc.

Then, by examining how each national medium delivers its impressions to each DMA, using Nielsen data, ABC circulation, etc. you can determine how much media needs to be purchased locally to achieve the market by market goals.

The first time you must guess how much budget to allocate to national media, to see how the impressions fall before you have a local media budget to experiment with. Then it becomes an iteritive process to fine tune the allocation.

The Guru suggests you begin with about 75% in national media and 25% in local. If the local skews are stronger, e.g. many BDIs outside the 75 to 150 range, you will likely need a greater proportion of local funding.

It is possible to incorporate many adjustment factors, such as market efficiency, relative effectiveness of national and local media elements, etc.


Friday, March 28, 1997 #1002
I'd like to find out information on in-theater movie advertising. Any research on its effectiveness etc.? What companies sell it and is it sold locally and nationally?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 30, 1997 ):
The Guru's first thought for a sales organixation would be

Screenvision Cinema Network
6601 Center Dr W Los Angeles, CA 90045
(310-342-8240)

They should have the research and availability information you need.


Thursday, March 20, 1997 #1011
Hi, where could I find answers to the following questions:
* What are the most used vehicles to advertise on the net?
* What are the costs to advertise through these vehicles?
* Are there any audience rates availabel for these vehicles?
* What are the rules and regulations to advertise on the net?
* What is the effectiveness of advertising on the net?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 21, 1997 ):
The Guru could write a book in answer to these questions.

  • Top sites:Jupiter Communications is the best accepted ad spending tracker, and this link presently gives 1996 total billings for the top 10 sites.
  • Costs to advertise:
    Webtrack is one source of web advertising prices. (read with care, sometimes cpm is listed as if it were a total price)
    FocaLinkprovides cost as well as content/audience information.
  • Audience:
    PC-Meter reports audience for hundreds of sites.
    MRI and Simmons also report web site audiences.
  • Rules: It's still the Wild, Wild, Web as far as regulations go. There is some standardization in agreement to definitions on "impressions" as a basis for ad pricing according to cost-per-thousand impressions. and ad pricing per banner "click-through." There is also some ad size standardization thanks to CASIE and the IAB. Details of these sizes and definitions will be listed in AMICs new I-Trac area. Meanwhile, see the CASIE Definitions and CASIE Standards for banners.
  • Ad effectiveness: Ad effectivenss will vary by ad type and appropriateness of placement. The same could be said for any medium. There is a CASIE Research Compendium which offers several studies on the topic.


Wednesday, March 12, 1997 #1304
Dear GuruI am interresting in your oppinion on the changing shape of the media environment.What do you think how the media changing for the near future, what are the main trends in the media and how will it change the media planning?Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 24, 1997 ):
Media have always changed. Once there were only print media and billboards. Then radio, then TV. Not only do new media arise, but the numbers of media vehicles of each type of each type proliferate. The web is only the latest and most explosive example of this proliferation. What causes the changes for the planner is the availability of research and hard facts on which to base decisions, rather than using theory. One of the biggest changes may be the growing emphasis on direct response models for evaluating media effectiveness, rather than awareness, recall, or requests for additional information.

Or is it the ability to apply computer models to planning?


Monday, February 17, 1997 #1045
I am interested in obtaining research that explores effective consumer promotion television weight levels. A typical consumer promotion window may be 2 - 3 weeks. Most consumer promotions are planned in the neighbourhood of 300 GRPs / week. Is there any research that has measured effective levels. I am trying to identifity an optimal level, a level (or range) below which response/sales suffer and/or above which response/sales do not substanitially increase.Goal- avoid spending too little or too much against a given promotion.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 21, 1997 ):
There are so many variable beyond GRP weight that the Guru doubts you will find simple answers.

Just a few are copy length, daypart mix, competitive arena, product interest, and commercial quality and wear-out status. Further, the Guru thinks that effective reach / frequency is a more useful quantitaive standard than pure GRP.

Two places to look for relevant research would be Newsweek Media Research Index or Advertising Research Foundation


Monday, February 10, 1997 #1051
Dear Guru,Our publishing company has recently aquired another company that hosts a site on the internet. This site is very popular with a solid demographic. As of yet there has been little effort to sell advertising/banners on the site. What would you suggest is the most effective (revenue producing) way of getting advertisers to place ads on our site?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, February 11, 1997 ):
The Guru suggests determining who is the ad decision maker at companies which would most benefit by advertising on your site; ie, have their own site an target the same demographic. Then approach them by mail or by phone followed with a good written piece documenting your selling points.


