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Media Guru

Guru Search Results: 220 matches were found

Wednesday, October 11, 2000 #3883
What would the best food/wine magazines that avail, either specifically or have a regional print run in Northern California targeting 40Yrs+ high income earners

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 11, 2000 ):
It is the nature of food & wine magazines to appeal to an older, upper income reader. Only the largest, such as Food + Wine, Gourmet, or Bon Appetit might have such a geographic availability.


Tuesday, October 10, 2000 #3881
I'm a print media business-to-business editor; I've worked for my publisher for 15 years. I'm trying to encourage him to learn how to market our magazine's website, but he seems to think that selling on a website is the same as selling an ad. on a printed page. Where can I find information and guidance, to show him that this is a different world requiring different strategies and techniques?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 10, 2000 ):
Why not "walk" him through a major, successful B2B site like CMP's ChannelWeb. Point out the different types of ads, programs and relationships. Talk also about how the audeinces of various "pages" may diifere in audience size and composition, totally unlike print media.


Monday, October 09, 2000 #3877
What are the best computer programs for media planning? We are a small shop that does it pretty much manually and need a program to do small print media buys.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 09, 2000 ):
The Guru recommends Telmar and eTelmar.


Friday, October 06, 2000 #3875
Where do I find a topline summary of CPM information for different media types --- Broadcast & Cable (Nat'l & Local), print, Outdoor, On-line, etc. --- against targets of Adults 18+ and Adults 25-54?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 08, 2000 ):
Various major agencies publish guides to such data. The Media Week Directory will have sone of the data.


Thursday, September 14, 2000 #3796
Is there a metric for evaluating the performance of online advertising (Internet), print, radio and tv advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 18, 2000 ):
The absolute metric is sales. Short of that there is ad awareness or recall. Otherwise there are audience measures; impressions, or reach.


Saturday, September 09, 2000 #3787
Dear Guru, I'm comparing print and web advertising for my diploma project. Where can find online forums with business people talking about their media choices and preferences?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 09, 2000 ):
AMIC's MediaPlanning and Market-L forums.


Thursday, September 07, 2000 #3783
What are the benefits of Spot TV versus print for a 3 month launch campaign?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 09, 2000 ):
TV is a more active, impactful medium than newspaper. There is a greater range of flexibility in schedule, reach and frequency, especially in achieving quick, up-front high levels. 95% reach at 20+ frequency in week 1 is possible in TV, with nothing close possible in local print. But budget will be a key issue.


Thursday, August 31, 2000 #3772
I am aiding in an ad agency search. My client has asked me to come up with a way to compare the way two agencies will receive compensation. Can you help me by suggesting the factors I should request of the agencies to do an apples to apples comparison.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, September 03, 2000 ):
As far as the media portion of this question goes it seems quite simple. Pose the question to the agencies:
"If we have a media budget of (fill in your approximate budget here) what will be your total fees for planning, buying and all supporting or related accounting functions? What fees are or are not refunded or forgiven in case of cancellations? Express the answer in dollars rather than percentages."

It might aid precison to break down the budget specification into print versus broadcast versus online, etc, and by national versus local.


Thursday, August 24, 2000 #3746
Media Guru(s), Hopefully will not humiliate myself with this question: When planning a trade campaign (target is Neurologists,and GPs) how do I determine the time frame for reach/frequency? I have set effective freq. at 4. Is this over a 4 week period? Can it be over a quarter? I cannot achieve a 4 week freq. of 4 against the Neurologists, but I can against the GPs. Does this mean that using trade print to reach the neurologists is not effective/appropriate? How do I rationalize a 4 week r/f delivery time frame for the one target group and a quarterly time frame for the other? Or am I totally missing the mark in both cases??? R.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 28, 2000 ):
The "standard" period for evaluating reach and frequency is 4 weeks or a month, if all print.

When considering effective frequency, some thinkers believe that every exposure after the crtical number is achieved is delivered effectively. This is a cornerstone of the "Recency" theory. So, you can think abouit your effective levels on a rolling, cumulative basis, and merely state that effectivene reach is being delivered to GPs as of "X" point in time and against neurologists as of "Y" point in time.


Wednesday, August 23, 2000 #3737
I am trying to figure out the wearout for print. My target is African Americans 12-24 and 18-49. All I have is the FY reach, freg and TRPs. What would be my next steps?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 28, 2000 ):
There are no accepted standard formulas for wear-out. By the nature of print, which tends to yield high reach adn low frequency, there is generally less concern about wear-out than in broadcast.

Some of the broadcast rules-of-thumb for wear out include "over 20 frequency in the second highest quintile" or "2000 GRP.

Niether of these are likely to occur in print. Custom research may be the only real way to evaluate this. Start with Starch.


Friday, August 11, 2000 #3696
In dailies, for inter vehicular cost efficiency comparisons, are there any recent studies that compare ad. visibility for top of fold vs. bottom of fold or for odd vs. even..... For inter media cost efficiency comparison, Is there a way where size of a magazine ad. can be compared with an ad. in newspapers? Any research reports thanx Sandeep

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 13, 2000 ):
Regarding above / below the fold, see The Newspaper Advertising Association.

It is always a challenge when comparing efficiencies between media to decide which unit will be compared. Depending on the purpose, possible approaches include:

  • If creating a general package of information about media, compare the most common ad unit used by general advertisers in each medium: Perhaps TV :30, Radio :60, magazine Page 4 color, Newspaper full page, etc
    These "standards may differ from country to country or between market segments.
  • If making a rationale-supporting exhibit in a media plan, compare the creative units under consideration for the plan.

See Starch for research on print ad units.


Wednesday, July 26, 2000 #3654
Please provide formula to manually calculate Reach & Frequency for press. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 29, 2000 ):
This calculation is very complicated. If you don't have detailed tables of duplication factors between different publications and between various numbers of multiple issues of the same publication, only fairly crude formulae are available.

Click here to see past Guru responses about reach calculation formulae.


Monday, July 24, 2000 #3643
Can you recommend any publications (online or traditional) that specifically target online editors of weekly and daily news-oriented sites?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 24, 2000 ):
There are traditional and online publications edited for news editors, like Editor & Publisher (print circulation approximately 21,000).

There are traditional and online publications for online business, like The Industry Standard (print circulation approximately 100,000).

But the Guru does not know of anything narrowly addressing the intersection of these two sets. There would be a very small potential audience.


Friday, July 21, 2000 #3638
I have requested and received the latest media kits, and have given a single sheet description of the client and the demo to the reps. Should there be an expanded RFP, and how long (or short) should a print RFP be, to be effective?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 23, 2000 ):
The Guru is not supportive of RFPs for print submissions. The concept of the RFP is best suited to soliciting complete solutions to needs. If you could give each vendor your complete print communications goals and were possibly willing to allow one publisher to win the whole budget, then the RFP approach could make sense.

Otherwise, the Guru recommends you specify, target, positioning, frequency desired, merchandising desires, and ad units and not be concerned with the "length" of the request at all. In other words, tell the sellers, as directly as possible, what the buying decision will be based on, and then let them respond. Feel free to request a standardized format for submissions, but allow enough flexibility to receive good ideas.


Tuesday, July 18, 2000 #3625
Can you please explain what "Optimizers" do in media planning? Is it a separate program from media planning software or part of the package (e.g. Tapscan, SmartPlus, etc.)? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 23, 2000 ):
Generally, an optimizer is a buyers' analysis tool using respondent-level data, to select a media list which has the greatest reach within a budget or achieves a reach goal most efficiently.

There can be considerable detail specified as to target, reach at "X" level of frequency, etc. The current use of "optimizer" most often specifically refers to network TV analyzers using Nielsen data tapes as input and examining "actual" versus modeled reaches.

Media planning packages generally don't include such optimizers. Optimizers typically cost more on their own than media planning software suites and also require purchase of relatively expensive Nielsen tapes. Similar buyers' analyses of print schedules, are typically built into these planning suites but rely on users' possession of Simmons or MRI data.


Friday, July 14, 2000 #3619
Hi Guru, I'm writing from India.One of our clients related to the travel industry is interested in advertising to Indians in the US and UK.The client feels that print is a good option to get conversions.The client wants to use ethnic publications targetted towards Indians in US & UK. Could you please let me know which are the publications one could use along with reach numbers if possible? Thanx in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 21, 2000 ):
Some U.S. Indian publications are listed at Abbott Wool's Market Segment Resource Locator. One source in the U.K. might be the Indian embassy.


Tuesday, July 11, 2000 #3613
Hi Guru. I am working for software company. We are developing applications for analyzing data for advertising agencies. Basically, we are working in Germany and processing following sources of data: respondent level TV viewing data from GFK, spot level AdEx Data from A.C. Nielsen Germany, spot level data from TV-Spotcontrol, print media data, Internet data and so on. We intend to adapt our software for American advertising market. Can anyone advise some American companies or institutes, which publish any advertising data for demo targets? I am new to this list, so my apology if this has come up before. Thanks for your participation. Vladimir Titov,

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, July 11, 2000 ):
Nielsen, Arbitron, Scarborough, Simmons, MRI, The Mendelsohn Media Research Affluent Study, MediaMetrix and Nielsen//Netratings are major, general sources. There are others, specialized in specific industries, such as technology buyers.


Monday, July 10, 2000 #3611
Are you aware of any research studies that have tried to estimate the average or typical reach of general market media across multiple ethnic groups (Asians, Latinos & Blacks)?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 10, 2000 ):
Many studies have done this. Nielsen for TV, Arbitron for radio, Simmons for print and mutlimedia. Often such studies address one group at a time, particularly when language is part of the defintion of the group.


Monday, July 10, 2000 #3608
hi where can i find researches or information about drugs advertising? which media have the best influence on patients? t.v? press? Radio? which reach & frequency levels are recommended ? thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 10, 2000 ):
The answers will vary depending on typical media planning / marketing issues.
  • Who is the target?
  • What is the competitive situation?
  • What are the legal restrictions
For example, in the U.S., there is one set of rules that applies when you are marketing prescription drugs and another set for "over the counter" pharmaceuticals.

For prescription drugs, you can mention a drug name without discussing the problems it treats or its results, or you can mention a problem to treat without mentioning a drug name. In these cases there are fewer rules to observe. When you mention a drug along with its disease or results, you must also provide the "patient information" (PI) which is all the side effects warnings, counterindications, etc. This typically means broadcast advertising must be accompanied by print to carry the PI. Or that print must devote a portion of space to this detailed information.


Thursday, July 06, 2000 #3604
I've mostly handled print and DM advertising and am trying to master radio. If a client is saying that their optimum TRP level is 175, what does that mean?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 10, 2000 ):
Click here for a definition of TRP .

Presumably, the client would be speaking of the TRP level which has produced nest results for the budget.


Sunday, June 25, 2000 #3574
When planning an integrated campaign involving both online and offline advertising (print, press, billboards, radio etc.) how do you track the effectiveness of those advertising activities back to the traffic on the website. (other than asking them) How do you measure the effectiveness of the individual offline campaign components against one another in order to know which of the offline components is pulling more than the others?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 26, 2000 ):
The Guru can only think of one possibilities other than "asking them" either online or offline: In each ad use a variant of the URL so that you can measure traffic to each variant page.


Tuesday, June 13, 2000 #3548
I am in the process of evaluating a print proposal submitted by a business to business annual register with company listings/profiles, accessible by category. In addition to receiving a P4C ad, my client wil also receive 8 bold type listings with descriptive information and 4 bold type listings(company name and phone # only) throughout various sections of the register. At first glance the package looks like a great idea. The circulation is nearly 100% targeted, the CPM (based on the P4C alone) is very low, and there are additional merchandising perks that will expose my client to their target for one full year. The problem is, I must put a "value" on each component of the package. Do you have any ideas on how to place a value on the "bold type listings" described above?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 15, 2000 ):
Your situation is analagous to evaluating reach versus GRPs or a full commerical in a special versus billboards.

Since the deal seems efficient and effective simplay based on the P4C, any value you give to the other elements can be arbitrary and will be just for the sake of dicsussion. Why not calculate the impressions of all the other elements and price them at 25% of the P4C cpm?


Saturday, June 10, 2000 #3546
Guru, Is there any published papers that tell us the efficacy (in terms of quantitative analysis)of "out of home options" with respect to measurable media like TV/print? Basically the "impact scores" of mass measurable media versus the consumer's out of home options- any type of outdoor media. Would really appreciate if you could provide some light in this area. Thanks Gyan

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 11, 2000 ):
There should be comparisons of sales response, recall, etc in the materials at the The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Friday, June 09, 2000 #3545
Are there any industry "benchmarks" for response rates or cost per response for driving traffic to web sites through ads in tradional "offline" media? For example, if you run a print ad for a dot-com, what response rate should you be able to expect in terms of people visiting the site?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 11, 2000 ):
The Guru hasn't seen "benchmarks" for print ads' reposnse as web visits.

A lot of variables effect ad response. There is some data on print ads for web sites at Cahner's and in the The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Thursday, June 08, 2000 #3540
Question: Dear Guru, In the course of my work, I need to evaluate many media (mainly print)proposals for advertising. What are the parameters I should look out for and points to consider if the publication is suitable to advertise in

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 08, 2000 ):
The basic points in comparing print vehicles are
  • coverage (percent of your target that reads the publication
  • composition (percent of publication's readers who are within your target audience) and
  • environment:
    whether the publication is authoritative in the area relevant to your advertiser or
    offers supporting editorial regarding your category or message, etc.


Wednesday, June 07, 2000 #3537
I'm new to media software. If my agency is planning all media, is Donovan a better package than Telmar. Are there any others that I should consider? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 08, 2000 ):
No. Donovan software is for buying and stewardship. Telmar (AMIC's sister company) offers programs used for planning, such as reach and frequency estimators, print cross-tabbing and rankeing, flowcharts, etc.


Friday, June 02, 2000 #3524
Dear Guru, In the course of my work, I need to evaluate many media (mainly print)proposals for advertising. What are the parameters I should look out for and points to consider if the publication is suitable to advertise in? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, June 07, 2000 ):
Visit Starch


Wednesday, May 31, 2000 #3514
My company publishes a 5 column tabloid newspaper. In order to cushion small retail advertisers from an upcoming double-digit rate increase (to offset rising newprint costs), I'm considering changing to a 6 column format. The theory is that we can convert small ad sizes to the new format, keep existing business at approximately the same rate per insertion for slightly smaller sizes (i.e., convert 1/10 Pages to 1/12 pages), and gain greater efficiencies and a higher yield per page. Are there any case studies that you're aware of that examine this scenario?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 01, 2000 ):
The Newspaper Advertising Association would be a good source of such studies.


Tuesday, May 30, 2000 #3502
Dear media guru, what is a "filler". Is it used differently on tv than the radio?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 30, 2000 ):
Filler is content used in odd bits of time, particularly in news or feature-oriented programming. It is more common in print


Wednesday, May 24, 2000 #3494
Hi Guru, I have a few, related r/f questions: Can you please explain the technical differences between r/f's calculated using the Metheringham, Mellow and Prince methods? Are there cases where one methodology would be more favorable than the others and what are the cases. And, finally, is there any value to runnning a yearly r/f? THANKS !!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, May 24, 2000 ):
You appear to be referring to magazine r/f in particular.

Metheringham is one of the oldest print r/f methods, based on duplication between titles and duplication between issues.

Mello is an extension of Metheringham created by MRI. The Guru confesses to being unfamiliar with the "Prince" method.

"Most favorable" would be a case-by-case judgement call. Assumong you have all three systems available, you can do the same schedule 3 ways and compare. The Guru doesn't think there are general cases that can be cited where one is superior to another. Most likely teh differences will be caused by multi title versus few titles/multi-insertion schedules, or weekly versus monthly.

Yearly r/f, when schedules are reasonably substantial, is not likely to be useful in comparing scehdules. Some advertisers might use yearly data when looking for box-car numbers for trade promotion or sales meetings.


Tuesday, May 16, 2000 #3479
Are there parameters (highs and lows) for effective reach and frequency? In other words, is there a particular reach and a particular frequency that are considered "average" as they relate to broadcast media? How would one determine whether an advertiser is spending adequate funds to meet these "averages" when airing a broadcast schedule on a Mon-Sun basis?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, May 19, 2000 ):
The Guru finds the concept of average irrelevant in this context.Such measures are relevant in relation to competition and one's own communications goals. What does it benefit an auto brand if the "average" advertiser has a reach of 50% at 3+ frequency when all automotive competitors are delivering 75% at 3+?

As to turning spending into effective reach and frequency, that's typically part of a media plan. Budget gets expressed as schedules of TV, radio, print, etc. Reach and frequency are calculated by available software for these GRPs. Effective reach / frequency is an inherent part of the calculation.


Monday, May 15, 2000 #3472
I have been presented the task of recommending media test markets for a cross-channel campaign that includes DM, print, radio, web and outdoor. Ideally, these test markets should be representative of the US population (i.e., mini US markets). What are the most commonly used media test markets that take the following into consideration? No spill in or out/purity of environment, large enough to purchase direct mail lists, and of course representative of the U.S. population?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, May 19, 2000 ):
Nielsen publishes a test market guide addressing these issues. Note that "most common" is not really a good criterion. Why test in a market where lots of other tests are going on, thus making the market non-representative?

Realistically, being fully representative of the U.S. isn't possible unless you settle on a few demographic criteria that you deem relevant to your product or test. It isn't too hard to find markets approximately representative on age/sex/income parameters, but are these the most crucial parameters in testing a basic household product, or is it more relevant to be representative of African American and Hispanic penetration or household size?


Sunday, May 14, 2000 #3470
Question: Would you please advise how audience accumulation builds over time? For: (A) Weekly Consumer Magazine (B) Monthly Consumer Magazine (C) Business Publications (D) Out of Home Media. I suppose that based upon the type of media -- daily newspaper versus monthly magazine, that audience accumulation will vary quite differently. But from the standpoint of audience accumulation over the course of time from Week 1 to Week 2 to Week 3, etc., because of duplication, the accumulation figure will decrease --- with reach maxing out. Could you please provide a run down by media type (A, B, C, D) as to how accumulation figures build over time?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 14, 2000 ):
To really evaluate this you need the specific respondent-level data from individual media, such as that provided by MRI or Simmons.

Generally, in any print medium, the audience builds quickly at first, within the medium's cycle. For instance, a weekly builds the vast majority of its audience within the week following issue, and virtually all of its reach within 3 weeks. A monthly has a similar shape to its "reach curve" over time, but the 3 week time line extends to perhaps 2 months. Business publications would probably compare similarly for weekly versus monthly.

Out-of-home media are quite a different story. Since they are not media with content, and are incicentally encountered in life as opposed to the audeince seeking it out, there is no aging content to affect readership. Because out-of-home, at least in the case of outdoor posters, is bought at enormous GRP levels ( usually 25 to 100 GRP per day), reach accumulates very quickly, reaching 85 to 95% of an audience in the first month. The medium itself does not get measured, the campaign does.


Wednesday, May 10, 2000 #3456
I would like to ask three questions: First, is there a website that provides guidelines for advertising on the Internet. Our company only provides services in certain areas and want to evaluate how we can reach these areas using the internet. Secondly, are there any other alternative ways to get messages across besides traditional TV, radio, print and outdoor? Thirdly, is there a website or service that reports spending on ad circulars (for instance, DirecTV in a Best Buy ad)? Thanks,

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 13, 2000 ):
  1. The Guru doesn't believe there is any website specifically providing an unbiased guide to internet advertising. Many of your questions might be answered by looking up past Guru queries and responses in the Guru Archives Search Engine. Use your various topics as your search terms.

    The Internet Advertising Bureau and C.A.S.I.E. (The Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive Entertainment) are sites with good, general information.

    If your key issue is advertising to a specific geographic area, you can advertise on sites providing local information, which today exist for most localities, or you can buy geographically specifc impressions from most major, commerical, consumer-oriented sites.

  2. There are always new, unique non-traditional media, such as skywriting and cross promotion. But since the new ones are new they are not generally known until you stumble across them or unless their sellers find you.
  3. The Guru also doesn't believe there is a service which tracks specific products within stores retail ads. In some cases, where these represent co-op deals there may be some record, but generally, not.


Saturday, May 06, 2000 #3448
I work in a two-person media dept. and my primary media planned & purchased thus far has been traditional(ie, tv, radio, print,etc.) A client has now requested an online banner program targeting commercial real estate landlords in NY, Chic. & LA. I don't know where to begin. Your advice is greatly appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 06, 2000 ):
Your starting point, without any reference books is to try to imagine what kind of websites would interest your target, and try to find them using search engines like Yahoo, etc.

These might be websites of commercial buildeing and maintenance services like construction, painting or carting.

It isn't in the nature of the web to be limited to specific geography, but sites can sell banners targeted geographically.


Wednesday, April 26, 2000 #3423
small market advertising: most effective print or broadcast? Product Casino-Resort.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, April 26, 2000 ):
This varies by market: what media are available and how well they cover the market. There cannot be a single rule.


