Home Page The Advertising Media Internet Center

Telmar Home Page


Media Guru

Guru Search Results: 315 matches were found

Friday, October 06, 2000 #3870
HI... Looking to get figures on radio advertising. Specifically, I need radio revenues for the last 3-5 years, plus any projections for the next 3that may have been published somewhere. Inquiries to the RAB have not yet been answered, so here I am... thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 08, 2000 ):
Consult M Street Journal.

Thursday, October 05, 2000 #3869
I have a client asking what a average National cost per impression for radio and television would be. They are trying to build a budget to launch a dot com company.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 05, 2000 ):

Thursday, September 28, 2000 #3848
Do you know what is the most powerful radio signal in America?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, September 29, 2000 ):
Numerous AM stations radiate 50 KW. Because stations are assigned to markets, there are limits on power. No commerical station is intended to reach the entire country (except late at night with a good headwind).

Monday, September 25, 2000 #3835
Guru, In broadcast planning, what is the generally accepted maximum number of GRPs per schedule when there is only 1 creative spot? I have heard 1000 GRPs as a guideline, do you agree? Is this true for TV and radio? Thanks for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 26, 2000 ):
1000 is low, but it also depends on the lenght of time over which the schedule is spread.

Click here to see past Guru responses about wearout.

Wednesday, September 20, 2000 #3818
A client has asked us for the agency's recommendation on changing their demo and/or keeping it the same for Y2001 planning. They operate in 4 DMA's. How would you go about deciding what to change it to or whether to stay with the same demo? I've looked at cpp differences in sqad and there isn't much difference in tv but quite a bit in radio. MRI isn't much help because they don't delve into this category much. Any other ideas? Thanks for your help!

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 23, 2000 ):
CPP is not relevant to answering this question. It just changes in relation to composition. If you buy a lower cpp demo, you may just buy fewer spots for the same money.

Target basis should be who is the best customer, in terms of sales potential (high user/usage/purchase index) for the advertiser. A large enough group of customers should be targetd so that the target accounts for the majority of sales. There are other resources like MRI which may go into more depth on certain categories. Try Scarborough or The Mendelsohn Media Research Affluent Study.

Wednesday, September 20, 2000 #3816
Do you know of any "industry standards" that exist on the topic of doing post-buy analysises on radio?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 23, 2000 ):
The long-time "industry standard" has been either don't do it, or post from the same book as purchased. Either position is based on the assumption that there is a lot of statistical bounce in radio ratings, which are not reflective of actual listening. In fact, across a multi-station, multi-spot schedule most statisical bounce is compensated. The question remains of whether a single station can be accountable for ratings variance when they deliver the schedule as ordered.

Tuesday, September 19, 2000 #3810
What do you think the minimal amount of market coverage a business should have to consider advertising in a market? For examply, in the retail business, how many retail outlets do I need to have in a market before it makes sense to advertise with broad reach mediums (radio, outdoor)? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 23, 2000 ):
It's not simply a matter of number of outlets, it also involves competiton and desirability. For example there may be only one BWM or Hatteras Yacht dealer in a metro area, becasue the number of sales, while high-ticket are few and people will travel some distance for a unique product. If you have a restaurant or hardware stoer where choices are many, then it's more about dispersion across the market than pure numer of outlets. You need to decide how far people will go for what you're selling and compare that to coverage of the media considered. IN some parts of the country, people will drive 2 hours for dinner.

Keep in mind that there's a big difference between 'broad coverage" media and big reach media. For example, outdoor can be readily purchased to have a very high reach of a small area, like a single store's 3-mile trading circle. In some situations, local suburban radio can match a single store's trading area as well.

Saturday, September 16, 2000 #3803
What is the cost to advertise per each median of advertsing? Newspaper local and national? Magazines? radio? Television?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 18, 2000 ):
The resources to answer all these questions cover several volumes of more than 1000 pages each. Start at AMIC's Ad Data area.

Thursday, September 14, 2000 #3796
Is there a metric for evaluating the performance of online advertising (Internet), print, radio and tv advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 18, 2000 ):
The absolute metric is sales. Short of that there is ad awareness or recall. Otherwise there are audience measures; impressions, or reach.

Tuesday, September 05, 2000 #3778
Where can I find information on advertisers and agencies that primarily buy national talk radio? Is there a source that can give me a list of the top agencie and or advertisers with regards to national talk radio? As always, thanks for your help!

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 09, 2000 ):
There may be a way to manipulate CMR (Competitive Media Reports) for this information.

Monday, September 04, 2000 #3775
Are there any practice of the radio advertising trading by GRPs as it is for TV? If yes, where in the WWW I can find something about this?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 09, 2000 ):
In the U.S this is standard practice and has been for at least 30 years. The Guru doesn't think there will be any data on this, because it is simply the assumed method of business. Perhaps in some country where radio ratings research is new, this woould be a topic to discuss.

Thursday, August 31, 2000 #3773
do you have any thoughts/research on how effective radio is in driving web traffic?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, September 03, 2000 ):
The Guru believes it depends a lot more on the copy and the targeting of the media versus site target than it does on generalizations about a media type, like radio. In radio, being able to memorably convey the URL will be crucial. It probably won't work very well with long or hard to spell site names.

Click here to see past Guru responses on driving web traffic.

Monday, August 28, 2000 #3756
Have a "network" of apprx. 50 radio stations throughout the U.S. that I own 15- 25 spots per week, airing 6:00a to 7:00p and I'm looking to sell the inventory. Can you point me in the right direction?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 28, 2000 ):
Without knowing ratings, markets, formats etc, the Guru can't offer any advice. Best bet is probably a smaller rep like MarketPlace Media.

Thursday, August 24, 2000 #3744
Guru...I need to price the sale of advertising space on a time and temperature recorded message. I was considering using Internet CPM since I do have the call volume per month. Are there any benchmarks specifically for this time and temp service? I appreciate any insight you have -- thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 28, 2000 ):
This seems to be a unique service for any given area, so competitive benchmarks aren't likely to be relevant. Like the internet, your message gets in the way of very specific information that the consumer is sseking, but even more so. radio is probably a better comparison, unless you are selling to someone who can really capitalize on a time or weather environment.

Monday, August 21, 2000 #3731
We need ad revenues for newspaper, outdoor, radio & tv for each of the top ten markets. Ideally we would like to capture the final figures for 99, ytd for 2000 and projected revenue for 2000. I was sure one of the media mags published some of this info but can not find out which one. The key here is that we need the revenue info by market not total for the top ten. Can you help me??? Thanks much & enjoy your q & a...

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 21, 2000 ):
The Guru doesn't think any trade publication would have so much detail. You will probably need to use CMR (Competitive Media Reports)

Monday, August 21, 2000 #3726
Guru...I am a media buyer in a very dynamic local radio to book stations are having 100% plus AQH ratings increases and decreases. Since there is no consistency in ratings (several new stations have recently entered the market) how do you suggest handling annual negotiations? In the past, annual rates have been set, but this no longer seems applicable with the dramatic shifts in ratings. Is establishing a CPP goal and adjustings rates according to ratings appropriate? Thanks for any help you can offer in handling annual local radio negotiations.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 21, 2000 ):
Establishing a CPP and adjusting when ratings are posted is a good solution, and is analogous to network TV dealings. But, the station will probably only want to make-good by giving free air time, and an advertiser is not likely to agree to pay more money if ratings go up.

Consider the syndicated TV approach, where there are "recaps" or recapturable spots. They are scheduled for the advertiser as potential makegoods, but if ratings performance stands up to the deal, they are recaptured by the station for sellable inventory.

Thursday, August 17, 2000 #3715
Explain cost per point in television advertising sales

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, August 19, 2000 ):
A radio or tv advertising slot has a rating: the percent of the target group which is in the audience.

When the slot's cost is divided by its rating (rating points) the result is Cost per point. This ratio is a handy way to compare the "efficiency" of spots being sold.

Thursday, August 17, 2000 #3714
Is there any industry standard that is followed that determines how much should be spent on creative and perduction in relation to total media spend. For example,if I spend $1 million annually on pure radio time, how much over that should I spend on creative and production? Is there a percentage that can be applied?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, August 19, 2000 ):
It completely depends on the medium and the marketing arena. A major national brand in network tv might spend 5 or 10%. A small advertiser in a smallish geography, using radio only might spend ½%. A major national advertiser, in Hispanic market TV might spend 25% to assure the same visual commercial production quality in Hispanic whjich only has 5% or 10% as much media budget as their general media.

Tuesday, August 15, 2000 #3705
A retail client of mine is planning a short media campaign to support a 4-day event (Thu-Sun). I'd like to show a reach curve or the like to illustrate the reach built by a 7-day media support (Mon-Sun) and a 4 1/2 day support (Wed - Sun Noon). Vehicles will be radio, TV, and newspaper. How can I do this?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 18, 2000 ):
In total, there is not likely to be much demonstrable difference between identical quantities of media delivered over a Monday-Sunday period.

If you want to illustrate reach accumulation day by day, then you can calculate the reach of the schedule that runs on the first day of the campaign in each case, the schedule that runs on the first two days of each campagn, etc. Then you can plot the two curves, with reach on the Y axis and days on the X axis, using the charting tools of Excel, Powerpoint, Corel, or whatever you might have.

It might look something like the chart below (not actual reach data).

Friday, August 11, 2000 #3696
In dailies, for inter vehicular cost efficiency comparisons, are there any recent studies that compare ad. visibility for top of fold vs. bottom of fold or for odd vs. even..... For inter media cost efficiency comparison, Is there a way where size of a magazine ad. can be compared with an ad. in newspapers? Any research reports thanx Sandeep

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 13, 2000 ):
Regarding above / below the fold, see The Newspaper Advertising Association.

It is always a challenge when comparing efficiencies between media to decide which unit will be compared. Depending on the purpose, possible approaches include:

  • If creating a general package of information about media, compare the most common ad unit used by general advertisers in each medium: Perhaps TV :30, radio :60, magazine Page 4 color, Newspaper full page, etc
    These "standards may differ from country to country or between market segments.
  • If making a rationale-supporting exhibit in a media plan, compare the creative units under consideration for the plan.

See Starch for research on print ad units.