Friday, February 07, 1997 #1060
With the multiplication of TV with network, cable, direct through satellite, etc, radio already fragmented and press, what in your opinion are the more efective media investments? The traditional or new media? If new media? Which?. If a combination? A hint on what proportions?50% traditional against 50% new?.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 08, 1997 ):
The Guru believes broad generalities in answer to such questions are always mostly wrong.

effectiveness of media investments always "depends." Who is your target? / what is the target's involvement with the specific medium? / how do the medium or individual vehicles of the medium fit with your message or creative or marketing strategy? / how does your product relate to the medium?

To bring people not very involved in the web to your web site you probably need traditional media mixed with web ads. To sell web related products, advertising on the web is probably the best investment. Media are not abstractions, they must be matched to targets and marketing goals.


Tuesday, February 04, 1997 #1056
What is the best way to determine effective reach? Any availabale research?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 09, 1997 ):
effective reach refers to the concept that people exposed to advertising are only exposedd "effectively' beginning witha certian number of repetitions of the message.

originally, 3 tiems was the standard, based on the work of Ebinghaus in the 1880's, who tested learning of nonsense syllables.

Today logic and experience tells us that many factors determine the number of repetions necessary before recognition and understanding of a message will turn into motivation to buy.

The power of the creative, the clutter of the media used, the competitive environment, the interest of the consumer in the category, whether it is an impulse item otr considerd purchase are just a few of the 20+ factors commonly used to judge whether the effective level mustbe set at 3, 4, 6 or more.


Tuesday, February 04, 1997 #1057
What is the best way to evaluate outdoor - qualitatively and quantitatively? Any available research?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 09, 1997 ):
In the US, outdoor is typically packaged in "showings" of 25 / 50 / 100 which generally mean 25 / 50 / or 100 grps per day, that is, a selection of locations with a total daily effective circulation equal to 25 or 50 or 100% of the adult population of the market. (demographic data is often very approximate).

Outdoor delivers very high reaches at low CPMs. Message lengths are of course quite limited.

Barring specific creative testing or pre-post attitude awareness and usage tracking, evaluation is very much a judgement call based on creative and your communications goals.


Sunday, February 02, 1997 #1061
Do you have any research which demonstrates the advantages/disadvantages (effectiveness/ineffectiveness) of Free Sanding Inserts?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 03, 1997 ):
The Guru would ask the The Newspaper Advertising Association


Wednesday, January 15, 1997 #1076
Hi, I work for a News Radio station. Is there any place I can look for format research that shows the effectiveness against different product categories? Likewise, are there any success stories on record that I could use to sell my product? Thanks very much for your assistance .

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 15, 1997 ):
The Radio Advertising Bureau has a great compilation of radio research facts.

Interep maintains an excellent collection of case studies of radio successes, indexed by format.

Simmons and MRI report on format listening versus product consumption.


Thursday, January 02, 1997 #1085
A non-profit visual arts agency is putting all of their $ into developing a direct marketing brochure. Just mailing something out doesn't seem like enough. How do we make this more effective with no more $ in the budget?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 02, 1997 ):
There are two major elements in the success of any directmailing:

-The quality of the list

-The mailing piece itself.

Make sure you have a wellscreened highly qualified list of best potentialprospects. Without knowing the actual goals you have as a response,the Guru can say no more.


Friday, December 20, 1996 #1087
How do the concepts of effective frequency relate todirect response advertising? Should the same rules of frequency be taken into account when planning forresponse as when planning for awareness? Is frequency even a factor in D.R. or should I just max out on impressions and occasions?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, December 21, 1996 ):
effective frequency applies, but differently. If it takes 3 repetitions for a message to be absorbed, then DR may need the 3 repitions as well before it begins to work. But perhaps that's why DR messages are often 90's or 120's, There is the chance to repeat information 3 or more times and capture attention. In half hour infomercials, it is not unusual for ther to be 3 10 minute cycles of repeated information.


Thursday, December 19, 1996 #1089
Dear Guru...I am in the process of starting a retail mail order business..I am literally starting on a shoestring ...I was wondering what advice you could give as far as the most effective media for the money and any general media advice as well. Thanks..

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, December 21, 1996 ):
How much money? In given circumstances, radio, outdoor, direct mail, newspaper or TV might be the most productive use of money. It depends on total budget, what geography one needs to cover and what sort of message needs to be conveyed


Monday, December 09, 1996 #1091
Do you know where I can find research or reportsregarding creative effectiveness in a web page? (i.e. themore creative, fun and colorful the more viewership it isgoing to receive.)

