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Guru Search Results: 98 matches were found

Tuesday, July 24, 2001 #4604
is there a rule of thumb that would tell me how much more efficient a national radio buy would be vs. a local radio buy (i.e. x% cheaper) What about outdoor or spot tv? Thanks, Guru

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, July 24, 2001 ):
No broad rule of thumb. There are too many variables due to demographic, program type, and market list for the local part of the equation, etc. In radio, network might be 50% less in some comparisons.

In outdoor, there are no real netowrks or national media to compare. TV is subject to all the qualifications of the radio comparison, as well as daypart issues.

Tuesday, June 12, 2001 #4475
Where can I find CPM information on for all media platforms?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 16, 2001 ):
SQAD offers Broadcast cpm. MRI+ offers magazine data. Ad Resource has some Internet cpm data. Try MediaPassage for newspaper. The Guru has not seen such data for outdoor.

Thursday, May 31, 2001 #4444
Guru, Can you tell me the market size for each of the advertising medium (ie internet, newspaper, indoor, outdoor, etc) for the year 2000. Thank you

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 31, 2001 ):
See the "Coen Report"

Tuesday, May 15, 2001 #4401
Hi Guru - how is outdoor media measured? I see a lot of high audience numbers, but I'm not sure where they come from. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 20, 2001 ):
outdoor is quantified as "Daily Effective Circulation (DEC), based on measuring traffic past the point of the display. According to the outdoor Advertising Association of America:

"Daily Effective Circulation. The average number of persons passing and potentially exposed to an advertising display for either 12 hours (unilluminated 6:00am to 6:00pm) or 18 hours (illuminated 6:00am to 12:00 midnight)."

This is generally a # of cars multiplied by an average number of passengers, approximately 1.9. This may overstate the number actually noticing the sign, just as TV program rating may overstate the number viewing or paying attention to a commercial.

Monday, May 14, 2001 #4396
Is newspaper used as a reach or frequency vehicle?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 20, 2001 ):
Reach. With only one daily exposure opportunity in most cases, the frequency possibilities are far less than broadcast, online or out-of-home media.

Sunday, May 13, 2001 #4390
I'm doing a research project on restroom advertising. How do I get the latests revenue figures for InSite Advertising, Zoom Media and AJ outdoors?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 13, 2001 ):
Perhaps they are public companies which publish annual reports.

Tuesday, May 08, 2001 #4380
I'm hoping that you can tell me which companies sell outdoor billboards in Madison Wisconsin (or point me in the right direction). Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 12, 2001 ):
There's a list of operators, by state, at OAAA

Wednesday, May 02, 2001 #4354
I noticed in the media strengths sections you don't include Internet Advertising. Why is that? Also, have you seen any best practices in how media people compare tradtional advertising with Internet advertising. For example, how can a media planner compare reach frequency in broadcast with impressions and unique audience in Internet? Any insight would be helpful. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, May 02, 2001 ):
The actual reason is that the media strengths page goes back to AMIC's earliest days, late 1994 / early 1995, before the internet was being taken seriously as a medium. But the Guru will now add the following to that page:


Capture audience in the act of shopping (Search engines)
Narrowly select target by site appeal
Instant interaction / order taking
Instant copy change
Customer relationship building
Target customer / deliver ad variant based on customer profile or past action
Powerful environment for computer-related advertising
Streaming allows TV-like audio video within above advantages

Regarding comparing to other media, the differences are no greater than between Radio and outdoor or TV and newspaper. If you compare numbers, it's a clean comparison. If you need to explain communications impact and other differences, it's more complex, but merely a matter of choosing the right words.

Monday, February 26, 2001 #4208
I am trying to come up with an estimate of the number of advertising messages the average adult is exposed to in the average day. I remember seeing something on this somewhere, and I seem to recall a debate on the issue, but I can't find my source. Any suggestions?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 26, 2001 ):
It depends upon what you consider "advertising messages". If you mean TV / radio commericals, print and out-of-home ads, then the common estimates you see in the thousands are ludicrous. If yoiu assume a person is awake 16 hours per day and does nothing but consume media all day, the answer will be several hundred. Just think about TV and Radio's 20 or so per hour, or the number of ads you would see in an hour of reading newspaper and magazines.

The higher numbers are typically based on counting ecvery exposury to product names, logos and labels, as one might experience shopping in a store.

An issue of Consumer Reports is the most recent place the Guru has seen such estimates.

Wednesday, January 31, 2001 #4141
Where can I find pricing for out of home advertising including printed signage, kiosks, and video advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 31, 2001 ):
Use Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) or find resources through outdoor Advertising Association of America.

Wednesday, January 24, 2001 #4120
Which is the best way to decide how many billboards are effective in a specific city?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 26, 2001 ):
out-of-home media are sold in "showings." These are typically #25, #50 or #100. The numbers indicate that the daily traffic being exposed to a showing equates to impressions which would translate to the indicated number of marketplace Adult TRP.

So, a #25 showing is 25 TRP per day, etc. This means 150 TRP weekly (discounting a bit for lower weekend traffic) and 600 TRP in four weeks. Reach and frequency are given in the defintion of "Showing" in the Media Guru's Encyclopedia of Media Terms

In different markets, billboards will generate different daily effective circulation, depending on traffic patterns, and locations. The outdoor plant operators know how many locations are necessary to achieve each showing level in their markets. Market differences may not be proportional to market size differences. One market 4 times as big as another may need 6 times as many boards.

With this information, you can plan billboards to suit your communications goals.

Tuesday, January 23, 2001 #4118
Dear Guru: I am in the process of writing a plan and am running into some problems. I am trying to find some resources to justify why the following mediums are good to advertise on: print, outdoor, and online. I know that I can find information regarding online on the IAB, but I'm not sure what information and statistics I can find on the net about outdoor and print. Can you help? Thanks again, Kim

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 25, 2001 ):
Visit the Guru's Media Strengths page.

Monday, January 15, 2001 #4100
Dear Guru: I am trying to understand the pros and cons of buying media in April for a September launch vs. June for a September launch of a product. The media plan includeds spot/local TV, newspaper, radio and outdoor advertising.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, January 15, 2001 ):
The Guru would estimate that either timing is far enough in advance that there would be little difference, unless you intend to include a special event or unique medium with very limited inventory. Some outdoor sells out far in advance.

There is alweays a small chance that by June, sales people are getting a bit hungrier about meeting their quarterly goals if the quarter has been soft.

Monday, January 08, 2001 #4087
Guru, First off, just wanted to let you know that I find this to be one of the most usefull sites on the web - as a management consultant in need of a crash course on media planning, the information found in these pages has proven invaluable...Now, on to my question: I am working on the launch of a branded consumer services play (auto related), and am trying to build a marketing budget from the bottom up, rather than as a strict % of sales. I have modeled an overly simplified media plan, and am looking for guidance on placeholders to use for weights (TRP) for TV and Radio, # of weekly inserts for newspaper, and showing level for outdoor. I know there are numerous factors and considerations I am leaving out (I know the GURU doesn't like sweeping generalizations), but I need a place to start. Goal: generate "substantial awareness" (think Midas, Maaco). Thanks for your insights.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 11, 2001 ):
The Guru thanks you for the compliments.

Keep in mind that while "substantial awareness" may be a snappy phrase for discussion of plans, you need to quantify such a term in order to quantify the building blocks of getting there.

Let's suppose we decide the goal is 80% ad awareness among the target within a given campaign period. Therefore, your advertising must reach at least 80% of the target in that period, with enough frequency for the message to penetrate and stick, let's say at least three times.

Now, you can calculate that generating that reach in TV will call for a certain number of TRP (you can use the media software at eTelmar for calculations). Or you can examine getting that reach with radio or a combination of TV and radio.

outdoor will generate high reach more efficiently than either, with a #25 showing, but outdoor's necessary simplicity of message may not stand alone in filling your needs.

Newspaper has its own contribution and you need to judge from a marketing perspective whther you need a small store-locator ad every day, a full page branding message once a week, or some other approach, if any.

Monday, December 04, 2000 #4015
Please help! I am currently marketing mobile billboards (Billboard trucks) to Advertisers and thier Agencies. 95% of those I contact seem to tell me flat out (before I even make a pitch) that they don't do mobile advertising. Is there a bad impression towards Mobile Billboards among media planners? Or Am I just not communicating with them in the right way? Thank you for your help!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 06, 2000 ):
If you are contacting people who are buying outdoor, then the Guru would expect price or audience documentation to be the main issue.