Monday, April 24, 2000 #3413
Which medium (TV, radio, print, direct mail)does the Internet have the highest duplication with in terms of usage?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, April 24, 2000 ):
This question isn't really answerable as stated. TV, Radio, print and (in theory) direct mail reach everyone, including all internet users. So, with this broad question, all media are tied at 100% duplication.

Specific schedules of traditional media , specific DM lists and specific web sites will have different duplication rates, and different frequency distributions. Or, you could determine something like "webusers are less likely to be heavy viewers of TV than heavy readers of magazines."


Wednesday, April 19, 2000 #3408
I have a client who wants to advertise in two very local newspapers...Thrifty Nickel and The Employment Guide. I have found some info on Thrify, but not on the other. Do you have any suggestions on where to locate? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, April 19, 2000 ):
The Guru assumes that you know the location? Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) has a Community Newspaper Source, whic might be helpful.

Then, too, with a location, you might be able to locate the publications though printed or online Yellow Pages and request information that way.


Monday, April 17, 2000 #3402
Dear Media Guru: Where can I find the Media Spending/Rating Levels by Daypart(TV) and Magzines(print) for the BP Amoco Account over the past two years. (This is for United States only.) Is there any site that would show their recent commercials as well? I am researching a media position for this account and would like to understand their overall Marketing and Media Strategy to see if it would be a productive match.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, April 17, 2000 ):
The data you want is available through CMR (Competitive Media Reports) and Nielsen.

Some may be online. All will have a cost of access.


Wednesday, April 12, 2000 #3393
What is the radio industry standard for a denominator such as CPM in print media. The C/RP is fine for comparisons in the same DMA, but what about cross-DMA comparisons?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, April 12, 2000 ):
CPM works in radio, too, and it's the right metric to use across markets. Arbitron reports thousands as well as rating, so it's always available. To get a rough estimate of CPM, divide CPP by 1% of the target universe expressed in thousands; Cost Per Point is the cost of reaching one percent (one rating points' worth) of the universe.


Wednesday, April 12, 2000 #3392
Guru, I've never used a planning program as most of my planning has been national print and outdoor, local broadcast, and things I've felt I can handle on my own.I've seen so many planning programs and websites for planning it's hard to tell the good from the bad. Have you ever evaluated planning programs and, if you have, can you recommened one or two? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, April 12, 2000 ):
To the Guru, the term "planning program" means programs like Telmar's AdPlus or Telmar's full set of individual media analysis programs or the eTelmar online suite of media programs.

Such programs calculate reach, frequency, effective reach, frequency distribution, and quintiles for individual media plus combinations of media as well as cross-tabulations and rankers from media audience databases. Flow charting is also a typical option.

These programs don't actually create media plans, that is determine how much budget to invest in each medium, ad units to use, and scheduling. There are such programs on the drawing board, but require that the planner quantify and factor those concepts which would be subjective judgements.


Friday, April 07, 2000 #3373
Can you give me any data on the efficiency of using preprinted advertising inserts in newspapers. Are they more effective than display advertising? Is the response rate better? Are they a cost-effective medium? Are there any data on this medium that you know of?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 09, 2000 ):
The media term "efficiency" is reserved for the analysis of a price / audience ratio, so please only use it for that issue.

Pre-printed inserts are typically in color, while ROP display advertising is most often black and white, yet inserts are easy to discard and ignore, compared to ads in the ordinary flow of the ROP pages.

Research sources include The Newspaper Advertising Association, Newsweek Media Research Index and The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Tuesday, April 04, 2000 #3367
Can you give me any data on the efficiency of using preprinted advertising inserts in newspapers

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 06, 2000 ):
You need to check ratecards. There is usually a statement of cpm for carrying an insert.

Broadstrokes information may be foound at The Newspaper Advertising Association.


Monday, March 27, 2000 #3341
Hello I am currently enrolled in the 3-year advertising program at Mohawk College in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. In response to a class project and of great interest to me, I am in search of answers to the following questions regarding obtaining a career in the Internet advertising field. 1. What programs are used in the creation of Internet advertisements? 2. What are the job titles and descriptions of jobs within Internet advertising? 3. What are the specific qualities looked for when hiring a person for Internet advertising? 4. How does Internet advertising differ from other forms of advertising? 5. What should a student keep in mind and focus on while attending school in order to further their changes in Internet advertising related career? 6. Is there an organization solely devoted to Internet advertising? 7. What forms of Internet advertising are offered? (Ex. WebPage design yes, banners, etc) 8. When should a company inquire about Internet advertising as a form of advertising? 9. How long has Internet advertising been around and how has it grown throughout the years?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 27, 2000 ):
Since this is the Media Guru, we will address those of your several questions which relate to media issues.

  1. Not a media question
  2. Other than "webmaster" all internet advertising media titles are approximately the same as in other media: General manager/publisher, sales manager, sales account executive on the website side; Media Director, Media planner, media buyer on the buying side. Some companies may have invented special titles either to reflect their individuality or special business structure, such as "Channel manager" when selling multiple sites that can be grouped topically
  3. There should be no specific qualities sought in hiring media people for internet purposes rather than any other media, other than possibly better computer skills and internet familiarity. It was not unusual, in the early days of internet advertising, for employment ads to be signed only with a website or email contact information, so that those who didn't understand such information wouldn't apply.
  4. The chief differences of internet advertising versus other media include:
    Interactivity: Any consumer action in response to an ad generates a reaction by the internet
    Combines the full animation potential of TV with the detail capability of static print
    Consumer action in response to an ad 'place-marker', i.e. the banner, is required before the full ad, i.e. the click-thru target, is exposed
    Unlike other media where the medium's full audience is attributed to each ad, the internet allows us to count actual ad exposures
  5. A student should take any internet courses offered in addition to the full standard advertising curriculum, if working in internet media is the only goal.
  6. There are several organizations devoted solely to internet advertising: The Internet Advertising Bureau, which is the Web site owners trade group, C.A.S.I.E. (The Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive Entertainment) which is primarily, if not exclusively internet focused, is the advertiser/agency internet trade group. Of course there are numerous internet sales representative organizations and ad agencies/media services.
  7. Internet advertising forms include websites, banners (meaning any less-than-full-page ads displayed on websites) interstitials, and e-mail advertising. Within e-mail advertising are three principal types: ads as sponsorships, inserted into subscription email newsletters and discussion group posts, Opt-in email, where the recipient has actually agreed to receive by email commercial information from the sender, and SPAM, or Unsolicited Commercial Email, which is commercial messages posted to newsgroups or sent by direct email. This last is completely disreputable and banned by most consumer ISPs.
  8. An advertiser should consider internet advertising alongside all other media when selecting media for any plan. Internet media should be used when it offers an advantage in efficiency (quite rare), an opportunity to reach an otherwise difficult-to-reach prospect, or the opportunity to deliver a message of a kind or in an environment which enhances message impact.
  9. Internet advertising of one sort or another has probably existed since the early days of the internet. As a real medium, internat advertising is traced to the beginnings of the commercialization of the World Wide Web at the end of 1994. The year 2000 will generate over US$5 billion online ad revenue


Thursday, March 23, 2000 #3335
Hi Guru, A few years ago, I saw a budget setting tool called the Jones Diagram. Do you know of this and where an explanation of how to use it might be found ? Thanks,

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 24, 2000 ):
It diagrams the findings of Jones' analysis showing that low share-of-market (SOM)brands ususally spend at a higher share of voice (SOV)than their share-of-market percent; that higher share-of-market brands underspend share-of-voice and that this situation is correct. This then allows budget setting in accord with SOM and SOV information.

The author is noted media theorist John Philip Jones of the Newhouse School at Syracuse University. It is fully described in his book, How Much Is Enough? : Getting the Most from Your Advertising Dollar published by Lexington Books in 1991. The title is out of print, but - at this writing - is currently available online through the Barnes & Noble Rare and Out of print site.

An explantory article might be available from The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Wednesday, March 15, 2000 #3323
Re: Creative messages (ads) in consumer magazines and/or newspapers. Is it customary to run difference creative in magazines than newspapers? In the past, the agency has tried to convert a magazine ad to run in newspaper. However, the color reproduction quality is very poor in newspaper printing compared to newspaper.Therefore, the question - do advertisers usually run different ads/campaigns in magazines from newspaper? We would appreciate any feedback you have. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, March 16, 2000 ):
Yes, newspaper copy is usually different than magazine copy. Color is just one reason.


Saturday, March 11, 2000 #3310
1) In the absence of any continuous tracking of readership ( unlike peoplemeter for TV), how is it possible to measure the deliveries of a multi media campaign ? Assume readership estimates are available at 6 month intervals 2) Is there any study done to determine the impact of internet on TV / print viewer/readership ?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 11, 2000 ):
1) It must be assumed that readership is constant for each issue in each six month period. Keep in mind that each readership release is several months behind when released. If it is crucial to closely estimate audience on a continuos basis, you can get issue by iise seasonal circulation trends of the magazines to make adjustments to the per-issue assumption. For new publications, the growth trend can be projected.

2)There have been a few studies released regarding internet effects on traditional media audience, most recently one from Stanford U. GVU is another resource.

The findings of such studies generally show that internet users use less of other media. The studies typically over look the fact that these internet users were lighter users of traditional media before using the interent.

The best collection of studeis should be at The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Wednesday, March 08, 2000 #3299
I am looking for a salary survey for Traffic coordinator, production artists, designers, Art Director, Creative Director in the Northern Virginia, Washington, D.C, Maryland area. Large corporation. Mainly working in print collateral, some web

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 10, 2000 ):
This is not a media question of course, but you should be able to find salary survey information in the archives of the major trade media, like Ad Age.


Thursday, March 02, 2000 #3275
Guru, any thoughts on how to estimate % trial as a result of advertising (effective reach 50% at 3.6+ effective freq. print plan, only medium).The brand has done little advertising,has limited awareness(8% unaided) in a moderately competitive category(indigestion remedies). I have factored the target group pop.(W55+) by the incidence of the condition, then further adjusted by % likely to treat the condition, to arrive at a "Total Potential Prospects". At this point I would like to estimate the % that can be persuaded to trial, to determine estimated prospects and potential sales, but I have no historical advertising or client data on which to base the expected return. Would you base return on current awareness levels, or current SOM? No growth expected in the category,assume trial at the expense of the competition. I am attempting to devise a systematic method of determining ideal effective reach,linked to sales objectives, as I am not content to leave it at "maximum affordable at effective freq. level" Sorry for all the blather, but your thoughts and wisdom would be much appreciated. R.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 04, 2000 ):
What you seem to need is a persuasiveness measure: what is the percent who would try the product (purchase intent) with and without advertising exposre? Many marketers have done such research and, if available, it can be factored against your "total potential prospects."


Wednesday, March 01, 2000 #3266
Guru, I have a tough question for you. We are coming out with a new print form of direct marketing/advertising for a specific market niche. Although I can’t explain the details of the piece, my question is what type of incentives (i.e. price discount off base rate, more/larger ads, betters terms, etc.) do you suggest we offer in order to entice prospective advertiser to come aboard in our inaugural issue(s) knowing that we don’t have a track record? Also, what % of available ad spots do you think we’ll be able to sell over the first 6 issue’s of our monthly piece assuming we have a sales force of proven sales reps. Any help will be greatly appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 01, 2000 ):
The more unique your vehicle, the harder it might be for prospects to understand the benefits, so the more incentives you would need. A good salesperson's job is to discern whether there is a probability of making a sale and what the considerations are that will make the prospect say yes (see the online excerpts of High Probability Selling. The best approach might be to arm your sales force with a variety of discounts, bonuses, and deal enhancements, with instructions to offer one only when they can tell that it will close an order. After a few attempts, you should be able to learn what works and what doesn't, or if it's a case-by-case situation.

As in many other selling scenarios, some buyers are looking for price and others are focused on buying what will lead to their company or client's success.


Tuesday, February 29, 2000 #3262
What are average ROI's for small businesses across various media- Yellow pages, print, tv, radio? Do you know where I can find this info?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 01, 2000 ):
There are too many variables in terms of ad unit and quality, offer, expenses, etc to hope to find meaningful averages.

If you narrowed the question to ROI for toothpaste on page, four color ads in the seven sisters magazines, the question would be closer to answerable. Even so you would most likely find only anecdotal information in the form of case studies, but no meaningful averages; advertisers don't share their results with the media, as a rule.


Sunday, February 27, 2000 #3254
I would like to have information about typical rates of frequency that are considered necessary for advertising to be effective on different media. I would like information for television, radio, outdoor and print advertising. If there is such information, I would also like information for internet ads. In short, how many times does an ad need to be seen on different media before for an effective reach. Thank you...

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 27, 2000 ):
Most judgements about effective frequency are just that; judgements. The traditional number, 3, is based on century-old learning theory about repetitions of information needed for learning to occur. This theory is not medium-specific but has many other aspects.

Click here to see past Guru responses about this and the Ostrow model

Research by DoubleClick about "banner burnout" shows that internet ads lose effectiveness (in the sense of causing clicks) by the third repetition. Of course, if you want to apply this approach to internet advertisng then you would be considering the awareness-building and sales-driving aspects of banners, rather than click-thru.


Friday, February 25, 2000 #3248
Looking for ideas on unique media vehicles in the Southwest US. Unique as in non-traditional.

Traditional being: spot tv, spot radio, bulletins, posters, transit shelters, bus wraps, taxi tops, wall murals, kiosks, print, aerial advertising (blimps, airplanes, etc.) trailer panels, mobile video displays, in-airport displays, in-transit exposure, direct mail, flyers, sponsorships.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 27, 2000 ):
When you rule out the traditional mass media, "new" electronic media, direct mail, most forms of out-of-home, and require geographic specificity, you have pretty much come down to untried out of home, such as painting the sides of mesas in the desert or putting logos on souveniers, like arrowheads.

What you want probably isn't in place yet, but the world is waiting for you to invent it.


Thursday, February 17, 2000 #3226
Where can i find an analysis of cpm for all media, including print, radio, television, outdoor and internet?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 18, 2000 ):
Several media are compared here at AMIC's Ad Data area. Without being very specific as to demographic and type of site/ad type, internet cpm averages are meaningless. But you should find some data at NUA Internet Surveys or The Industry Standard.


Friday, February 04, 2000 #3189
guru, we are an export firm and deal with granites(floor decors) we have our presence in france and are interested to spread our promotions through out europe...in this connection i wish to have the media options available in europe for my product...i in fact used the international media guide and found it useless....if u can give me some statistics country wise regarding media reach and visibility and rates you will be doing us a big favour

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 07, 2000 ):
The Guru is puzzled about what you want. The International Media Guides list print media rates and circulation for Eurpoean media, which should be most of your information need. In most of Europe, commercial broadcast media, such as Independent Television are few and easy to track down.

TDI can help with outdoor media.


Thursday, February 03, 2000 #3185
Is there a publication of print planners for ecommerce agencies anywhere?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 07, 2000 ):
The principal source of agency staff lists would be The Standard Directories of Advertising Agencies and Advertisers ('The Redbook').

The Guru does not believe it includes a classification called "ecommerce" agencies. Within the category of on-line agencies, some may specialize in ecommerce sites, but not many are likely to specify listings on print planners, in the Guru's opinion.


Monday, January 31, 2000 #3176
Dear Guru, I am in charge of IT for a small advertising firm. I need to compile a comprehensive list of software solutions for media buying/planning/research/management. I need to be as exhastive as possible while weeding out the weaker solutions. Do you know of any good sources of information for this question? What are the top five solutions (including Internet/"zero client" solutions?). Thank you in advance,

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, January 31, 2000 ):
The solutions of which the Guru is aware are our own Telmar, as well as IMS, Strata, MediaPlan, Simmons' Choices and MRI's MeMRI

Some do it all, some only handle broadcast rankers and audience analysis, some only handle print. Some focus on detail in one medium or another.

As far as the Guru knows, only Telmar's system, which can run on a PC or via the internet, and IMS, offer multimedia analysis. Also, as far as the Guru knows, only the new, combined offering from Telmar/Strata does it all, covering planning, buying, research and managment needs.


Monday, January 31, 2000 #3175
Guru: I have been an Assistant Media Planner/Buyer for about 4 months. At my six month review I will be asking for a raise because I am convinced my current salary is well below the industry standard for entry level, even for the low cost-of-living in the market where I am employed. However, the only entry level salary survey I can find to back me up is a 1997 salary survey from Advertising Age. Can you clue me in to current salaries in the industry or web sites that have this current information?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, January 31, 2000 ):
The best starting point would be the current employment classified in the Sunday New York Times (print version), which should be available in a local library. Your market's salary ranges may be different.

In the Guru's opinion, "industry standard salary level" is a poor argument for a raise, especially for a new, lightly experienced assistant. This is at best a back-up argument when a it is agreed a raise is merited. Achievement and contribution are always most persuasive.


Thursday, January 27, 2000 #3169
Is there any research showing whether there is a difference in readership between right hand and left hand positioning in a consumer magazine?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 27, 2000 ):
It's one of the bedrock foundations of print planning, though possibly untrue.

Check these:

Newsweek Media Research Index

Starch

and finally, The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Friday, January 21, 2000 #3140
i am doing a project on effectiveness of print medium vs Televion. i would like to know if you have any studies or articles on the same. i would also like to know the trends in advertising spends on both the mediums in various markets across the world especially India. could also please suggest various parameters of comaparing the effectiveness of the two media.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 23, 2000 ):
Effectiveness studies would be available from Newsweek Media Research Index, ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization and The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter.

International agencies like YR and Saatchi compile and publish ad-spend data for various countries and regions.

Professionals working in one country and culture typically overlook the basic fact that the relative strengths and impact of the media differ in different cultures. They have the same physical nature, e.g print allows visuals plus detailed text, radio is sound only, tv offers visual/sound and action, yet the strengths may differ.

In one country broadcast is government controlled and print is the only viable commercial medium. In another, TV has only one commercial outlet and one government outlet in each area while radio has few outlets to compete. In yet another culture, radio is the best reach medium while TV has the biggest individual audience ratings and print is very weak.

The ultimate standard of effectiveness is sales, when that can be directly linked to advertising. Brand Awareness and Ad Awareness, Attitude and use, purchase intent, etc are also possible comparisons.


Wednesday, January 12, 2000 #3113
Dear Guru. Do you have information or can you help me with the following question : What is the best way of surveying the audience in dailies and magazines ? I would highly appreciate to know about your experience about this.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 12, 2000 ):
In the US, the primary print audience surveyors are MRI and Simmons. Each of these services offers comparisons of techniques in their sales materials.


Wednesday, January 05, 2000 #3093
Is there any conclusive data available on the relation of print and internet advertsing ?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 05, 2000 ):
Nothing is ever conclusive to those who chose to believe something other than the research findings. Nevertheless, see Query # 3081


Thursday, December 30, 1999 #3081
Has there been any studies that have been done to analyze the synergies between print and internet Media ?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 01, 2000 ):
"Synergies" is an extremely vague term. There are studies to show how well print advertising brings traffic to web sites. There are studies of net reach of the two media.

If you can make your query more specific, you may find relevant research at The Magazine Publishers' Association, Cahner's or Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Saturday, December 25, 1999 #3075
Dear Guru, there has many studies and discussions about the effective reach and frequency, GRPs level, etc for the TV media. Is there any for Newspapers? Any industry norm about what is the effective frequency for Newspapers

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, December 25, 1999 ):
The concept of effective frequency is based on psychological studies of learning which found three repetitions of information were required for the information to be "learned."

The original study, by Ebbinghaus, was conducted circa 1883. If the concept is valid at all, it is equally valid for print media as it is for TV.


Thursday, December 09, 1999 #3042
Dear Guru- I have heard there are thousands of ways to advertise on the internet for free. What are they, and do you think any of them are effective? How many impressions do you think can be generated with little or no money to spend. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 09, 1999 ):
There may be thousands of sites, but the Guru doubt's there are thousands of ways. Here are some:
  • Free on-line classifieds on community and local newspaper sites
  • Free on-line classifieds when you pay for print advertising in major newspapers
  • Free banner ads as merchandising for buying paid space in traditional media, particularly magazines. Free job lisitng ads in many places, including AMIC's Ad Jobs area.
  • Link exchanges which are banner trades with other sites.
  • Cross-links with other sites.
  • Putting up your own ad-bearing site in the free web-site space allowed to customers by many, if not most, ISP's

The Guru does not think many of these options generate large numbers of impressions. They may be effective, given a small scale goal.