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, December 20, 1996 ):
The December issue of Ad Age'sNetMarketingcites several studies on this topic.


Tuesday, November 26, 1996 #1104
I currently publish a quarterly newsletter for a doucmentmanagement firm which outlines some of the services, software,and hardware that is available today in our industry.In recent converstaion it has come across that we wouldlike to focus our information based upon customer needsand wants in document management.

My first thought was to release a survey that wouldeffectivley find data that would allow us to analyze thecurrent market trends and cater our publication to theirparticular interests or needs.

The only problem I have at this time is findinginformation that will guide me in the right direction ingenerating effective surveys that do not sway theresponses of people taking the survey. I am planning toinclude this survey in the next release of the publicationwhich will be late December early January. (hopefully)

If you could direct me to books, websites, or any otherresource that can provide me with some "good" information oneffective question design I would really appreciate it.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 27, 1996 ):
The Guru regards questionnaire design as an art, rather than a formualristictechnique which can be learned from books. The Guru haspracticed the art himself, and learned it by being part of anorganization which had the expertise and through formal academictraining. Having visited many marketing research sites, the Gurudoes not recall seeing any attempts to teach questionnairedesign. Questionnaire designers begin with a good understandingof the way the intended respondent thinks about the products orprocesses to be surveyed. Often this is doene by conducting"qualitative research" such as focus, groups first. The best wayto learn something quickly about designing questionnaires is toread through actual questionnaires that have been used, alongside their survey results, the oiriginal hypotheses or issuestatement and the conclusions drawn from the data.

Surely there are text books in this field. Try Barnes and Noble.

You are wiseto realize that questionnaire design can substantiallyinfluence the validity of the data. But so can sample design. Agood questionnare used among a poorly selected sample, such as"any customer willing to return a survey" will be equallyunreliable in predicting consumer behavior.


Thursday, October 31, 1996 #1115
Dear Guru,I am carrying out a study on the effects of frequency on attitudes and behavior, distinguishing between low and high involvement productsAre there any previous learnings on this subject ?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 31, 1996 ):
Compilations of such research are best available from the Advertising Research Foundation or the Newsweek Media Research Index at VMR.

There ahve been several trade articles on the concept -- effective frequency vs propinquity -- most notably by Irwin Efron, and some by Abbott Wool and others, published in Inside Media and MediaWeek.


Wednesday, October 09, 1996 #1129
I was wondering what the effective levels of reach &frequency for a new product launch would be, as well as an adequate budget?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 11, 1996 ):
Determining the effective levels and desired geographic scope will determine adequate budget.

There are no absolutes in effective levels for intros or any other purpose.

Issues to consider include:

  • Competition; how many, spending how much
  • Clutter in the media to be used
  • Typical levels of frequency in the media used
  • Complexity of your message
  • Interest in your product type - e.g. insurance vs sports cars
  • Ability of the target consumer to digest information
  • and others which may be specific to your own situation.

Generally, you want to reach the majority of your target at the determined effective level.


Friday, September 27, 1996 #1137
I am looking for advertising effectiveness research which can be transferred to the medium of direct marketing. In particular, I am interested in direct mail saturation. I have checked the guru archives. Can you suggest where I could look? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, September 27, 1996 ):
The Advertising Research Foundation library is probably the largest compendium of advertising research.

There is a lot at The U of Texas, Austin, though how much direct marketing data is not certain.

Finally, the direct marketing experts are the Direct Marketing Association (DMA)


Monday, September 16, 1996 #1146
Has anyone already validated the old ratio theory, in order to provide help in answering such statements as : "adspends should not represent more than X% of our turnover in this country"? I know this appears like a rather naive question, but some still use this so-called ratio as a weapon and as a norm, regardless of launching years and conflicting effectiveness measurement tools. Have you got an answer , maybe not so simple as the question ?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 17, 1996 ):
The Guru says "no." Except for individual brands/services basing ratios on their own experience.

Otherwise such static ratios are always limited in applicability.

First, they generally only apply within product category, to take account of competitive environment.

They also must vary with brand maturity; launching always requires spending ahead of sales. Mature, established, category dominating brands can spend at a lower ratio.

Market position is also a factor, a smaller share-of-market holder needs a higher ratio to grow share.

There are so few simple answers to marketing questions, once we go beyond "does advertising work?"