Tuesday, August 08, 2000 #3683
When making buys across different mediums, I have found that the agressiveness of salespersons vary drastically between mediums. What type of commission structure do TV, radio, Newspaper, and Internet ad sales persons make....generally speaking?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, August 08, 2000 ):
The Guru can't generalize on this. Different organization in the same medium have different structures. Different sales people may have different deals in the same organization, relating to commission structure and draw.

Aggression may be more a matter of the competitive situation.

Monday, August 07, 2000 #3681
Compared to 2000, what is the expected media cost increase(%)for 2001 by the following mediums: radio, network TV, cable TV and newspapers? Any suggestions on how to find the information for a local market (specifically, Alaska)?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, August 08, 2000 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses about cost increase projections.

Friday, August 04, 2000 #3676
Do you have any research that shows how using multiple advertising medium (e.g. using radio plus outdoor) can increase effectiveness?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, August 08, 2000 ):
The first purpose of multiple media is to improve reach / frequency for the dollar. Otherwise, there can be many definitions of "effectiveness," such as brand awarenss, ad awareness, sales, etc.

For a range of research, try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Thursday, August 03, 2000 #3671
Hi Guru, I'm trying to find a resource that will show how media spending changes by quarter for the different media forms. For example, network television (on average) receives 25% of its total ad dollars in Q1, 35% in Q2, etc.; radio receives 15% of its dollars in Q1, etc. etc. Thanks for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 06, 2000 ):
You should be able to find the data in trade publications like Ad Age or Mediaweek.

Thursday, August 03, 2000 #3670
we're an ad agency that places a lot of radio locally. recently we've been experiencing a lot of traffic mistakes - none of them has been our fault - but it makes me wonder if there's something not clear in our traffic system. Do you know of any good "error-proof" traffic system? and how would you approach a client when traffic errors happen? thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 06, 2000 ):
Nothing is really error proof. Without knowing what the error was, it is hard for the Guru to respond fully.

If it's not the agency's fault then the Guru has to assume that either a shipping error by your duplication house or an error in which commercial was aired by the station.

Traffic systems are basically instruction issuing systems. All they can be expected to do is develop correct instructions and synchronized them correctly with media buys. If that is happening correctly then it truly isn't your fault. If your dupe house is shipping incorrectly when the instructions regarding what to ship where were correctly issued, then advise your client that you are holding the duplicator responsible for any diect financial loss due to the error, and that you are changing vendors . . . and do so.

If the station aired the wrong commerical or wrong rotation or wrong schedule, again advise the client you hold the stations responsible for credit or make-good . . . and do so. Also consider barring the stations from consideration if possible, if they repeat the errors.

Tuesday, July 25, 2000 #3649

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 29, 2000 ):
This is not really a Media Planning/buying/research question. Nor is it quite clear what you mean by "managing commercials in a large group of radios." If you are talking about allocating a large pool of commercial time inventory across several Brands' commercials, the Guru believes that DDS has such a system.

Wednesday, July 19, 2000 #3630
Can you think of any resource that lists all radio networks, including a brief description and generic cost information. The SRDS lists the networks, but it has limited information.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 23, 2000 ):
Answer: The Guru has not encountered any resource with both types of information. You may need to combine data from multiple sources. In addition to Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS), consult SQAD and M Street Corporation.

Monday, July 10, 2000 #3611
Are you aware of any research studies that have tried to estimate the average or typical reach of general market media across multiple ethnic groups (Asians, Latinos & Blacks)?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 10, 2000 ):
Many studies have done this. Nielsen for TV, Arbitron for radio, Simmons for print and mutlimedia. Often such studies address one group at a time, particularly when language is part of the defintion of the group.

Monday, July 10, 2000 #3608
hi where can i find researches or information about drugs advertising? which media have the best influence on patients? t.v? press? radio? which reach & frequency levels are recommended ? thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 10, 2000 ):
The answers will vary depending on typical media planning / marketing issues.
  • Who is the target?
  • What is the competitive situation?
  • What are the legal restrictions
For example, in the U.S., there is one set of rules that applies when you are marketing prescription drugs and another set for "over the counter" pharmaceuticals.

For prescription drugs, you can mention a drug name without discussing the problems it treats or its results, or you can mention a problem to treat without mentioning a drug name. In these cases there are fewer rules to observe. When you mention a drug along with its disease or results, you must also provide the "patient information" (PI) which is all the side effects warnings, counterindications, etc. This typically means broadcast advertising must be accompanied by print to carry the PI. Or that print must devote a portion of space to this detailed information.

Thursday, July 06, 2000 #3604
I've mostly handled print and DM advertising and am trying to master radio. If a client is saying that their optimum TRP level is 175, what does that mean?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 10, 2000 ):
Click here for a definition of TRP .

Presumably, the client would be speaking of the TRP level which has produced nest results for the budget.

Wednesday, June 28, 2000 #3587
Where can I find trend analysis on research on advertising by small to medium size businesses. In particular, I am interested in HOW they buy their advertising CREATIVE (i.e., through an agency, develop it in-house, through their media outlet, etc.), and how they buy their MEDIA (i.e., through their agency, media planner/buyer, media outlet, etc.). I am looking for a credible source - research or industry analysis would be great.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 03, 2000 ):
"Small-to-medium" is too vague a term for any standard data compilations. For instance, one government definition of small business is "less than 500 employees." This may be far larger than what you are thinking of. It also may take in range of buinesess not applicable to your needs, from multimillion dollar law firms with two dozen employees and no advertisng at all, to small retail chains doing a loot of radio and newspaper business.

Some useful Advertising Guidelines are available from the Small Business Administration . Even if you refined your question to a more workable definition, like "advertisers spending $1million or less annually" there is no doubt a wide range of answers. Even if you went to an association like AAF you would likely get answers skewed to an agency perspective.

Ordinarily, for general research, the Guru points people to the The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter, but this question need to be refined first.

Tuesday, June 27, 2000 #3583
Is there any research on the new internet ad media such as "get paid to surf", get paid listen to radio impact on the industry?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 02, 2000 ):
"Get paid to surf" is not a medium, it's a gimmick.

Sunday, June 25, 2000 #3574
When planning an integrated campaign involving both online and offline advertising (print, press, billboards, radio etc.) how do you track the effectiveness of those advertising activities back to the traffic on the website. (other than asking them) How do you measure the effectiveness of the individual offline campaign components against one another in order to know which of the offline components is pulling more than the others?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 26, 2000 ):
The Guru can only think of one possibilities other than "asking them" either online or offline: In each ad use a variant of the URL so that you can measure traffic to each variant page.

Monday, June 12, 2000 #3547
I am buying radio in two different markets - one is a large market which is measured by Arbitron. The other is a small market where I get the ratings through Arbitron county measuring. The two cities are only 45 miles apart and there is a large amount of radio overlap. Is there any way to figure an accurate combined reach & frequency? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 12, 2000 ):
First, define "market." If these radio markets are both in the same DMA, and you want DMA R&F, add the two stations' reach in thousands and divide by DMA universe. If they are in two different Metros, calculate reach within each and do a weighted average of the two:
  • Metro "A" target population = 100,000
  • Metro "B" target population = 20,000
  • Metro "A" target reach = 40% (40,000)
  • Metro "B" target reach = 55% (11,000)
  • Combined, total coverage area reach = 40,000 + 11,000 ÷ 100,000 + 20,000, or 42.5%

Friday, June 09, 2000 #3545
Are there any industry "benchmarks" for response rates or cost per response for driving traffic to web sites through ads in tradional "offline" media? For example, if you run a print ad for a dot-com, what response rate should you be able to expect in terms of people visiting the site?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 11, 2000 ):
The Guru hasn't seen "benchmarks" for print ads' reposnse as web visits.

A lot of variables effect ad response. There is some data on print ads for web sites at Cahner's and in the The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Monday, June 05, 2000 #3532
At what market penetration level does buying TV on a national level become more efficient than spot buying on a local level? Is it the same for radio? How about Newspaper? And secondly, is there a way to calculate this in general?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 11, 2000 ):
In TV the variables are demographic and daypart. Some demographics have a greater differential in spot vs network CPP. One daypart / demographic scenario may become more efficient in network after 25 markets, another one at 75.

For example, in one recent cost guide which the Guru has on hand, the daytime HH CPP for network was equivalent to daytime spot CPP for the the top 68 markets. In Prime, the Network HH CPP was equal to top 22 markets' spot.

For other demographics and other media the breakeven will be different still. There is no rule of thumb beyond experience. You need to compile spot costs and determine where they break even versus national.

Monday, June 05, 2000 #3530
What is the media value for a ad that appears in Sunday circulars? For instance, the media value for a Directv satellite dish ad in the Circuit City or radio Shack sunday circular? Thanks,

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 08, 2000 ):
As a quick and dirty rule of thumb, the Guru applies the cost of the total circular to the fraction represented by the paricular space devoted to the specific product.

That is if radio Shack has an 8-page circular which cost $100,000, and Direct TV occupied one-quarter page of space, it was worth $3125 or 3.125%, because one quarter page is 3.125% of 8 pages.

Judgenments about the relative value of this kind of exposure are a separate issue.

Thursday, June 01, 2000 #3522
Dear Guru, I teach my university's ad media course. In an effort to make it as useful and "real world" as possible, I want to know what topics/ideas/concepts you feel are absolutely critical to include. Also, we do use software designed for the college classroom to simulate buys. I would rather use the actual software buys. Suggestions on "real world" software we could purchase to utilize instead? Thanks, AdMedia Prof

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 01, 2000 ):
The Guru believes the most important concepts are
  • Turning marketing / advertising strategies into media objectives
  • Turning media objectives into media strategies and tactics
  • They ways in which different media can support different strategies
  • Basic media math and statistical definitions
. Of course, these are broad concepts which encompass a lot of detail. A person should come out of an advertising media cousre equipped, for example, to
  • recommend radio when it's more appropriate than TV
  • Demonstrate how internet advertising is often more sizzle than steak, but has its place in some plans.
  • Make media plans address the fact that the U.S. is presently about 30% African American, Hispanic or Asian American, that this proportion is growing rapidly and already 40-50% in the "major markets" that will come up on many brands' key market lists

Learning the audience data comes with the job and changes too fast for details learned in college to retain validity very long into real world jobs.

As for buying software Donovan Data Systems is the "mother of all" buying software.