Friday, December 01, 2000 #4010
Guru, how do I develop R&F levels for: outdoor against the mass market and specific demograhic such as individual with $3Million in assets. spot market print such as business journals, lifestyle mags etc, where there is no syndicated research such as MRI. Local Cable against a high affluent audience

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, December 03, 2000 ):
It is not clear whether your issue is determining the portion of the audience of each medium which falls within your target or whether the audience accumulation pattern among your target is the problem.

Syndicated print and product usage research, particularly The Mendelsohn Media Research Affluent Study, analyze audiences od many media specifically aimed at affluent subsegments, although "assets over $3million" may be too narrow for syndicated research to have evaluated.

outdoor companies are usually prepared to run R&F analyses against a wide range of demographics. Commercial media software, such as ADplus from our susiter company Telmar can produce R&F analyses from minimal target data input.

Thursday, November 09, 2000 #3959
Dear Guru - I have two questions - #1 - I have a client who wants a shifting reach pattern in place for a media test - No problem - however, there corporate department wants to run the test 2 on 2 off - I think it needs to be every week so that the hiatus time doesn't screw up the added frequency and reach you would receive by being on consistently - any thoughts? #2 - I have a new client that I am working up a media plan for in general terms of spots, reach and frequency. We are using 4 different medias in each market - Radio, TV, Internet and outdoor - How do I estimate a total reach and frequency, GI and Persons Reached for each market to give to the client when I am using general CPP's to estimate numbers of spots, etc.?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 12, 2000 ):
The Guru doesn't understand your first question. What do you mean by "shifting reach pattern" and how do you ssuppose this is affected by the flighting? Where do you have a problem with reach and frequency in #2 other than the impossibilty of an accurate local market internet impressions count? Do you have reach and frequency tools for these media but face a local problem or something else?

Thursday, October 12, 2000 #3884
Hi there, I just wanted to have a more in depth knowledge of why print, why outdoor and why radio. From chanelle

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, October 14, 2000 ):
A single Guru response cannot convey depth of understanding. In different marketing situations, these media are used for different reasons. For extended discussion, exploring various issues about these media,

Friday, October 06, 2000 #3875
Where do I find a topline summary of CPM information for different media types --- Broadcast & Cable (Nat'l & Local), Print, outdoor, On-line, etc. --- against targets of Adults 18+ and Adults 25-54?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 08, 2000 ):
Various major agencies publish guides to such data. The Media Week Directory will have sone of the data.

Tuesday, October 03, 2000 #3863
I have heard there is a company that places magnets on the side of cars and sells that as advertising space. Do you know the name of any such company, and do you think that would be a comparable advertising tool to say outdoor billboards? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 08, 2000 ):
You have probably heard about FreeCar Media of Los Angeles, though the Guru believes they use all-over paint. The best comparison would be outdoor, but there will be some special applications.

Tuesday, September 19, 2000 #3810
What do you think the minimal amount of market coverage a business should have to consider advertising in a market? For examply, in the retail business, how many retail outlets do I need to have in a market before it makes sense to advertise with broad reach mediums (radio, outdoor)? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 23, 2000 ):
It's not simply a matter of number of outlets, it also involves competiton and desirability. For example there may be only one BWM or Hatteras Yacht dealer in a metro area, becasue the number of sales, while high-ticket are few and people will travel some distance for a unique product. If you have a restaurant or hardware stoer where choices are many, then it's more about dispersion across the market than pure numer of outlets. You need to decide how far people will go for what you're selling and compare that to coverage of the media considered. IN some parts of the country, people will drive 2 hours for dinner.

Keep in mind that there's a big difference between 'broad coverage" media and big reach media. For example, outdoor can be readily purchased to have a very high reach of a small area, like a single store's 3-mile trading circle. In some situations, local suburban radio can match a single store's trading area as well.

Monday, August 28, 2000 #3758
Our contract with the client states that agency commission is 10% on gross. The client wants to know the equivalent in net. I take gross as gross media cost when quoted by media vendors so the answer is 11.76% on net. My colleague takes gross as "cost to client", so the answer becomes 11.11% on net. Can you please let me know what is the industry standard?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 31, 2000 ):
In standard, industry, media jargon "gross" means specifically the total cost of media quoted by the media vendor before allowance for agency commission. of the gross. The media quote a cost and state something like "15% commission to recognized agencies." There may, on occasion, be some other stated commission. For instance, years ago, 30-sheet outdoor commonly offered 16 and two-thirds of a percent commission. The point is that "the net" is the gross less the media vendor's stated commission, and your deal with your client is not a factor in using these terms. assuming the media state a standard 15% commission, your 10% of gross is 10 ÷ 85, or 11.76470588%

Monday, August 21, 2000 #3731
We need ad revenues for newspaper, outdoor, radio & tv for each of the top ten markets. Ideally we would like to capture the final figures for 99, ytd for 2000 and projected revenue for 2000. I was sure one of the media mags published some of this info but can not find out which one. The key here is that we need the revenue info by market not total for the top ten. Can you help me??? Thanks much & enjoy your q & a...

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 21, 2000 ):
The Guru doesn't think any trade publication would have so much detail. You will probably need to use CMR (Competitive Media Reports)

Monday, August 21, 2000 #3728
What is the formula to equate reach and frequency from an outdoor showing? i.e. a 25 showing has a reach of 76.8% and a frequency of8.2 (I pulled these numbers from your media glossary)

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 21, 2000 ):
"25 Showing" in out-of-home media indicates a buy with a daily effective circulation, or traffic count, or impressions, which equate to 25 GRP per day.

In considering a month's reach & frequency, it is common to adjust the weekend days' traffic down by about 50%. In a month, instead of 25 X 30 = 750 GRP, we credit about 630 GRP. This agrees with the arithmetic of 76.8 Reach and 8.2 Frequency.

Friday, August 04, 2000 #3676
Do you have any research that shows how using multiple advertising medium (e.g. using radio plus outdoor) can increase effectiveness?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, August 08, 2000 ):
The first purpose of multiple media is to improve reach / frequency for the dollar. Otherwise, there can be many definitions of "effectiveness," such as brand awarenss, ad awareness, sales, etc.

For a range of research, try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Saturday, June 10, 2000 #3546
Guru, Is there any published papers that tell us the efficacy (in terms of quantitative analysis)of "out of home options" with respect to measurable media like TV/Print? Basically the "impact scores" of mass measurable media versus the consumer's out of home options- any type of outdoor media. Would really appreciate if you could provide some light in this area. Thanks Gyan

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 11, 2000 ):
There should be comparisons of sales response, recall, etc in the materials at the The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Tuesday, June 06, 2000 #3533
Can you give me any advice on how to proceed selling space for two mobile billboards which I own. I am not a member of the 4A's so research information is scarce for me. Are their any directories or Associations I should speak with or you would suggest I be a member of? Are their any independant outdoor operators I can speak with? Your advice and expertise would greatly be appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 11, 2000 ):
The best compilation of advertising research, which includes all 4A's and ANA material, is the The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter.

Advertising Research Foundation membership is open to any organization.

Find local, independent out-of-home operators in your yellow pages.

Tuesday, May 16, 2000 #3477
What is the definition of "spill in" and "spill out"

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, May 19, 2000 ):
These terms are generally used in relation to Designated Market Areas, but may also be used relative to metros. It is an issue for market-specific media, like TV stations, radio stations and newspapers, but not for national media or place-based media, such as network TV and out-of-home, respectively.

"Spill-in" is audience generated within the DMA by media located outside the DMA. For example, in parts of the New York DMA some people view TV programs broadcast on Hartford-New Haven stations and this viewing is reported in the ratings for the NY DMA. This is spill-in.

"Spill-out" is the same thing seen from the other side. When a Hartford-New Haven station gets audience in the New York market and it's reported in the Hartford-New Haven ratings, it's spill-out.

20+ years ago, this was a relatively minor issue, but today, with cable and super stations there can be a big impact for some stations and markets.

Monday, May 15, 2000 #3472
I have been presented the task of recommending media test markets for a cross-channel campaign that includes DM, print, radio, web and outdoor. Ideally, these test markets should be representative of the US population (i.e., mini US markets). What are the most commonly used media test markets that take the following into consideration? No spill in or out/purity of environment, large enough to purchase direct mail lists, and of course representative of the U.S. population?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, May 19, 2000 ):
Nielsen publishes a test market guide addressing these issues. Note that "most common" is not really a good criterion. Why test in a market where lots of other tests are going on, thus making the market non-representative?