Tuesday, September 03, 1996 #1152
My company has just developed an internet site as an extension of its core business. I'm in the aviationfield. The chiefs believe since we have an internetbusiness, we must advertise on the internet. I'm concerned about its effectiveness over more conventionalmethods. I'm not so concerned about prices, thoughI find it ridiculous some charge $1,000 per month andcan't tell me how many "hits" they get. Is there anyPROOF internet advertising really works?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, September 04, 1996 ):
Short answer: NO
Eternal answer: It depends

Some are succeeding according to the standard they have set themselves for success. "Success" must be measured against goals. Is internet advertising going to be used to sell your company's product / service or to bring visitors to your site?

Nobody should be charging serious money without being able to count hits / accesses. It's too easy, today, to attach a counter like "Web Counter" and be accountable to paying advertisers. Any site which can charge $1000 / month can surely afford its own documentation.

If the web is your "store" however, you will want to advertise in other media which has a large audience of computer users within your target area.Eg; www.Amazon.com is a successful on-line bookstore which advertises its URL in the book section of major newspapers.

For you, aviation industry magazines are a possibility. Featuring your URL in your regular print advertising is a way to test the waters. If readers of those trade books are not drawn to your site, then there is less likelihood that web advertising will succeed with your customer.


Saturday, August 31, 1996 #1153
How does one determine what is effective advertising on the Internet?What would be thought to be an effective frequency?How does it compare with more traditional media (direct advertising etc)?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 02, 1996 ):
One first has to define what qualifies as advertising in the internet context. Is it a full web page or is it a banner ad on someone else's page?

effective frequency was long cosidered to be just a simple 3 or more times, stemming from the origninal 1883 Ebbinhaus learning theory experiment.

More recent theorists look at differnet amounts of repetion needed to "learn" an advertising message, based on content (high interest/low interest, etc) or environment (relevant surroundings, clutter, competition, etc).

But in the case of banners, these are usually no more than logos, with nothing to learn, they're fishing lures to bring the browser to the more detailed inormation. In the case of full web pages, the idea is either to draw the browser through the whole content if the page is an ad or to bring the browser back often if the page itself is a medium for other people's banner ads.

Learning and repetiton may not be relevant or may nned to be redefined.

In a direct mail context, the banner may be like the outside of the envelope, and the web page like the content. Both are a one-shot deal: effective frequency doesn't enter the picture.


Tuesday, July 23, 1996 #1176
My telecommunications client is planning a multimedia (TV, newspaper, radio) launch in Chicago this fall, hoping the phone will ring off the hook. Is there a way to predict response levels per medium (or in total?) for the client to effectively staff its phone lines? I have total population, target population, reach & frequency levels (for TV - a 6 week flight; for radio a different 6 week flight; print used in both flights). The kicker is: this is not a direct - response spot (of course, an 800# will be included, but generally, it's an image builder). I also know that it will depend greatly on many things creatively (length of time the 800# is on the screen, is it a pnemonic number, is there an offer, etc). I'm thinking if there is an easy answer to this, I wouldn't have a job.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 24, 1996 ):
The safe answer is to contract an "inbound telemarketing"service which is large enough to expand or contract around your actual traffic. Depending on the offer and strength of copy, calls could equal .01% to 5.0% or more of persons reached. Using a service the first time out, especially if you're not specifically setting up a DR business, will give you benchmarks for the future.


Sunday, July 07, 1996 #1185
I am convinced that with a limited budget it is necessary to reach "effective" reach levels at a given period of time rathe than spread thos dollars throughout the year to achieve low levels but high coninuity. I am working in the Automotive field. Please help me. I need specific documented research studies on effective reach!!!

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 08, 1996 ):
It isn't clear what your query is. Many people continue to feel as you do. In recent years, many others have espoused the "propinquity" theory which advocates continuous low levels, based on the idea that the single exposure closest to a purchase occasion is the most effective.

There has been considerable trade publication comment on the matter, most often by Erwin Ephron, probably the leading proponent of propinquity. A recent Advertising Research Foundation workshop devoted considerable attention to this issue, and the proceeding of that conference should be available from the ARF. There have been opposing positions, in agreement with yours, published as well, one of the earliest by Abbott Wool in Media Week shortly after Ephron's first publication of the theory.

The Guru has discussed this before, so using your browser's "find" function to scan this page and the Guru archives will provide additional material.

Surely the most archetypical exception to continuity is for the highly seasonal product, as automotive products may be.