Thursday, June 01, 2000 #3517
What is the general rule of thumb (in terms of number of :60 radio spots per week) in a non-metered market? The goal of the advertising campaign is awareness over a 7 month period (no weekly promotion to talk about - just letting people know about our business). In the past we have been running anywhere from 14 to 16 spots per week.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 01, 2000 ):
The "overkill" level of frequency will depend on continuity among other things.

In a market too small to measure, the Guru imagines that there are relatively few radio stations, perhaps 12 or fewer, and average ratings might be 5 or better. So suppose 16 spots is about 100 GRP. FOr reach you would still want to use more than one station, at least 12 times each.

Are you sure your market isn't measured, perhaps as part of a larger market as defined by Arbitron? Even tiny Lima, Ohio, the 201st of the 210 DMAs making up the entire country has ratings twice yearly. Check out radio & Records.

Thursday, June 01, 2000 #3516
How can you estimate the reach and frequency (or even TRPs) of a radio schedule in a market that is not metered?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 01, 2000 ):
In any county, there should be at least an occasional Arbitron coverage study data to use for audience estimates.

Thursday, June 01, 2000 #3515
I am in the interview process for a sales position at a radio station in Portland,Oregon. The Sales Manager has given me an assignment to put together a "faux" sales plan for an imaginary furniture store. I have been researching day and night about ad rates, demographics, etc. I even pulled out my old college books, but my problem is this: I don't know what a radio marketing plan looks like and I can't seem to find a model anywhere. Also, where's the best place to look if I want to find out about furniture-buying habits. Thank You ..Guru!!!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 01, 2000 ):
Generally, the buyer will control the plan. Your first step would be to find out his or her goals. But here you need to imagine you have received the specs from the buyer. The Guru feels it is important that you maintain the position you are working against buyers' specs.

As to learning who buys furniture and where they shop in Portland, refer to the Portland Scarborough. In the Guru's experience, a buyer in the process of making a buy won't sit still for a station's marketing presentation. The Buyer wants to know rates, ratings and merchandising offers, plus a little about your content and audience overall.

Think less about format and more about making it simple and pursuasive.

Wednesday, May 31, 2000 #3507
Dear MG, For years I've been buying radio on a cost-per-spot basis. Now that I have an agency doing the buying for me, the planner tells me that I should be buying on a cost-per-point basis. Why? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 01, 2000 ):
The value of a radio spot is in its audience. On a given station one spot, in AM Drive time, for example, might have 5.0 rating points (5% of the target listens to the spot) among the target audience while a weekend evening spot has a 1.5 rating. If you buy the station on an average cost per spot basis you lose track of value. But the AM Drive spot's cost might be is $100, or $20 cost-per-point. If the weekend evening spot cost $45 the cost per point is $30. So the value of spots is represented by cost-per-point. Audiences vary and cost per spot ignores that key fact.

The above also applies to comparing spots on different stations.

Tuesday, May 30, 2000 #3502
Dear media guru, what is a "filler". Is it used differently on tv than the radio?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 30, 2000 ):
Filler is content used in odd bits of time, particularly in news or feature-oriented programming. It is more common in print

Tuesday, May 23, 2000 #3491
Dear Guru, How do I find ratings for all the US radio and TV stations and circulation and readership data for all the US dailies? I need this for my company's market research. I appreciate your work. N.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 23, 2000 ):
The Guru finds it hard to imagine that your company really needs and would use all this data for a project, but perhaps you are building a library to have on hand for ongoing marketing work.

There are about 1000 commercial TV stations, perhaps 1,000 dailies and 10,000 commerical radio stations. Broadcast ratings will include dozens of age/gender/program/time period variants per station. The companies that produce these data do it for profit. You can buy TV ratings from Nielsen, radio from Arbitron and daily newspaper circulation audits from Audit Bureau of Circulations.

Tuesday, May 23, 2000 #3489
hi ! where do I find information about the volume of ad's in radio market in USA? Our company has client who wants to know the volume of radio share in USA market and ad's share spent on radio Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 23, 2000 ):
CMR (Competitive Media Reports)

Tuesday, May 16, 2000 #3479
Are there parameters (highs and lows) for effective reach and frequency? In other words, is there a particular reach and a particular frequency that are considered "average" as they relate to broadcast media? How would one determine whether an advertiser is spending adequate funds to meet these "averages" when airing a broadcast schedule on a Mon-Sun basis?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, May 19, 2000 ):
The Guru finds the concept of average irrelevant in this context.Such measures are relevant in relation to competition and one's own communications goals. What does it benefit an auto brand if the "average" advertiser has a reach of 50% at 3+ frequency when all automotive competitors are delivering 75% at 3+?

As to turning spending into effective reach and frequency, that's typically part of a media plan. Budget gets expressed as schedules of TV, radio, print, etc. Reach and frequency are calculated by available software for these GRPs. Effective reach / frequency is an inherent part of the calculation.

Tuesday, May 16, 2000 #3477
What is the definition of "spill in" and "spill out"

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, May 19, 2000 ):
These terms are generally used in relation to Designated Market Areas, but may also be used relative to metros. It is an issue for market-specific media, like TV stations, radio stations and newspapers, but not for national media or place-based media, such as network TV and out-of-home, respectively.

"Spill-in" is audience generated within the DMA by media located outside the DMA. For example, in parts of the New York DMA some people view TV programs broadcast on Hartford-New Haven stations and this viewing is reported in the ratings for the NY DMA. This is spill-in.

"Spill-out" is the same thing seen from the other side. When a Hartford-New Haven station gets audience in the New York market and it's reported in the Hartford-New Haven ratings, it's spill-out.

20+ years ago, this was a relatively minor issue, but today, with cable and super stations there can be a big impact for some stations and markets.

Monday, May 15, 2000 #3472
I have been presented the task of recommending media test markets for a cross-channel campaign that includes DM, print, radio, web and outdoor. Ideally, these test markets should be representative of the US population (i.e., mini US markets). What are the most commonly used media test markets that take the following into consideration? No spill in or out/purity of environment, large enough to purchase direct mail lists, and of course representative of the U.S. population?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, May 19, 2000 ):
Nielsen publishes a test market guide addressing these issues. Note that "most common" is not really a good criterion. Why test in a market where lots of other tests are going on, thus making the market non-representative?

Realistically, being fully representative of the U.S. isn't possible unless you settle on a few demographic criteria that you deem relevant to your product or test. It isn't too hard to find markets approximately representative on age/sex/income parameters, but are these the most crucial parameters in testing a basic household product, or is it more relevant to be representative of African American and Hispanic penetration or household size?

Thursday, May 11, 2000 #3462
Dear Guru, I would like to run a campaign in the US targeting Arabs living the west coast, the campaign is about a folk dancing show that will happen in Las Vegas. I will use Arab TV that are available via cables in the states. I would like to use some outdoor posters just few weeks before the show in California main cities, Can I have contacts of media houses. Is there any poerfull radio stations. Any other ideas ??? Many thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 14, 2000 ):
Major outdoor vendors such as TDI, OutdoorSystems or Vista Media can place outdooer and have the resources to identify Arab American population centers. The Guru does'nt think there are any "powerful" radio stations, or even measured ones, but ANA radio offers one listing of US Arabic radio outlets.

Wednesday, May 10, 2000 #3456
I would like to ask three questions: First, is there a website that provides guidelines for advertising on the Internet. Our company only provides services in certain areas and want to evaluate how we can reach these areas using the internet. Secondly, are there any other alternative ways to get messages across besides traditional TV, radio, print and outdoor? Thirdly, is there a website or service that reports spending on ad circulars (for instance, DirecTV in a Best Buy ad)? Thanks,

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 13, 2000 ):
  1. The Guru doesn't believe there is any website specifically providing an unbiased guide to internet advertising. Many of your questions might be answered by looking up past Guru queries and responses in the Guru Archives Search Engine. Use your various topics as your search terms.

    The Internet Advertising Bureau and C.A.S.I.E. (The Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive Entertainment) are sites with good, general information.

    If your key issue is advertising to a specific geographic area, you can advertise on sites providing local information, which today exist for most localities, or you can buy geographically specifc impressions from most major, commerical, consumer-oriented sites.

  2. There are always new, unique non-traditional media, such as skywriting and cross promotion. But since the new ones are new they are not generally known until you stumble across them or unless their sellers find you.
  3. The Guru also doesn't believe there is a service which tracks specific products within stores retail ads. In some cases, where these represent co-op deals there may be some record, but generally, not.

Saturday, May 06, 2000 #3448
I work in a two-person media dept. and my primary media planned & purchased thus far has been traditional(ie, tv, radio, print,etc.) A client has now requested an online banner program targeting commercial real estate landlords in NY, Chic. & LA. I don't know where to begin. Your advice is greatly appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 06, 2000 ):
Your starting point, without any reference books is to try to imagine what kind of websites would interest your target, and try to find them using search engines like Yahoo, etc.

These might be websites of commercial buildeing and maintenance services like construction, painting or carting.

It isn't in the nature of the web to be limited to specific geography, but sites can sell banners targeted geographically.

Thursday, May 04, 2000 #3444
Hi Guru - I'm doing a radio campaign for a small restaurant chain. I have about 3 different station options that will work well. My dilema is that the station that comes out the best is an Oldies format. Not my first choice for a "guy sportsbar". My first choice was a combo of stations - NTR, AC and oldies bringin up the rear. My boss wants to just use the oldies station based on the numbers. I say, since all of the numbers look good - let's go with the 3 station buy. This is not a numbers argument and I don't know what to use to convince him. Any suggestions, or does it matter? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 07, 2000 ):
You don't say on what basis oldies "comes out the best." The Guru would imagine it's based on target rating, target composition, target efficiency or some combination of these.

You also don't say what the communications goals are, reach, effective reach, pure target impressions weight or something else.

You don't say why you don't think an oldies station would be good for a guys' sportrs bar, but the Guru would expect it's probably misguided, as in you like sports bars and you don't like oldies. The Guru has encountered this kind of thinking before; for example in NY or LA buyers who think country music is strictly for lowbrow blue-collar workers and farmers, not considering the format's dominance across many strata in most of the rest of the country.

If all the numbers you can think of favor the oldies nad you don't have research such as Scarborough or MRI to tell you that oldies stations are not listened to by guys who like sports bars, maybe you should just go with the numbers. If reach is an issue buy all three stations.

Generally, when the Guru has encountered a buyer putting "instinct" ahead of numbers in making decisions, it has turned out to be very simple unscientific, personal preference at work.