Tuesday, December 07, 1999 #3034
Great Guru, As part of our consumer print advertising for our local convention and visitors bureau we run in a couple of in-flight publications. They have been chosen on the basis on the highest numbers of deplanements at our airport and the fact that they provide service in our region (the western United States). It is our assumption that many people have a loyalty to an airline, and we can entice regional travelers to our locale. (Although we do consider ourselves a national destination, our budget only allows us to advertise regionally.) What is your opinion on our reasoning...are we "preaching to the choir?" What considerations do you take into account when evaluating in-flights (within the category and also against other consumer print)? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 09, 1999 ):
A very complex question. To break down the answers into managable pieces:
  • Airline loyalty seems a questionable basis for selection. While people may be loyal to an airline when it serves their destination, the Guru doubts that people decide where to vacation based on whether or not they can get there on the airline which they like best
  • If you were promoting one casino versus others, then advertising on the airline with the most traffic to Las Vegas would be a strong choice, but once the travelers are on a Las Vegas-bound plane, you can stop selling the city. And it doesn't make sense that a traveler presently headed to Phoenix or Ontario, CA is necessarily a better prospect for Las Vegas than a traveller headed to San Antonio or Kansas City
  • If budget is only enouogh for regional coverage, better to concentrate on the region where most visitors come from than the local region, if there is a difference.
    Preaching to the choir might be a good description of your plan.
  • Choosing among in-flights, in your case, is probably better based on ones which have travellers who like to gamble on vacation, if that's your selling point. Certainly there are media which will have a higher readership index on gambling or the other entertainments of your town than do the in-flights.


Tuesday, December 07, 1999 #3033
Without the budget for post-flight call out surveys what formulas or 'rules' can I use to anticipate message saturation and burn. What reach or net reach level over what period of time would be probable to achieve a 80% awareness within the target. Also what is considered too much exposure for one message before you reach a point of diminishing returns. I know that the the better measurment here is research before and during the campaign, but there must be some bench marks that are industry accepted. Can you share these and share a public location for other general assumptions like this. Thank you in advance Guru... J

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 08, 1999 ):
  1. Ad awareness will never be greater than reach, so start from a plan that delivers at least 80% reach
  2. To establish measurable awareness, some repetiton will be needed, so think about getting an 80% reach at a set effective frequency level. The Guru has previously discussed use of the Ostrow Model to set this goal.
  3. A message is worn out when its ability to generate sales falls off. This being hard to predict, many advertisers have used past experience to set media-measurement based cut-offs. These have included a limit of 2000 GRPs and a frequency cap of 20 in the second highest quintile. In reality, the size of the copy pool, the qualities of the copy, the target, the overall media mix, and product category may all lead to wide variations in wear out. The two standards mentioned above were both commonly used in basic package goods TV advertising in a mix with print and a TV copy pool of 2-3 executions.


Tuesday, December 07, 1999 #3032
i am seeking an extended list of caribbean media vehicles (tv, radio, magazines, and newspaper) reaching caribbeans living within the us. can you tell me of any names or places where i can find this information? In addition, do you have any recent information pertaining to which us markets they are living in along with population figures. the only information i was able to find was '90 census data. thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 08, 1999 ):
The Guru will asume that you are referring to "West Indians" also referred to as Caribbean Black, and not to Caribbean Hispanics. In either case these marfket segements are primarily found along the U.S.' East Coast. About 75% of the U.S. Caribbean Black population is found in the N.Y. and Miami DMA's; within NY, primarily in Brooklyn and Queens counties.

There are print, radio programs and syndicated TV programs for this market segment. Once you find one, they can probably guide you to others. For example, New York's WLIB-AM offers some Caribbean programming.

MultiCultural Target Source produces a directory of media for many ethnic and cultural segments.


Sunday, November 21, 1999 #2993
guru-what are the major benefits to advertising online versus other forms of media?(tv,print, ect.)thank you guru

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 28, 1999 ):
The biggest advantage, if that's your target, is the high composition of computer users.

Another is the potential for instant, interactive response.

Another is the possibility of segmenting the audience with almost infintite specificity, by virtue of selecting pages by topic or placement based on keywords.

Internet advertising also conveys something of an up-to-date, with-it image, if that is an issue for an advertiser.

More quantitative advantages, based on efficiency or reach must be compared on a case by case basis. Sometimes on-line has an advantage, other times not. One should never lose sight of the fact that only about half of the population uses the net today.


Monday, November 15, 1999 #2969
we want to represent publications from Malaysia/Taiwan/Sri lanka.The biggest problem is that when we send the material and payment we will not know the fate of the adfvt.Please give us some contacts in these countries.Secondly we also would like to help companies aroind the globe who want to advertise in Indian publications.We can take care of their intertest and can give immaculate service.How to inform this to the advertisigng communities across the continents.Please advice.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 16, 1999 ):
To be quite frank, the Guru wonders how you can assume you can give excellent service if you don't know how to get proof of advertising or how to advertise your own services.

The standard proof of print advertising which the Guru expects is at minimum a "tear sheet," that is, a copy of the ad as published in the publication; at best; a full copy of that day's publication.

See the International Media Guide about advertising outlets around the world. International editions of various biusienss publications might be best.


Tuesday, November 09, 1999 #2945
I have chosen to do my thesis( post graduation in communications) on exposure distrbution models in print and television media. I am really keen on finding out more about the following topics: Beta Binomial Distribution Sequential Aggregation Distribution Dirichlet Multinomial Distribution Hofmans Beta Binomial Distribution Conditional Beta Distribution I have been through " Reach/Frequency Estimation for the -the Internet World Wide Web" by Jongpil Hong . I do have access to journals on campus but am facing a problem gathering information on conditional beta distribution ( Kim Heejin,1994) and sequential aggregation distribution (Lee, Hae Kap, 1988). On surfing the net i also visited - http://www.utexas.edu/coc/admedium, checked out the demo on frequency distributions. To further my study in this area i would be grateful if you could guide me as to how to access these doctoral dissertations.Also any help and guidance on other information sources will be deeply appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 09, 1999 ):
The Guru would expect to find doctoral dissertations available at the universities where they were delivered.

Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. has the best compilation of advertising research studies.

The New York Public Library's Science, Industry and Business Library also has a great deal of this material.

There is also a dissertation abstract and search service at UMI


Monday, November 08, 1999 #2942
Dear Media Guru, I am seeking information regarding message retention in print advertising. I would like to know if there has been any research done on the number of messages that a print ad can contain before it loses its effectiveness. In an other words, if a print ad is cluttered with a number of messages, does that make any of the messages less likely to be retained? Thank you!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 11, 1999 ):
The Guru has not heard of that research, specifically. It seems to be one of those "it depends" kind of things: a Chevrolet ad can probably be successful talking about style plus fuel/maintentance economy plus price plus design plus dealer convenience.

An ad for something with more price-oriented purchase decisions, such as long distance companies, probably is less successful making points beyond price.

Starch is known for print copy-point retention studies and there's always the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Saturday, November 06, 1999 #2940
Dear Guru, I am trying to conceptulise a framework for the following two topics 1) Media mix descision - how do u decide on a media mix ( i.e. between print v/s TV v/s radio etc.) and what effect does multi media have on a media plan 2) How does one advertise when one is managing a franchise - i.e do you advertise the mother brand or the sub brand and which benefits more? would there be any sites/literature availble on the net where these questions may have been addresed? Also - Love your site! i think it is a boon to the advertisng community. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 10, 1999 ):
For current information, you need Nielsen for TV and Arbitron for radio.


Friday, November 05, 1999 #2937
Hello Media Guru, I was wondering if you think that the possible ban on advertising to children throughtout Europe will result in an increase in Interactive P.O.P, Press Ads and internet advertising, and if so how could i find out how european companies especially in U.K. are preparing. Thank-You.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 05, 1999 ):
Of course a ban on advertising in some media will cause the advertising to move to other media. Just look at the changes in U.S. out-of-home and print tobacco advertisng when broadcast advertisng was banned in the 70's.

No doubt the European ad trade press, like the U.K.'s Campaign, will have covered an issue of this sort.


Thursday, October 28, 1999 #2917
What are the top 50 Internet companies that are spending $ in print advertising? TV advertising is on the rise, note the dot.com's advertising during the World Series. Are we going to see an increase in other mediums such as print? Or is print too much of a targeted buy?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, November 01, 1999 ):
The Nov 1, 1999 issue of Advertising Age included a special supplement on internet companies' advertsing spending, detailing a half-billion dollars worth in the first half of 1999, which was nearly one-third print.

The air seems full of dot-com advertising and there is some print. Logically, there is more reason to find more targeted sites in targeted print, but the Guru is seeing several, full-page dot-com ads in his daily paper every day.

Sites aimed at parents of young children, housewives, attorneys, etc will find print more efficient, while big-traffic sites can do well in the World Series. The Guru believes that today, radio is the medium feeling the most inventory pressure due to dot-com advertising.


Wednesday, October 20, 1999 #2892
Dear Guru, I am attempting to do a publicty report for the coverage (unpaid) our organization receives on a quarterly basis. I have been calculating the advertising value of publicity, based on what each medium would typically charge for that size ad. However, I am looking for a formula to calculate the publicity value of such coverage. I understand that the National PRSA has come up with a formula to calculate this (something like X 3 for television and X 6 for print), but I haven't been able to substantiate this. Can you help?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 20, 1999 ):
The Guru doesn't deal with publicity, but if PRSA has a standard, the advantage is that it is a standard.


Tuesday, October 19, 1999 #2882
Do you measure a print ad in picas the same way as you measure an ad in column inches? Thanks for your help!

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 19, 1999 ):
Picas are a width measurement. Columns may be specified as "X picas wide." Column inches relate to depth: whatever the defined column width, a column inch is one inch of depth of that column. So a 40 column inch ad might be 10 inches deep across four columns, but the pica width is unknown unless you know column definitions.


Tuesday, October 19, 1999 #2880
Guru, I’m trying to put together a print ”insert” plan for a magazine and I have a little problem with calculating the duplication for the plan. The magzine circulation is 100.000 ex, target audience reach 40% (1 insert), target selectivity/profile 80%. By adding a second ”round” of inserts in the same magazine the total reach ad up to 48% (same selectivity). How do I calculate the no ”extra” inserts distributed by the second ”round” of inserts? BR CD

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 19, 1999 ):
If you reach 40% of your target with one insertion and a net of 48% of your target with two, then the duplication is 32% of the target:

Two insertions has a gross exposure of 80% (40 + 40) and if the net is 48, the duplicated is 80 - 48.


Saturday, October 09, 1999 #2862
It seems that most of the news about advancements in media and in media planning focuses on the on-line arena. However, changes have to be happening in the off-line arena, even if they don’t get the same play. Introductions of products TiVo or Replay TV are going to create major concern among the television and advertising communities once the universe of ownership begins significantly cutting into the viewership of commercials. The digital superimposition of products into programming, rather than just having them featured in the show, seems to be an area where both creative and media departments are both going to have to play close attention (Stuart Elliott’s article in 10/1 NYT addressed some of this). However, with this long preamble, what in Guru’s opinion are some of the other innovative things happening in the off-line advertising side of TV, radio, mags, newspapers, OOH, etc.? Could you cite some articles or Websites that might go into more depth on these?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, October 09, 1999 ):
The offline "innovations" to which you refer are just new mechanisms for achieving the same results with which planners have coped for many years. Not long after VCRs, devices to eliminate commercials were available and never sold well. Remotes have long since made zipping through recorder commercials quite easy.

Product placement and stadium signage are old-hat as well. Placing them digitally instead of physically isn't media planning news.

The Guru doesn't see anything happening off-line as big as the creation of on-line and new advertising vehicles in the on-line arena.

News in off-line seems to focus on new ways to buy and package. Perhaps we will see a return to the early days of TV and real sponsorship. Segmentation - in the sense of a focus on minority groups which in the aggregate now outnumber the presumed mainstream majority, and personalization of media are the new direction the Guru sees in traditional media.

Ad Age and MediaWeek are still the best sources of media news in print.


Wednesday, October 06, 1999 #2854
What are the advantages/disadvantages of advertising during sweeps? We have a client who is TOTALLY hung up on advertising during sweeps. Isn't there a lot of self-promotion going on in TV? The client is a newspaper. Also, I've heard that political advertising during the fourth quarter 2000 is projected to be phenomenal. Do you have any information on how advertisers are reacting? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 07, 1999 ):
It is true that ratings are higher during sweeps, because programming is selected to increase audiences when they are being measured. And yes, there is a lot more self promotion in these periods.

But, assuming your client is going to buy "X" GRPs, they will get them with fewer announcements in a sweep than otherwise. If it takes 20 announcements to get 100 GRP in October but only 15 to get 100 GRP in November, the difference to the advertiser should be infinitesimal in terms of more impact. If any measurable effects are seen, there would be a hair more reach and a speck less frequency in the sweeps scenario. The cost per point might be higher.

Political advertising surges during every presidential election. Advertisers will not be visibly reacting today, since Fourth Quarter is sold as the first quarter of a network's year. When Q4 2000 selling starts to move next May, the upfront advertisers will secure their time comfortably. Some advertisers who don't usually buy upfront will. As the year goes on, some money which would have been spent in some places will go elswhere, network to spot, TV to radio, broadcast to print.

It happens every four years and used to be worse when both summer and winter Olympics fell in these same presidential election years.


Wednesday, October 06, 1999 #2852
I have to give a presentation on buying print media. I want to explain how frequency discounts work when advertising in newspapers. Can you help me explain, in the simplest way possible, how these discounts work? I appreciate your help. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 06, 1999 ):
The more often one advertises, the lower the price per inch of space. That's as simple as the Guru can make it.


Monday, October 04, 1999 #2845
Hello, I am currently doing some research on media databases. I am looking for a database which contains print and internet media contacts and also allows me to add my own contacts. Because I work for an Internet company the database must be able to email our press relases out to the public. Can you suggest a few? Cheers, Annabel http:www.abebooks.com

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 06, 1999 ):
This is somewhat outside the Media Guru's area, but try PR Newswire


Friday, September 24, 1999 #2822
We need to estimate traffic to our website which will launch in a few months. How can you factor in Public Relations activities, word of mouth traffic? Is there some type of industry standard for responses related to print advertising, and PR exposure?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 25, 1999 ):
There are too many variables. A broad, portal type site might expect much more trafiic from PR than a B to B site or one serving a narrow interest like antique 78 rpm records.

there are some partially relevan studies at Cahner's


Friday, September 24, 1999 #2820
Hello Guru!My question may fall outside only media planning. Neverthless I hope you can direct me to the correct info. sites. I am planning a promotion for an established FMCG-Women's product. The product is used for hygiene as well as cosmetic purposes. The promotion entails the consumer entering a contest along with a proof of purchase and a writeup on her experience with the brand. 1. Which media TV or print would yeild the best response. The brand has high TOMA. The campaign has a duration of one month in the peak sales season. 2.Is there any model to predict the response in terms of no. of entries received and offtakes 3.How should I plan- for generating max. response, in terms of reach and frequency at a moderate budget? No previous data exsists for any such promo with me.4.Are there any rules of thumb in exsistence for a corelation between reach, frequency and responses? Thanking you in advance for your guidance.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, September 24, 1999 ):
As you imagine, your questions fall mostly outside of media, and your acronyms are not standard in the U.S., so the Guru is not clear on the background.

A good source for the sort of information you want is the Direct Marketing Association (DMA)

Within the realm of pure media / direct response concepts, the Guru does not believe there is any rule of thumb for Reach / frequency / response relationships. The Gurru has seen small audiences produce much more response than large audiences in many cases.


Tuesday, September 14, 1999 #2793
What is the protocol for adding print delivery to a broadcast reach and frequency analysis? Does it skew the analysis or can it be done accurately with media planning software?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 14, 1999 ):
Very simply, reach-based planning sets the reach / communications goal as the priamry focus of the plan. For example, rather than focus on CPM, the cost per person reached takes precedence over cost per person exposed (which is what CPM measures).

So, the first vehicle or medium in a plan might have the best CPM, but the second one is the one which, in combination with the first, produces the most overall net reach for the combined spending.


Tuesday, September 14, 1999 #2792
What can you tell me about reach-based planning? Thank you in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 14, 1999 ):
> The usual assumption is that print and broadcast duplicate with random probability, there is no special, greater or lesser likelihood that persons in the audience of the print schedule will also be or not be in the audience of the broadcast schedule.

Mechanically. the combination may be calculated in a few equivalent ways. The Guru finds it easiest to consider the reaches as decimals (50% reach = 0.50).

Subtract the reach of print from 1 and multiply this by 1minus the reach of broadcast. Suppose print has a 40% reach and broadcast has 55%.

By subtracting 0.4 from 1 (1 - 0.4 = 0.6), you have the probabilty of the target not being exposed to print. Subtract 0.55 from 1 to get the probability of not being exposed to broadcast (1 - 0.55 = 0.45)

Multiply these two together (0.6 * 0.45 = 0.27) and you have determined there is a 27% probability of people not being exposed to either of the combined media, or a 73% reach.

This formula is typically used in media software to combine different media.

Certainly there are cases where there is a somewhat better than random probabilty of media duplication, such as TV Guide combining with a TV schedule, but that's the exception, calling for judgement.


Wednesday, September 08, 1999 #2777
Re: Ad rotation in business-to-business publication for first-time advertiser What is the best rotation for two print ads in a business-to-business trade advertising campaign running during a one-year schedule? Ad #1 runs 3X, ad #2 runs 3X, and rotate the remainder of the year? Or rotate evenly? Or 2X each, etc.? What is most effective for building ad recall? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 13, 1999 ):
The Guru doesn't see any basis for 'rules of thumb' here. Considerations might include:
  • How similar or different the ads are in content and/or impact
  • Reasons to emphasize one message over another
  • Seasonal marketing issues
  • Depth of magazine list
  • Prior awarness
  • etc.


Friday, September 03, 1999 #2765
Dear Guru, We are in the process of completing an advertising campaign that is targeting the Retired Senior market. Unfortunetly our advertising budget will only allow for regionalized print, and limited national print. Although I am completely aware that frequency of insertion is dependant on numerous variables, I am curious to know if there is an industry standard for number of insertions that a "senior" typically needs to be exposed before becoming familar with a message or risking burn out? Your help is very much appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, September 03, 1999 ):
The Guru has never encountered any industry standard for wear-out in any medium or any target. Too much depends on the ad itself, the interest level of the category, novelty, etc.


Monday, August 30, 1999 #2751
please e-mail me the latest information about effective frequency as it relates to magazine advertising... required # of insertions to break through, etc.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 02, 1999 ):
Guru answers are only received on this page.

Click here to see past Guru responses about effective levels in print or try the Magazine Publishers of America


Tuesday, August 24, 1999 #2739
Do you have a list of current MEDIA OPTIONS available?

I'm asking for non-traditional, new media vehicles that reach a demographically and geographically targeted audience.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, August 24, 1999 ):
So the Guru assumes website banners are already on your list. There are several web-based enhancements and variations:

Animated banners
Interactive Banners with pull-down menus
Interstitials
Mini-sites (multipage, fully interactive, full motion ads/brochures)
Other multimedia web options.

Multi media cd-rom magazines seem to have had their day and passed

Essentially, "new media" are new ways to engage the senses and add new dimensions: print engaged vision only, then radio engaged hearing, then TV did vision and hearing plus motion. Cable merely fractionalized TV and the internet added activity to sight, sound and motion.

What might be next? Cinema advertising has been very big in Europe for years and seems to be growing here. Advertising delivered on the telephone, to pay for long distance calling is underway in at least two formats:
1: listen to some ads to build a credit of long distance minutes and
2: calls interupted by ads.

In the same vein, we see another new trend, free computers which continuously display ads in a part of the screen and free internet services (ISPs) which do the same.


Tuesday, August 24, 1999 #2736
I've been asked to do a post-buy analysis for a business-to-business advertiser. What components should be included in the analysis?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, August 24, 1999 ):
Any specifications of the buying instructions should be included in the post. These might include:

Broadcast

  • Number of GRPs
  • $ spent
  • Daypart mix
  • Horizontal and vertical rotation
  • Average rating or number of spots meeting/not meeting ratings minima

print

  • $ spent
  • # of insertions
  • Page position
  • Reproduction quality
  • Rate base guarantees met/unmet - rebates due


Saturday, August 21, 1999 #2733
Dear Guru. I'm interested in attention Rate in print Media. (Example effect of size,color,placement in newspaper) Can you give me any data? In addition, How do you measure and analysis of attention Rate?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, August 21, 1999 ):
The classic measurments in this area come from Starch.

Attantion rate can be used to index values of different ads units or publications. These indices can be applied to cpms or audiences to reevaluate media plans.


Friday, August 13, 1999 #2714
I currently sell screen printing, p.o.s. signage, fabricated plastic and Sheetmetal. I have been concentrating on the point of purchase display Industry as it is what my background is in and my companies have a lot of Experience with point of purchase houses. Recently I have been knocking on The doors of advertising agencies. Should I be asking for the media buyer When calling or should I be asking for someone else. I know ad agencies Come across all types of promotion opportunities and I know I can help

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 13, 1999 ):
It would be exceedingly rare for Media Planners to be invloved in POS materials. It's somewhat rare for agencies, except in the creative end. If you talk to agencies, see print Producers, or Account execs. Some agencies may have a promotions department who deal with what you are selling.