Tuesday, June 25, 1996 #1190
Have you come across any recent studies discussing measurementof effectiveness of newspaper retail advertising?I'm particularly interested in any studies which mayhave used sales response as the criterion variable.
Mike Donatello
Manager, Market Research, Newspaper Association of America11600 Sunrise Valley Dr., Reston, VA 22091
Voice: 703.648.1140 FAX: 703.648.9819
MDonatello@aol.com ........ primary
donam@naa.org............ backup

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, June 26, 1996 ):
The Guru's first choice for such questions would be the Newspaper Advertising Association.

The Newsweek Media Research Index On-line, maintained by Virtual Media Resources, lists several newspaper effectiveness studies, but the latest is from 1985.


Thursday, June 20, 1996 #1195
How do I maximize distribution of my message with a minimum amount of advertising dollars?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 21, 1996 ):
You are asking for an entire course in media planning.The simplest answer is to find the lowest cpm medium for your target group in the geographic area you want to cover.

This, of course, raises numerous goal-setting questions and leaves out evaluation of individual media vehicle effectivenss.

Simple answer #2: go to a media professional. His/her fee will be easily offset by the added value of a properly structered plan.


Thursday, June 20, 1996 #1196
Do you know about media planning and/or media effectiveness courses or congresses, in the united states or europe that you recommend?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 21, 1996 ):
There is not a lot one can learn from these 2 or 3 day courses. But often a good insight or two on a specific topic can be gleaned. The Guru (who has often been on the faculty of these seminars) does not recommend any in particular, but the trade magazines Inside Media and Media Week will generally carry advertising of the schedules of the major seminar series.


Tuesday, June 18, 1996 #1198
Hello Media Guru. I publish The Real Estate Book of Santa Fe, A digest Size advertising medium. Can you tell me if any studies have been done on the difference in effectiveness of a full page 8.5 by 11 ad and a full page digest size ad?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 18, 1996 ):
A good source is The Newsweek Media Research Index.


Friday, May 17, 1996 #1213
Dear Guru,I have two questions which you might have heard before.
a)I do know that a :15s commercial on TV cost between 50% to 75% of a :30s depending on market etc. Is there any studies that show what the benefit of either length is (if any) in terms of reach, frequency, effectiveness, memorability, etc.
b)I have seen studies praising the advantage of multiple media usage above single media; in other words using TV and radio instead of just TV. Can you elaborate on that and update with new info about this topic. Reason being a client who would like to slash the budget down to just using TV for campaigns. I however feel that there is an added benefit in using multiple media.Please respond by Monday if you can.Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 19, 1996 ):
a) There is is no difference in reach and frequency between a :15 and a :30. In the same time period, they have the same audience, within the tolerances of research measurement.

On the other hand, a schedule using :15's in place of some or all the :30's will provide more reach and frequency, because it has more announcements, hence more GRP, etc, for the same budget.

When :15's started to become popular several years ago, there was considerable research regarding effectiveness versus :30's. The general findings were that :15's had about 70 - 75% of the recall of a :30. At the time, :15's were typically a network option priced at 50% of :30's so the trade off of price vs effectiveness seemed favorable.

b) Multi-media plans chief benefit is in reach development, though the effects of the added reach have ripples in many directions.

Adding a new medium adds more reach than adding weight in the same medium: There are more likely to be different people in the audience of a different medium, over a given period of time. This applies to effective reach as well.

There are a variety of philosophical approaches to taking advantage of this.

One approach says to build reach up to a minimum effective level in the primary medium first, before adding the next medium. Another says build the first medium to the point where the reach curve flattens, then add the next medium to resume reach growth.

A newer, different line of thought, the "recency" theory, de-emphasizes reach in favor of delivering messages to the consumer closest to the point of making a purchas decison. This argues for continuity, to reach more people at all times rather than highest levels in sporadic flights. Again, multi-media will produce more reach, but other theories of minimum weekly levels may effect scheduling, ie radio bought to a minimum of 12x weekly when active.

Judgements must also be made regarding whether TV and radio is perceived as the same message by the consumer. Of course, this same judgement must be applied to different executions in the commercial pool of each individual medium as well.


Tuesday, April 30, 1996 #1231
I'm working on a presentation on how media planning professionals go about determining a media mix, and how a percent of budget is allocated to each medium being used. It's a general presentation for a client who is not very familiar with media planning terminology or methods. So far my sources for info include a couple of similar documents that I and others that I work with have written in the past, and the media planning textbook (by Scissors). Do you know of any other RECENT sources of info, points-of-view, articles on this topic? Or have you answered a similar question recently? If so, please tell me the category under which your response would be filed (I have looked through several categories of your responses and did not see anything relevant to this topic). Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 30, 1996 ):
In the broadest terms, the process may be thought of as

Marketing Goals ---> Marketing Strategies ---> Media Goals ---> Media Strategies ---> Media Tactics, etc.