Realistically, being fully representative of the U.S. isn't possible unless you settle on a few demographic criteria that you deem relevant to your product or test. It isn't too hard to find markets approximately representative on age/sex/income parameters, but are these the most crucial parameters in testing a basic household product, or is it more relevant to be representative of African American and Hispanic penetration or household size?

Sunday, May 14, 2000 #3470
Question: Would you please advise how audience accumulation builds over time? For: (A) Weekly Consumer Magazine (B) Monthly Consumer Magazine (C) Business Publications (D) Out of Home Media. I suppose that based upon the type of media -- daily newspaper versus monthly magazine, that audience accumulation will vary quite differently. But from the standpoint of audience accumulation over the course of time from Week 1 to Week 2 to Week 3, etc., because of duplication, the accumulation figure will decrease --- with reach maxing out. Could you please provide a run down by media type (A, B, C, D) as to how accumulation figures build over time?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 14, 2000 ):
To really evaluate this you need the specific respondent-level data from individual media, such as that provided by MRI or Simmons.

Generally, in any print medium, the audience builds quickly at first, within the medium's cycle. For instance, a weekly builds the vast majority of its audience within the week following issue, and virtually all of its reach within 3 weeks. A monthly has a similar shape to its "reach curve" over time, but the 3 week time line extends to perhaps 2 months. Business publications would probably compare similarly for weekly versus monthly.

out-of-home media are quite a different story. Since they are not media with content, and are incicentally encountered in life as opposed to the audeince seeking it out, there is no aging content to affect readership. Because out-of-home, at least in the case of outdoor posters, is bought at enormous GRP levels ( usually 25 to 100 GRP per day), reach accumulates very quickly, reaching 85 to 95% of an audience in the first month. The medium itself does not get measured, the campaign does.

Thursday, May 11, 2000 #3462
Dear Guru, I would like to run a campaign in the US targeting Arabs living the west coast, the campaign is about a folk dancing show that will happen in Las Vegas. I will use Arab TV that are available via cables in the states. I would like to use some outdoor posters just few weeks before the show in California main cities, Can I have contacts of media houses. Is there any poerfull radio stations. Any other ideas ??? Many thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 14, 2000 ):
Major outdoor vendors such as TDI, outdoorSystems or Vista Media can place outdooer and have the resources to identify Arab American population centers. The Guru does'nt think there are any "powerful" radio stations, or even measured ones, but ANA Radio offers one listing of US Arabic radio outlets.

Wednesday, May 10, 2000 #3456
I would like to ask three questions: First, is there a website that provides guidelines for advertising on the Internet. Our company only provides services in certain areas and want to evaluate how we can reach these areas using the internet. Secondly, are there any other alternative ways to get messages across besides traditional TV, radio, print and outdoor? Thirdly, is there a website or service that reports spending on ad circulars (for instance, DirecTV in a Best Buy ad)? Thanks,

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 13, 2000 ):
  1. The Guru doesn't believe there is any website specifically providing an unbiased guide to internet advertising. Many of your questions might be answered by looking up past Guru queries and responses in the Guru Archives Search Engine. Use your various topics as your search terms.

    The Internet Advertising Bureau and C.A.S.I.E. (The Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive Entertainment) are sites with good, general information.

    If your key issue is advertising to a specific geographic area, you can advertise on sites providing local information, which today exist for most localities, or you can buy geographically specifc impressions from most major, commerical, consumer-oriented sites.

  2. There are always new, unique non-traditional media, such as skywriting and cross promotion. But since the new ones are new they are not generally known until you stumble across them or unless their sellers find you.
  3. The Guru also doesn't believe there is a service which tracks specific products within stores retail ads. In some cases, where these represent co-op deals there may be some record, but generally, not.

Monday, May 01, 2000 #3434
I am trying to determine how best to manually calculate reach and frequency for Out of Home Media. Would you be able to help and provide me with reach curves and turnover ratios for OOH media. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 02, 2000 ):
out-of-home (outdoor poster media) is usually bought in #25, #50 or #100 "showings." These are based on daily effective circulation, or traffic, equal to 25, 50 or 100 GRP per day, respectively.

Within the state of the art, in rough terms, these levels usually mean 4-week reach and frequencies of approximately

  • 80 / 8.8 / 700
  • 87 / 16.1 / 1400 and
  • 92 / 30.4 / 2800.

As should be apparent, there is not much room for fine tuning, nor much reason for considering other GRP levels.

Wednesday, April 19, 2000 #3410
What is your opinion on using out-of-home (30-sheets or bulletins) as a stand-alone medium for a brand-building campaign? On a related note, are there any "rules" for adjusting different types of media for their "impact" versus other media (e.g., impact of an all-newspaper campaign versus an all television campaign given the same TRP levels and the same "likelihood of use" by the target market)?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, April 21, 2000 ):
The Guru has seen impact adjusments across media based on recall, on attentiveness and on an advertiser's proprietary research, but no general rules-of-thumb.

Unfortunately, such adjustments are too often based on one unit of the advertising, such as a TV spot versus a radio spot, and don't take into account the crucial difference in number of spots or GRPs per dollar.

As for brand-building in outdoor, there are two principal considerations in the Guru's view:

  • Definition of "brand building:" The term, one of those nebulous buzz-words which seems to mean whatever the speaker wishes, implies, to the Guru, the creation of a brand image and positioning from a low-awarness start.
  • Limited message: How much can a brand be "built" by the few words and large graphic allowable in out-of-home media?
  • Yet, the Guru is very favorably inclined to taking advantage of the enormous reach and frequency possible via out-of-home

In short, the Guru's gut feeling is that outdoor can contribute greatly to brand building, but that the process needs at least one longer-form medium.

Wednesday, April 12, 2000 #3392
Guru, I've never used a planning program as most of my planning has been national print and outdoor, local broadcast, and things I've felt I can handle on my own.I've seen so many planning programs and websites for planning it's hard to tell the good from the bad. Have you ever evaluated planning programs and, if you have, can you recommened one or two? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, April 12, 2000 ):
To the Guru, the term "planning program" means programs like Telmar's AdPlus or Telmar's full set of individual media analysis programs or the eTelmar online suite of media programs.

Such programs calculate reach, frequency, effective reach, frequency distribution, and quintiles for individual media plus combinations of media as well as cross-tabulations and rankers from media audience databases. Flow charting is also a typical option.

These programs don't actually create media plans, that is determine how much budget to invest in each medium, ad units to use, and scheduling. There are such programs on the drawing board, but require that the planner quantify and factor those concepts which would be subjective judgements.

Sunday, March 26, 2000 #3340
Dear Guru, I have one client that is launching a new brand name of juice, We will be using TV,outdoor, & press, he suggested to have a teaser campaign on Radio like one week before the launche . I'm not really supporting his idea since I believe the teaser should be visual not only audio ?? Thanks to advise

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 26, 2000 ):
This is a creative issue in the Guru's opinion. Since there will be TV, there should be ample visual and audio material from which to take a teaser.

It is also the Guru's opinion that juice, as a category, is not likely to inspire sufficient consumer interest or curiosity for a teaser campaign to be particularly effective.

Perhaps in your country, juice is considered more exciting than in the Guru's - primarily U.S. - experience.

Monday, February 28, 2000 #3257
I'm an assistant media buyer and in college part time at night. I am currently attempting to do extensive research for a paper that I have to write. I am going to be writing on Television, Radio and outdoor. I am looking to start with the basics, and work up to the specifics of how each is measured, and has a different effect on audiences. I'm looking, if you have any ideas, of particular books and/or websites where I could pull a substantial amount of information. Thanks A Bunch!

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 28, 2000 ):
Your plans seem overly broad for a single paper. The differences in how media are measured or diffrences in how they affect consumers are each big ideas by themselves.

For many thoughts on each point, go to the Guru Archives Search Engine. Use your various topics as your search terms.

Beyond this, see the books in the AMIC Bookstore (in association with, particularly the media planning section.

Sunday, February 27, 2000 #3254
I would like to have information about typical rates of frequency that are considered necessary for advertising to be effective on different media. I would like information for television, radio, outdoor and print advertising. If there is such information, I would also like information for internet ads. In short, how many times does an ad need to be seen on different media before for an effective reach. Thank you...

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 27, 2000 ):
Most judgements about effective frequency are just that; judgements. The traditional number, 3, is based on century-old learning theory about repetitions of information needed for learning to occur. This theory is not medium-specific but has many other aspects.