Tuesday, May 02, 2000 #3439
Regarding effective reach and effective frequency, are there general accepted boundaries of these measurements as they relate to radio and television? How do you compute effective reach and frequency?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 04, 2000 ):
The Guru has seen effective frequencies from 2 to 9 used in plans. Most often, 3 is the "bogie" but 4 and 5 are not uncommon.

In the Guru's opinion, the effective levels make sense when applied to a majority of the target, that is, 50%+.

As far as computing effective R&F, the capability is typically built into reach and frequency calculators. As part of calculating reach, the frequency distribution is calculated. This is a calculation of the discreet number of persons reached by each ad in the schedule. Thus one can compile the number (or %) of target persons reached "at least" the set number of times.

Thursday, April 27, 2000 #3425
Are there general guidelines for media planners so that they will know how and when to consider ethnic or cultural groups in the planning process? Are there any planning tools?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 27, 2000 ):
The three major ethnic/cultural groups are currently almost one-third of total population ( see AMIC's Abbott Wool's Market Segment Resource Locator ): African American is 13%, Hispanic is 12% and Asian American is 4%. The rule of thumb is always "consider" ethnic and cultural groups. There are several common or basic product categories in which these groups have a 150 - 300+ index of usage versus the remainder of population. These include fruit juice, baby products, rice, corn meal, and many brands of beer, popular foods or over-the-counter pharmceuticals.

General advertising doesn't reach the linguistically isolated portions of these markets (50% or more of Hispanics and various Asian national groups). Even those reached, among all the ethnic/cultural segments, are less impacted due to lack of appropriate cultural cues in the general advertising or the media environments.

Upon due consideration, the planner may find that for his or her particular advertiser, no special effort is required. But, the planners may also find that there is a 12% segment of their universe consuming 25% of their product, and reachable through efficient media. It is not really unusual for the "first mover" in one of these market segments to gain 10% market share among the segments, which equates to a gain of more than 1% national share, something that couldn't have been achieved for three times the budget in general advertising.

Non-ethnic segmetns such as the mature market may also bear consideration.

Telmar's media software includes a Spanish TV reach and frequency system, called STRETCH, created by Telemundo

Hispanic Broadcasting System (formerly Heftel) has created En Total which does general Hispanic radio calculations and media combinations.

The African American, Spanish, and Asian-American media all offer research analyses.

Tuesday, April 25, 2000 #3421
I'm thinking of running :60 second radio spots vs. :30's. I have schedules and costs, but want to know if there is an industry standard that shows how much more :60's cost over :30's (if it's twice as much or 40% etc.) Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 25, 2000 ):
The standard, once-upon-a-time, was that radio :30's cost 80 to 85% of 60's. Today, more often, radio stations sell "units" and have one price for :60 or :30. Under either standard, 60 is a better buy. But under the older system the added frequency with :30's was a real consideration.

Monday, April 24, 2000 #3417
Dear Guru: When buying radio, do buyers get better rates just by selecting all Adults 18-54 vs. selecting a more specific demo? Does specifying the demo drive rates up? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 25, 2000 ):
Stations typically set their basic prices by the cpm acheived against a broad demographic which buyers often want, such as Adult 18-54.

A station with great competitive strength in a specific and hard-to-reach demographic might raise its pricing if a buyer asked for a proposal on that demographic. Conversely, a buyer might get better prices by asking for a proposal on a demographic where the station is less competitive.

Monday, April 24, 2000 #3413
Which medium (TV, radio, print, direct mail)does the Internet have the highest duplication with in terms of usage?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, April 24, 2000 ):
This question isn't really answerable as stated. TV, radio, Print and (in theory) direct mail reach everyone, including all internet users. So, with this broad question, all media are tied at 100% duplication.

Specific schedules of traditional media , specific DM lists and specific web sites will have different duplication rates, and different frequency distributions. Or, you could determine something like "webusers are less likely to be heavy viewers of TV than heavy readers of magazines."

Friday, April 21, 2000 #3411
What is the industry standard for the expected negotiated value added merchandising as a % of a media buyer's total buy?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, April 21, 2000 ):
When stated, it is usually 0.5%. However, a good negotiator can get far more if careful to request what the media vendor is more willing to provide. For instance, a radio station might buy you 0.5% worth of giveaways, but be willing to produce a remote event worth 10% of the buy.

Wednesday, April 19, 2000 #3410
What is your opinion on using out-of-home (30-sheets or bulletins) as a stand-alone medium for a brand-building campaign? On a related note, are there any "rules" for adjusting different types of media for their "impact" versus other media (e.g., impact of an all-newspaper campaign versus an all television campaign given the same TRP levels and the same "likelihood of use" by the target market)?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, April 21, 2000 ):
The Guru has seen impact adjusments across media based on recall, on attentiveness and on an advertiser's proprietary research, but no general rules-of-thumb.

Unfortunately, such adjustments are too often based on one unit of the advertising, such as a TV spot versus a radio spot, and don't take into account the crucial difference in number of spots or GRPs per dollar.

As for brand-building in outdoor, there are two principal considerations in the Guru's view:

  • Definition of "brand building:" The term, one of those nebulous buzz-words which seems to mean whatever the speaker wishes, implies, to the Guru, the creation of a brand image and positioning from a low-awarness start.
  • Limited message: How much can a brand be "built" by the few words and large graphic allowable in out-of-home media?
  • Yet, the Guru is very favorably inclined to taking advantage of the enormous reach and frequency possible via out-of-home

In short, the Guru's gut feeling is that outdoor can contribute greatly to brand building, but that the process needs at least one longer-form medium.

Wednesday, April 12, 2000 #3393
What is the radio industry standard for a denominator such as CPM in print media. The C/RP is fine for comparisons in the same DMA, but what about cross-DMA comparisons?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, April 12, 2000 ):
CPM works in radio, too, and it's the right metric to use across markets. Arbitron reports thousands as well as rating, so it's always available. To get a rough estimate of CPM, divide CPP by 1% of the target universe expressed in thousands; Cost Per Point is the cost of reaching one percent (one rating points' worth) of the universe.

Tuesday, April 11, 2000 #3390
Where can I find free information on U.S. Hispanic Media usage?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, April 12, 2000 ):
One source is here on AMIC, where several of the weekly Media and Research page articles from the "industry bible," Hispanic Market Weekly, are posted. These are written by AMIC's own Abbott Wool

Also, click here to see past Guru responses about the US Hispanic market.

Finally, there are recent Hispanic TV Network ratings from Nielsen's NHTI and total market Arbitron radio ratings from major Hispanic markets, at

Tuesday, April 11, 2000 #3386
any sites on history of FM radio ?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 11, 2000 ):
Try Arbitron, The radio Advertising Bureau (RAB) and radio & Records.

Friday, April 07, 2000 #3378
Dear Media Guru - I need to get a list of all AM & FM radio stations in Dallas with a description, rating etc. How can I get this without setting off the rep process. I'm new to this country. Used to plan in Canada. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 09, 2000 ):
One great resource is radio & Ratings

Monday, April 03, 2000 #3365
how can i evaluate sponsorship of tv and radio programmes and what's the best way to present it to the client. thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 09, 2000 ):
The basis way to evaluate any media opportunity is to compare it to your goals and strategies. This may be about reach or impact or targeting a specific audience.

Click here to see past Guru responses about evaluating sponsorships.

Tuesday, March 28, 2000 #3351
Working at an Ad Sales co. for radio, we are targeting the Hispaic Market. What sites would be best to give me information on Hispanic Advertising Agencies throughout the United States? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 28, 2000 ):
Two sites come to mind. AHAA, the Association of Hispanic Advertisng Agencies and Abbott Wool's Market Segment Resource Locator Hispanic resource page

Sunday, March 26, 2000 #3340
Dear Guru, I have one client that is launching a new brand name of juice, We will be using TV,outdoor, & press, he suggested to have a teaser campaign on radio like one week before the launche . I'm not really supporting his idea since I believe the teaser should be visual not only audio ?? Thanks to advise

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 26, 2000 ):
This is a creative issue in the Guru's opinion. Since there will be TV, there should be ample visual and audio material from which to take a teaser.

It is also the Guru's opinion that juice, as a category, is not likely to inspire sufficient consumer interest or curiosity for a teaser campaign to be particularly effective.

Perhaps in your country, juice is considered more exciting than in the Guru's - primarily U.S. - experience.

Thursday, March 16, 2000 #3324
Can you explain what "SQAD" and "SPARC" are and how they work? What are the benefits to the advertiser to use these? Does it require professional advertising knowledge to use and understand? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 17, 2000 ):
SQAD and SPARC (aka SQAD radio) are standardized cost references, from which recent sample data is found in our ad rates area at the links given above. They represent the average buying achievement of actual buys made by a representative panel of cooperating agencies and media buyers.

If you know enough to place a buy based on ratings and demographic Cost Per Point (CPP), you can benefit from using these tools.

Tuesday, March 07, 2000 #3293
In a budget meeting I´D been asked to reduce the number of stations planned for certain cities, in order to have money to cover other markets......My argument is that we need to buy at least 35% of total PUR (persons using radio) to have an effective impact with the promotional radio campaign...I´ll appreciate your comments...AZ (MEX CITY)

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 07, 2000 ):
The Guru has never encountered a share-of-PUR-standard, nor have a couple of his senior, radio researcher colleagues.

The big issue is what you determine makes an effective impact, in concrete terms so that you can make a case. Is it reach, effective reach, frequency or what? All these issues relate much more directly to consumer communication and impact than the abstraction of share of PUR. If you can buy GRPs and reach to your needs, but have to do it with fewer stations, it doesn't strike the Guru as a very significant issue.

Wednesday, March 01, 2000 #3267
How do I find what the top five radio stations are in Cincinnati and Columbus, OH if I don't subscribe to those markets in Arbitron?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 01, 2000 ):
Go to either radio & Records Online or AllAccessMusic.

Tuesday, February 29, 2000 #3262
What are average ROI's for small businesses across various media- Yellow pages, print, tv, radio? Do you know where I can find this info?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 01, 2000 ):
There are too many variables in terms of ad unit and quality, offer, expenses, etc to hope to find meaningful averages.

If you narrowed the question to ROI for toothpaste on page, four color ads in the seven sisters magazines, the question would be closer to answerable. Even so you would most likely find only anecdotal information in the form of case studies, but no meaningful averages; advertisers don't share their results with the media, as a rule.