A very simple example:

A marketing goal of increasing the number of users of product X might lead to a strategy of converting users of competitive brand Y.

The media goal might then be to optimize reach at effective levels of frequency among a demographic group matched to current users of brand Y.

The media strategy to achieve this might then be built by examining various media mixes to determine which produce the best balance of effective reach for the budget, within the creative limitations.

Of course this is just one possible marketing goal, one possible strategy that might emerge.

There are many ways to set reach goals, to set minimum effective levels or decide to apply the recent "proximity" or "recency" theory of exposure.

In short, one doesn't decide on percents of media and see how it turns out, one decides which media will best answer the marketing and media strategies. Often, some creative decisons have precedence: if TV is designated as the "primary medium" because of communications ability, need to demonstrate, etc, then the strategy migh dictate putting all money into TV "until the effective reach curve is exhausted."

There are infinite ways to express and measure goals and their achievment. Some standard media planning software, such as Telmar's Media Maestro, and Hispanic Media Maestro, allow easy examination of various mixes, instantly showing how reach/frequency/effective reach change as budget or schedules are shifted between media by the planner.


Sunday, March 17, 1996 #1261
I am involved with a company that is attempting to establish a series of what we call "Megascreens" throughout New Zealand. The Megascreen is a large (9-10 feet diagonal) videowall type screen made up of flat screen cubes. The quality of the picture is excellent, much better than the equivalent stack of TV monitors. We can use TV signal, Super VHS video tape or computer graphic generated ads. One of the problems we are coming up against is that potential advertisers are asking for data on the effectiveness of the Megascreen in terms of CPM's and the like. We have found this sort of data extremely difficult to get hold of for what is a relatively new media option. Do you have any suggestions on if any of this data is available ex the US, or what sort of calculation we should be offering prospective advertisers?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 18, 1996 ):
The key to your question is getting an audience (traffic) count for your Megascreens. This is more a factor of the specific location in which it is placed than the nature of the medium itself. You need to measure the number of people paasing the sites where your screens are. Then cpm is simply the cost divided by the traffic count.


Friday, March 15, 1996 #1263
Can you fill me in on "recency"? Sounds like a complicated way to say low media weight, long duration? Is this correct? If so, can it work with a small budget?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 18, 1996 ):
Recency does amount to lower weight and longer duration, but allows for more complex discussion. It is a theory which works in opposition to "effective reach." effective reach is based on the fact that 3, or some other minimum number of exposures to advertising, is necessary for the advertising to be digested, understood and begin to effect consumer behavior.

Recency posits that an exposure close to the moment of purchase decision is the most effective, therefore maintaining a constant presence of messages is most likely to catch the prospect at the crucial moment.

Obviously, even within the recency model, the more exposure provided at any given point in time the better the chance of catching a consumer at the critical time. Recency argues for continuity, not for low levels, though it is often used to justify low levels.

Recognizing that truly seasonal purchases call for different scheduling than regularly cyclical purchases, the concept says that if a given number of impressions are affordable, all else being equal, those impression will generate more sales when spread consistently rather that concentrated into flights at a presumed "effective" level.


Friday, February 16, 1996 #1760
Dear Mr. Guru, Thank you for your last reponse on how to calculate GRP's. You had mentioned that you had explained it fully except for Neilson's calculation methodology. I would be interested in hearing more about this method of calculation as well. Also, is there a "better" way to measure the actual "Impact" an ad campaign has had if you know the actual length of each ad, the frequency the ads ran and the channels(and shows) that they ran during. ie. frequency X length X Audience(rate for each time slot)?? This is obviously a simplified formula, but your feedback on this would be greatly appreciated. Lastly, for television advertising, what are some of the other accepted methods of measurement. Thanks (Again) darrylw@conceptus.on.ca

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 16, 1996 ):
It is Neilsen's survey methodology that wasn't covered. They would use the same calculation formulae. The full description of Neilsens methodologies for People Meter, household meter and diary would cover several pages. Contact Neilsen who will be happy to send you methodology booklets.

Regarding "impact" there are as many ways to evaluate this as there are advertisers.

Some advertisers use a factor for copy length based on norms from recall tests. For example, 75% of a :30 is a typical value for a :15.

Some use attentiveness by daypart.

Some use a combination of the two factors.

Some apply the factors to GRP as an indicator; some apply to GRPs and then estimate reach from those adjusted GRPs as an impact indicator.