Monday, August 02, 1999 #2682
what is considered the effective number of insertions over a year in 1.) daily newspapers, 2.) monthly magazines, 3.) bi-monthly magazines, 4.) weekly magazines. My client's campaign is business to business. We buy print such as WSJ, Forbes, etc and trade print. I can answer this on a common sense basis, keeping in mind the 3+ effective frequency theory, but is there research on what levels are most effective/optimal?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 06, 1999 ):
First, review adjacent Query #2693 for comment on setting effective frequency.

Traditional planning has various theories about minimum levels in print media. It used to be common to set a minimum of one issue out of four in publications with frequencies ranging from weekly to monthly. Weekly frequency was more the norm in newspapers.

But this all has to be taken in a context of

  • whether print is the only medium
  • whether print is the primary or secondary medium
  • How deep is the print list

Effective 4 week frequencies above 3 are difficult to acheive in the print media you list; effective reach like this is more the province of broadcast, while print is more often aimed at depth of message.

For research on print reach / frequency and effectiveness try Newsweek Media Research Index and the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Wednesday, July 14, 1999 #2632
What are GRP's and what do they stand for in a media buy? I am an Account Manager and don't have the Media background but need to explain the GRP levels to my Product Managers. Please help.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 15, 1999 ):
GRPs are gross rating points, the pounds and ounces of media buying and selling. The target audience of an advertisement divided by the population of the target group is the ad's rating. The sum of the ratings of the ads is the Gross Rating Points. Plans specify how many GRPs of each medium to buy. For print, specifications are more often numbers of insertions in specific titles, but the GRPs can be calculated the same way and one plan compared to another.

Allowance must be made for :15 versus :30 GRP or half page versus full page. A given program or magazine has the same rating (GRP) whatever the ad size/length, but obviously there is more benefit from 100 GRP of :30s or pages than from 100 GRPs of :15s or half pages.


Monday, June 07, 1999 #2559
Can you tell me who the top offline advertisers are and how much they are spending on an annual basis? Where they are spending (ie: TV, print, Radio, Internet, etc.)Can you also tell me what the top categories are? Do you have any projections?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, June 09, 1999 ):
It is interesting to see this new description "offline advertisers" which from the perspective of on-line media makes perfect sense as a way to categorize 97% of all ad dollars.

The information you request is published annually by Ad Age, or can be purchased from CMR (Competitive Media Reports).


Wednesday, June 02, 1999 #2552
dear guru, are there any sites that could give me info on retail advtg esp where newspapers are involved? i have visited NAA already. also could you give me the URLs of ceratin successful online newspapers ie papers which have their own sites apart from being in print.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 05, 1999 ):
MediaPassage has some very useful tools for newspaper planning.

The classic example of great newspaper sites is The San Jose Mercury. NY Times On-line is another. But these days, just abnout every major newspaper has a good site. In the Guru's thinking, the big distinctions are in how easily a vistor can access the paper's archives.


Tuesday, June 01, 1999 #2549
what is the meaning of ROP in the context of a newspaper? also please tell me whether newspapers by themselves offer free standing colour inserts and if they do how exactly is it done i mean do they do it region wise etc?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 01, 1999 ):
ROP means "run of press" and refers to ads ordered to be positioned anywhere in the normal pages of a newspaper.

Newspapers will individually run free standing inserts, usually on the basis that the advertiser prints them and supplies them to the newpaper according to certain production and delivery specifications ("preprint').

The advertiser can usually specify the portion of circulation to carry the insert by zone or even within a set radius of a retail location.


Saturday, May 29, 1999 #2543
dear guru, i have a few qs regarding print advertising what is the meaning of the term 'far forward positioning'? the fps or the front page solus position of a newspaper is supposed to have very high OTS, is there some solid research evidence backing this claim? like the fps are there any other postions in newspapers that pull best? if there are once again what evidence is there in this regard?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 29, 1999 ):
Far forward positioning very simply means a postion in the first few pages of the issue, at least first third. It is assumed there is a better chance of exposure in these pages. It's a common U.S. usage, but the Guru is concerned about semantics, since you are writing from India and most of the terms you are using appear to be U.K. media jargon.

Covers, opposite back cover, opposite table of contents and opposite first editorial feature, are all considered good magazine positions.

In newspapers, section front pages and section back pages are considered valuable. For research, visit The Newspaper Advertising Association and Newsweek Media Research Index or their equvalents in India.


Friday, May 21, 1999 #2523
I am looking for a print planning software that has the ability to sort business to business publications by SIC's. I know it is available but I am unsure of its name or how I can find out more information. Can you help me?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 23, 1999 ):
The real issue would be finding software designed to work with a database which includes SICs. These would most likley be available from Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) or the BPA.


Thursday, May 20, 1999 #2520
Which are the main criterias to evaluate the impact of newspaper ads? We are suggesting to have different sizes and positions (all at the same cost), but we don't know exactly how to measure their impact. I remember that there is a study about the visual process of the eye when reading. That study includes informtation about the parts of the page that are the most visual. Thanks in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 23, 1999 ):
Ad impact is typically measured in terms of recall, awareness, and sales results. Awareness and sales are usually measured by custom studies of awareness and panel or scanner studies of sales. Starch is well known for recall studies of print.


Thursday, May 20, 1999 #2519
Iwould like to know where could I find examples of printed ads about hushiery & panty hose category. And also I need to find out information about the main femenine magazine titles all around the world. Could you please help me? Thanks in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 23, 1999 ):
Find ad examples in the magazines you are looking for. Find lists of women's magazines in resources from Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) and International Media Guide.


Monday, May 10, 1999 #2502
I've always looked at communication goals in terms of effective reach. Determining effective reach goals can be different agency to agency. That is fine. My issue has to do with combining broadcast media with print media. Can there be an effective reach goal when these media types are combined? In a discussion with my Media Director, they felt that there can only be a 1+ goal. That the concept of effective reach curves were developed on a broadcast model and that print cannot be combined. If not why? I would love your opinion and insight. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 11, 1999 ):
First, the 3+ concept goes back 115 years, to a researcher named Ebbinghaus, who found three repetitions of a series of nonsense syllables was needed for "learning" or memorization.

Combining media to achieve 3+ goals depends on a variety of philosophical judgements:

  • Is the message sufficiently similar, between broadcast and print, so that repeats of either count equally toward establishing the information in the consumer's mind? (unlikley)
  • Determining what level of reach should be achieved at 3+ and/or whether 3+, 4+ or another level should be set as "effective" usually depends on issues like the competitive pressure in the media used, clutter in the media selected, message complexity, category appeal, category novelty, etc. Many of these evaluations would have different results in different media.

It seems to the Guru that the issue is not whether to look at 1+ versus 3+ but whether to consider effectiveness medium-by-medium or in total.

The bottom line would depend on whether the communication focus is on the specific message, which leads to medium-by-medium evaluation, or more on brand or ad awareness, which leads to combined media evaluation.


Sunday, May 09, 1999 #2495
How is measure theathers on the states? Because in Puerto Rico theres no sources.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 10, 1999 ):
While Simmons and MRI provide average audience per screen, the Guru does not know of any U.S. service measuring movie audience in the ways broadcast audiences are reported or print is audited.

For some of the general data see the Screenvision Media Kit. This page requires the (free) Acrobat Reader


Sunday, May 02, 1999 #2482
What is the minimum weekly threshold level of Reach & Frequency to be set for a print campaign [ Full page colour] ? How different would be the same for a television campaign [ 30 secs TVC]?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 03, 1999 ):
There is no absolute standard. Recency theory calls for about 30 reach as the weekly threshold. The Guru believes virtually any reach is worth something, but careful analysis of the sales or consumer response needed to support a level of spending can always be done.

To the Guru's thinking, the only reason to have a different threshold for TV vs print is that typically, the frequency levels accompanying a given reach in magazines will be lower than the frequency for the same reach in TV, assuming your reach is at more than a minimum level. (A reach of 10% in either, achieved through one advertisement will have a frequency of 1.0).


Friday, April 30, 1999 #2481
Is there any way to calculate duplication across a media plan using several media (e.g. print and radio and TV), or can I only get a duplication analysis within a media (radio duplicaton and then another duplication factor for print, etc , etc) I use telmar for research with simmons and arbitron access and we also use JDS for buys.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, April 30, 1999 ):
The standard assumption in media planning is that duplication between different media is purely at random. Therefore, the random probability formula is used:
  • Express the reach of each medium as a decimal (50% reach = 0.5)
  • Multiply the reach of one medium by another to determine the duplication.
  • Subtract the duplication from the sum of the two reaches to get the net reach

So, if you have a 40% reach in TV and a 55% reach in print, multiply
0.4 x 0.55 to get 0.22
subtract 0.22 from 0.4+.55 and get 0.73 or
73% reach of the combined media.

There are a variety of ways to do the calculation. The Guru actually prefers to use the probablilty of not seeing each medium (reach as a decimal subtracted from 1.0) When these are multiplied they give the net probability of not seeing any of the media. When this result is subtracted from 1, the final result is net reach. This style is particulary useful for combining several media at once.The example would combine this way:

  • 1-0.4 = 0.6
  • 1-0.55 = 0.45
  • 0.6 x 0.45 = 0.27
  • 1-0.27 = 0.73 or

    73% reach.

Telmar's "Media Mix" program uses these assumptions.


Friday, April 23, 1999 #2464
Dear Guru: We are about to place our first order for banner advertising on the web. With print we require tearsheets and broadcast we require affidavits as proof of performance before we pay the invoice. Is there any standard proof used for web advertising? Thanks in advance for your advice.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, April 24, 1999 ):
No, there is no "standard proof." It would be easy for a web site to send you a "screen capture" showing the banner on the site as equivalent to a tear sheet, or to have their invoice notarized so that it becomes an affidavit.

The Guru can think of two reasons why these haven't become standard procedures:

  • In most cases the advertiser can just visit the site and actually see the banner as it is displayed. Of course, this could be very difficult when someone is buying only a small portion of available impressions on a giant site like Yahoo.
  • The affidavit approach would work for the major commercial sites that get most of the ad revenues, but the nature of the commercial web is such that the site operators are too many, and from too frar outside the traditional advertising arena, to understand the need. If C.A.S.I.E. (The Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive Entertainment) or IAB were to promulgate a standard, these same perifieral sites would be unlikely to know of or adhere to it.


Thursday, April 22, 1999 #2462
What research is available that addresses wear-out for print ads? We're interested in idientifying the maximum "threshold" for frequency for a business-to-business trade publication campagin.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 22, 1999 ):
Try Newsweek Media Research Index and Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.


Monday, April 12, 1999 #2440
Are there general guidelines or benchmarks for percentages of advetising budgets devoted to alternative media like the Internet relative to print media? If so, what are the usual ranges?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 13, 1999 ):
The Guru does not think there are such benchmarks nor does he believe there should be.

When such guidelines arise, they are ususally based on audience missing from a traditionally strong medium. Guidelines for investment in cable versus broadcast tv which arose 15 years ago are such an example. So are recent guidelines in use for investment in Hispanic media.

But there is no evidence that the web is taking audience from magazines. One such study put forward bu an agency has been pretty much debunked by the Magazine Publishers of America.

So, to create such a percentage guideline for yourself, you would need to estimate the portion of your target no longer available through print.

Otherwise, if your target group uses the web heavily and you believe the web can add reach more efficiently than more traditional media at some point of the budget, or that it can deliver a required, differnt message, then justify it plan by plan, not with an abstract "guideline."


Thursday, March 25, 1999 #2412
1) Are the terms OTS, impressions, hits and exposures interchangeable? 2) Are there media industry norms (or even studies) that indicate a correlation between a number of OTS or exposures and audience (reader) behavior. I understand there were a number of Politz studies conducted in the 60s which suggested that one exposure produced a dicernible response and two exposures produced about double that response. Also there are European reports stating that a magazine ad should provide at least 5 OTS in order for the reader to digest or understand the ad message -- is '5' the number? Are there industry norms, and if so, do they differ by media vehicle? Thanks in advance!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 26, 1999 ):
1) Other than "hits," you may generally consider those terms interchangeable. "Hits" is a much abused term peculiar to the internet. Some people do use it when the mean impressions, but technically "hit" is defined as "an entry in a server log."

Whenever a visitor requests a page on a site, as by clicking on a link, the server log records a "hit" for the text of the page, and hits for each frame and hits for each little bullet or other icon and a hit for each ad. A single page on one of today's commercial sites may consist of several dozen items which would all create "hits" in a server log when only one page impression is happening. The internet is also unique in its ability to serve content with a different ad each time a new user arrives at a page. So page impressions and ad impressions will not agree as they do in magazines or broadcast.

"Hits" originated in the early days of the world wide web, when browsers read text only, like the venerable "Lynx," and a page was just one block of text, so "hit" then equalled "impression," more or less. Hits include server log error messages as well, which are of no value to anyone.

2) The study of effective numbers of exposures goes back at least as far as the scientist Ebbinghaus (1883) who tested how many repetitions of nonsense syllables were required to achieve learning. This was the origin of 3 as a magic media number there have been infinite numbers of other studies, more advertisng and sales focused since.

Note that European media and Europe's media environment are different than the U.S. It is a common trap to assume that media perform the same tasks with the same effectiveness when used in different cultures. The U.S. Hispanic market is a good exanple, with TV, radio and print all delivering very different reach / frequncy, reach potetial and overlap than do the parallel general market media.

The best source of studies on the topic are: Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter, Newsweek Media Research Index and ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization. The Guru has discussed this frequently.
Click here to see past Guru responses about "effective frequency"


Wednesday, March 24, 1999 #2409
Dear Guru - This may seem like a vague question, but what is meant by "adjusted GRPs?" I am looking at a combined TV and print plan that delivers 425 avg. 4-week GRPs against W25-54, and under "adjusted GRPs" it says 336. These are 52-week plans, and there are only :30 units (no copy split). Your help is much appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, March 25, 1999 ):
Your question isn't vague, but "adjusted" is. Somone has done you a disservice by presenting something labeled "adjusted" with no explanation. There are numerous bases used to adjust GRPs including:
  • Variations in measured daypart attentiveness
  • Variations in measured daypart recall
  • judgement regarding sales effectiveness of different media
  • copy length/size versus some established standard
  • etc
. Various advertisers have set policies on these matters and planners trained on those advertisers' business report Reach/Frequency/GRP including these adjustments almost without thinking about it. But the first time someone sees such data, they deserve an explanation.

There are no universal standards for "adjusted GRP."


Tuesday, March 23, 1999 #2403
I have been researching these questions for a number of days now and have been unsatisfied with the answers I have been receiving. I am a new member and new to this field, any direction would be most helpful. Thank you in advance... 1) What is the difference between Rate Base (a number guaranteed by publishers and audited by ABC) and Readership (a number provided by, say, MRI) levels for magazine publications? 2) Which number (above) is most often used to calculate CPM (I believe this calculation is ad_page_rate/readership)? 3) Is 'readership' really a composite number (perhaps a result of some other formula)? If so, does Page Exposure Rates factor into 'readership'?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 23, 1999 ):
If you went to AMIC's Rates, Dates and Data area and clicked the link
"Audience data from MRI is available for
Fall 1998 for Total Audience, Circulation and Readers Per Copy
" you would see the table from which this image is taken:



The following discussion will use this table as a visual aid.

"Rate base" refers to circulation, the actual number of copies of a publication printed and sold for the average issue over a specified period of time. In the table, "Circulation" is the middle column of data.

"Readership" is the number of readers of the average issue. It includes "passalong" readers, who may not be the buyers / subscribers but read some else's copy. In almost every case, total readership will be greater than circulation. The first three columns of the MRI table we are looking at are readership numbers.

CPM can be calculated based on either circulation or readership. The circulation CPM (Cost Per Thousand) calculation is: divide ad cost by the number of copies in circulation.

The readership cpm calculation is: Divide ad cost by number of readers of an average issue. Often readers within a specified demographic the advertiser is targeting are the divisor in this second calculation. As a planning tool, the readership CPM is more common than the circulation CPM, especially for categories of print that use readership research, such as MRI.

Many people misinterpret the common reporting of "readers per copy." The last three columns of the MRI data are readers per copy figures. What audience research actually measures is readership. A random sample of consumers is interviewed and asked about their magazine reading to determine how many readers there are for an average issue of a magazine. Readers per copy is a calculation done after the fact, dividing the readers measured by the circulation. It is a handy factor used to compare magazine pass-alongs or to calculate other audience elements.


Tuesday, March 23, 1999 #2402
Dear Guru, while we know that for certain categories Multi-media advertising is better than single media, could you tell mewhere i could find research data on this. IN addition, i would like some qualitative comments from you on the issue. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 23, 1999 ):
Research for such questions are best found at Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter, Newsweek Media Research Index and possibly The Newspaper Advertising Association or MPA (Magazine Publishers of America) where there is a recent study "The Advertising Impact of Magazines in Conjunction with Television." As for the Guru's comments on the concept:

It is easy to oversimplify and say that when budget is adequate, multimedia advertising is always better.

The Guru doesn't think multimedia is a category issue. Mixing media might be done to broaden reach, manipulate frequency distribution or because of what specific media can contribute when the primary job is done by a single medium.

For example, magazines plus TV will deliver a broader reach than all TV, typically. But a plan might be 90% TV all year and have a brief print wave to distribute coupons, publish contest rules in detail or deliver other detail oriented messages.

Without going into great depth of analysis, the situation seems more brand specific or marketing situatiuon specific than category related.

In some categories, like soft drinks and beer, budgets are so large and camaigns so multi-dimensional that it takes more than one medium to cope.


Wednesday, March 17, 1999 #2398
Is it statistically correct to merge television Reach and frequency and Reach and Freq. delivered by print vehicle? is so how, what is the rationale behind the process as the basic samples for readership and viewership studies are usually very different. do readership studies in the west capture product ownership and usage data ? and if so, do planners use such data to redefine their TG definitions for eg. the ideal TG for the replacement market for TVs could well be owners of Television sets over 4-5 years old !! thanks, Rahul

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 17, 1999 ):
Combining TV and print reach and frequency is a philosophical issue not a statistical one.

Though the original research used different samples, both were designed to project the behavior of the same population. By the time you're dealing with reach and frequency, things are quite removed from the ratings research; you're working with models, not respondent data.

Objections to combining print and TV are usually based on the difference in message qualities.

Yes, U.S. syndicated readership studies such as Simmons, MRI and The Mendelsohn Media Research Affluent Study include product usage data and these are frequently used to define planning targets.


Tuesday, March 16, 1999 #2397
How do I get information on websites that reach principle officers in technology, healthcare, and energy (oil and petroleum) industries whose companies have recently gone public?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 20, 1999 ):
Ther Guru believes that your specification is too narrow for there to be any website aimed specifically at the audience you mention. Depending on your definitons of "principal" (Chairman / CEO / COO / President?) and "recent" (past 3 months?), the Guru wonders if there 1000 such people in the world. There is also not likely to be any standardized audience tracking that addresses so narrow a defintion of an audience member (industry / position / date of change of company structure). Even the detail of a print business publication's BPA statement wouldn't go this deep.

The best bet would be to look for sites which address issues relevant to the position-holder you want or industries you want and see if they can offer any insight as to visits from the specific, newly-public companies you can list.


Monday, March 08, 1999 #2378
How do you figure out average four week r/fs without software? Thanks for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 08, 1999 ):
Before software, there were tables to get reach from broadcast GRP, and books of factors and formulae for print.

Those old tables are probably no longer valid, perhaps someone has done some new ones. The Guru has discussed this frequently.
Click here to see past Guru responses on reach and frequency


Saturday, March 06, 1999 #2375
Regarding internet terms used, do you know what a "bot", "passport", "wallet", or "aggregators" are? I checked your on'line terminology page and they were not listed. Also, do you know what ADSL and DSL transmission is (not to mention what is the difference.) Thanks much.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 06, 1999 ):
It is interesting to the Guru that, in the context of the internet, media people are discussing technical terms that have no more to do with the media elements than an understanding of ink chemistry or printing press machinery has to do with print media planning. Of all the terms you mention, only "Aggregator" really relates to media, but the Guru will take a crack at all of them.
  • An aggregator is a web media rep firm who sells across networks of sites, like DoubleClick or 24/7 Media.
  • Bot is short for robot, a search engine tool that explores the web cataloging sites; it's similar to "spider," or "crawler." Bots perform specific searches, such as those one requests on "where-to-buy-it" search sites.
  • Wallet is a piece of software that holds your credit card and password data for automated use with your browser.
  • DSL is digital subscriber line, a phone line which delivers greater speed or bandwidth to an internet user. Just "DSL" usually means the same as the older term "ISDN." According to the very informative site, ASDL Forum, ADSL is Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line: Modems attached to twisted pair copper wiring that transmit from 1.5 Mbps to 9 Mbps downstream (to the subscriber) and from 16 kbps to 800 kbps upstream, depending on line distance. Compare this to the so called 56 Kbps modems which are the fastest possible with standard phone lines. The 1.5 - 9 Mbps downstream speed is similar to cable modem and T1, although the ADSL upstream is much slower, as noted. The family of fast DSL's including ADSL is referred to as "xDSL."
  • Finally, the term least familiar to the guru is passport, but at a guess it refers to general, paid-by-credit card passwords, that give admimssion to many sites, most commmonly used for "Adult content" sites to prove the user is old enough.