Click here to see past Guru responses about this and the Ostrow model

Research by DoubleClick about "banner burnout" shows that internet ads lose effectiveness (in the sense of causing clicks) by the third repetition. Of course, if you want to apply this approach to internet advertisng then you would be considering the awareness-building and sales-driving aspects of banners, rather than click-thru.

Friday, February 25, 2000 #3248
Looking for ideas on unique media vehicles in the Southwest US. Unique as in non-traditional.

Traditional being: spot tv, spot radio, bulletins, posters, transit shelters, bus wraps, taxi tops, wall murals, kiosks, print, aerial advertising (blimps, airplanes, etc.) trailer panels, mobile video displays, in-airport displays, in-transit exposure, direct mail, flyers, sponsorships.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 27, 2000 ):
When you rule out the traditional mass media, "new" electronic media, direct mail, most forms of out-of-home, and require geographic specificity, you have pretty much come down to untried out of home, such as painting the sides of mesas in the desert or putting logos on souveniers, like arrowheads.

What you want probably isn't in place yet, but the world is waiting for you to invent it.

Thursday, February 17, 2000 #3226
Where can i find an analysis of cpm for all media, including print, radio, television, outdoor and internet?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 18, 2000 ):
Several media are compared here at AMIC's Ad Data area. Without being very specific as to demographic and type of site/ad type, internet cpm averages are meaningless. But you should find some data at NUA Internet Surveys or The Industry Standard.

Friday, February 04, 2000 #3189
guru, we are an export firm and deal with granites(floor decors) we have our presence in france and are interested to spread our promotions through out this connection i wish to have the media options available in europe for my product...i in fact used the international media guide and found it useless....if u can give me some statistics country wise regarding media reach and visibility and rates you will be doing us a big favour

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 07, 2000 ):
The Guru is puzzled about what you want. The International Media Guides list print media rates and circulation for Eurpoean media, which should be most of your information need. In most of Europe, commercial broadcast media, such as Independent Television are few and easy to track down.

TDI can help with outdoor media.

Tuesday, January 18, 2000 #3126
Dear Media Guru I know this sounds "absolutely creative" in a sense but an account executive has gone ahead and quoted a "certain research" that he claims to have read which says that in the outdoor medium high clutter actually contributes to higher recall(this is only specific to outdoors). I have been given the task of substantiating this research or finding references to this research when my basic media sense tells me otherwise. Keeping all things constant - creative impact, innovation, size or placement and the like - are you aware of any data that suggests such a hypothesis ? Thanks a lot

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 21, 2000 ):
The Guru doubts the validity of this hypothesis. If such research exists, the outdoor Ad Association would likely have it. Otherwise try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Tuesday, January 11, 2000 #3108
I am working on a preliminary recommendation--a branding awarness campaign for a bank that currently does product advertising but no image advertising. Thre are three levels of spending that will be discussed. The question that I have is what freqency levels should be achieved to have not only a increase in awareness, but also influence the target to switch banks. It is a competitive banking market. What do you think of these reach and freq levels based on 4 weeks of advertising?? The media mix for the first 2 includes TV and outdoor/Transit and the last outdoor/Transit. There would be 1 TV commercial, 2 messages for outdoor and 2 messages for transit. So, I am not concerned that much about wearout as having adequate effective frequency levels. Schedule #1 91% reach/14.6x; Schedule #2 is 90%/11x ; #3 is 79%/9.9x please let me know what you think of these frequency levels. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, January 17, 2000 ):
When you evaluate media schedules which include out-of-home media, considerations of "effective" frequency go out the window. The nature of these media is to amass enormous levels of frequency behind simple, undetailed messages. Statistically, any of these schedules would have plenty of effective frequency, although you haven't mentioned the effective frequency in your details. The most effective schedule would be one of the first two, and the best of those is the one with the higher reach and frequency. Apparently the second costs less than the first.

Friday, November 12, 1999 #2964
Can research determine which media is best to drive traffic to a local retail business? If there is a particular medium or media, what research approach can best determine which media works? Please consider that this a local business that currently advertises in radio, newspaper and billboards and is very successful at driving traffic to retai outlets that are not highly visible in their marketplace.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 16, 1999 ):
A specific individual business can use research to determine this.

Most simply, it is easy to include something in the advertising which makes people want to tell the business's operators where they heard of them. Or staff can be instructed to inquire where customers heard. More expensively, a commissioned study can probe awareness and shopping behavior from a random sample or a customer database sample. In any of these cases, the research must be carefullly studied and interpreted, to distinguish the results of branding efforts from promotions.

If the business has a long history of establishing its name and offerings in the community through radio and outdoor campaigns, the research might still find that "What brought the cusotmer in today" was a newspaper or Yellow Pages ad. Analysis might well show that the newspaper or Yellow Pages ad would have had little impact without the other media's branding effects.

Different businesses enjoy different effects from various media. A roadside, impulse business, like a highway restaurant chain can get immediate results from highway billboards which would have much less benefit for an in-town, white tablecloth eatery. A branding-oriented newspaper campaign for the latter would likely be more effective than one for the highway chain.

Tuesday, November 09, 1999 #2949
outdoor prices for billboard: Size: your prices for the following sizes: from one meter to 2/3 meters Geography: main cities for the following states: California Nevada Arkansas Kansas Missouri Oklahoma Texas Connecticut I woul be very glad if you could send me your prices as soon as possible (thursday at the latest)

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 09, 1999 ):
This is not a standard outdoor size. As you must know, the U.S. uses "English", not metric measures The smallest standard size would be about 12/3 meters by 31/3 meters. These boards usually sell for $150-$200 per month.

Friday, November 05, 1999 #2937
Hello Media Guru, I was wondering if you think that the possible ban on advertising to children throughtout Europe will result in an increase in Interactive P.O.P, Press Ads and internet advertising, and if so how could i find out how european companies especially in U.K. are preparing. Thank-You.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 05, 1999 ):
Of course a ban on advertising in some media will cause the advertising to move to other media. Just look at the changes in U.S. out-of-home and print tobacco advertisng when broadcast advertisng was banned in the 70's.

No doubt the European ad trade press, like the U.K.'s Campaign, will have covered an issue of this sort.

Tuesday, October 26, 1999 #2907
Respectable guru, I am writing from a country where outdoor is still sold by number of sites. What would be the pro's and con's for a 14 day campaign with 200 sites against a 30 day campaign with 100 sites (in the same area for the same cost)? What would be the relation between reach and frequency in both cases? Are you aware of any web sites with research on this topic? Thank you for your answers.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 27, 1999 ):
The Guru imagaines that in your situation, the daily effective circulation (DEC) of the sites is not known. This data is the basis for GRP based out-of-home buys in the U.S.

If we assume that the average DEC is equal for all 200 sites and the 100 sites, and that the 100 are evenly dispersed among the potential 200 locations the Guru would opt for the longer schedule. The net reach over each schedule should be similar and the longer presence should produce more sales.

Thursday, October 21, 1999 #2895
Dear Guru,I want to know why ad agencies work with standards like a 15 % commission. Why are these norms like - commission on gross or net amount followed as a standard? When are the commissions charged on gross amount and when on the net amount? For ex. why only 15 % but not any other figure. Similar norms are followed when charging for media space/ time bought by a client. I have read your answers on the concept of 3 + frequency for ads. Could you please provide similar information for the aforementioned norms and the various norms/ standards followed during billing by ad as well as media buying houses and Agencies of Records. I would also be obliged if you could direct me to any site which provides this information.( The commission rates which I have mentioned are followed in India. Are they the same worldwide?) Thanking you in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 21, 1999 ):
15% of the gross media cost has been the standard for so many years that no one questions the rationale any longer, though many big budget advertisers negotiate other deals, and many small budget advertisers must pay a different fee. When commission is based on net, 17.65% is used to get the same proportions.

Not all media have always used 15%. It used to be common for outdoor to base prices in 16.67% of gross, on the theory that more work was required of the agency for "riding the boards." Some media only publish net rates which agencies must mark up. These media are typically smaller locally oriented ones useed to selling direct to advertisers. Internet web sites often quote net rates as well.

On other items and services which agencies purchase for clients, such as production the 17.65% of net is commonly used.

Wednesday, October 20, 1999 #2890
Dear Media Guru: I need to measure the penetration of different media but I need to know how, for example I know TV should be the people that have a TV set, and I suppose is the for radio and Internet. But what about cinema? newspapers, magazines, outdoor, billboard?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 20, 1999 ):
[none] Penetration can have different definitions. In TV it is usually the % of poeple in Households with TVs. In other media, like radio, magazines and cinema, what seems to make sense is the count of people who actually use ( 'are exposed to' ) the medium over a given period such as one week, or 30 days.