The frequency of a schedule, as discussed so far, refers to the average frequency of exposure for all pesons reached.

There are those who use "effective reach," counting only persons reached at least 3 times (or any designated minimum) when evaluating the impact of a schedule.


Thursday, January 18, 1996 #1782
Is there any magazine research comparing the value of newsstand circ. vs. free point of sale publications? I would like to verify a sales rep's claim that his publication is a better buy, because it is at point of sale.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 02, 1996 ):
Two traditional concepts are worthy of consideration here:

1) It's a salesman's job to tell you his product is better, no matter what is provable

2) Basic media thinking holds that there is more perceived value, to the consumer, in something he/she has paid for than in something received for free. If that is the only distinction, the newstand publication should be stronger

Aside from that there are several questions to consider:

Is the point of sale publication literally at the place where the product is stocked in a store, as in a home decorating guide in the paint and wallpaper section or at paint stores, and you are advertising paint and brushes?

Or is it a general recipe magazine at the supermarket cashier while you are advertising dog food?

If the free title is topical and well placed, is the newsatnd title equally on topic?

How do you measure effectiveness, add recall, coupon redemption, movement on the purchase intent scale actual sales attributable to the magazine?

About the best catalog of print research on-line is the Newsweek Media Research Index


Monday, January 08, 1996 #1796
At what point does the efficiency of buying local cable diminish so that national cable is a more effective option?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 02, 1996 ):
On an efficiency basis, local cable is almost never superior to national. The decision point is more likely to be out of pocket cost, though the Guru has seen instances of the same cable :30's priced at $50 nationally versus $250 in New York.

The analysis also depends on how large an area is useful to the marketer. If the whole country is geographically acceptable as potential consumers, then the only question might be how far will the budget stretch in delivering "acceptable" levels of weight. If only certain geographies are within the distribution of the advertiser, an analysis of the useful audience within the national cable coverage is needed before the efficiency comparison can be made.

There is no %US "rule of thumb". Local cable is variable enough in its cpm ranges that there often is no relationship of market size to cost.


Wednesday, December 27, 1995 #1804
what is the difference between general media and direct response television media? and would I ever recommend to my client DRTV as an inexpensive way of getting exposure?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 02, 1996 ):
General TV and DRTV are different in the way they are purchased and in key aspects of the copy used. To qualify for DRTV, the copy usually must be selling something through an 800 telephone number. Mail is also possible, but the immediate nature of telephone response is preferable (900 number ads are typically under a different rate structure).

DRTV rates are usually based on half of the going rate for the time period. The concept of "going rate" is hard to pin down with any certainty, unless you are buying the same schedule at the same time as "general media." These half price schedules are typically in remnant time or relatively undesirable times late at night or early in the morning or weekends. They are also instantly preemptible. You can't rely on delivering a schedule of "50 GRP per week in prime and 75 GRP per week in early fringe" through DRTV.

General TV schedules are used to build awareness through planned levels of reach and frequency or timely impressions delivery during specific promitions or campaigns DRTV schedules are opportunistic buys, with each airing anticipated to generate a certain quata of responses for a product ready to sell at all times without specific timing issues.. DRTV advertisers often track resonse minute by minute to associate each call with the specific commercial airing responsible. This is in clear contrast with the awarenes building aspect of general media.

When your client measures "exposure" in reach or effective reach terms than DRTV is not an efficient way to get exposure. Those remnant timeslots are not reach builders.

A DRTV advertiser is generally selling something worth the investment in inbound telemarketing expenses for each 800 number order, and assuming a certain minimum of orders per airing. (You cant make money if a $5 an hour operator has to spend 10 minutes taking address, size, flavor and credit card info to sell a $2 item, unless you add $3 shipping and handling). This means it doesn't work for toothpaste, floor wax, soap or cookies, unless you're selling the $29 bag-o-groceries special.


Monday, November 06, 1995 #1824
Do you have any information about "Wear-out" of TVCs?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, November 06, 1995 ):
The first thing to know about wear-out is that there are no absolutes. Different people mean different things by "wear-out" There are numerous ways to set a standard for wear out and numerous ways to measure a commercial's approach to that standard. The simplest, as stated by one of the industry's great researchers is, "a commercial is worn out when the client asks about wear out." Realistically, a practical definition of wear out is when the commercial no longer stimulates additional sales. However, it's rare that any commercial is tracked closely enough to determine that point, and the trick is to *predict* that point. Commercials differ in their quality, impact, and memorability, as well as in the clutter and audience duplication of the schedules used to air them. A commercial that's one of a pool of three closely related commercials for a brand might wear out at a different point in time than one that's one of three dissimilar executions. A commercial airing repeatedly in a single daypart wears out before one in a broad rotation. The audience target and its media habits will also have an impact. Once the wear out level is determined base on the above, then it needs to be associated with a media measurement. Measurement might vary from "when the top quintile is exposed x number of times" to "when effective reach is x% over xx weeks" to "when the commercial has accumulated xxxx TRPs." Bottom line, the answer is a commercial is worn out when it stops selling. How to determine this is a question of judgement and specific research.