Monday, February 28, 2000 #3257
I'm an assistant media buyer and in college part time at night. I am currently attempting to do extensive research for a paper that I have to write. I am going to be writing on Television, radio and Outdoor. I am looking to start with the basics, and work up to the specifics of how each is measured, and has a different effect on audiences. I'm looking, if you have any ideas, of particular books and/or websites where I could pull a substantial amount of information. Thanks A Bunch!

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 28, 2000 ):
Your plans seem overly broad for a single paper. The differences in how media are measured or diffrences in how they affect consumers are each big ideas by themselves.

For many thoughts on each point, go to the Guru Archives Search Engine. Use your various topics as your search terms.

Beyond this, see the books in the AMIC Bookstore (in association with, particularly the media planning section.

Sunday, February 27, 2000 #3254
I would like to have information about typical rates of frequency that are considered necessary for advertising to be effective on different media. I would like information for television, radio, outdoor and print advertising. If there is such information, I would also like information for internet ads. In short, how many times does an ad need to be seen on different media before for an effective reach. Thank you...

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 27, 2000 ):
Most judgements about effective frequency are just that; judgements. The traditional number, 3, is based on century-old learning theory about repetitions of information needed for learning to occur. This theory is not medium-specific but has many other aspects.

Click here to see past Guru responses about this and the Ostrow model

Research by DoubleClick about "banner burnout" shows that internet ads lose effectiveness (in the sense of causing clicks) by the third repetition. Of course, if you want to apply this approach to internet advertisng then you would be considering the awareness-building and sales-driving aspects of banners, rather than click-thru.

Friday, February 25, 2000 #3248
Looking for ideas on unique media vehicles in the Southwest US. Unique as in non-traditional.

Traditional being: spot tv, spot radio, bulletins, posters, transit shelters, bus wraps, taxi tops, wall murals, kiosks, print, aerial advertising (blimps, airplanes, etc.) trailer panels, mobile video displays, in-airport displays, in-transit exposure, direct mail, flyers, sponsorships.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 27, 2000 ):
When you rule out the traditional mass media, "new" electronic media, direct mail, most forms of out-of-home, and require geographic specificity, you have pretty much come down to untried out of home, such as painting the sides of mesas in the desert or putting logos on souveniers, like arrowheads.

What you want probably isn't in place yet, but the world is waiting for you to invent it.

Friday, February 25, 2000 #3247
What are the average CPP for Chicago radio dayparts?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 25, 2000 ):

Thursday, February 24, 2000 #3242
Dear Media Guru: Is there a syndicated or published source for network radio cpp's or cpm's? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 24, 2000 ):
The Guru thinks there is not. Spot radio is offered by SQAD

Wednesday, February 23, 2000 #3238
I am looking for information regarding product samples available to radio stations as give-aways.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 23, 2000 ):
Product samples given away by radio stations are usually provided by the manufacturer, who is interested in having samples distributed. SOmetimes the stations give the samples away as a merchandising program attached to the manufacturer's having bought an ad schedule. If the product is highly desirable, the radio station might give it away at nop cost to the manufacturer, to enhance the station's promotional events.

Friday, February 18, 2000 #3228
Is there a quick and easy source from which I can access what I'd call "WOW" statistics about the growth of radio, TV, newspapers, magazines, etc. over the last 10 to 20 years? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 18, 2000 ):
The Guru doesn't think there are many "wows" in the last 20 years' trends for these media, but you'll find whatever there is at The radio Advertising Bureau (RAB), The Newspaper Advertising Association and The TV Bureau of Advertising

Thursday, February 17, 2000 #3226
Where can i find an analysis of cpm for all media, including print, radio, television, outdoor and internet?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 18, 2000 ):
Several media are compared here at AMIC's Ad Data area. Without being very specific as to demographic and type of site/ad type, internet cpm averages are meaningless. But you should find some data at NUA Internet Surveys or The Industry Standard.

Thursday, February 17, 2000 #3223
I am looking for information concerning the historical and current ad time slot invetory held by radio, TV, cable and how that is sold - rate card, barter, etc.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 27, 2000 ):
The Guru has only seen anecdotal information on this in trade publications like Ad Age. The media themsleves would rather not discuss it. Perhaps a barter company would have information.

Tuesday, February 15, 2000 #3214
Is there any information about the efficacy of radio remotes in the winter months?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 16, 2000 ):
The Guru wonders why you believe there is a general, seasonal difference.

If you think of remotes only as a van in a store parking lot or at a beach, then opportunity is surely less in the winter. But remotes based indoors or tied to non-seasonal activity which occurs at the same rate year-'round, such as grocery shopping, shouldn't change in "efficacy."

If there is any such information, the Guru would expect to find it at the The radio Advertising Bureau (RAB).

Thursday, February 10, 2000 #3205
At what point (number of markets or percent of US population)is it more cost effective to buy network radio rather than spot radio.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 13, 2000 ):
Depending on the demographic, and relying on the standard of buying :30's in network vs :60's in spot, the cut off may come as early as top 10 markets / 30 % U.S.

Thursday, February 10, 2000 #3204
I am looking for a source to provide cost per points/cost per thousand for the various radio networks. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 13, 2000 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses about Network radio costs

Friday, February 04, 2000 #3191
My group for my Public Relations Case studies class was assigned the term "New Media" to research,and give a presentation on. I thought it was the Internet , but my professor said no. Can anyone help me out with a definition and some examples of what "New Media" is. Thank you

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 07, 2000 ):
The term "new media" includes the internet and other electronic media forms, such as advertising on CD-ROM magazines. The internet is certainly the biggest and most significant element.

Of course, a different perspective might change the meaning: for example "new media of the 20th Century" would include radio, TV and skywriting.

Sunday, January 30, 2000 #3171
Guru, I am currently trying to put together a newsletter for clients of my radio station. The newsletter would be about our new website and pertinent facts that would entice the clients to become more involved in the site. My questions is: What are the most important topics to cover when telling a client about how great and effective a website is?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 30, 2000 ):
The Guru asks:
  • What is "great" about your website


  • Why should the client care?

Are the clients getting free ad space as merchandising for their radio schedules? Are you trying to sell them ad space on the web site? Is the website creating marketing tools for the clients? If none of these, why would they care at all about the web site?

So if one of those is the answer, then the greatness and effectiveness will be in the site traffic, number of vistors, length of visit, frequency of visit or sopme user interaction with the site that effects the client, like contest sign up, listener club sign up which creates a database available for client use, etc.

Thursday, January 27, 2000 #3165
What is the average CPP in network radio and/or how do I go about finding out?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 29, 2000 ):
First, you will need to focus on a specific demographic group. Averages are only meaningful for specific targets and only when compared or averaged across schedules appropriate to that target.

With that in mind a couple of calls to the appropriate networks, such as ABC radio Networks or WestwoodOne should get you ballpark numbers.

Wednesday, January 26, 2000 #3159
I keep hitting dead ends! I am looking for information containing "cost per lead" or "cost per sale" for various types of media marketing different types of products. An example of the information I am seeking (using figures from my imagination): Home Security Systems On-Line - $2.00 to $2.70 Direct Mail - $2.50 to $3.20 Television - $4.70 to $5.10 radio - $1.90 to $2.60 Billboard - $2.20 to $2.80. I need this kind of information for campaigns that were/are directed to households. Examples of products or services might include: life insurance, health and beauty products, automobiles.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 29, 2000 ):
The best source would be the Direct Marketing Association (DMA).

One thought: It is a general truism that list quality is one of the most important factors in direct marketing success. So a much tighter target than "Households" would be recommended.

Saturday, January 22, 2000 #3144
Hello Guru : I´ve many questions : 1º Do you know how i can add the impacts in TV, radio, Newspapers and Magazines. Exist a table of factors for obtain this results

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 23, 2000 ):
"Impact" is a term with no standard defintion. First you will have to quantify the term before any intelligent answer could be given.

For example, if you decided impact equalled reach, weighted by historical selling ability, you could first establish each medium's weighted reach and then combined these media impact scores by a probability equation just as you would combine reaches. But a different way of defining impact might lead to another approach.

Friday, January 21, 2000 #3140
i am doing a project on effectiveness of print medium vs Televion. i would like to know if you have any studies or articles on the same. i would also like to know the trends in advertising spends on both the mediums in various markets across the world especially India. could also please suggest various parameters of comaparing the effectiveness of the two media.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 23, 2000 ):
Effectiveness studies would be available from Newsweek Media Research Index, ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization and The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter.

International agencies like YR and Saatchi compile and publish ad-spend data for various countries and regions.

Professionals working in one country and culture typically overlook the basic fact that the relative strengths and impact of the media differ in different cultures. They have the same physical nature, e.g print allows visuals plus detailed text, radio is sound only, tv offers visual/sound and action, yet the strengths may differ.

In one country broadcast is government controlled and print is the only viable commercial medium. In another, TV has only one commercial outlet and one government outlet in each area while radio has few outlets to compete. In yet another culture, radio is the best reach medium while TV has the biggest individual audience ratings and print is very weak.

The ultimate standard of effectiveness is sales, when that can be directly linked to advertising. Brand Awareness and Ad Awareness, Attitude and use, purchase intent, etc are also possible comparisons.

Thursday, January 20, 2000 #3136
Is there a simplified reach and frequency calculation formula that allows for the number of stations (TV or radio) as well as the target audience size?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 22, 2000 ):
Reach and frequency calculations have become quite complex today and are typically done by computer. Because reach is curvilinear, the formula can be quite complex, even without this issue. A different algorithm is needed for each dispersion scenario.

A good system will account for number of stations, at least in radio; AMIC's sister company, Telmar has such a system.

Since reach calculations are typically done with percentages of universe, like rating and percent reach, target audience size is not specifically relevant. Different curves will have been deduced for different targets, based on their accumulation patterns, which may not exhibit a direct correlataion to size. If reach in thousands is needed. it is simple to calculate by multiplying perent reach against target population.

Monday, January 17, 2000 #3125
Hi Media Guru. Could you provide me with total ad dollars placed on radio and separately TV in the United States in '99 (or '98 if that is the latest). Can you breakdown the percentage of dollars placed by ad agencies versus direct clients? Is there an industry percentage estimate of agency vs. direct ad dollars placed in radio and in TV? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 21, 2000 ):
Ad Age reports the $ by media type data annually. The 1999 issue is a couple of months away, yet.