Internet penetration is sometimes based on used the medium and sometimes based on possessing the capabilit, i.e. having access to a computer with modem and internet account.

Monday, October 04, 1999 #2844
What is the best way to reach Adults 18-24 with out using television?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 04, 1999 ):
Most efficient? Selected out-of-home.

Most targeted? Some magazines or college newspapers.

Broadest reach in a single medium? Probably radio.

Best total reach? A combination of the above.

Other qualifications of "best" might yield additional answers.

Wednesday, September 22, 1999 #2816
outdoor advertising costs

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 23, 1999 ):
30 sheet cpm may be found at AMIC's Ad Data area under multi media costs. There are many other oudoor media types, so you should contact TDI or outdoor Media.

Tuesday, August 31, 1999 #2753
looking for a source re: international out-of-home opportunities ... have been able to piece together most but am really stuck on tokyo ... any ideas? ... thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 02, 1999 ):
The Guru's only thought, other than International Media Guide is trying one of the multinational out of home companies, such as TDI Worldwide

Wednesday, August 25, 1999 #2740
Dear Guru; following your answer on Aug 11 recency / chocolate snack bar, and since chocolate snacks are eaten on impulse and out of the house, should we use more long term outdoor than TV ? Thank you

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, August 28, 1999 ):
If one continues to reduce "recency" to its most basic level, out-of-home media would always be the first and best option, since they are perfectly continuous. But, all the other elements of media consideration must still be applied to the equation.

Friday, July 30, 1999 #2674
When comparing the impact of differenct media I have often used the base-line of a 30 second TV spot having the equivalent impact or weight as a 1/4 page newspaper ad or a full page magazine ad. Are there any comparable measures for Radio and outdoor?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 31, 1999 ):
Quarter-page newspaer seems small to compare to :30s or magazine pages, but the kind of data you want could be found at The Radio Advertising Bureau (RAB) or OAAA.

Wednesday, July 21, 1999 #2650
I was wondering what you would say the precise difference is between out-of-home & Placed-based Media. How would you categorize the two. Is it really OOH vs. in-store?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 23, 1999 ):
Place based media can be more than in-store, such as stadium, airport, restaurant bathrooms, etc. Otherwise you have the essence, it's a specific type of out-of-home.

Monday, July 12, 1999 #2625
Guru, where can I get a list of companies that do outdoor and transit advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 12, 1999 ):
Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) has an out-of-home advertisng Resource which lists media vendor companies that offer out-of-home advertising.

CMR (Competitive Media Reports) can tell you advertiser companies which use out-of-home advertising.

Thursday, June 10, 1999 #2569
Where can I find information regarding the use of traffic and pedestrian counts for measuring outdoor advertising effectiveness? I am also interested in the methodology for gathering this data in a reliable way.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 11, 1999 ):
The outdoor Advertising Association of America will have the information you need, as will major outdoor vendors.

Tuesday, June 08, 1999 #2562
I have an outdoor question. If showing size refers to the reach per day, i.e. 25# reaches 25% of a market per day, why aren't the estimated TRPs per month simply 25 x 28 = 700. Most studies I see quote a lower TRP level for a 25 showing. What gives?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, June 09, 1999 ):
The Guru has come across this problem and found the answers.

There are two answers, one sensible, one nonsense, but both real.

Sensible: The "25 showing" is a standard number of panels, based on 25% of adult population. So if your target is Women 18-34, there may be a different number of women 18-34 GRPs in a showing actually bought as 25 Adult 18% GRPs. This is perfectly sensible, and happens ain all media, but the sellers and buyers of other media are fully conversant with these facts.

Now for the nonsense answer, which is most likely the basis of the number you were given. Various research companies, such as MRI have measured outdoor as part of multimedia reports and these generalized reports are being used to estimate target reach for a marketpace showing. Often a completely different source for average frequency is used and these two factors are multiplied to calculate GRPs. It seems invariably to be much lower than the GRPs you would get by the realistic method first described, and so makes outdoor seem less efficient than it should.

The misused sources could, instead be used to provide relative exposure indices between demographics, allowing a simple conversion of GRPs. The Guru hopes the outdoor industry improves in this area.

Tuesday, April 13, 1999 #2442
I am frantically tring to locate a phone number for Revolution outdoor. I don't know what city or state they are located in, but I need to find out quick. Can you help me? Thanks so much!!!

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 13, 1999 ):
The Guru suggests you call the outdoor Advertisng Association of America at

Washington, D.C. Headquarters
1850 M Street, N.W., Suite 1040
Washington, D.C. 20036
Phone 202.833.5566
Fax 202.833.1522

Friday, March 12, 1999 #2386
What is your opinion of non-traditional media - namely disposable coffee cups. We recommended coffee cups to the client (it definately makes sense from an objectives standpoint), but one of the clients responded that he thought they were "cheesy." We disagree, and I am writing a recommendation to sell this idea. I greatly value your opinion. What do you think? Some big ticket advertisers have used this medium multiple times. Thanks Guru.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 12, 1999 ):
It could make good sense for some advertisers who would find coffee cups a very supportive environment, e.g. coffee, milk, sugar, sugar substitute, donuts, pastry advertisers, etc.

It might also seem "cheesy" for some big ticket advertisers like Mercedes Benz, Cadillac, or the Waldorf Astoria.

The Guru does not believe every action taken by "big ticket" advertisers is a good model. A great deal of their spending is based on a strategy of not knowing how to get all the enormous ad budget spent. Non-traditional media is most effective when it finds a strong fit with product message or target. Consider which advertisers use skywriting, blimps and airplane-towed banners: it's usually the ones relating to outdoor/beach fun and entertainment like film, bber, soda, beach front bars and nearby, open air concerts.

Sunday, February 28, 1999 #2360
Dear guru , what is is the difference between oSCAR and POSTAR (outdoor evaluation models) and where can I find more information on them?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 01, 1999 ):
Recent references include
  • Campaign Magazine (UK) April 4, 1997, pg2; October 25, 1996 pgS6
  • Marketing Week (UK), Dec. 13, 1996, Pg 13

Thursday, February 25, 1999 #2356
Dear Guru, I am currently planning a campaign for a yoghurt brand. Client is obssessed with going outdoor, but my recommendation would be print - environment being key. His primary objective is TO SELL MORE!! Surely outdoor is not the best medium for this and how should I go about proving this to him. We have very little research available on outdoor.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 25, 1999 ):
Your problem seems to be in proving to the client that in fact "environment is key." Magazines provide environment and outdoor rarely has a controllable environment.

outdoor will deliver more reach and more frequency than magazines can, albeit with much shorter messages and message exposure although greater visual impact is possible.

On the other hand, "environmentally" it is possible to select outdoor locations close to supermarkets and other retail yogurt outlets; this might have a powerful sales effect, too.

Wednesday, February 17, 1999 #2342
what are the outdoor tracking and site evaluation measures that are currently being employed in the US, Canada and UK? Also can you tell me something about OASIS?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 18, 1999 ):
outdoor is essentially measured by sporadic checks of traffic past posting sites. One company with expertise in outdoor media analysis, and which serves all three countries is Harris Media Systems (a sister company of AMIC's)

The only "OASIS" relevant to media, of which the Guru is aware, is a technology which "allows almost any web page to be delivered to a variety of non-PC environments"

Tuesday, February 16, 1999 #2339
As a media planner wanting to integrate ambient media into a campaign, where can I find information about the various ambient media contractors in the UK and international?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 17, 1999 ):
The Guru does not believe the term "Ambient Advertising" has become common industry usage as yet. A Yahoo "advanced search" for "outdoor advertising UK" will return web sites of several vendors of the sort you are seeking.

Tuesday, February 16, 1999 #2338
Ambient media is defined as the "rapidly expanding sector of non-traditional out-of-home opportunities that surround us."(Concord Ambient Media Report 1998) My dissetation topic is concerned with measuring and improving the accountability of this sector, what is the best way to get started?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 17, 1999 ):
The Guru would recommend that you begin with a review of the literature concerning the move by 30-sheet and 8-sheet outdoor from arbitrary sales of "showings" to a GRP system, in the late '70's and 80's.

Monday, February 15, 1999 #2334
what are the various measurement techniques for ourdoor media?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 15, 1999 ):
outdoor is measured by counting traffic passing the location and applying factors for the age/gender of those passing and an average number per vehicle.

Harris Media Systems offers software for outdoor media planning.