Thursday, March 04, 1999 #2369
Do you think the growth of the internet is posing a threat to print media?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, March 04, 1999 ):
Yes, but so is every other form of media. The Guru believes that readers are less likely to switch time to the net than are broadcast addicts.


Wednesday, March 03, 1999 #2367
Guru - How do Arbitron ratings for commercial radio stations differ from those of public broadcast stations? Our local PBS station is claiming that they're the 4th most listened to station in the 25-45 demo, which doesn't seem realistic. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 03, 1999 ):
Arbitron does not publish ratings for non-commercial stations in the printed reports. These stations ratings are in the respondent level data, e.g. Maximiser runs.

The reporting standards are otherwise the same. It seems unusual for a non-commercial station to be so highly ranked, but it isn't impossible. If they are Arbitron subscribers they should be able to document the claim. If not, a competing station with which you do business would probably be happy to do the necessary Maximiser analysis.


Thursday, February 25, 1999 #2356
Dear Guru, I am currently planning a campaign for a yoghurt brand. Client is obssessed with going outdoor, but my recommendation would be print - environment being key. His primary objective is TO SELL MORE!! Surely outdoor is not the best medium for this and how should I go about proving this to him. We have very little research available on outdoor.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 25, 1999 ):
Your problem seems to be in proving to the client that in fact "environment is key." Magazines provide environment and outdoor rarely has a controllable environment.

Outdoor will deliver more reach and more frequency than magazines can, albeit with much shorter messages and message exposure although greater visual impact is possible.

On the other hand, "environmentally" it is possible to select outdoor locations close to supermarkets and other retail yogurt outlets; this might have a powerful sales effect, too.


Tuesday, February 16, 1999 #2337
I have specialised in Account Management.But have got a job with Business Standard(newspaper in India).What media fundamentals do you think are important for me to learn before i join the firm in their 'Special Projects Marketing Department'

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, February 16, 1999 ):
It's a bit difficult to judge without knowing your job responsibilities, but basically. . .

Learn all media terms relevant to print sales, e.g.

  • circulation
  • reach
  • coverage
  • composition
  • cpm
  • duplication
  • etc.
Learn the meanings and the application of the concepts.


Sunday, February 14, 1999 #2331
How can i measure and incorporate the effectiveness of outdoor mediai(hoarding,transit etc)in a conventional media plan?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 15, 1999 ):
Do you actually incorporate the "effectivenss" of other media in your plans?

Outdoor is measured, and you should be buying outdoor by audience size as you do other media. 30-sheet and 8-sheet outdoor, for example, sell in "showings." The current standards of "Showings" call for expressing showing in GRP-per-day. In other words, a "50 showing" of outdoor means that the locations you buy have a combined "daily effective circulation (DEC)" -- or number of daily impressions -- equal to 50% of the population.

Some people may discount the passive, short copy outdoor medium by a certain percentage, say 50%, when combining with or comparing to other media such as broadcast and page-dominant print.


Friday, February 12, 1999 #2327
Dear Guru, I know I've seen this info before, but can't remember where. I'm looking for a simple report that roughly stated how consumers find websites. For example X% of respondents went to a website when they saw the URL in a print ad, Y% from a TV ad, etc. Have you seen something similar? Thank you for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 15, 1999 ):
Various trade publications may have mentioned these findings.

The best archives of such data are at NUA


Tuesday, December 22, 1998 #2233
Dearest Guru, I am in desperate need of your help. I have a hotel client that would like both a Corporate anylysis & indivdual property anylysis based on what was spent last year. I need to calculate total impressions by business unit (there are 4 units) & also what the cost per impressions were. This is where it gets tricky, can I calculate this information without last years media plans? I am new here and the person before me kept, shall we say, no records of last year's activity. If I can get total dollar's spent by business unit for 98' how can I calculate the above impressions? (ie: last year's circulation per publication / by total cost per media buy) Please help!

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, December 22, 1998 ):
If the plan was all print, and you know the spending per title and the magazines' actual rates charged as well as the creative units used, you will be able to do your figuring. But. . .

this means you are using circulation for impressions while audience would tell a fuller story.

Someone in your financial area should have the bills for the schedule, which would tell you the number of insertions and eliminate all that calculation with questionable spending and rates.

Better yet, be a real media pro and contact the salesmen at the magazines to give you the impressions anaslysis you need, they'll probably be delighted to introduce themselves to the new media person this way.


Monday, December 21, 1998 #2230
I am currently analyzing a media schedule that includes consumer print, trade print and national cable. I have been asked to pull a reach and frequency for the entire schedule. I realize that I am working with several differenct universes. I have added the circulations and pulled the gross impressions for cable. I have added those together. Is there any formular to determan a reach and frequency? Help?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 24, 1998 ):
In general, different media have different audience accumulation patterns when thinking about net unduplicated audience vs gross audience.

Calculating reach from a total multimedia impressions number is not practical unless the gross rating points (impressions divided by GRPs) is so many thousands that a 95+ reach can be assumed.

Some media, in particular broadcast media, allow general estimation of reach from a table of GRP levels. print media are more complicated.

What you really need is standardized media software for reach and frequency calculation like that which is offered by AMIC 's sister company, Telmar.


Friday, December 18, 1998 #2225
I recently read that the cost of customer acquisition for broadcast advertising is $100/customer, print is $80/customer, Search engine is $60,keyword search is $40, banner advertising is $30, direct mail is $20, PR is $10 and affiliate programs is $4. Think these are close to reality?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, December 20, 1998 ):
The question is whose reality? It is concievable that a given advertiser in a given category experiences these results. But these are not likely to be absolutes for advertising in general. The concept of "customer acquisition" in fact, only applies in certain categories where a repeating purchase or use of service is involved.


Monday, December 14, 1998 #2221
What is the value of adding TV to an all-print media plan?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, December 20, 1998 ):
Adding any medium to a single medium plan will add reach and equalize distribution of impressions among those reached.

TV of course has sound and motion to allow different kinds of messages.

For advantages of different media, see the Guru's "Advertising Media Strengths".


Monday, December 14, 1998 #2219
Dear Guru, How would you define the role of a media buyer? And what would you say are their principal tools and techniques?

Have you any suggestions as to where I can obtain information on media buying from a complete novice angle? How closely are media planners and buyers related if at all?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, December 19, 1998 ):
Generally, a media buyer's role is to negotiate the purchase of broadcast time or print space in accordance with the goals established in the media plan. More often, people with the buyer's job are broadcast specialists and print is often negotiated by the planners. There are more and more print specialists. This differs from country to country and according to agency size. Smaller agencies in the U.S., for example, often use planner / buyers.

Tools are the research to evaluate the value and appropriateness to fulfilling goals of the media possibilities. The techniques use various calculations and evaluative processes to compare media and negotiating techniques applicable to any form of negotiation.

The media planner's job is to determine which media will meet the advertising goals of an advertiser, within stated marketing and creative parameters. This means selecting media, designating vehicles within the media, determining levels of media to use and timing.

For the basics, try one of the media planning texts from Amazon .com in the AMIC Bookstore.


Thursday, December 03, 1998 #2197
Do you know of any third party services that identify remnant (last minute) print ad space opportunities for advertisers? What are their names and how do they work? I know your practice is to offer a web based service but I truly would appreciate a brief phone call at 215-(deleted).

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 03, 1998 ):
The Guru is not aware of any such services. Magazines generally seem to prefer to offer such remnants to current advertisers first, and often to other advertisers who initiate contact and offer to take any remnant space at any time.

The Guru never phones query submitters. The only direct, person-to-person contact is by email and that is only in cases where the Guru needs a clarification of some aspect of the query, or to reject queries not within the Guru's media-only scope.


Wednesday, December 02, 1998 #2194
Dear Guru, can you name any media analysis tools and media predictive tools that media planners use on a regular basis without being too technical, of course. Many thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 03, 1998 ):
Here are several:

  • Reach: the number of different target households or persons exposed to a campaign (most often expressed as a percentage of the target universe, and most often calculated over a 4-week period).
  • Frequency: The average number of exposures of the campaign to those reached.
  • Gross Rating Points (GRP) / Target Rating Points(TRP): Essentially interchangeable terms for the sum of the audiences of all the ad units in the campaign, expressed as a percentage of the target universe.
  • Gross Impressions: Same audience count as GRP/TRP but expressed in whole numbers rather than percents.
  • CPP / Cost per GRP and CPM / Cost per thousand impressions: should be self evident from the previous. These are referred to as the "efficiency."
  • Effective reach: Those in the "Reach" who experienced a specified minimum number of exposures (effective frequency)

All the above stem from the audience research tools and investment figures. So called "reach and frequency" systems typically generate all these figures.

Other tools, especially in print media are also occasionally used. These may include "time spent with" media vehicles, "page openings", attentiveness, etc.


Wednesday, December 02, 1998 #2192
Dear Guru. It is not still clear to me how to measure or calculate Reach of the ad campaign using media mix. For example, my ads on TV provided 90% reach, and ads in print reached 25% of the target audience. What is the total reach, frequency of the campaign? What other indexes can we find for such campaign? And my second question is about outdoor advertising. It is essential to measure the effectiveness of the ad campaign comparing awereness and sales before and after the ads placing. But that is somehow the post- campaign analisys and my client would like to see some feagures before the campaign starts (pre-campaign). What indexes (like reach, frequency, GRPs, OTS) can we provide to the discription of the outdoor ad. campaign? Thank You very much.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 02, 1998 ):
Reach of a medium in a plan is simply a statistical probability. Further, it is generally thought that each medium overlaps each other medium randomly.

So, in your example, if you consider the reach of each medium as a decimal, the probability of not being exposed to TV is 0.10 and of not being exposed to print is 0.75.

The probability of not being exposed to either one, is therefore 0.10 times 0.75 = 0.075.

Therefore, total reach of the mix is 92.5 (if 0.075 or 7.5% don't see it then 92.5% do see it).

Other basic "counts" for a campaign are impressions (OTS), cost per rating point and cost per thousand impressions.

All of these counts; reach, frequency, GRP, OTS, etc are possible for outdoor, if the research has been done, in your country, to count the audience of the locations used.


Tuesday, December 01, 1998 #2189
Dear Guru. I've got several questions. 1. What is the difference between the following three types of compensation for the ad agency services: commission, fee and percentage? Are there any other compensation systems used by the ad agencies? 2. What is the right way to evaluate the efficiency of the advertising campaign: a) held in several cities at the same time (each city has its' own media vehicles and their ratings are measured for the target audiences based in those cities); b)using several medium at once (i. e. TV and print). 3. How can we measure the effectiveness of the outdoor ad campaign? Thank you in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, December 01, 1998 ):
  1. Commission is based on a percentage of the agency's spending on the advertiser's behalf. The spending will primarily be media purchase and (in the U.S.) traditional commission, usually included in media rate cards, is 15% of the gross spending. Other expenditures, such as production, are marked up 17.65% of the net spending; this is exactly equivalent to 15% of the gross.

    Fees are flat amounts of compensation for performing agency tasks. On very small accounts, 15% commission may not cover the work required to create and place advertising. On very large accounts, 15% far exceeds what would compensate the effort.

    By Percentage the Guru imagines you mean an agreed commission other than the 15 / 17.65% structure.

  2. Efficiency is typically expressed in one of two ways: CPP - Cost Per gross rating Point or CPM - Cost Per thousand audience impressions (Roman numeral "M")

    In comparing markets, CPP is problematic because the universe number for calculating the Points - or percentage of universe - changes. However, CPM just uses impressions, which can be added and compared across markets. Other issues, about units and print versus broadcast can merit separate consideration, but these would be beyond efficiency.

  3. Effectiveness measures depend on a definition of the effect desired; is it awareness or sales or share? To best measure outdoor specifically, you need to set up your standard of effect and measure it with and without outdoor.


Monday, November 30, 1998 #2186
Hi Guru - Regarding print, what does SIP stand for? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 02, 1998 ):
The Guru had to consult several print colleagues before anyone recognized the term. It seems to mean "special interest publication," in the sense of a one-shot special issue of a magazine, such as a home decorating ideas issue. It isn't part of a regular subscription, so it's sold on newstands only.


Wednesday, November 18, 1998 #2161
Hello,I work at a health care organization and we utilize a lot of advertising (i.e., print, t.v., radio). We are interested in secondary research which includes how health care consumers (health care consumers specifically) decision making process is altered or effected by advertising mediums. I am interested in both branding campaigns as well as product line specific campaigns (i.e., heart). Is there a place I could start to obtain this information? Does ARF have any research on this topic? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 20, 1998 ):
Yes, the Advertising Research Foundation is a good place to check.


Tuesday, November 10, 1998 #2144
I need to find out more information on how to figure reach and frequency, especially four week averages as it applies to print, radio and television. What is the best source to use for finding R/F analysis including some work samples. Help me Guru, I want to be like you!

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 10, 1998 ):
When the Guru started out, Reach and Frequency was calculated manually with the aid of tables and factors. Since then media have become more complex and measurement more detailed. Complicated, multi-step algorithms such as numerous iterations of the Beta-binomial function must be calculated. Now, the computer is virtually the only way Reach and Frequency is analyzed.

Some of the measurers such as Simmons, and MRI have systems for R&F on the media they measure. A few, rare, media such as Telemundo Spanish TV Network, offer sytems (STRETCH2) for their medium.

Most common is the specialized, all-medium software system, such as the one provided by AMIC's sister company, Telmar.


Tuesday, October 13, 1998 #2093
I am a novice at media planning. Recently I acquired a job as a media planner due to my overall advertising experience. I've been assigned a medical account with a focus on orthopedic surgeons and the media type is print. I've been instructed to base my analysis for publication recomendation on CPM. The number of orthopedic publications is limited but I feel there should be more to my analysis than CPM. Can you tell me what other types of analysis I can do and how to accomplish them?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 15, 1998 ):
If you have titles that are not purely for orthopedists, then you can compare their compostion -- the percentage of audience who are orthopedists. This indicates their focus on your target.

If you have the specialized physician audience studies, i.e. PERQ's FOCUS, you can compare audience duplication between titles and develop reach and frequency for various schedules of the publications you might use.

The same study might tell you which titles have more audience members who purchase what you are advertising.

An editorial analysis might show that some titles have more coverage of the category of the product or service which you are advertising.

An advertising analysis might show which books get more of your competitors' business.


Tuesday, October 06, 1998 #2075
I do the planning for a brand of milk food, meant for children's consumption. My Target Audience is young mothers. Could you please suggest an innovative ad. medium, leaving aside the regular TV, radio, print, outdoor etc? Nagarjun softcheries@hotmail.com

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 06, 1998 ):
Leaving all these aside doesn't leave room for much except the new electronic media (E.g. in the U.S., Parents' Magazine web site) or store / product related advertising.

It isn't clear from your query whether you product is a milk substitute, milk additive, or ?

You might consider "shelf talker" or other POP materials. Best of all, if feasible, you might even consider ads on milk cartons.


Tuesday, October 06, 1998 #2072
Can you reccomend media management software for mac users. Also, what is the best research source for print media?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 06, 1998 ):
AMIC's sister company Telmar, the leader in media management software, offers a Mac version.

Simmons and MRI are each percieved as "best" by some researchers, depending on which techniques and categories of data they value most.

For some purposes, Mendelsohn Media Research (affluent readers) or other studies specific to computer buyers, car buyers, etc may be preferable.


Sunday, October 04, 1998 #2070
My client is a large medical-surgical products manufacturer. Their audience is nurses and sometimes physicians. Their budgets are small, they advertise several products with separate b-to-b campaigns. They are urging me to recommend online instead of or in addition to business print. This does not seem effective to me given their small budgets. Do you have any info on how I could recommend an effective online ad effort instead of using print?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 04, 1998 ):
Is the goal of adding on-line to add reach or to reduce costs?

In either case, the first step is to identify media which draw an audience of "nurses and sometimes physicians."

Then, the efficiency in audience impressions per dollar can be evaluated as can the total audience which is reachable.

Your first step may well be to locate the websites of the print media you use (and if you find these, they may offer free on-line ads as merchandising for your print schedule). Other possiblities are the sites of non-competitive advertisers who share your target.

Once you have explored these possibilities, you can decide whether you can make an effective recommendation or can support a decision against on-line.


Tuesday, September 29, 1998 #2059
I'm back again for guidance. What is your advice regarding print advertising for an auto dealer. I know it's imperative to have a presence in newspaper, but what can we do to set our client apart amongst all the clutter? Also, is there a trend in lessening amount of print and putting money in web or cable?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 29, 1998 ):
Within newspaper, there are two options:
  • Sections which have car advertising

    and

  • sections which do not have car advertising

The Guru feels that newspaper car advertising is mostly retail oriented and therefore prospects "shop" the car ads. In this scenario, it is best to be where the car ads are. If the ad is aimed at brand image building, other positioning may be appropriate, but you are interested in dealer ads. The Guru has seen such ads made to stand out in creative ways. Many years ago, at a presentation by the old Newspaper Advertising Bureau, the Guru was quite impressed by how a small space car dealer ad seemed to jump off the page merely by using a lot of white space. Most other dealer ads where full of junky-looking star bursts and balloons plus reverse type.

Depending on your time frame, of course newspaper money would be seen to have moved to cable. The move to the web will probably happen more slowly, due to the web sites' lower reach in any local area.

Why not see what help the The Newspaper Advertising Association can offer today?


Wednesday, September 16, 1998 #2046
Do you know of a company that brokers remanant radio time? We currently buy print advertising through two different remnant brokers, but have not found the same for radio. We need very competitive, DR rates. I'm concerned that just letting reps know of our interest will not generate enough inventory. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 22, 1998 ):
The Guru is not aware of any such brokers. In radio, the standard rep contract gives the rep a commission on any sales through any other rep, so this sort of brokering would not be financially feasible. The regular reps, however, may be a source for you.

The nature of broadcast "mechandise" which is perishable makes the situation quite different than print where last minute cancellations or less-than-national buys create space that will carry a cost unless sold. Often, broadcasters will give away unsold time as bonuses to paying advertisers.

There has been a history of buyers who are open to remnant time making themselves known to radio networks as ready to buy any remnants. The same technique might work with spot if you can identify enough stations that you are willing to buy on this basis.


Tuesday, September 08, 1998 #2031
Dear Guru, I'm new in the Advertising field. I would like to know how to calculate the Target Market Reach1+, Reach2+, abd the Average Frequency. TIA. -- SKY

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, September 09, 1998 ):
The answer depends upon what data you are starting with. At its most simple, "1+" reach is the same as just saying "reach". If you know the GRPs, and the reach, then the average frequency is calculated by dividing reach into GRPs.

At bottom however, in each medium, TV, radio, print, etc. reach was actually measured at some point, rather than calculated . That is, using respondent level measurement, such as Nielsen or MRI or Simmons, actual schedules advertiser were evaluated for gross audience accumulated and the net reach accumulated, as well as how many people saw exactly one advertisement in the schedule, how many saw 2, how many saw three, and so on. As the Guru stated above, reach is defined as those who saw one or more (1+) advertisements. 2+ or 3+, etc, is determined by adding those exposed to each discreet number of ads.

Taking the results of many of these schedules as a scatter graph, a classic reach curve may be plotted. Or, by arraying GRPs and frequencies in a table, a formula equivalent to the curve can be determined statistically. This formula then becomes a "model" for calculating reaches of other schedules in similar media. Formulae for 2+, 3+ frequencies can also be calculated. There are no simple formulas for doing this. "Beta Bimodal" is one statistical function frquently used. These functions and models are usually built into large computer media planning systems like Telmar's.


Friday, September 04, 1998 #2028
I am currently pulling together information for one of my clients on national cable advertising. I have spoken with different network reps and have been told that they can not provide reach, frequency, or TRP's. They have said that they are not measured this way. Is this true? The network reps have provided gross impressions (in thousands). Is there a minimum threshold for this measurement?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 05, 1998 ):
Everything which has its impressions measured in national tv has TRPs, which is merely a calculation: the division of impressions by the relevant population base, either in the cable network's coverage area or the total U.S.

Any metered measurement can produce the data for calculation of reach of schedules or the production of formulae which will allow estimation of reach.

The Guru would guess you are dealing with smaller networks whose ratings and reach would be unimpressive and therefore are not a part of the sales effort.