The Guru has not seen a breakdown of direct vs agency dollars invested, but it might be available from CMR (Competitive Media Reports)

Monday, January 17, 2000 #3124
Hi, Media Guru... I am new to media planning and need to know how to figure out how to distribute the budget among media. We have decided to use Direct Response TV ads and radio, but how do I determine how much of the budget to put in either? I understand the definitions of the terms reach and frequency but do not know how to use these tools. Also, is there an online (free) resource that can help me come up with psychographic data either in general for a demo or by market and demo? Thank you in advance for your help!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 21, 2000 ):
When the planner has a free hand, media mix is determined by examining various combinations to see which best meet the Media Objectives and Strategies.

You may go through an examination of efficiency, communication impact, environmental support, etc, of broad types prior to testing various mixes for reach and frequency or other measurable contributions.

In the case of direct response, you probably have some track record of the relative selling ability of each medium on which to base an intial distribution. After start, careful tracking of response will lead you to modify budgets. This direct tracking of sales, typical in DR, makes reach and frequency analysis moot.

The Guru does not believe there are any free online market psychographic/demographic resources.

Friday, January 14, 2000 #3120
What is the minimun number of GRP's a radio schedule should have to reach A35-64? I have planned a minimun of 50 GRP's for various markets, but I do not know if this is too little, or too much.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 19, 2000 ):
The only generally accepted "minimum" in radio advertising is 12 spots per week per station. But GRP must be considered as well in judging communications value.

50 GRPs is almost too small a total schedule to bother with. Most advertisers, pulling a number out of the air would probably start with 100 GRP per week in a campaign if radio is the only medium being used. A total campaign of 50 GRP should reach about 20-22% of the target, at a low level of average frequency: about 2.3. This would not be expected to generate much consumer response.

4 weeks at 100 GRP/week will get about to 50% target reach at an average frequency of 8x.

Certainly budget is a constraint, but effective levels in fewer markets is better than wasting money in a longer market list.

Wednesday, January 12, 2000 #3116
I have CPM/CPP for traditional media (newspapers, magazines, tv, radio) for the US, but need it for other countries. Do you know where I can get up to date information for this please?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 19, 2000 ):
Data like these are compiled and published by some of the international agencies such as Y&R and Saatchi&Saatchi.

Wednesday, January 12, 2000 #3114
Why don't Agencies hold radio to the same standards of TV in terms of posting. I understand there are flaws in measurement (as with TV) however, shouldn't radio stations be held accountable for under-delivering the points they project? Clear Channel has even made it a corporate policy to NOT post and, since they own such a large percentage of radio stations in many markets, it's virually impossible to "buy around" them. Any suggestions on how to make these radio stations more accountable?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 12, 2000 ):
Spot radio ratings typically appear quarterly, meaning that there isn't an opportunity, during a buy, to monitor how the buy performs and to add weight if necessary.

Spot TV, even where weekly reporting is available is not usually sold with an audience guarantee.

Network radio, like network TV is sold on a guarantee basis.

The old theory, that radio ratings were too subject to statictical bounce, due to limited sample size behind any given rating and that therefor neither buyer nor seller could be sure of performance, still holds.

radio buys can be guaranteed if

  • There is agreement that the buy must deliver the GRPS, based on actual air times and ratings in a report which is available at the time the buy is made
  • If the agency insists adamantly that a guarantee is a condition of the buy.

Tuesday, January 11, 2000 #3111
I am putting a planning proposal together for a national radio and cable tv buy. What average CPM and CPP should I be looking at to target women 25-54 for each of these mediums?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, January 17, 2000 ):
Get an indication of rates in AMIC's Ad Data area.

Get current data from SQAD.

Thursday, December 23, 1999 #3073
Dear Guru, I would like to know the pro's & con's of sponsorship on TV , The minmum added value that we have to ask for, the payment terms that we have to agree on, the primium to be paid by the client in case of exclusivity of product, we are operating in the gulf market , dominated by few TV station (Satellite ) and weak teresterial TV Station. On the other hand I would like to know if there is any sites that features pictures of Media (TV, NP, ,,,) just to make the presentation more friendly ... Thank You

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 23, 1999 ):
The essence of sponsorship is to give the consumer the idea that you, the advertiser, are responsible for the program. You want to pick programs that fit well with your product or selling points, just as beauty contests are typically sponsored by cosmetics companies. Secondarily, you wish to deny the competitor the opportunity of advertising in a powerful program.

For full sponsorship you would minimally expect opening and closing billboards, plus "bumpers" into and out of breaks. Major fractional sponsors might expect opening and closing billboards.

Sponsorship is premium-priced and the benfits are mostly judgemental and image-oriented.

A sponsor might earn participation of the actors in ads, rights to use logos and scenes from the show in ads, packaging and point-of-purchase material.

Pictures of media can be found on the sites of various media themselves as well as the associations such as The Newspaper Advertising Association or The radio Advertising Bureau (RAB).

Wednesday, December 22, 1999 #3071
Is there a good way to translate points into spots (in terms of radio)? Say, you buy 100 points in a given week, approximately how many spots will you get, regardless of money spent? Explaining points to clients can confuse them and they understand a spot. Thanks, Guru!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 22, 1999 ):
In many markets, for many demographics, the top station might get a rating of 2.0 and others a 0.1. In African American and Hispanic radio, top stations may get ratings of 5.0 to 10.0 within their ethnic target. So there are far to many variables to answer your question simply. If you let clients beliefve that "a spot is a spot" then you won't ever be able to explain why you paid $500 for a spot with a 2 rating when they complain they know a guy who buys spots for $50, even though they have a 0.1 rating (which is only half as efficient as your buy).

But, you need to divide the point by the average rating you are actually buying to talk about the number of spots you're getting.

Wednesday, December 15, 1999 #3057
where can i find metro radio ratings?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, December 19, 1999 ):

Tuesday, December 14, 1999 #3051
How do I calculate a radio station's turnover rate?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, December 14, 1999 ):
Divide weekly cume by AQH (Average Quarter Hour) audience.

Friday, December 10, 1999 #3046
Hi Guru, Can you tell me approximately how many non-commercial radio stations there are currently in the U.S.? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, December 20, 1999 ):
Approximately 2700.

Thursday, December 09, 1999 #3043
Oh wonderful Guru...I am a female voice over artist and do voice for radio and tv production, industrial films and now web sites. I want to reach as many agencies, companies etc. as I can to introduce my service to them. Web site voice over is new....any ideas on marketing?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 09, 1999 ):
This isn't a media question, but the Guru will offer a few thoughts.

The Guru doesn't see why marketing a voice for web use should be any different than for radio, tv or films if your target is agencies and production companies.

If you want to market directly to web publishers, they will read different trade publications like The Industry Standard or those from Ziff-Davis and CMP.

Wednesday, December 08, 1999 #3036
I would like to have a list of all forms of media for the film industry in Toronto to contact in order to greatly promote a film ie; t.v,radio, newspaper, magazine, photographer

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 08, 1999 ):
CARD (Canadian Advertising Rates and Data) is the source you need.

Tuesday, December 07, 1999 #3032
i am seeking an extended list of caribbean media vehicles (tv, radio, magazines, and newspaper) reaching caribbeans living within the us. can you tell me of any names or places where i can find this information? In addition, do you have any recent information pertaining to which us markets they are living in along with population figures. the only information i was able to find was '90 census data. thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 08, 1999 ):
The Guru will asume that you are referring to "West Indians" also referred to as Caribbean Black, and not to Caribbean Hispanics. In either case these marfket segements are primarily found along the U.S.' East Coast. About 75% of the U.S. Caribbean Black population is found in the N.Y. and Miami DMA's; within NY, primarily in Brooklyn and Queens counties.

There are print, radio programs and syndicated TV programs for this market segment. Once you find one, they can probably guide you to others. For example, New York's WLIB-AM offers some Caribbean programming.

MultiCultural Target Source produces a directory of media for many ethnic and cultural segments.

Tuesday, December 07, 1999 #3031
current wisconsin radio station's break down per station's format

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 09, 1999 ):
The major radio rep firms, Interep and Katz maintain data bases of all stations, including location and format.

These data bases are available on-line.

Monday, December 06, 1999 #3029
Dear Guru, I am an Advertising student at the Univesity of Akron and I doing a promotional campaigns project. What I am doing now is trying to develop a mock budget based on reach and frequency. Do you know where I can get information on how much Advertising through different media (tv, radio, newspaper, magazines)costs per contact? Or even on average? I can't start any research without information on cost of advertising. Could you please help me? Melody

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, December 07, 1999 ):
Visit AMIC's Ad Data area

Monday, December 06, 1999 #3028
what is the best media to reach college students?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 08, 1999 ):
"Best" is a matter of setting goals.

Most targeted are probably the campus newspapers and "wall" media sold by CASS Communications and American Passage.

Best reach for the price and reasonably targeted would be carefully selected radio and possibly cable programming.

Monday, December 06, 1999 #3025
Are there any websites relating to daily ratings in the Milwaukee Area?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 08, 1999 ):
No websites posting daily data, but Arbitron and Nielsen sites do relate to ratings. "Daily" is not typically a radio issue.

Friday, December 03, 1999 #3022
Dear Guru: I have two questions: 1. Can you tell me if there are any resources available that would provide county coverage for radio stations? 2. I am trying to find information on Hispanic Television audiences. Do the same principals apply as in the general market for daypart selections, i.e does daytime skew female? Thank you for your help!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, December 03, 1999 ):
Arbitron provides radio county coverage.

Other than the similarly female skew of daytime, Spanish TV exhibits many differences. There is more family viewing and the nightime novelas (sort of a cross between soaps and minseries) get giant audiences; 20+ rating, 5 nights a week is typical for the top one. Nielsen has a national Hispanic TV service, NHTI, which is analogous to NTI, and NHSI for Hispanic spot in 16 markets which account for about 70% of the Hispanic U.S.

Wednesday, December 01, 1999 #3011
Dear Guru, Where can I obtain information on Canadian TV and radio ratings and readership figures for Canadian newspapers? Thank you very much

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 01, 1999 ):
All that occurs to the Guru is CARD, Canadian Advertising Rates and Data, and BBM Bureau of Measurement Canada's broadcast ratings.