Sunday, February 14, 1999 #2331
How can i measure and incorporate the effectiveness of outdoor mediai(hoarding,transit etc)in a conventional media plan?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 15, 1999 ):
Do you actually incorporate the "effectivenss" of other media in your plans?

outdoor is measured, and you should be buying outdoor by audience size as you do other media. 30-sheet and 8-sheet outdoor, for example, sell in "showings." The current standards of "Showings" call for expressing showing in GRP-per-day. In other words, a "50 showing" of outdoor means that the locations you buy have a combined "daily effective circulation (DEC)" -- or number of daily impressions -- equal to 50% of the population.

Some people may discount the passive, short copy outdoor medium by a certain percentage, say 50%, when combining with or comparing to other media such as broadcast and page-dominant print.

Friday, December 04, 1998 #2199
Dear Guru, From your point of view, what would be the principal reasons why media planners would prefer to use one media rather than another? Taking into consideration TV, Radio, Press, outdoor, Direct Mail, Cinema etc. What would you consider as being the attraction of each to the media planner? Many thanks for your help

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, December 04, 1998 ):
The Guru hopes that professional planners are looking at these media for their contribution to achieving the objectives and strategies of the advertiser, not for individual appeal to the planner.

Sometimes a product needs a visual medium to illustrate product benefits or shelf appearance. Other times a better known or less differentiated product benefits most from the frequency of radio.

Please visit the Guru's Media Strengths page.

Wednesday, December 02, 1998 #2192
Dear Guru. It is not still clear to me how to measure or calculate Reach of the ad campaign using media mix. For example, my ads on TV provided 90% reach, and ads in print reached 25% of the target audience. What is the total reach, frequency of the campaign? What other indexes can we find for such campaign? And my second question is about outdoor advertising. It is essential to measure the effectiveness of the ad campaign comparing awereness and sales before and after the ads placing. But that is somehow the post- campaign analisys and my client would like to see some feagures before the campaign starts (pre-campaign). What indexes (like reach, frequency, GRPs, OTS) can we provide to the discription of the outdoor ad. campaign? Thank You very much.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 02, 1998 ):
Reach of a medium in a plan is simply a statistical probability. Further, it is generally thought that each medium overlaps each other medium randomly.

So, in your example, if you consider the reach of each medium as a decimal, the probability of not being exposed to TV is 0.10 and of not being exposed to print is 0.75.

The probability of not being exposed to either one, is therefore 0.10 times 0.75 = 0.075.

Therefore, total reach of the mix is 92.5 (if 0.075 or 7.5% don't see it then 92.5% do see it).

Other basic "counts" for a campaign are impressions (OTS), cost per rating point and cost per thousand impressions.

All of these counts; reach, frequency, GRP, OTS, etc are possible for outdoor, if the research has been done, in your country, to count the audience of the locations used.

Tuesday, December 01, 1998 #2189
Dear Guru. I've got several questions. 1. What is the difference between the following three types of compensation for the ad agency services: commission, fee and percentage? Are there any other compensation systems used by the ad agencies? 2. What is the right way to evaluate the efficiency of the advertising campaign: a) held in several cities at the same time (each city has its' own media vehicles and their ratings are measured for the target audiences based in those cities); b)using several medium at once (i. e. TV and print). 3. How can we measure the effectiveness of the outdoor ad campaign? Thank you in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, December 01, 1998 ):
  1. Commission is based on a percentage of the agency's spending on the advertiser's behalf. The spending will primarily be media purchase and (in the U.S.) traditional commission, usually included in media rate cards, is 15% of the gross spending. Other expenditures, such as production, are marked up 17.65% of the net spending; this is exactly equivalent to 15% of the gross.

    Fees are flat amounts of compensation for performing agency tasks. On very small accounts, 15% commission may not cover the work required to create and place advertising. On very large accounts, 15% far exceeds what would compensate the effort.

    By Percentage the Guru imagines you mean an agreed commission other than the 15 / 17.65% structure.

  2. Efficiency is typically expressed in one of two ways: CPP - Cost Per gross rating Point or CPM - Cost Per thousand audience impressions (Roman numeral "M")

    In comparing markets, CPP is problematic because the universe number for calculating the Points - or percentage of universe - changes. However, CPM just uses impressions, which can be added and compared across markets. Other issues, about units and print versus broadcast can merit separate consideration, but these would be beyond efficiency.

  3. Effectiveness measures depend on a definition of the effect desired; is it awareness or sales or share? To best measure outdoor specifically, you need to set up your standard of effect and measure it with and without outdoor.

Wednesday, October 14, 1998 #2096
Dear Guru, Could you advise me any sources about memorization indices for different media (eg. outdoor, radio, daily newspapers etc.) Thanks in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 15, 1998 ):
The Guru has not seen indices comparing recall (if that's what you mean) across media. If any exist, the Advertising Research Foundation library is most likely to have the data.

Wednesday, October 14, 1998 #2095
Dear Guru, Do you know special media models for autdoor advertising? Are there any difference of modelling diffrent media? What is the most appropriate model for calculating reach and frequency for the outdoor advertising. There are several models like Agostinis, Beta Binomial eg., what is the closest one to the outdoor models. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 15, 1998 ):
Harris Donovan of Canada has an outdoor Reach and Frequency system.

A media reach model is based on several observations of the actual reach achieved by real schedules and finding a "curve" that matches a regression analysis of the GRP vs frequency lines. Some of the models you mention are appropriate with small ratings like radio's or medium ratings like consumer magazines'.

Wednesday, October 14, 1998 #2094
Dear Guru! Could you explain the speciality of billboard advertising, focusing on the time length of the campaign. I suppose there is an optimal length of a campaign, and after that the reach is not growing (or just a little). In the European market we can find 1 week 2 week and 1 month long campaign too. Are there any available research on this topic? Thanks Tamas

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 15, 1998 ):
In the U.S., an outdoor campaign is usually bought as a 25, 50 or 100 "showing". "Showing" means GRP's per day, based on camparing DEC (daily effective circulation) to the population universe.

A "50 showing" outdoor campaign will achieve 85% or better reach in one month, so obviously there cannot be much reach growth from there. A 25 showing isn't much lower and a 100 showing isn't much higher.

Campaigns usually run 3 or more months. The cost of production typically works against less than 30 day postings.

Even though outdoor delivers very high reach at low cpm, in the Guru's experience it is rarely employed just for this reach building, because it offers limited message length and detail.

Harris Donovan of Canada has an outdoor Reach and Frequency system.

Tuesday, October 06, 1998 #2075
I do the planning for a brand of milk food, meant for children's consumption. My Target Audience is young mothers. Could you please suggest an innovative ad. medium, leaving aside the regular TV, radio, print, outdoor etc? Nagarjun

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 06, 1998 ):
Leaving all these aside doesn't leave room for much except the new electronic media (E.g. in the U.S., Parents' Magazine web site) or store / product related advertising.

It isn't clear from your query whether you product is a milk substitute, milk additive, or ?

You might consider "shelf talker" or other POP materials. Best of all, if feasible, you might even consider ads on milk cartons.

Monday, September 28, 1998 #2058
Hi Guru, we 'meet' again. What is the best choice of media to be used while advertising for a major shopping mall? Are there any case studies or previous campaigns I can refer to?. Thanks for your replies Guru.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 28, 1998 ):
"Best media" is always relative to the marketing goals. You will probably want to focus on media which closely cover the trading circle of your mall.

Newpapers, radio and out-of-home are the ones most often thought of on a smaller local basis.

Your target and whether you are doing image advertising or promoting a sales event will also be a factor.

AMIC is about to establish a library of model media plans including the retail category, but it isn't there yet.

Saturday, September 12, 1998 #2040
hi guru the 16.5% commission, exactly what does this finance from an advertising agency point of view... thankyou

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 12, 1998 ):
Because you are writing from South Africa, the Guru must acknowledge that the standards may be different than in the U.S., but here are his thoughts:
  • Traditionally, in the U.S., "standard" agency commission is 15% of the gross media cost or 17.65% of the Net
  • The only time when 16.5% applied, and this may no longe be true at all, was in outdoor, because there was considered to be some additional agency expense in "riding the boards" (evaluating the actual posted locations)
  • In any case, media commission (whatever the normal rate) typically finances media planning and buying, marketing and creative strategy development, in other words, all the service and advisory activities of an agency.
  • Some other agency work, such as costs of production, research and events management are charged for separately on a cost-plus basis, when there is a commission deal in place.

Today, however, the Guru believes there are few "straight commission" deals and many varied and original financial agreements between agency and advertiser exist.