A 0.1 rating is the usual threshold for reporting in a printed report. There may be a requirement to earn this rating over a specified time span before even this level is reported. On the other hand, networks with ratings normally below this level are likely to be bought strictly for their content/environment, not their audience delivery.


Sunday, August 16, 1998 #1998
i am just learning how to prepare a print media schedule, is there a standard formatt that you could supply me with. kind regards russell

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 16, 1998 ):
It isn't clear to the Guru whether you are referring to a presentation format or a decision making procedure.

But the simplest way to thisnk about the whole process is to present the plan in a way that shows how the decision making process produced the recommended schedule.

For example, your plan may call for

  • using magazines that are most authoritative in the topical area relevant to your product category
  • achieving a particular reach each month or in total
  • selecting magazines to accomplish the above based on greatest target audience coverage or
  • audience compostion or
  • audience efficency

You would then select candidate magizines to consider under each of the above and list them based on how well they ranked on these criteria. Finally, the schedule is assembled by trying various numbers of insertions in various numbers of titles to evaluate for overall reach or impressions delivery.

The schedule is presented by stating each of the above rules pertaining to selection, the ranking of the titles on each criterion and a comparison of the recommended schedule with others considered.


Friday, July 17, 1998 #1960
I live in a state in which it has a lot of rural communities and I am finding out that a lot of people are buying satellite dishes. How do I find more info on advertising on the programs being broadcasted on satellite or is it all national advertising? I understand that in order to get local news or programming people have to switch over to their regular tvs or cable, but how do I reach the audience that is watching, for instance CNN on their dishes? And is their a way to track or get ratings for this audience?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 17, 1998 ):
Just like local cable, the system operators have times open for their commerical insertion, and other slots where they must leave the national advertising in place.

Just like any other TV transmission, Nielsen will report a rating if the audience is large enough to meet reporting standards. Whether local market satellite audiences are big enough to report separately varies by market.

The Guru doubts any satellite's "footprint" can be so finely focused that it can deliver different commercials on a market-by-market basis.


Thursday, July 09, 1998 #1941
Dear Guru How do you define Selectivity of media vehicle ? How do you measure it ? Therefore how do you calculate a Press Selectivity Index ? Is it similar in concept to a brand development Index or a category development Index (BDI & CDI) ? andrewwilliam25@hotmail.com

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 09, 1998 ):
The Guru defines "selectivity" as narrowness of targeting audience. For example, if your target is women 18-49 and there is a magazine, all of whose audience is women 18-49, than that magazine is highly selective. A magazine with 80% w18-49 and 20% W50+ is less selective.

Standard print audience measures such as the U.S.' Simmons, MRI or U.K.'s TGI provide these data.

Logically, a selectivity index would compare the incidence of a given demographic group within the population to its incidence in the audience of the medium, with the population incidence set as equal to 100. Thus, if women 18-49 are 50% of the population but 80% of the media audience, the selectivity index would be 80 divided by 50 or 160 (the decimal is moved 2 places to the right for an index). In this sense it is similar to BDI which indexes product purchase in a market to product purchase nationwide, in terms of percent used in the market compared to percent of national population in the market.


Monday, July 06, 1998 #1937
Dear Guru, I'm trying to find info on the relationship between reach and frequency known as the prime axiom in media planning. Such as, what it is, why is it useful and how is it directly or indirectly measured? Also, I need research on the volatility of broadcast media. For instance, how can broadcast media avoid law suits if they fail to run a commercial. I'm frantically completing a take home exam for a graduate class and can't find research on these topics. Any help you can give would be greatly appreciated. I'll let you know if we get an "A."

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, July 07, 1998 ):
One wonders at the sort of course where these terms matter but are not thoroughly taught. Reach and Frequency are the weights and measures of a media plan.
  • "Reach" tells you how many different people are exposed to an advertising schedule. It is commonly expressed as a percentage of a target group's population. E.g. 75 percent reach among women 18-49.
  • "Frequency" tells you the average number of exposure to the schedule experienced by the people reached.
The usefulness should be obvious: no matter how great or impactful an ad may be, it will not sell product unless it reaches enough people and reaches them frequently enough to have an effect on their behavior.

The various research tools media planners use which measure the audience of TV shows, radio stations, magazines, etc can also tell us how many people are reached by schedules of several uses of theses programs and books. From these direct measurements, statistical models are built which can estimate the reach and frequency of schedules being planned. Media Planners can therefore compare alternate schedules to determine which ones will best meet reach/frequency goals.

Thinking of pure arithmetic relationships, reach and frequency are linked with GRPs -- Gross Rating Points. When the ratings (audience as percent of target group) of all the individual ads in a schedule are added up, the resulting total is GRP. GRP divided by reach = frequency and reach X frequency = GRP. 2. Mistakes happen. Fine print in contracts protects broadcasters against liability if they inadvertently miss airing a commercial, or deliberately do so because a higher paying advertiser comes along, or because the decide to air a news special. etc. Their only obligation is typically to give a "makegood," another commercial location with equal or better quality.


Sunday, July 05, 1998 #1934
This is a print ad question. Wondering if you know of any research exploring the effect of placing an ad featuring a product or service that is the focus of surrounding editorial content. thanks and regards Jessica Lilie

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 06, 1998 ):
Newsweek Media Research Index and theAdvertising Research Foundation Library are the Guru's favorite sources for such research.


Wednesday, July 01, 1998 #1932
I coordinate a small printed program for a local perform- ing arts company. I would like a source of National co-op advertisers that I might cross reference with local advertisers to pitch the program sales to. Any suggestions?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 01, 1998 ):
The Amazon.com on-line bookstore has the standard resource, Co-Op Advertising Programs Sourcebook Spring 1997 : The Comprehensive Guide to Programs For: Media Companies, Ad Agencies, Manufacturers & Retailers , Published 1997.

Another good how-to reference is Co-op Advertising : The Authoritative Guide to Promotional Allowance Marketing for Advertisers, Retailers, and Distributors , Bob Houk, 1995


Wednesday, July 01, 1998 #1931
I work for an editorial company, we publish three different magazines about informatic technologies for computer distributors, financial sector and the goverment. I want to know what kind of media can I use to improve the magazine's advertising Thankyou

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 01, 1998 ):
Since you haven't told the Guru what kind of media you are using already, any suggested improvements are guesswork.

The Guru also wonders whether you are advertising to potential readers, to increase circulation, or to potential advertisers.

If the former, you may need to rule out your competition as the other media most likely to reach your target reader and find other media with a different editorial focus, addressed to the same people. (Since you are writing from Mexico, the Guru doesn't have any specific recommendations.

If the latter, the Guru would imagine you are using print ad trade media and would next look to on-line opportunies in either ad trade media, like AMIC , itself, or other business media aimed at your prospects.


Friday, June 26, 1998 #1924
Dear Guru, A client requested resources that track print advertising in regards to spending on national retail print advetising. They wish to compare what they are spending to their competition. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 26, 1998 ):
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) reports retail expenditures.


Monday, June 22, 1998 #1916
Are you aware of any research on right hand page vs. left hand page in magazine advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 25, 1998 ):
Roper-Starch's Starch services compare many content and positioning aspects of print copy. Newsweek Media Research Index should have some compilations.


Wednesday, June 10, 1998 #1893
I have two questions: 1. Is there a publication (print or electronic) of brand and product managers? 2. Is there a publication (print or electronic) similar to Red Books that has information on advertisers and where they spend their money regionally? Thank you. Stephanie

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, June 10, 1998 ):
The The Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies has an advertisers' book similar to the Agency Directory.

There is also Adweek's Client Directory

To find spending by region, CMR (Competitive Media Reports) is the resource to try.


Wednesday, June 03, 1998 #1882
how much more effective is an exposure on print compared to TV in case of consumer durables?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, June 03, 1998 ):
A TV exposure is generally more effective than a print exposure. However:

  • There can be very bad TV executions and very good print executions, which outweigh the general rule.
  • A TV :15 may not be more effective than a 4 color bleed gatefold off the 2nd cover.
  • Media plans don't usually operate in an exposure vs exposure mode. A given budget might buy 25 TV exposures for every print exposure or vice versa, depending on ad units, programming, geographic coverage, etc.


Monday, June 01, 1998 #1879
Dear Guru, I have a local client who is looking at gradually expanding into the US / European business markets. They are looking to gradually start generating awareness in these areas. The target market is businesses / individuals interested in doing business in Africa. We have been asked to compile a report onthe following: a) Media choices - TV vs. print etc b) Broadcast sponsorship opportunities (Sport, business programming etc.) c) Advertising Costs and potential reach, frequency for campaigns in these markets. Which medium / combination of media should they be looking at initially, and why? Where do I source information on global rates, audiences, trends? Thanks for a great service!

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 02, 1998 ):
You may refer to Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) for the U.S. media lists and Intrernational Media Guide for Europe.

You may find that trends are best assessed by reviewing the archives of each country's ad trade media, such as Ad Age in the U.S. or Campaign in the U.K. If you can get the media factbooks compiled by major international agencies like Saatchi (Cordiant) or Young & Rubicam, there will be convenient trend data presented.


Saturday, May 30, 1998 #1617
what is the history of print media?.where does it stand today?.what it will be its future,say ten years time from now.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 02, 1998 ):
The question is so broad that no meaningful answer is possible. Since you are writing for India, the relevant history may be different than for other countries.

print advertising, in the from of signs goes back many hundreds of years. The ruins of Pompei contained signs advertisng businesses and prostitutes.

Not long after Gutenberg created moveable type, Newspapers were invented, and newspaper advertising is almost as old, probably over 300 years.

print today has different strengths in different countries and cultures within those countries.

Where broadcast media are not government owned and there are stron freedom of the press laws, combined with high literacy rates, print stands well in relation to other media.

Where government control of broadcast media is strong and the press is free, print is realtively stronger. Where literacy is lower, print is weaker.

The Guru does not see much ov this changing in ten years. In the U.S., for instance, there is research which shows that no more than 50% of adults are ever likley to participate in the internet as we now know it. If Broadcast and cable TV continue to fight for the same audience, print will remain stable.

In other countries, if litereacy is on the rise, print will likely prosper, if nothing changes about broadcast/ The irony about the "TV-like" internet, is that it does require literacy to use effectively.


Thursday, May 28, 1998 #1610
1.Please, where can I find "Archives" by topic? 2.I have seen a table showing Awareness Level correlat ed to Target GRPs.Could you, please, tell me how they estimate Awareness Level? 3. I also have seen a table showing Audience engagement in various activities when average commercial is aired. Would you, please, tell me how the information is obtain ed? Is it from a national panel? If yes, does this panel also provide audience data? Thank you, Inocima.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 02, 1998 ):
1) The Guru Archives may be accessed from their link on the Media Guru Page. In the next few days, we will be adding a search engine to allow you to find all all past Guru answers on the topics of your choice.

2) The Guru isn't familiar with the table you have seen. Since you are writing from Brazil, it could be based on research totally unfamiliar to the Guru. The proper way for such a table to have been created would use just estimates of awareness, but actual survey results. An advertiser or agency which has conducted many awareness studies and correlated them with actual GRP's of the plans running in synchronization with the studies could create such a table.

In fact, just a few actual measurements could be the basis of a table if it is assumed that the awareness / GRP relationship follows some sort of curve as does the Reach / GRP relationship. The Guru is familiar with one formula for predicting awareness based on GRP, which came from analyzing several plans and surveys. In essence, it predicted that when there was any significant starting awareness, awareness declined in any week where there were less than 100 GRP.

3) Again, Brazil's audience engagement data is not familiar to the Guru. In the U.S. such data usually comes from secondary sources such as our Simmons or MRI, which ask these questions but are primarily print audience and product usage studies.


Friday, May 08, 1998 #1585
Being a newbie to web planning and buying, what is the difference between AOL and the Web?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, May 08, 1998 ):
AOL is an "online service." There is an AOL website but that isn't what. an AOL member goes to when signing on to AOL.

AOL, with its chatrooms, information areas, etc is essentially a BBS service. It has imitated the web in some ways, with clickable ads, etc.

AOL does provide a gateway for members out onto the web, and to many users the difference between AOL and the web may be unnoticable.

Some estimates are that about half of the people with internet access have it through AOL. Additional estimates are that many people who think they are "on the internet" have never gone beyond the bounds of AOL.

From a media planning perspective, buying ads on AOL or accepting value added "banners" in magazine's AOL areas when buying print has an audience limited to AOL members and not accessible to other web users.


Tuesday, April 21, 1998 #1571
Do any of the radio rating services do a report on Christian radio?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 21, 1998 ):
Arbitron, the big name in radio ratings, does an every-other-year report on formats which includes "religious." MRI, the print and product usage study, also reports on the religious/gospel format. Other audience measurement studies will likely be similar.

The "Christian" format you refer to is a subset of religious and may only be specifically available in custom studies.


Thursday, March 26, 1998 #1554
Has there been any research done recently (in the 1990's) on print advertising wearout?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, April 06, 1998 ):
Major research if this sort would have been reported in the Journal of Advertising Research


Thursday, March 19, 1998 #1535
Im a printer wanting to target "Preprints" as turnkey to companies that are buying printing from me and buying inserting from the newspapers direct. I have called some newspapers and even news associations about rates but get the feeling that they're suspious of me. All I want is to sell voulume printing and give my customers accurate information for targeting areas and possibly handle that for them for a 15% agency commission. Do you have any advice?????

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 20, 1998 ):
Generally, major newspapers have "rep" firms contracted to do the selling for them, and might be obligated to pay commission to the rep assigned to cover the customer you bring in, leading to double commission.

Try working with the reps. Ask the newspapers for the contacts at their rep firms.


Sunday, March 15, 1998 #1530
Two Questions: 1) I've been asked to prepare a presentation covering "Alternative Lifestyles Marketing". When I was given the assignment I asked for a definition of "Alternative Lifestyles", but didn't get a good answer. How might you interpret this "target"?

2) I'm seeking information on the "Optimizer" programs that have become newsworthy (in media circles) as a result of the recent mega-million P&G AOR assignment. I've heard there are two. Who are they, and can you describe briefly what they do (strengths & limitations)? thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 16, 1998 ):
1) "Alternative Lifestyles" generally refers to non-traditional social orientations which may become the major influence on a person's relationships, extending to product choices, entertainment choices, clothing styles, etc. Most often, "alternative" seems to be used to refer to socio-sexual distinction.

The Gay market is probably probably most familiar of the "Alternative Lifestyles" markets. Others might arguably be the singles market, the mature market, punk, rapper, etc.

2) Optimizer programs are designed to build media schedules based on detailed analysis of each possible "insertion" (print or broadcast).

Usually the programs optimize reach within budget. Therefore they will first select the most efficient (cost per rating point) single insertion. Next they consider every other single insertion, including a second use of the first selection. The pair of insertions with the greatest net reach per dollar becomes the next selection.

In some systems, each "best" choice is frozen as the base upon which to build additional schedule until the budget is exhausted. In more sophisticated systems, entire schedules are reevaluated for best mix at each incremental budget level.

In either, it is up to the planner to set constraints on which vehicles are to be considered, any weights or restrictions such as using each vehicle a minimum number of times, if used, or a maximum number of times.

Several agencies have proprietary systems. In Europe, there are commercial systems including "Supermaximizer" and "Expert."

In the U.S., the Guru believes the Telmar Optimizer is the only commercial system available allowing TV optimization with any available audience database (e.g. NTI, NSI, Cume studies, etc.)


Thursday, January 22, 1998 #1491
Dear Guru, My client is a Bank Investment and it wats to ad on outside country veihicles. I need your help to identified the best magazine and newspaper to my client. Country: USA, Europe. Client Category: Bank Investment Are you familiar with CFO Magazine, TMA Journal? Are they a good sugest? What kind of advertiser run on these magazine? Thanks a lot, Thaya

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 22, 1998 ):
No print media plan should ever be completed without the planner having seen the magazine and absorbed the information in its media kit: rates and editorial focus at minimum. Doing this will be the best start to answering your questions


Friday, December 12, 1997 #1475
Dear Media Guru: This query addresses: How are advertising agencies generally organized? and How do I determine the proper person to present a proposal for a media buy? I work for a five-year-old minor league baseball team that has, until now, concentrated its efforts in selling advertising upon local businesses. However, we are the top entertainment attraction in our region, and we feel our market size combined with our reach and influence in the market should warrant our attracting some business from regional and national advertisers. Our availabilities include print, radio, billboard, and promotions. What would you suggest is the best strategy for approaching regional/national advertising agencies regarding the opportunities we have available? Should we work to contact the people in each agency who are responsible for making buying decisions for each individual client? Or would establishing a relationship with those individuals who are familiar with buying our market on behalf of many different clients be more productive in the long run? Thank you in advance for your assistance.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, December 12, 1997 ):
Agencies generally have a media department or at least a Media Director / Media Buyer who is responsible for evaluating a media proposal. If an agency is so small it doesn't have any media titles, the acount executive for a given advertiser would be the appropriate person.

Be sure to do your homework and be ready to talk about which clients at the agency wold benefit from your proposal and why. It is generally annoying to agency people to have a media seller show up with a non-specific proposal and ask "which of your clients would want this?"


Monday, October 13, 1997 #1429
Dear Guru, I need your input for a white paper I am helping develop for a client. The topic is what are some of the advantages of upfront/year long planning versus developing several mini-plans throughout the year. I guess I always took planning for granted until this particular client changed ownership and campaigns began to develop on a case by case basis. Trouble is, not much changed from year to year so it would be fairly easy to forecast the client's objectives into an upcoming year. I already came up with: time savings by planning once a year and then there is only a slight bit of execution/maintenance to worry about, the chance to lock down positioning for print, and more leverage in negotiating broadcast. Any other top line suggestions would be appreciated. Thanks in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 13, 1997 ):
If you are on a commission basis, savings based on amount of work would be yours more than the client's.

The Guru believes that most benefits of long term planning are the ones you already have, leverage and opportunity (positioning).

But, if you separate long term planning from buying campaign by campaign, there are opportunities in short term buying, as well. If you always have uncommitted money to spend, you will always be able to take advantage of last minute opportunities, TV specials, special events, "fire sales" on unsold inventory or cancelled space, etc. The media sellers, knowing there is money waiting for opportunities, will seek you out when they occur.

From your experience with this client, you should be able to identify the particular media and vehicles that offer best opportunities in long term commitments versus those where short term buys give the greatest advantage.


Monday, September 22, 1997 #1417
I'd like to ask about how to make a successfull site, or some address where can I find some information, tips to make my commmercial site better. I hope You can give me Reports, or Blueprints, or something like these.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 22, 1997 ):
There are some interesting data linked from CommercePark

CASIE, the Coalition on Advertiser Supported Interactive Entertainment, compiles available research on web audience accumulation and ad effectiveness.


Tuesday, September 16, 1997 #1414
We are in need of international media planning sources. We need planning data for the U.K. and the Caribbean. We are interested in sources that will identify available local market advertising media to begin our media selection process. We also need audience delivery research sources. The media classes that we are considering are: television (local broadcast and cable), local market radio, newspaper, magazines, outdoor and transit. If anyone could help, we would appreciate it. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 16, 1997 ):
There are media services which offer international support. The Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies (The Redbook) would list these. Another option is to form an affiliation with small local agencies in each country.

"The Caribbean" covers a multitude of countries and you will find agencies mostly divided along language lines, i.e. Spanish speaking vs English speaking vs French speaking islands, such as Puerto Rico vs Jamaica vs Martinique, as well as by national affiliation, i.e. different agencies for Puerto Rico vs The Domincan Republic.

One organization, Publicitas offers print representation around the world and may be helpful with other media.


Wednesday, August 13, 1997 #1389
Kindly give detailed examples of successful companion advertising campaigns that have used plastic cards (e.g. smart cards, credit cards, pre-paid telephone cards) as a medium for advertising placement. How can a telephone corporation sell advertising space on the back of its prepaid phone cards?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, August 13, 1997 ):
This is not actually a media question. Phone cards and affinity cards are business / promotional deals rather than media deals, in the Guru's experience. That is, marketer "X" has one million phone cards printed to order by telephone company "A." If they are $5 phone cards, marketer "A" may pay $2.50 apiece, and use them as premiums or whatever. It's more like buying calendars with your logo than placing advertising. The marketer distributes the cards, not the phone company.

Other affinity cards, like a Baseball Team's Visa Card, generate a fee to the team or league from the bank which actually supports the card. This too, is not an advertising placement.

There may be studies of marketing use of phone or credit cards in the library of the Advertising Research Foundation


Tuesday, July 15, 1997 #1373
Media Guru, I would like to know your opinion or if there are any generally accepted principles regarding advertising in print with multiple ads for the same brand within one issue. Thank you for your response.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, July 15, 1997 ):
Generally accepted rules? The Guru thinks not. From a media perspective it has been demonstrated, for example, that two, consecutive, one-third page ads on the outside column or right hand pages will do far better in awareness, recall, etc than one full page ad,

Despite this, it is difficult to convince advertisers to use multiple, small space ads. Unfortunately, from the media planners perspective, advertisers are more likely to judge an ad's impact by the single ad alone rather than what can be achieved in a schedule.