Tuesday, November 23, 1999 #2996
What is the current average cost per thousand that advertisters are paying for national network radio or nationally syndicated radio buys?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 28, 1999 ):
Questions like this need to be much more specific to get useful answers.

For example, this week, the Guru has seen such buys delivering in the $1.40 to $2.10 CPM range for Adults 18+, using some very, very specifically targeted networks and syndicated national radio media on a short schedule with short lead times. Other demographics, other sizes of buys, other timings and other programming types may vary greatly.

Friday, November 19, 1999 #2990
Where can the amount of radio listeners in major cities be found?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 19, 1999 ):
Both Arbitron and Scarborough answer this question.

The radio Advertising Bureau (RAB) might have some of the data on their site.

Wednesday, November 17, 1999 #2980
With the plethora of media research companies today, I am having difficulty determining which research to utilize for different needs, based on the fundamental nature of the company's research. For example, are Claritas and Scarborough merely competitors or is there a basic difference between them which would determine which research I would use for a particular situation? Similarly, Simmons vs. MRI? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 21, 1999 ):
Claritas and Scarborough are both units of VNU. The former is best known as a source of market segmentation data with emphasis on geography, and is perhaps best known for their zip code-based PRIZM system. The latter is a media audience and product usage syndicated survey service, reporting market-by-market. Claritas could tell you where to find pockets of the best prospects for the most state of the art PC systems. Scarborough could help you define your target and choose your radio stations to sell those PC's in the San Franciso DMA.

Simmons and MRI, as they are best known are more directly competitive in providing media and product usage data on a national and top-few-DMA basis with very large samples. There are many technical differences in their methodologies, but few in the kinds of data they provide.

Friday, November 12, 1999 #2965
Dear Guru, Where can I find information about Internet radio (Real Audio) listenership trends? I've tried Arbitron and other sites of this type but found nothing. Also, is there any info available about what's happening to short wave radio audiences. Thanks a lot in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 16, 1999 ):
Internet radio audience is more likely to be captured by an interent measurer like MediaMetrix or Nielsen//Netratings than by a radio audience study. Why? The radio measurement is locally based, and has minimum reporting standards based on numbers listening locally. No one station, presumably distant from the listener's location is likely to get a reportable audience from remote internet listening. If someone listens to a local station through the internet and reports it in an Arbitron diary, there is no reason for staion listening over the 'net to be reported separately from listening over the air.

Regarding short wave, again the audience to the rare commercial short wave broadcast, presumably based somewhere outside the U.S., is likley to be too small in any one piece of geography to meet minimum reporting standards.

Friday, November 12, 1999 #2964
Can research determine which media is best to drive traffic to a local retail business? If there is a particular medium or media, what research approach can best determine which media works? Please consider that this a local business that currently advertises in radio, newspaper and billboards and is very successful at driving traffic to retai outlets that are not highly visible in their marketplace.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 16, 1999 ):
A specific individual business can use research to determine this.

Most simply, it is easy to include something in the advertising which makes people want to tell the business's operators where they heard of them. Or staff can be instructed to inquire where customers heard. More expensively, a commissioned study can probe awareness and shopping behavior from a random sample or a customer database sample. In any of these cases, the research must be carefullly studied and interpreted, to distinguish the results of branding efforts from promotions.

If the business has a long history of establishing its name and offerings in the community through radio and outdoor campaigns, the research might still find that "What brought the cusotmer in today" was a newspaper or Yellow Pages ad. Analysis might well show that the newspaper or Yellow Pages ad would have had little impact without the other media's branding effects.

Different businesses enjoy different effects from various media. A roadside, impulse business, like a highway restaurant chain can get immediate results from highway billboards which would have much less benefit for an in-town, white tablecloth eatery. A branding-oriented newspaper campaign for the latter would likely be more effective than one for the highway chain.

Wednesday, November 10, 1999 #2953
What sources ca I use to find general information about audience delivery by daypart (both TV and radio)?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 14, 1999 ):
For current tv, Nielsen. For current radio, Arbitron.

Saturday, November 06, 1999 #2940
Dear Guru, I am trying to conceptulise a framework for the following two topics 1) Media mix descision - how do u decide on a media mix ( i.e. between print v/s TV v/s radio etc.) and what effect does multi media have on a media plan 2) How does one advertise when one is managing a franchise - i.e do you advertise the mother brand or the sub brand and which benefits more? would there be any sites/literature availble on the net where these questions may have been addresed? Also - Love your site! i think it is a boon to the advertisng community. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 10, 1999 ):
For current information, you need Nielsen for TV and Arbitron for radio.

Wednesday, November 03, 1999 #2931
I have a client that is a local car dealer and wanted to ask you about branding. What, if any in particular, media are most appropriate for branding purposes? I believe in the recency strategy for media placement and wonder how this philosophy would relate to branding as well?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 03, 1999 ):
The Guru believes that
  • Branding (long term identity / positioning) is one side of the coin and promotion (immediate, short-term response) is the other
  • Branding would be unusual for a car dealer, but not unheard-of.
  • any medium can carry a branding message, just as any medium can carry a promotional message.
  • Probably radio and newspaper are more common for retail promotion, TV and magazine more common for branding.

Recency is specifically oriented to short term response; delivering "the message closest to the purchase decision." Continuity will also support branding, but can be looked at over a longer span.

Thursday, October 28, 1999 #2917
What are the top 50 Internet companies that are spending $ in print advertising? TV advertising is on the rise, note the's advertising during the World Series. Are we going to see an increase in other mediums such as print? Or is print too much of a targeted buy?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, November 01, 1999 ):
The Nov 1, 1999 issue of Advertising Age included a special supplement on internet companies' advertsing spending, detailing a half-billion dollars worth in the first half of 1999, which was nearly one-third print.

The air seems full of dot-com advertising and there is some print. Logically, there is more reason to find more targeted sites in targeted print, but the Guru is seeing several, full-page dot-com ads in his daily paper every day.

Sites aimed at parents of young children, housewives, attorneys, etc will find print more efficient, while big-traffic sites can do well in the World Series. The Guru believes that today, radio is the medium feeling the most inventory pressure due to dot-com advertising.

Wednesday, October 20, 1999 #2890
Dear Media Guru: I need to measure the penetration of different media but I need to know how, for example I know TV should be the people that have a TV set, and I suppose is the for radio and Internet. But what about cinema? newspapers, magazines, outdoor, billboard?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 20, 1999 ):
[none] Penetration can have different definitions. In TV it is usually the % of poeple in Households with TVs. In other media, like radio, magazines and cinema, what seems to make sense is the count of people who actually use ( 'are exposed to' ) the medium over a given period such as one week, or 30 days.

Internet penetration is sometimes based on used the medium and sometimes based on possessing the capabilit, i.e. having access to a computer with modem and internet account.

Monday, October 18, 1999 #2878
Dear Guru, Where can I get information about the top 20 media markets in US ? Secondly, how are these markets determined ? Is it pop size, tv ownership, per capita.... Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 18, 1999 ):
Markets, under the broader definition of media markets, DMA (Designated Market Area), are ranked by their number of TV households. DMAs incorporate all of the U.S. counties, with rare exception counites are entirely assigned to one DMA, based on the share of the county's viewing attributed to stations which are "home" to the assigned DMA. This is all based on Nielsen measurement.

You can get considerable population data about DMA's from Nielsen at a nominal charge. Here at AMIC you can find the Household poulation totals in the AMIC's Ad Data area.

Metro areas are another definition used for media markets, and are particularly relevant to radio. These are Census definitions, also based on counties and use totoal population. Metros do not total to the entire U.S. population.

Saturday, October 09, 1999 #2862
It seems that most of the news about advancements in media and in media planning focuses on the on-line arena. However, changes have to be happening in the off-line arena, even if they don’t get the same play. Introductions of products TiVo or Replay TV are going to create major concern among the television and advertising communities once the universe of ownership begins significantly cutting into the viewership of commercials. The digital superimposition of products into programming, rather than just having them featured in the show, seems to be an area where both creative and media departments are both going to have to play close attention (Stuart Elliott’s article in 10/1 NYT addressed some of this). However, with this long preamble, what in Guru’s opinion are some of the other innovative things happening in the off-line advertising side of TV, radio, mags, newspapers, OOH, etc.? Could you cite some articles or Websites that might go into more depth on these?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, October 09, 1999 ):
The offline "innovations" to which you refer are just new mechanisms for achieving the same results with which planners have coped for many years. Not long after VCRs, devices to eliminate commercials were available and never sold well. Remotes have long since made zipping through recorder commercials quite easy.

Product placement and stadium signage are old-hat as well. Placing them digitally instead of physically isn't media planning news.

The Guru doesn't see anything happening off-line as big as the creation of on-line and new advertising vehicles in the on-line arena.

News in off-line seems to focus on new ways to buy and package. Perhaps we will see a return to the early days of TV and real sponsorship. Segmentation - in the sense of a focus on minority groups which in the aggregate now outnumber the presumed mainstream majority, and personalization of media are the new direction the Guru sees in traditional media.

Ad Age and MediaWeek are still the best sources of media news in print.

Friday, October 08, 1999 #2859
Looking for an up to date general CPM rate comparison across traditional media (TV, Cable,radio, Newspapers, Magazines, Billboards) Is there any info source that gives the general range of CPM rates ?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 08, 1999 ):
See AMIC's Ad Data area

Thursday, October 07, 1999 #2855
How does one set effective frequency and effective reach targets? Are there any models which can help set these targets? And is this approach(effective freq.) media neutral or does it apply differently to different media?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 07, 1999 ):
The Ostrow model is one such model.

The concept of effective reach/frequency is based on repetition of messages as the key to consumer action, and so should be media neutral. However, since the nature of various media makes one generate higher frequency than another at the same reach level, plans often take different approaches to "effefctive." For example, a plan based on major magazine which average a 20 coverage among the target, will rarely generate even a 3 verage frequency in four weeks, while a radio plan for the same target might equal the magazine plan's reach in its first week and double the average frequency.

Planners work with the rules and rationales which make the most sense in a given situation.

Wednesday, October 06, 1999 #2854
What are the advantages/disadvantages of advertising during sweeps? We have a client who is TOTALLY hung up on advertising during sweeps. Isn't there a lot of self-promotion going on in TV? The client is a newspaper. Also, I've heard that political advertising during the fourth quarter 2000 is projected to be phenomenal. Do you have any information on how advertisers are reacting? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 07, 1999 ):
It is true that ratings are higher during sweeps, because programming is selected to increase audiences when they are being measured. And yes, there is a lot more self promotion in these periods.