Monday, August 03, 1998 #1987
Dear Guru, I am new to media planning and have been asked to predict the major changes for media planners over the next five years. can you give me any starters? Thanks in advance

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 03, 1998 ):
Since this must be a training exercise for new planners, isn't asking the Guru cheating? But since this sort of exercise is silly anyway, the Guru will go along; after all nobody would have predicted the media planners' involvement in on-line, five years ago.

Come to think of it, on-line may have been the only major change of the past five years.

For example,the incremental importance of cable and the slow decline of broadcast ratings is not a major change for planners. They face the same questions, but the answers have changed somewhat.

The new millennium, whether one considers the "popular" start date of January 1, 2000, or the actual date of 1/1/2001 will, no doubt, be a time to look for new approaches and focus more on the future. Marketers will finally recognize that the various major ethnic markets: Hispanics -- newly the largest ethnic group -- plus African American, Asian American and smaller minorities will encompass most Americans in the first decade of the new century. This will mean planners must pay far more attention to assessing the importance of and covering these market segments.

Also in the next five years the Guru sees the debate between advocates of "Recency" plannning and those backing "effective reach" being settled. Categories of marketing or rules on which to base application of one or the other will be clearly defined and two distinct styles of planning will emerge.

Finally, coming back to online, the internet's amazing growth will max out. No more than 50% of the population is likely to be on-line. The internet universe and internet ratings, on a U.S. basis, will be readily available, so that on-line media will become just another element of media plans. Specialist agencies will fold into general agencies and internet media will have no more mystique than out-of-home.

Thursday, July 16, 1998 #1953
I'm "shopping" for databases/software of TV and radio station directories as well as newspapers and outdoor companies. (Comprehensive listings including address, phone and fax numbers, call letters, formats, personnel, tape requirements, etc.) Our agency currently subscribes to SRDS for this type of information, however, they will not sell their products in a database format. We want to upgrade to a more "high-tech" system so my quest has led me to do a product/cost comparison of what is available now.So far I have located the following companies: Media Market Resources (TV and Radio Datatrak; BIA Companies and Parrot Media. Do you know of any other sources? I need to complete my analysis and submit this proposal to my Management by 7/22. Thanks for your assistance. By the way, this is a great forum for media professionals to gather information and share ideas. Thanks again.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 16, 1998 ):
The Guru has not seen as complete a set of listings as Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS)'. They do offer an online database version.

MRI also has a CD-ROM for consumer magazine data.

Thursday, June 04, 1998 #1884
I would appreciate any information that you can give me regarding impact weighting ratios. I need to do an exercise comparing ratings for TV, radio, outdoor and cinema and I believe that there is an international standard that I can apply. I am writing from South Africa. Many thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 04, 1998 ):
The Guru is not aware of any international standard. Comparing the impact of various media is either based on research or on judgement. Because media are consumed differently in different countries, the relative impact would differ. For example, there is very little cinema advertising in the U.S. and not even a ratings standard for that medium.

Thursday, May 28, 1998 #1612
A comparison of TV versus Radio versus outdoor in a developing country, namely South Africa, context.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 02, 1998 ):
You are asking for the entire contents of a major text. There are certain aspects of these media which are intrinsic, and do not depend on the country:

  • TV offers sight, sound and motion and can demonstrate products better.
  • Radio is sound only but can call upon the imagination perhaps more strongly than TV.
  • outdoor can convey only brief messages, but has powerful visuals. In a developing country, literacy will be a factor in assessing the value of outdoor.

Beyond such basics, every country will vary, as will sub segments within that country. If the Guru offered generalizations about the English language South African market, they might not apply to the Afrikaans segment.

In different cultures, the relative strengths and audience accumulation patterns of media vary, depending upon availability, penetration, language/literacy factors and much more.

Saturday, May 23, 1998 #1602
I am looking for any guidelines / research about: 1- number of spots for radio (sustaining level, 50% heavy up, 100% heavy up 2 - if I have continues strategy what maximum gap of not being on air may I allow without harm to sales (one week, two, three?) 3 - in my country (Russia) we have practice in outdoor not to place competitors on two opposite sides of billboard, ahzt I think is not correct, as each face of billboard works for different directions and can not compete with each other. What is the practice regarding this in other countries. Thank you very much.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 26, 1998 ):
1) The Guru doesn't judge radio effectiveness in terms of numbers of spots. If one schedule of 12 spots, for example, has an average rating of 0.5 (one-half of 1 percent of the target audience), which is common, it cannot be considered equal to another station's 12 spots with an average rating of 2.5 (also reasonable for top stations in the US). The first accumulates 6 GRPs and might reach 3% of the target, the second accumulates 30 GRPs and might reach 12-15% of the target.

So GRPs' or other audience measure are more realistic ways to determine levels. Having done this, if you determine that 100 GRPs, for example, is the correct sustaining level, then by simple arithmetic, 50% heavy-up is 150 GRPs and 100% heavy-up is 200 GRPs

2) Awareness begins to decline as soon as there is any advertising gap. Current thinking is that sales of a continuously purchased product are better supported by continuity at whatever level is affordable rather than an arbitrary minimum effective weekly level, separated by periods of inactivty. The U.S.'s Advertising Research Foundation has considerable literature on the topic and so might ESOMAR , the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research organization

3) The Guru agrees with you regarding opposite sides of a billboard. The competitive protection policies the Guru is familiar with in the U.S. only deal with advertising seen by the same audience, that is, traffic headed in the same direction. Usually there will be a certain range specified, such as "Within 500 feet" for metropolitan 8-sheet boards, which are about 5x12 feet and can be placed in dense concentration within cities.

Thursday, May 07, 1998 #1584 to achieve better reach in lesser media budget? 2.please provide some tips on clever media planning. 3.who is best media planner as per you and why?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, May 08, 1998 ):
1. If reach is the only concern then it is usually easy to find media with higher reach per dollar. For example, outdoor delivers enormous reach and has the lowest cpm of all traditional media.

Smaller units also stretch budgets without losing reach. Fractional pages or TV :15's instead of :30's, radio :30's instead of :60s also help.

But of course, there are other, copy effectiveness and impact issues associated with these media choices. There is always a trade off; you can't get more reach in the same media for less money, unless you can persuade the sellers to lower the prices.

2. Clever media planning includes some of the ideas above, but also requires a planner to sell the ideas for their benefits, and get past the negatives. The goal of media planning is to deliver on the marketing objectives.

"Clever" is doing it in non-standard ways. Can you persuade the media to create special programming which ties into your campaign? Can you show the media a benefit to them in carrying your ads so that they want to resduce the price or give more than the usual value added elements?

If the Guru has one real tip on clever planning it is: Learn to use and understand the research which is available. Few in media today do. An knowledge of what research is available and how to apply it to media decision making will make a planner stand out, and appear clever and creative, because that planner, in fact, will be so.

3. The Guru himself is the best planner he knows. The nature of the media planner's position in the ad business is to be subordinated to creative and account services. There is little chance for planners to become known beyond their agencies. No doubt the "best media planner" lurks in unsung obscurity in a hundred agencies.

Monday, May 04, 1998 #1580
Dear Guru I am working on my final media plan for this semester. 1.Could u tell me if u could buy cable locally, like spot TV. 2.Could u also tell me the best web sites and any outdoor/ specialty magazines for my target group Men; 18-60; $35000+. 3. Is it possible to buy internet ny market? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 04, 1998 ):
1. Yes

2. You need audience research resources to help select media for your target. For magazines and the web, try Simmons and MRI. For more detail on web sites alone, try MediaMetrix, RelevantKnowledge or Netratings

By the way, your target, 18-60, is not a standard media "age break," you should decide whether to use 18-54 or 18-64, which is what will be available in research studies.

3. There are web sites focused on particular markets and cities. However, their audience is potentially worldwide. There are techniques which will control which ads are seen according to the location of a vistor's ISP, but that technique can go far wrong. For example, all people browsing the web through AOL appear to be in Virginia. Other large connectivity providers generate the same deceptive impression regarding location.

Monday, April 20, 1998 #1568
What is the methodology (if there is a protocol) of giving a cash value to value-added promotions the client engages in with TV and Radio stations? The value of the spots is the simple part, it's the out-of-home type promo that I find hard to mix, dollar for dollar, with the value of broadcast time.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, April 20, 1998 ):
Valuing out-of-home merchandising is easy. You should have no trouble finding out from the vendor what the cost would be for you to buy the same out of home space (and production, if included).