Monday, June 23, 1997 #1368
Dear Guru, (1) can you refer me to related research/ studies done in the area of qualitative content analysis of TV and print advertisements in Asia, especially in the comparison of Chinese and English advertisements? (2) Also, is there any literature on the deconstruction of meaning in advertisements? (3) What coding criteria should we use in constructing and deconstructing meaning in advertisements? Thanx!

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 23, 1997 ):
The Advertising Research Foundation library maintains the best records of U.S. research of this sort plus lists of international sources.


Friday, June 06, 1997 #1362
Advertising sales models. do you have any for newspapers new staff.

My question is aimed at finding your opinion on web sales staff development or integration. Should a newspaper company try to train the existing print staff to sell their internet products and services or should a new internal staff be formed. Do you have any examples?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 06, 1997 ):
This is purely a matter of opinion. On one hand the major computer magazine publishers, like Ziff-Davis or CMP who sell print space as well as space on major web sites, use different salespeople for each.

Smaller newspapers may not find there is sufficient business to justify a separate staff. Whether the website advertising is most often given away as merchandising or sold in its own right to the same local advertisers as the print or sells to national advertisers who might not be in the paper, would contibute to the decision.

The kinds of measurement and ways of deciding about where to advertise are quite different for on-line vs traditional media. It would seem most efficient to the Guru to train one of your print sellers in the intricacies of the 'net, and build around that person's learning with additional staff.

You may also find that there is insight offered by the very useful site of the Newspaper Advertising Association. The Guru believes they may have compiled various newspapers experience with selling the web. If not, they should.


Wednesday, June 04, 1997 #1360
Do you know where I can find any information on newspaper readership by day of week? I *know* that the newspapers and their associations know, but they don't seem to want media planners to know!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 05, 1997 ):
Of course ABC doesn't audit by day of the week, but as you surmise, the papers must know the daily variations. The Guru suggests you begin by discussing a "pre-print insert" with the newspapers.

To allow you to plan quantities and assess production costs, they would have to discuss with you circulation by day of the week.


Thursday, May 29, 1997 #1355
Advertising sales models. do you have any for newspapers new staff.

My question is aimed at finding your opinion on web sales staff development or integration. Should a newspaper company try to train the existing print staff to sell their internet products and services or should a new internal staff be formed. Do you have any examples?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 06, 1997 ):
This is purely a matter of opinion. On one hand the major computer magazine publishers, like Ziff-Davis or CMP who sell print space as well as space on major web sites, use different salespeople for each.

Smaller newspapers may not find there is sufficient business to justify a separate staff. Whether the website advertising is most often given away as merchandising or sold in it's own right to the same local advertisers as the print or sells to national advertisers who might not be in the paper would contibute to a decision.

The kinds of measurement and ways of deciding about where to advertise are quite different for on-line vs traditional media. It would seem most efficient to the guru to train one of your print sellers in the intricacies of the 'net, and build around that persons learning with additional staff.

You may also find that there is insight offered by the very useful site of the Newspaper Advertising Association. The Guru believes they may have compiled various newspapers expeience with selling the web. If not, they should.


Monday, May 12, 1997 #1343
Is there any model that relates advertisign awareness or brand awareness with media weight level? If there is no measurable coverage of the media, say computer magazine, what can we base our judgement on.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 12, 1997 ):
When there are published studies of this sort, the Guru can usually find them in the Advertising Research Foundation Library or in the Newsweek Media Research Index

There is, no doubt, a great volume of studies which are held proprietarily by advertisers.

There was a model the Guru once used, based on certain Agencies' many tests, which roughly assumed ad awareness would equal 91% of the existing awareness plus 3% of the previous week's GRPs (gross audience coverage).

It should be obvious that this model works best for brands with little or no going-in awareness and also dictates that anything less than 100 GRP per week leads to declining awareness for brands with awareness above 35%

Media coverage can be estimated for print media: circulation is usually known; readers-per-copy and composition can be approximated by comparison to similar publications.

It should also be kept in mind that awareness is not a factor of media alone, but depends, to great extent on creative.


Tuesday, April 29, 1997 #1332
Is there any one source for information about LOCAL print media other than the big local dailies?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 29, 1997 ):
Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) offers "Community Publication Advertising Source" which lists these weekly and "PennySaver" type publications.

US Suburban Press, Inc reps a long list of local papers.

Carol Karasick, VP Media and Marketing at Newspaper National Network can also help with local papers.


Thursday, March 27, 1997 #1003
Guru, I'm looking for a topline media report which comparesadvertising costs for various media groups from 1994-1996. I have checked MediaWeek's and InsideMedia's sites and can't find anything relating to this. I've also contacted Veronis Suhler which is quite expensive, but we may haveto go that way. Any other ideas? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 28, 1997 ):
The Guru agrees that it's inconvenient, but the trade media don't always post every valuable fact the report on their web sites. Inside Media would have printed the information you need, so it's probably the best source if you can find a library that has it. If you're near New York theres a resource called the NY Business Library at 34th and Madison.

With Inside Media having folded last week, there's reason to wonder about information sources for Media Central.

But, there may be a clearance sale onInside Media's back issues; call Cowles Media at (212)683-3540


Tuesday, March 25, 1997 #1006
Hi, I am a student and I have been trying to find out the rankings of ad agencies, according to size-not according to gross income,. More specifically, I need to find out the rank according to size of J. Walter Thompson Company as compared to otherad agencies

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 28, 1997 ):
AdAge's "DataPlace" contains reprints of their reportage of such information. Though ranking is by gross income, billings are also reported.


Wednesday, March 19, 1997 #1016
What are the going numbers for total ad exposures per person per day? Is it possible tobreak down the average into the different media?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 19, 1997 ):
The Guru has seen estimates from a few hundred to many thousands.

The Guru tends to go along with one of the best accepted estimates, that there are about 245 ad exposures daily, 108 from TV, 34 radio and 112 print.

Others estimate 3000, 5000 or more. Even the 245 is "potential" and perhaps only half are real exposures.

The higher estimates probably include all marketing exposure including being in the vicinity of product labels or actual products with trademarks visible, such as your car, computer, fax, phone, shirt, pencil, paper towel in the bathroom, etc.

Just think, if we were really exposed to 3000 advertising messages per day, at an average of just 10 seconds apiece (accounting for radio :60's and brief exposure to billboards), these exposures would consume 8.33 hours out of our 16 waking hours per day.

The Guru is sceptical.


Wednesday, March 19, 1997 #1015
What are the going numbers for total ad exposures per person per day? Is it possible tobreak down the average into the different media?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 19, 1997 ):
The Guru has seen estimates from a few hundred to many thousands.

The Guru tends to go along with one of the best accepted estimates, that there are about 245 ad exposures daily, 108 from TV, 34 radio and 112 print.

Others estimate 3000, 5000 or more. Even the 245 is "potential" and perhaps only half are real exposures.

The higher estimates probably include all marketing exposure including being in the vicinity of product labels or actual products with trademarks visible, such as your car, computer, fax, phone, shirt, pencil, paper towel in the bathroom, etc.

Just think, if we were really exposed to 3000 advertising messages per day, at an average of just 10 seconds apiece (accounting for radio :60's and brief exposure to billboards), these exposures would consume 8.33 hours out of our 16 waking hours per day.

The Guru is sceptical.


Tuesday, March 18, 1997 #1017
What are the going numbers for total ad exposures per person per day? Is it possible to break down the average into the different media?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 19, 1997 ):
The Guru has seen estimates from a few hundred to many thousands.

The Guru tends to go along with one of the best accepted estimates, that there are about 245 ad exposures daily, 108 from TV, 34 radio and 112 print.

Others estimate 3000, 5000 or more. Even the 245 is "potential" and perhaps only half are real exposures.

The higher estimates probably include all marketing exposure including being in the vicinity of product labels or actual products with trademarks visible, such as your car, computer, fax, phone, shirt, pencil, paper towel in the bathroom, etc.

Just think, if we were really exposed to 3000 advertising messages per day, at an average of just 10 seconds apiece (accounting for radio :60's and brief exposure to billboards), these exposures would consume 8.33 hours out of our 16 waking hours per day.

The Guru is sceptical.


Wednesday, March 12, 1997 #1304
Dear GuruI am interresting in your oppinion on the changing shape of the media environment.What do you think how the media changing for the near future, what are the main trends in the media and how will it change the media planning?Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 24, 1997 ):
Media have always changed. Once there were only print media and billboards. Then radio, then TV. Not only do new media arise, but the numbers of media vehicles of each type of each type proliferate. The web is only the latest and most explosive example of this proliferation. What causes the changes for the planner is the availability of research and hard facts on which to base decisions, rather than using theory. One of the biggest changes may be the growing emphasis on direct response models for evaluating media effectiveness, rather than awareness, recall, or requests for additional information.

Or is it the ability to apply computer models to planning?


Wednesday, February 26, 1997 #1032
Hi GU!I am looking for everything I can find regarding wear-out. Have the Jan 1988 article from the Journal of Advertising Research---that pub has probably published more since then, but I can't find a way to get a list of past articles on their web site. Know of any other resources on this subject?Toni

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 27, 1997 ):
AMIC plans to begin offering JAR reprints on behalf of the ARF in the near future. For now, you can direct requests to the editor, Bill_Cook@arfsite.org


Monday, February 17, 1997 #1044
I need to discover the number of people who are conected to the internet by country around the world. I am particulary interested in South American, Central American, and Caribbean countries as well as the USA, and European Countries.I realize that the USA has the most information available. Is there any sourse for the number of people using or hooked up to the interent in the rest of the world?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 21, 1997 ):
On the one hand, there are as many estimates of these data as there are people willing to estimate them.

Begin at NUA Internet Surveys in AMIC's Research Monitor.

I Pro has a report called CyberAtlas which covers some of this information as well.

The downside of printed reports about the growth of internet is that they rarely get published while they are still current.


Monday, January 27, 1997 #1067
My client is requiring me to use adjustment percentages whencalculating grp's in print. I was always taught that reach x frequency= GRP's. Now if I calculate the adjustment to my grp's, the formula no longer works. Is this correct, or do I have to do something else to my reach/frequency? Help!!!

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, January 28, 1997 ):
There are various approaches. If the GRP adjustment is just an index reflecting characteristics of the vehicles and their audiences, it may be sufficient to show R/F/GRP/AdjGRP

If the adjustments are meant to change actual value of the GRP, it is usual to recalculate reach from the new, adjusted GRP. Since print r&f is usually calculated from actual schedules, via a "black box" algorithym, rather than from a grp "curve," this may be impractical. If your system allows you to enter factors for each publication before calculating reach, that may solve your problem.

Lastly, even with adjusted GRP to represent some abstraction, the people reached would not be reached at a different average frequency, so one quick and dirty answer, if you must use adjusted grp, is just to divide them by the original frequency, to get reach.

It's similar to the concept of changing a spot coverage area, broadcast r/f to its national equivalent: The GRPs are weighted by the coverage area % and the frequencyremains constant, to calculate the reach.


Saturday, January 04, 1997 #1084
I've heard that co-op advertising is on the rise. It seems like a great way to share advertising costs. Do you know of any standard letters or agreements used to present the idea from business to business (like from a store owner to a supplier?) Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 05, 1997 ):
The typical situation is that the manufacturer establishes a co-op program and advises dealers and distributors, who can then request the form to apply for participation.

This is how the manufacturer establishes a budget reserve for its share of the costs.

There is at least one book in print which lists co-op programs in existence. The Guru can't recall the name, but your local newspaper or radio station probably has a co-op manager who has a copy. These media are great beneficiaries of your use of co-op advertising!

There is also a National Association for Promotional and Advertising Allowances, Inc. which includes on its resouce list Co-op Works,

"a new online service that helps retailers, product vendors and media make the best use of co-op and MDF programs. Co-op Works standardizes the language and simpifies the entire process. Retailers and manufacturers can track incentives and accrued funds instantly-reducing the questions, phone calls, and headaches."

Contact:
Tim Fisher, President
2665 Villa Creek #208
Dallas, TX 75234-7309
Phone: 800-810-2025
Fax: 214-243-6310
tim@dxpressway.com


Wednesday, November 06, 1996 #1111
How do I reach buyers of advertising for my online sports magazine? Are their places I can list this opportunity?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 06, 1996 ):
There is the Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) Interactive Media Resource as a listing. There are sites which list ad-bearing sites, such as Webtrack. Beyond that, listing with the search engines is wise.

Other than on-line and SRDS, consider advertising in the media trades, such as Inside Media (print ot web versions) and MediaWeek, or with general advertising trades like AdAge (print or web versions).


Tuesday, November 05, 1996 #1112
We are a branch office of an american company based in Trinidad & Tobago, WI. We are designing an advertisement (print) to be published in T&T's airline magazine. We have a 'by-line' that will represent the focus of our ad but want to research whether it has been already used, ie limited under copyright law. We are targeting both UK and USA with the ad. The airlines is also flying to Germany and Sweden. Question: where would we have to check for potential breach of copyright? (b) Are we bound to place an official check in all countries that the airline flies to? (c) Do you have addresses for UK and USA with whom we can liaise? Thank you oh masterful one.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 06, 1996 ):
The Guru greatly appreciates your expressions of respect and gratitude. However, you are asking a legal question, not a media question. But, because you asked so nicely, the Guru investigated and found the following, which seems to apply to your question, on the website of the US Copyright Office, under the heading "WHAT IS NOT PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT:

"Titles, names, short phrases, and slogans; familiar symbolsor designs; mere variations of typographic ornamentation,lettering, or coloring; mere listings of ingredients or contents"

A similar tactic would likely find you the same information for the UK.


Friday, October 04, 1996 #1130
Dear Media Guru, First, thank you for this service. We run a national niche trade publication which also enjoys a good newsstand presence. I am wondering where we could go to find out if the terms that our prospective advertising representative has suggested? 25% commission, a 1000+ retainer per month, plus traveling fees. He has references confirming that he currently does 20K in ad revenue for two of his other clients who are similiar to our publication.He is very professional and comes highly recommended, but we are unsure of his costs and whether the costs will be offset by enough revenue quickly enough to avoid a financial problem. Any suggestions?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 10, 1996 ):
The Guru believes this calls for comparison shopping. You will find a list of independent print sales representatives in the front of Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) Consumer Publication and Business Publication Advertising Resources


Wednesday, September 04, 1996 #1151
My company runs a popular, ad-supported web music directory, and I was wondering what is the best way to learn what advertisers have upcoming online campaigns? Currently, I just spend hours calling them all and asking what their plans are. This seems to work OK, but there has to be a better way. Is their a single source that lists current and future online campaigns for advertisers, and if so what is it and how do I get it?

Any help would be much appreciated.Thanks for a great resource!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 05, 1996 ):
The Guru doesn't believe there are alert resources such as you desire for any of the traditional media, either. Advertisers naturally guard information about their forthcoming plans. TV, radio and print salesmen go to great lengths to spot advertisers running in the competitve media, and build relationships that help assure they'll be the first thought of when plans are brewing.

It's just plain hard work until you spot some action or luckily call the right person at the right time.


Tuesday, September 03, 1996 #1152
My company has just developed an internet site as an extension of its core business. I'm in the aviationfield. The chiefs believe since we have an internetbusiness, we must advertise on the internet. I'm concerned about its effectiveness over more conventionalmethods. I'm not so concerned about prices, thoughI find it ridiculous some charge $1,000 per month andcan't tell me how many "hits" they get. Is there anyPROOF internet advertising really works?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, September 04, 1996 ):
Short answer: NO
Eternal answer: It depends

Some are succeeding according to the standard they have set themselves for success. "Success" must be measured against goals. Is internet advertising going to be used to sell your company's product / service or to bring visitors to your site?

Nobody should be charging serious money without being able to count hits / accesses. It's too easy, today, to attach a counter like "Web Counter" and be accountable to paying advertisers. Any site which can charge $1000 / month can surely afford its own documentation.

If the web is your "store" however, you will want to advertise in other media which has a large audience of computer users within your target area.Eg; www.Amazon.com is a successful on-line bookstore which advertises its URL in the book section of major newspapers.

For you, aviation industry magazines are a possibility. Featuring your URL in your regular print advertising is a way to test the waters. If readers of those trade books are not drawn to your site, then there is less likelihood that web advertising will succeed with your customer.


Sunday, August 25, 1996 #1161
Guru, could you tell me where can I find a list with the most important books on "Media Research" (for both printed and electronic media)

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 26, 1996 ):
The Advertising Research Foundation library is likely to be the best collection of these books.


Monday, August 05, 1996 #1171
In regards to print advertising, what is a wear-out report? What data do I need to complete this report (reach, frequency, formulas)?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 08, 1996 ):
The Guru has discussed Wear Out previously (see below July 17 and May 7).

A wear out report would state the status of various print executions in your campaign in comparison to the wear out standard you have established.

Clients have a way of asking the wear out question without setting a standard or even being able to decide how to set one.

Essentially an ad is worn out when it loses all or most of its ability to accomplish its marketing purpose with its target. The purpose may be as simple as product sales, or lead generation in a direct response campaign, or it may be as difficult to define as building brand imagery or awareness of a specific product benefit. Since directly relating any of these to a specific ad would require custom research, it is typical to use whatever research has been done in the past as related to easily modelled media measurements, such as reach, frequency, GRPs or quintiles.

For example if in the past, a custom study showed the average ad was worn out at a time when the planners knew that 80% of the target had seen it 8 or more times, or when the frequency in the top 2 quintiles passed 30. (Don't use these examplenumbers). Naturally, different ads perform differently, but you will need to work on an average basis.

A wear out report then becomes a matter of reporting something like how many of thetarget have seen the ad at least "x" times, or that the frequency in the top 2quintiles will exceed the standard measure as of a certain month of the schedule, or"X" number of GRPs will have run for the ad by some date.

The key is knowing how one of these media measures relate to your wear out standard. Then the report is a simple task.


Tuesday, July 23, 1996 #1176
My telecommunications client is planning a multimedia (TV, newspaper, radio) launch in Chicago this fall, hoping the phone will ring off the hook. Is there a way to predict response levels per medium (or in total?) for the client to effectively staff its phone lines? I have total population, target population, reach & frequency levels (for TV - a 6 week flight; for radio a different 6 week flight; print used in both flights). The kicker is: this is not a direct - response spot (of course, an 800# will be included, but generally, it's an image builder). I also know that it will depend greatly on many things creatively (length of time the 800# is on the screen, is it a pnemonic number, is there an offer, etc). I'm thinking if there is an easy answer to this, I wouldn't have a job.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 24, 1996 ):
The safe answer is to contract an "inbound telemarketing"service which is large enough to expand or contract around your actual traffic. Depending on the offer and strength of copy, calls could equal .01% to 5.0% or more of persons reached. Using a service the first time out, especially if you're not specifically setting up a DR business, will give you benchmarks for the future.


Saturday, June 15, 1996 #1199
Do you know any resources concerning the future ofinternet marekting. All sites which I know deal with moreoperational question. But what will be, if more and morepeople come on the net and the lines become faster. Willthere be an interaction between TV and the Internet or other meida?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 17, 1996 ):
Certainly as the internet "reaches" more people and becomes a mass medium which will partly depend on faster "pipes" advertisers will pay more attention. Ironically, static ads will begin to have perceived value, instead of primarily links as is the case now.

Already most media have web sites and there has been some "simulcasting" by broadcast media and "live," on line, publishing by print media.

The best way to gather information or informed opinion about the future of the 'net is probably by participating in newsgroups or e-mail discussion lists. In March 4th and 22nd Guru answers there are directions for subscribing to some of these. Another one which was explicitly about your topic, Internet Marketing, has folded.


Monday, June 10, 1996 #1202
Where is the best source to find information on Total Advertising Expenditures in Canada?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 11, 1996 ):
Competitive Media Reports of Canada, at (416) 961-2279 tracks consumer print. Perhaps they can direct you to sources of spending tracking for other Canadian media.


Monday, June 10, 1996 #1203
The company I work for has a wed site that we would like to have other companies advertise on. In essence, we have web advertising space for sale. I am trying to track down companies that will consult with us on how to best go about doing this. As part of the consulting, we are hoping to have a company that will direct advertisers to our site. I am having trouble coming up with a list of such companies. Any help you can provide will be appreciated. I have found two companies, Media Market (by Sponsor.net) and Webtrack, but so far, that is all.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 10, 1996 ):
Companies that sell web advertising space include WebRepand Katzalso,i-trafficmaintains a listing of web sites accepting advertising, and SRDSprints an Interactive Advertising Resource volume.


Monday, June 03, 1996 #1207
Hello, Media Guru. Could you help me find current costsof various media rates. (radio,tv,newsprint,internet and so on) Thanks Don

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 03, 1996 ):
The only reasonably comprehensive source of the information you request would be from Standard Rate And Data Service.