Friday, November 03, 1995 #1826
Which approach to planning Cable Television is more useful, by daypart or by cable network?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 03, 1995 ):
You must first understand that Cable TV, unlike network free-air television, is broadcast, in most instances, live Eastern Standard (or Daylight Savings Time.) What is primetime in New York, i.e., a program running from 8-9pm, is airing during prime access in Chicago, 7-8pm, and early fringe in Los Angeles, 5-6pm. Therefore, National Cable TV dayparts have no real meaning or value because of live time broadcasting. There is a much better way to effectively reach well targeted audience segments based upon target audience exposure to programming. Use Cable TV network profiles as they appear in various research documents such as Nielsen Cable Ratings and Mediamark Research, Inc.'s annual survey, to determine which Cable TV networks attract which audience segments. This approach will provide meaningful information based upon the measured Cable TV viewing preferences of the full range of demographic groupings. Furthermore, the daypart based Cable TV planning systems which are available, are built around the audience accumulation curves developed by The Cable Advertising Bureau, and as such they are general, so as not to play up the strengths or weaknesses of any specific cable network. In summary, if confronted with a daypart vs a network specific system for cable planning the latter is preferable.


Tuesday, April 11, 1995 #1853
I'm looking for information on Sports Marketing. In particular, the effectiveness of stadium advertising and any studies that have been conducted on this subject i.e. cost effectiveness, audience recall, and demo & pycho info on people who attend sportin g events and are exposed to this advertising. Also any competitive info. Any suggestions on possible resources? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 11, 1995 ):
This one looks new, and I trust the recently forwarded covers the others. Demo and psycho would be in MRI/SMRB/MMR.

Sellers of stadium advertising have probably done custom studies of recall / effectiveness and eagerly share results with potential clients. Of course, they might feature the results they find favorable. If advertisers did proprietary studies, they'd be propritary. The ARF (Advertising Research Foundation) library or conference proceedings might have something. We're going beyond media here, you know.


Sunday, April 09, 1995 #1854
In regards to monthly trade publications how many times can a specific ad run before there is a burn out factor?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 09, 1995 ):
It depends on the ad. A good ad works longer. In general, one doesn't worry about an ad wearing out until most of the target has seen it 20 times or more for a broadcast ad. It's a rare print campaign where most of the target sees an ad more than 3 times, which is many peoples minimum standard of effective exposure.


Monday, April 03, 1995 #1860
What do you think about translating web site's to a different language and local market? For example, a web site of sony in usa to a web site in Holland. (Bas van Cuilenburg)

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, April 03, 1995 ):
It is certainly effective for companies to create Web sites in different languages in order to better serve customers in the countries in which they do business.

However, to use your example, a U.S. Web site for Sony might not contain the most useful information to Sony consumers in Holland. Sony (or any other company) might want to create an individual Web site for customers in Holland that would be tailored specifically to their needs.

Some companies, however, may also find that it's most effective to create a global Web site with information that is useful to consumers in any country. This is in line the concept of the Internet as a global entity.


Thursday, February 09, 1995 #1873
What is the most effective way to introduce a new advertising medium?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 09, 1995 ):
One way is to post a free listing in the AMIC Media Opportunities section under Other Media. Another way is to create a home page and list it on the AMIC


Monday, January 23, 1995 #1877
It seens that the effective reach concept is falling on disrrepute. What do you think. Is it a valuable concept for a package goods advertiser?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, January 23, 1995 ):
Despite some media pundits, effective reach/frequency is not dead yet. A good media plan should directly address the communication strategy of each particular product campaign. Frequency will depend upon such parameters as purchase cycle, complexity of the message, competitive advertising, the ability to deliver the message in a timely fashion at the height of consumer interest, as well as other tried and successful principles. The current heightened interest in frequency takes into account the length of the advertising commitment, a concept that was always vague in the original effective reach/frequency theory. Because this topic is of great importance, we have created a news group under Industry Forums so that all AMIC members may participate.



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