Monday, March 23, 1998 #1540
Recent studies on outdoor studies (audiences), where can I find?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 24, 1998 ):
In the U.S, Advertising Research Foundation, and Newsweek Media Research Index. In Europe, ESOMAR , the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research organization, may be a source.

Monday, March 02, 1998 #1517
Question: I'm looking for a percentage breakout of OOH advertising usage by industry. Can you provide it? Or tell me where I can find it? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 02, 1998 ):
CMR(Competitive Media Reports) tracks OOH.

You may also find that larger OOH sellers, like Eller, outdoor Systems, and TDI can help you.

Tuesday, September 16, 1997 #1414
We are in need of international media planning sources. We need planning data for the U.K. and the Caribbean. We are interested in sources that will identify available local market advertising media to begin our media selection process. We also need audience delivery research sources. The media classes that we are considering are: television (local broadcast and cable), local market radio, newspaper, magazines, outdoor and transit. If anyone could help, we would appreciate it. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 16, 1997 ):
There are media services which offer international support. The Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies (The Redbook) would list these. Another option is to form an affiliation with small local agencies in each country.

"The Caribbean" covers a multitude of countries and you will find agencies mostly divided along language lines, i.e. Spanish speaking vs English speaking vs French speaking islands, such as Puerto Rico vs Jamaica vs Martinique, as well as by national affiliation, i.e. different agencies for Puerto Rico vs The Domincan Republic.

One organization, Publicitas offers print representation around the world and may be helpful with other media.

Thursday, May 22, 1997 #1351
Dear Guru, where can I find some information about efficiency of perception of advertising on outdoor Ad. billboards by potential audience?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, May 23, 1997 ):
Please see the similar question about outdoor, below, on May 15th

Thursday, May 15, 1997 #1346
Are there any studies that quantify the differences in ad impact/recall etc. by varying sizes of outdoor (8-sheet, 30-sheet, bulletins with or without extensions)? Where could I find that info?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, May 16, 1997 ):
The Guru always begins with the libraries of the Advertising Research Foundation and the Newsweek Media Research Index, for topical research needs. You can also try the major out-of-home vendors, such as outdoor Systems at (212) 297 6400

Tuesday, February 04, 1997 #1057
What is the best way to evaluate outdoor - qualitatively and quantitatively? Any available research?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 09, 1997 ):
In the US, outdoor is typically packaged in "showings" of 25 / 50 / 100 which generally mean 25 / 50 / or 100 grps per day, that is, a selection of locations with a total daily effective circulation equal to 25 or 50 or 100% of the adult population of the market. (demographic data is often very approximate).

outdoor delivers very high reaches at low CPMs. Message lengths are of course quite limited.

Barring specific creative testing or pre-post attitude awareness and usage tracking, evaluation is very much a judgement call based on creative and your communications goals.

Thursday, December 19, 1996 #1089
Dear Guru...I am in the process of starting a retail mail order business..I am literally starting on a shoestring ...I was wondering what advice you could give as far as the most effective media for the money and any general media advice as well. Thanks..

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, December 21, 1996 ):
How much money? In given circumstances, radio, outdoor, direct mail, newspaper or TV might be the most productive use of money. It depends on total budget, what geography one needs to cover and what sort of message needs to be conveyed

Monday, October 28, 1996 #1117
What defines an "Ad Agency"? How does an agency get paid when placing ads? How do they "qualify" for the agency discount for placing ads, and is this discount universal through most media? If they don't have discounts for ad placements, is there another way to bill a client for this service other than by the hour? Thank you for your response. DJ

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 29, 1996 ):
There is really no "qualification." Ad rates ares either quoted as "gross" (comissionable) or "net" (non-comissionable). The idea is that the gross rate is there to show to an agencies client, and includes the agency's traditional 15% commission.

Rate cards specify when rates listed are net, meaning the amount the media itself must receive. This is typical for retail rates, which commonly cover ads placed by smaller,local advertisers, directly.

Some outdoor rates still observe the tradition of 16.67% commission.

Some agencies have deals with clients at rates other than 15%.

Sunday, September 01, 1996 #1154
I've got 22 email newsletter titles, which I launched about two months ago. And subscriptions are coming-in thick-and-fast -- up to 150 per day. Each of the newsletters announce Web sites relevant to a particular topic. To-date, I've been trading 200 word sponsors' announcements in exchange for banner advertising on other sites. However, I'm now starting to get enquiries re. paid sponsors' announcements.

Can you specify a typical range of prices (eg. price per 1,000 readers) for sponsors announcements in email newsletters? -- bearing in mind that my sponsors are permitted a description of up to 200 words and our 22 newsletter categories allow pretty good audience targeting.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 02, 1996 ):
There is not any e-mail newsletter standard pricing as yet. Assuming that your subscribers have all requested subscriptions, and the soel purpose of the newsletters is to announce sites in which the would be interested, then the value is probably comparable to web banner advertising.

The Guru compares this to outdoor billboards at about $5 per thousand. Others compare it to vertical magazines at $70-$100. But those magazine situations are full-page, detailed message ads, not road signs, like web bannners,See Pricing Web Site Advertising; A Media Buyer's View ,here at AMIC

Wednesday, July 10, 1996 #1181
Who do I contact to inquire about airport advertising in Phoenix, Arizona? A quick reply would be appreciated because I'm working under a tight deadline. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 11, 1996 ):
Try TDI (Transit Display Adverising) in NY City or Gannett outdoor If they don't have the Phoenix Airport, they'll know who does.

Sunday, May 05, 1996 #1227
I'm trying to figure out how Gross Rating Points are used to figure out gross impressions when it comes to using billboards to advertise?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 06, 1996 ):
As you may know, generally. . .

Gross Rating Points as a decimal fraction (i.e. 50 GRP = 0.50)multiplied by population (for the relevant demographic) =impressions.

The "trick" with billboards is that GRP in outdoor are expressed in daily quantities. So a #50 -- or 50 GRP -- showing means a total daily "circulation" equal to 50% of the population, or 1500 GRP per month.

Thursday, February 29, 1996 #1749
I recently heard that their is a company that designs a billboard that is (believe this) a mile wide X 1/4 mile high. The ad would be placed on a rocket (ie, Space Shuttle) and dropped over the earths atmosphere for all the world to see. The ad should last for about 3 months. I found out about this unique media from a friend at Ayer, who works on the AT&T account. Unfortunatly, this was about two years ago and my friend has since lost the reps name & number. Can you help me locate this company. This is not a joke. Thank you, Brian Alter Korey Kay & Partners

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 01, 1996 ):
Has NASA announced that it will accept purely commercial payloads? Can a mile-wide sign high enough to stay in orbit 3 months be read with the naked eye?

This 7 million square foot sign would probably have to weigh 20 tons even if made extremely light weight materials. NASA would probably have trouble packing it in the shuttle and the freight charges would probably be, oh say $10 million, not to even consider production cost. . .

and for all this you've got outdoor?

Good thing your friend doesn't sell bridges.

Friday, January 19, 1996 #1781
I would like to know if in United State exist any research, about outdoor reaching people. If exist, could you give me an explanation, and any address to try to get more information. How an outdoor campaign is evaluated in U.S.? How many people reach, this kind of study. Thank you in advance

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 02, 1996 ):
There are measurement sytems and standards for outdoor media in the U.S. outdoor (more generally called out-of-home media, to include buses, bus shelters, subways, etc) is measured in GRPs as are other media. outdoor GRP's are measured on a per-day basis, while broadcast media are more often thought of on a per-week basis.

Therefore if one buys 100 Adult 18+ GRPs of outdoor posters, the daily audience exposures (circulation) are equal to the Adult 18+ population of the market area. So a 100 GRP buy is about 3000 GRP per month (100GRP per day x 30 days.

Typical reach systems will report that this level of outdoor delivers a reach in the 90% range with over 30 frequency. You may buy 50 GRP or 25 GRP, of course. Even at these levels reach is typically 80+.

Years ago we talked of "100 showing" or "50 showing" which was sometimes the plant operators rough estimate of 100 or 50 GRP and sometimes just a pricing basis.

outdoor sales companies, such as Gannett (212) 297-6413 can provide scehdule-specific reach analyses.

Monday, October 30, 1995 #1828
Where can I find reach, frequency, and rates of outdoor advertising in Salt Lake City, UT?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 30, 1995 ):
The large "network" outdoor companies sell and have rates for markets and "Plants" beyond those which they own. They also can compute reach and frequency data. Gannett (212-297-6412) and Patrick, also in NYC, are good to starting places.