Your media list covers over 20,000 individual US media alone, usually divided among over 200 Designated Market Areas or evn more Metro areas


Tuesday, May 07, 1996 #1226
How many times can a print ad run before it wears out?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, May 08, 1996 ):
The only answer to such a question is "it depends."

How powerful/interesting/competitive is the ad?

What reach and frequency is being developed as the ads insertions repeat.

How many different magazines versus repeats in the same titles.

What is your definition of "wear out?" Decline in awareness, decline in incremental sales, frequency of exposure in the top quintile or top 2 quintiles?

. . .it depends.


Wednesday, May 01, 1996 #1230
Are there any software packages that allow you to collectmedia data over the internet? Also, what are the latestprograms dealing with media planning? I work with a small agencyin New York that places local radio, newspaper and televisionin a few markets in the midwest and we are looking forways to go take our media planning into the digital age.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 02, 1996 ):
Telmar, (AMIC's parent corporation) is in the business of providingits clients with leading edge technology for internet, dial-up and local access to media software as well as to the hundreds of syndicated databases available for clients with legal access.

Telmar has programs for print, television,cable, radio, and newspaper. The All Media Planner allows the user to do all media advertising media planning, including reach/frequency analysis, media mix, optimization, budget allocation, flowcharting, graphics. Also note that there is free cost per point information provided by SQAD on AMIC.

Contact sales@telmar.com for further information about Telmar's services.


Tuesday, April 30, 1996 #1233
please discuss the cost evaluation process for advertising on the web. IE. Yahoo, aol, prodigy. What is the basis for comparison and unit of measure for cost evaluation. thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 30, 1996 ):
Rreview the Guru archives by topic, Web Advertising.There is also an excellent, more extensive pricing analysis article here at AMIC, PRICING WEB SITE ADVERTISING;THE MEDIA BUYERS' VIEW

Current trade press coverage is featuring P&G's demand that pricing be based on "clicks" of banner ads rather than just page views. The Guru sees a parallel to "per inquiry" advertising. Websites could and should charge far higher rates for clicks on ads than for accesses. The advertiser, of course shares responsibility for the drawing power of the banner in attracting clicks.

To compare to print or tv, the medium's job is to bring a viewer / reader to the ad. The pay-by-the-click approach is comparable to paying for a magazine only if someone circles your key number on the reader response card. It's a feasible approach, but likely to be costly.


Tuesday, April 30, 1996 #1232
Can you recommend any good books on how to plan/negotiate/buy national broadcast. My experience is only in print and spot TV so I need a good book to get me up to speed. Thanks in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 30, 1996 ):
There are a few books on planning, such as Sissors and Bumba's "Media Planning." Negotiating and buying is more a matter of apprenticeship and seat-of-the-pants learning. While essential principals of National Boroadcast are similar to spot, there are many differences in details, like guarantees, "re-caps," special math applications, etc. Your best best would be to befriend a salesperson in each medium and get a quick course in the special issues that apply, assuming there is no one to guide you in your own company.


Monday, April 29, 1996 #1237
I represent a company that is creating a pre-paid calling card (PPCC) where all of the time is sponsor/advertiser supported. The users of the card will be a very targeted audience appealing to a good number of potential sponsors/advertisers. Each month, card users would be given 60 minutes of free time. When a user "signs on" to make a call, he/she hears a brief (8 - 10 seconds) promo/message from on the of the sponsors/advertisers. Our estimates are that a sponsor would get their message to a user at least 2x/month in audio format and 1x/month in print. In addition to these "impressions", the sponsor would get information about each user/subscriber including name, address, phone number, e-mail address (if applicable), etc. Additionally, sponsors would get detailed usage reports show which messages were played when, to whom, etc. My question is about pricing: we are thinking of charging a sponsor $1.50 - $1.75/subscriber/month (60 minutes). Our feeling that this application combines direct marketing tools (lists - compiled and response) and broadcast/mass marketing. Does our pricing seem in line?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 30, 1996 ):
Your pricing works out to $500 - $580 per thousand impressions, whereas typical mass media for selective audiences (special interest magazines) are about one tenth of that. If your delivery data capture is enormously valuable to someadvertisers in unique situations, there may be takers at these prices.


Monday, April 29, 1996 #1704
I represent a company that is creating a pre-paid calling card (PPCC) where all of the time is sponsor/advertiser supported. The users of the card will be a very targeted audience appealing to a good number of potential sponsors/advertisers. Each month, card users would be given 60 minutes of free time. When a user "signs on" to make a call, he/she hears a brief (8 - 10 seconds) promo/message from on the of the sponsors/advertisers. Our estimates are that a sponsor would get their message to a user at least 2x/month in audio format and 1x/month in print. In addition to these "impressions", the sponsor would get information about each user/subscriber including name, address, phone number, e-mail address (if applicable), etc. Additionally, sponsors would get detailed usage reports show which messages were played when, to whom, etc. My question is about pricing: we are thinking of charging a sponsor $1.50 - $1.75/subscriber/month (60 minutes). Our feeling that this application combines direct marketing tools (lists - compiled and response) and broadcast/mass marketing. Does our pricing seem in line?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 30, 1996 ):
Your pricing works out to $500 - $580 per thousand impressions, whereas typical mass media for selective audiences (special interest magazines) are about one tenth of that. If your delivery data capture is enormously valuable to some advertisers in unique situations, there may be takers at these prices.


Monday, April 29, 1996 #1723
I represent a company that is creating a pre-paid calling card (PPCC) where all of the time is sponsor/advertiser supported. The users of the card will be a very targeted audience appealing to a good number of potential sponsors/advertisers. Each month, card users would be given 60 minutes of free time. When a user "signs on" to make a call, he/she hears a brief (8 - 10 seconds) promo/message from on the of the sponsors/advertisers. Our estimates are that a sponsor would get their message to a user at least 2x/month in audio format and 1x/month in print. In addition to these "impressions", the sponsor would get information about each user/subscriber including name, address, phone number, e-mail address (if applicable), etc. Additionally, sponsors would get detailed usage reports show which messages were played when, to whom, etc. My question is about pricing: we are thinking of charging a sponsor $1.50 - $1.75/subscriber/month (60 minutes). Our feeling that this application combines direct marketing tools (lists - compiled and response) and broadcast/mass marketing. Does our pricing seem in line?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 30, 1996 ):
Your pricing works out to $500 - $580 per thousand impressions, whereas typical mass media for selective audiences (special interest magazines) are about one tenth of that. If your delivery data capture is enormously valuable to some advertisers in unique situations, there may be takers at these prices.


Friday, April 05, 1996 #1250
How much advertising dollar is spent on magazine advertising by AT&T, MCI, and Sprint? What is their advertising Strategy in relation with the print media? (This is related to my independent project at the University at Albany. I would really appreciate your help. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 07, 1996 ):
Advertisers' magazine spending, and print schedules, are reported by CMR (Competitive Media Reports). The data are not normally available without cost.

No doubt deducing the strategy from the listed schedules would be the key learning experience from your project.


Tuesday, March 12, 1996 #1264
Dear Guru;I am in the process of launching a software product aimed at the magazine publishing industry. It is an internet software based on getting their content online, their advertising targeted, their subscriptions in order, and will provide user statistics to maximize their advertising and content.My questions are as follows:How do I find out how mauch advertising revenue is generated by the magazine industry-both online and print. What are the projections for future growth for online advertising for magazines?How do I find out what kind of money magazines have budgeted for online software and services?Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 13, 1996 ):
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) tracks magazine's advertising revenues and web site (magazines' and others). They are in NY at (212) 789-1422.

As far as growth is concerned, trade magazines will offer different opinions and a library search of the ad trades could be informative.

The Guru's opinion is that right now the web is "hot." It porbably is not generating a lot of business for most media who have web presence. But the TV networks and major publishers all have sites. The state of marketing is that a web site is a necessary validation of participation in contemporary marketing.

The software you describe, if it does all you say, will help make a magazine's web presence produce ROI. The trick is probably to get to a magazine before it has hired or contracted out web design services.


Friday, March 08, 1996 #1266
Guru:Is there a formula for calculating reach & frequency for trade vehicles.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 10, 1996 ):
There is no truly simple formula for calculating reach and frequency of any medium. The key datain print R&F are pair-wise duplication between different vehicles and between two or more insertions in the same vehicle.

As the number of insertions in a plan increase, the number of data elements to include in a formula increase. The number of possible pairings for just a 10 insertion plan is 45 ((n x n-1) / 2).

Telmar among others, offers software designed to quickly perform these calculations on defined schedules of media measured by SMRB, MRI, MMR, J.D. Power or others. Using measured media as prototypes, reach of various schedules you might want to consider could then be calculated. From these numerous calculations, you could, by regression analysis, develop a "simple" formula of the form y=ax+b to calculate frequency based on GRP of typical plans of the sort you run in these media (y is frequency; x is grp; a and b are factors from the regression).

A formula of this kind is very specific to the audience dynamics of the media vehicles involved. Please understand, this is not a recommended technique, merely a response to your question.


Friday, March 01, 1996 #1270
I work for a company that sells a braod range of complextechnical products. In developing a new lit fulfillmentstrategy (first there were printed brochures, then faxback, then ...) I have a few questions:
1. Can you direct me to Web sites that have done a goodjob of providing info/data sheets (ie.designed to obti-mize WEB capabilities not just slapping up existing material)?
2. What about customizing? eg. Cust completes request that indicates "I'm considering widgets produced by X,Y,&Z." Then delivering info sheet that shows comparative"feeds and speeds" of X,Y,&Z's widgets. Do you know of successful examples of this? Any pitfalls?
3) How to make sure to deliver "value added" material?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 03, 1996 ):
You're not asking a media question here, but. . .

Using Alta Vista to search the word "submit" , which appears on just about all forms pages, found half a million such web pages, of which the first 10 were mostly technical. You be the judge of which of the half million are good or bad:


Friday, February 23, 1996 #1752
Which West European print media should I select to advertise four wheel power terrain cars? Target group: men, age 28 - 35, with more spending money, countries: France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy. Thanks, Tom

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 25, 1996 ):
Publicitas is a magazine representative firm which should be able to provide the research and information needed to evaluate this media tactic.


Monday, February 19, 1996 #1757
Television's (network, spot are cable) and radio's (network and spot) advertising costs are typically measured in CPP's (cost per rating points). On the other hand, Newspapers' and magazine's advertising costs are measured in CPM's (cost per thousand). It seems the Internet is moving towards the CPM model and I have no idea how "out of home" or Direct Mail are measured. Apples to apples, based on CPM, how do these mediums compare on cost? -- how about ROI?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 22, 1996 ):
First, understand that CPP and CPM are just cost indices rather than "measures." CPM (cost per thousand audience impressions) may be converted easily to CPP (cost per percentage point of population universe):

CPP = CPM x universe in thousands x .01

or

CPM = CPP / (.01 x universe in thousands)

CPM is simpler to deal with because we only need to know the audience exposed, a figure just beginning to be reported on the internet. CPP requires us to know a "universe," the number of people in the whole category under discussion. For the internet, or more specifically the WWW, where ads are usually found, universe is a hotly debated question. Is it the number of people with computers and modems or the number of people with the theoretical possibility to browse the web (an ISP and browser software) or the number of people who actually ever do use the Web? Even if we pick one of these, there are radically varying research estimates of the size of these possible universes.

If we decide to just use the total population as a universe for internet measurement, the ratings are agonizingly small, and we are still working toward how to define the rating. In print, no matter how often a reader picks up the same issue of a magazine, he or she only counts once in that issues impressions or rating. But website accesses are usually counting multiple weekly visits without the ability to distinguish repeats of the same viewer. There is not yet any common ground in pricing to talk of averages. There may be over 100,000 commercial sites, more than all the tv, radio and print vehicles put together.

The comparison you suggest between all media cpms also changes as we define which demographic to consider. TV has established averages to consider and companies like Spot Quotations and Data SQAD@ix.netcom.com publish these cpm/cpp.

print may vary from $5 to over $200 cpm depending on selectivity of audience and total circulation.

ROI can't be discussed without knowing the goals and depends on ad content, other marketing efforts and how revenue is measured. Web site development and web ads may be meant to sell product, build image or just bring viewers to sites. Web advertising needs to be evaluated against very goal specific potential and possibility.


Sunday, February 11, 1996 #1765
What advantages does marketing/advertising on the internet have above marketing/advertising in the "USUAL" media?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 12, 1996 ):
he internet offers many disadvantages to go with its advantages. These all pertain to the WWW.

Some Advantages:

  • Immediacy: Ad copy and new product news can be on-line immediately.
  • Selectivity: Ads can be aimed broadly at computer users, or narrowly at Quentin Tarentino fans, or afficionados of the wines of Australia.
  • Relevance to the moment: Ads can be tied to today's crucial interest, by buying keywords on search engines.
  • Participation: Ad viewers can become involved in the ad by clicking on links to product info most relevant to them, filling out and sending requests within the ad. This is far more inolving than the "paste this stamp here" tricks of direct mail.
  • The ability to link E-mail auto-responders to web sites outdoes the capabilites of fax-back servers as well.
  • Minor advantages include savings on postage, paper and production costs versus traditional print and broadcast media.
The disadvantages are chiefly in audience and audience count:
  • At the most optimistic count, only 30-40% of households are reachable by the Web.
  • Very few individual websites reach even 10% of this universe.
  • Reach versus frequency is not well understood or capable of calculation.
  • Audience demographics are not well known nor well distinguished between thosecapable of using the web and those regularly doing so.


Monday, February 05, 1996 #1767
What are the rates and subscriber profiles of the most popular web sites? What are the customer profiles of AOL, Prodigy and Compuserve?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, February 06, 1996 ):
The "most popular websites" don't have subscribers, they have visitors who come and go without establishing relationships. Netscape, which may have the largest access count, if only because their browser defaults to Netscape's home page as it's start-up URL, and most users haven't learned how or bothered to change it. (At an estimated 3 million weekly accesses it's been said to charge $15,000 monthly for ads.)

Many major sites don't have "guest" registration procedures that capture even minimal demographics of visitors.

Rates of web sites have not been thoroughly compiled. TrafficResource is an ambitious effort to compile rates and traffic for the top sites, but is apparently not generally accessible at this date.

Standard Rate and Data Service has an Interactive Advertising Resource, but it would be difficult for a printed guide to keep up with the web.

AdAge has a compilation of its Interactive Media articles available on-line. These have frequently discussed rates and traffic.

For profiles of AOL, Prodigy and CompuServe customers, MRI has included the "Big Three" on-line services as brands in its latest study of media and product usage.


Monday, January 22, 1996 #1779
Would an Ad Agency be the place to contact to have them sell sign\banner-space to be visible on TV during events - such as competions, Rodeos, - and do they sell that sign\banner-space on commission? We are looking for a company to sell sign\banner space based on "media-equivalence."

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 02, 1996 ):
Ad Agencies are buyers of space, not sellers. Or tecnically, they are agents for the advertisers who are the ultimate purchasers. The advertisers pay the commission to the agency. The space seller indicate the commission as a sort of discount from the published "gross" price and the "net" due from the agency.

There are independent "rep" firms who sell this sort of space. Independent print reps, for example, are listed in front of the SRDS Consumer print Advertising Resource


Thursday, January 18, 1996 #1782
Is there any magazine research comparing the value of newsstand circ. vs. free point of sale publications? I would like to verify a sales rep's claim that his publication is a better buy, because it is at point of sale.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 02, 1996 ):
Two traditional concepts are worthy of consideration here:

1) It's a salesman's job to tell you his product is better, no matter what is provable

2) Basic media thinking holds that there is more perceived value, to the consumer, in something he/she has paid for than in something received for free. If that is the only distinction, the newstand publication should be stronger

Aside from that there are several questions to consider:

Is the point of sale publication literally at the place where the product is stocked in a store, as in a home decorating guide in the paint and wallpaper section or at paint stores, and you are advertising paint and brushes?

Or is it a general recipe magazine at the supermarket cashier while you are advertising dog food?

If the free title is topical and well placed, is the newsatnd title equally on topic?

How do you measure effectiveness, add recall, coupon redemption, movement on the purchase intent scale actual sales attributable to the magazine?

About the best catalog of print research on-line is the Newsweek Media Research Index


Thursday, January 11, 1996 #1788
For an international print publication covering interactive and online services, including Internet, we are looking for companies who can solicit advertising in our behalf. Can you give some suggestions as to whom we can approach. We do not want to set up our own advertising sales department.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 02, 1996 ):
Independent print representatives are listed in the front of the SRDS Consumer print or Business Publication Resources. SRDS contact information is at the SRDS web site.


Wednesday, January 10, 1996 #1792
Please provide some sources for a small ad agency to use to conduct national magazine print planning for a demanding client. I have several programs with very different audiences and don't have the time or staff necessary.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 02, 1996 ):
"Programs" shouldn't be providing audience data, they should be reading the current data of SMRB, MRI, MMR, etc.

Telmar has software which will analyze media plans using any of these or several other audience studies. SMRB and MRI also offer systems to analyze their audience data in media planning.

If your concern is primarily software cost or staff time, the print media also have these systems and are eager to help you run Reach & Frequency or other analyses of print alternatives. It would be wise to specify the data (SMRB or MRI, etc) which you will use as your standard and ask more than one of the candidate publications to do analyses.

Magazine audience change over time, new magazines come along; it is important to be using current research.


Monday, January 08, 1996 #1794
Please explain the future of advertising in media terms? Is internet going to take over other media or is it just going to be another media ?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 02, 1996 ):
There is little prospect of the internet "taking over" other media in its current incarnation.

Look at the history of advertising technology, its always moved FROM media that had more cost and work attached TO media that had less cost and work to enjoy:

First there was print. One had to buy a newspaper or magazine everytime one wanted to use it. One had to do the "work" of reading.

Radio was a one time outlay, and almost no effort to digest, except for conjuring up a picture in the "mind's eye"

TV again was a one time outlay and gave you the picture with the sound leaving no work for the mind.

The internet requires ongoing subscription payments, in many cases (AOL/Prodigy/Compuserve/ISP) payments increase with increased use. Then there's "work" typing. clicking and selecting. The cost of owning necesssary equipment and learning to use it is another barrier.

No doubt technology will ease the cost and work burdens of using the internet but it is more communications than entertainment. It is perhaps analogous to catalog shopping versus retail advertising combined with the store shopping experience: another useful and rapidly growing marketing vehicle, but not the ultimate one.

Some compare the 'net to cable. Microsoft is said to be visualizing 50% computer HH penetration soon, which is in the cable ballpark. But cable still has barely 50 channels competing for audience in any system. The web represent 10's of thousands of commercial sites for a brower to try to find.

Also, today the baby boom is hitting 50, and it's the big population group. Computer use is still primarily a feature of the next consumer wave.

The 'net is not to be ignored, but it's not likely to be the next Television (or even the next Cable) for a while.


Friday, December 29, 1995 #1803
What is the best way to target potential customers for ad sites? We are interested in having them advertise in both the homepage and our print catalogs/magazines.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 02, 1996 ):
First, and most obviously: Do the print vehicles exist already? Current advertisers are best prospects for the web site. As advertisers are found for the web site they are targets for the print vehicles

Next, web-aware companies are best prospects so find other web sites in business categories related to your own, but not competitive, and solicit ads from them. Next, find competitors sites and solicit the advertisers they have attracted.

Find these sites through the web's search engines like Yahoo or the excellent, new AltaVista.

A similar examination of complementary and competitive print media could be productive as well.

Registering your own site with these search engines and others (use these to find the others) means advertisers can find you.

The trade publications of appropriate categories are also necessary to announce your availability. It is too passive to advertise web services with a site that no one might find.

Finally, SRDS has an interactive media (WWW, cd-rom, etc) data source where advertisers will look for such opportunties. At the beginning of an internet ad media venture, it can be useful to visit an expert web designer's site such as BXI (Brand X Internet Services) This site incorporates an excellent guide to using the internet as a marketing tool.

For overall marketing guidance, the MktgMavens are available on line.


Friday, December 08, 1995 #1811
Is there national print/web media relating specifically to people planning to move to a new city?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, December 08, 1995 ):
A quick search of ,Yahoo turns up , http://www.sover.net/~relo/, American Relocation Center. Further searching of Yahoo might turn up more; this was just the "A's".

For print, SRDS Consumer Media Source, available at agencies and many public libraries, would be the reference to check.


Sunday, April 09, 1995 #1854
In regards to monthly trade publications how many times can a specific ad run before there is a burn out factor?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 09, 1995 ):
It depends on the ad. A good ad works longer. In general, one doesn't worry about an ad wearing out until most of the target has seen it 20 times or more for a broadcast ad. It's a rare print campaign where most of the target sees an ad more than 3 times, which is many peoples minimum standard of effective exposure.



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