But, assuming your client is going to buy "X" GRPs, they will get them with fewer announcements in a sweep than otherwise. If it takes 20 announcements to get 100 GRP in October but only 15 to get 100 GRP in November, the difference to the advertiser should be infinitesimal in terms of more impact. If any measurable effects are seen, there would be a hair more reach and a speck less frequency in the sweeps scenario. The cost per point might be higher.

Political advertising surges during every presidential election. Advertisers will not be visibly reacting today, since Fourth Quarter is sold as the first quarter of a network's year. When Q4 2000 selling starts to move next May, the upfront advertisers will secure their time comfortably. Some advertisers who don't usually buy upfront will. As the year goes on, some money which would have been spent in some places will go elswhere, network to spot, TV to radio, broadcast to print.

It happens every four years and used to be worse when both summer and winter Olympics fell in these same presidential election years.

Monday, October 04, 1999 #2844
What is the best way to reach Adults 18-24 with out using television?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 04, 1999 ):
Most efficient? Selected out-of-home.

Most targeted? Some magazines or college newspapers.

Broadest reach in a single medium? Probably radio.

Best total reach? A combination of the above.

Other qualifications of "best" might yield additional answers.

Monday, October 04, 1999 #2843
Guru - I have been put in the situation of planning, negotiating and buying online advertising. I'm having difficulty in determining the appropriate number of impressions to purchase for a two week flight of an entertainment property. I understand every site is different, but is there a benchmark to follow? Someone once said that the minimum level of impressions to be effective is 10% of the site's available impressions. This seems high. Also, is there a syndicated source that lists the total number of impressions available per month? Can online impressions be purchased against a specific demo (i.e. Men 25-54)? Thank you for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 04, 1999 ):
There are many buying-minimum rules of thumb that seem arbitrary on first consideration, like '12x per week per station' in radio, but have a logic if someone clearly explains it.

However, this "10% of the available impression" idea is certainly not one of these. It's not only arbitrary, but relatively ridiculous.

Consider a site like Yahoo, which may generate well over 1 billion monthly impressions. 10% of that is 100 million. If you bought that weight at a $30 CPM, that would be $3,000,000 per month. Are there many advertisers spending at that rate? And, if you think about other top sites, it becomes even more fantastic.

According to Nielsen//Netratings, top, deep-pockets, online advertisers like Microsoft, AOL and Yahoo each ran about 200 to 600 million impressions in August. And of course, they didn't do that on just a few sites.

What would a 10% rule achieve? Identification with a specific site? Perhaps some very targeted sites which fit your campaign creative very well are worth sponsoring at this level. Or do you think each person exposed is aware of how many other people are seeing other banners on the same site?

By the way, the Guru would be interested to hear anyone's justification of a '10% of available impressions' rule and will post here any that make sense.

It's also worth noting another point here: Bigness is of questionable value in selecting on-line media vehicles. Exposure isn't figured in the same way as for other media: In a magazine, each ad page is treated as if it had the average audience of the issue; within some tolerance, this is realistic. But in a popular web site with potentially hundreds of pages, neither the home page nor those within the site get all the monthly impressions the site accrues. Any one page might get less than one percent of the total, and a rotating banner might get less than one percent of the page where it's shown. One million impressions can be bought from a site with one billion to sell or with just two million. If the targeting is controlled, there is equal value.

Sometimes page or section content will allow targeting to be assumed. On some sites, registration data, or 'cookies', or IP tracking can allow ads to be served to specified categories of visitors.

Friday, September 24, 1999 #2824
Dear Guru,I'm trying to set up a marketing strategy fosused on the hispanic market of Chicago and L.A. I got great national audience data for radio in "Arbitron" but "Nielsen" does not publishes any information about TV on the net (I'm in Mexico and mail can take 2 months), can you you give me an idea where can I get similar information related to TV, Nespapers and outdor advertising. As you can imagine I'm tryito identify what kind of programs and articles are popular among hispanics, the highest audience time for hispanics etc. Thanks in advance, you already have been a great help.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 25, 1999 ):
The Guru is unclear about how you will use national radio ratings to plan Los Angeles and Chicago advertising.

For your purposes, Arbitron and Nielsen would seem to have equal information on their web sites.

Nevertheless, you need market-specifis HIspanic information, so you should begin by contacting the largest spot market reps for Hispanic TV and radio. These are Univision and Telemundo TV and Katz Hispanic Media and Caballero for radio. The local Spanish language stations have their own sites as well, but tend to be aimed at listeners more than advertisers.

Wednesday, September 22, 1999 #2815
Can you please refresh my memory and tell me how to calculate multi-week reach and frequency across television and radio? Thank you

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 23, 1999 ):
If you mean combining these media, the formula has been addressed. Click here to see past Guru responses.

If you mean how to get multiweek reaches for either medium, you need reach curves or software, the extension formulae are tow complex for casual use.

Wednesday, September 22, 1999 #2814
Hi Guru The ad agency I work for has a theory that cable GRP's and radio GRP's effectivenesss are significantly less than network and spot television. On our flow charts we only calculate 1/2 half of these points. I have heard this theory before but I've never seen a plan that cuts the GRP's in half. What do you think?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 23, 1999 ):
The Guru has been aware of theories that use effectiveness factors in comparing media. Sometimes GRP are adjusted on the flow chart, but since the flow chart often serves as the buying control document, more often the adjustments are shown in reach and frequency comparisons.

There can certainly be an argument that radio has less effectiveness than TV, commercial exposure versus commercial exposure, all else being equal. But, the argument doesn't seem to be rationale for cable TV. The commercial is the same, the presentation is the same. Unless there are objective measures of attentiveness or clutter or recall used, why is cable less effective? Individual commerical audience size is not relevent to message effectiveness of the medium; one consumer is not aware of how may others are watching the same program.

Wednesday, September 22, 1999 #2813
I'm stting a marketing strategy to sell houses located in Mexico to Americans (mostly mexican Americans and foreign born) I know where they are, what kind of media de you reccomend to be cost effective? Thanks in advance

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 23, 1999 ):
For the best cost effectiveness, the Guru would begin with Spanish languiage radio in the U.S. / Mexico border markets.

Wednesday, September 15, 1999 #2800
I just did a media buy for radio, cable, and related internet sites for a NJ based portal business that wants to attract consumers to their site. They asked me what number of people visiting their site constitutes a sucsessful ad campaign...50-100 week? Since visitors won't be buying anything, (no e-commerce)how do you judge what kind of response is successful? Is there any research on new "Dot Com" companies who have advertised, and what kind of results they got?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, September 19, 1999 ):
Any advertiser needs to define its own success. Portal sites are usually expected to deliver boxcar numbers, they are playing in a league with Yahoo, Netscape, Excite, etc, which have 20 million or more monthly visitors.

If your advertiser isn't doing e-commerce, presumably it wants to sell advertising based on the size of the audience it can deliver. If portals sell monthly banner ads at a $35 cpm, what is 100 visitors a weeks worth? If it's 100 per week, and they each view 3 pages that's 1200 impressions or $42 worth of traffic. The Guru is guessing you spent more than that on the campaign. If these people come back every week, it will be a long time before a campaign at this rate of response is "successful."

Using the actual cpm and page loads at the advertiser's site, you can estimate how many visitors and page views are needed for a return on investment.

C.A.S.I.E. (The Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive Entertainment) and Internet Advertising Bureau are most likely to have accessible research in this area.

Friday, September 10, 1999 #2787
Do you know of any nationally syndicated radio programs relating to the Home Improvement/Do-It-Yourself/Handyman category?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 14, 1999 ):
National Public radio's "Car Talk" might be one.

Thursday, September 09, 1999 #2779
Dear Media Guru: I've been trying (unsuccessfully) to find out about a local radio audience survey for markets in Southern Texas that measures Hispanic listening called a "Star" Report. I checked with the 4A's, and with SRC who conducts market surveys for the Hispanic community. SRC told me they had conducted Spanish Television Audience Reports (STAR), but had nothing in that area for local radio. Are you familiar with any radio research of this kind? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, September 19, 1999 ):
The Guru has not heard of STAR radio reports

Wednesday, September 08, 1999 #2776
Dear Guru: My client has asked me to provide him with a r/f on a Canadian TV/radio plan. Our research vendors don't seem to have access to Canadian data. I've got the Nielsen books, but need a resource to run the data. Any suggestions?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 13, 1999 ):
AMIC's sister company, Telmar, offers media planning systems which handle Canadian data.

Tuesday, September 07, 1999 #2772
I am interested in placing radio advertising nationally. Is there such a thing as a national radio rep that I can contact?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 13, 1999 ):
Interep and Katz are the largest national radio reps.

There are also network and syndication options.

Tuesday, September 07, 1999 #2770
is there a industry giude to minimum TRP level during each week of a radio flight?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 07, 1999 ):
The minimum standard is twelve spots per week per station. Otherwise TRPs must relate to communications goals. It is likely that few buys of less than 50 TRP per week are made, except when something other than communications is the purpose, e.g. trade support, special promotions, etc.

Saturday, September 04, 1999 #2767
What's the best way to find radio stations in the NYC to Washington DC region that have a high percentage of our target customers.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 06, 1999 ):
Thinking in straight-line terms, there are just a handful of defined radio markets in the region:
  • New York
  • Philadelphia
  • Baltimore and
  • Washington

Arbitron and Scarborough are the two pricipal research resources which evaluate market-by-market demographic and product-user audiences of radio stations.

Most stations in these markets will have access to onor both resources for their market, and be prepared to rank stations according to your needs in the selling process. You can also contact the major radio sales representative firms, like the various divisions of Interep and Katz.

Thursday, September 02, 1999 #2764
I need to buy spot radio on stations throughout New York State, to run for one or two weeks at time, twice a year. Is there a way that I can coordinate a buy that consists of the same advertising schedule and the same demographic, but lots of different stations and owners, without bringing in a buyer?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, September 03, 1999 ):
The cost of a buyer will probably be well worth it, in time saved and money wasted on buying the wrong thing.

If you think you have a good reason to avoid using a buyer, the major radio rep firms, Katz and Interep will put together schedules for you market list and demographics. These schedules will involve competing stations and it would be the buyers function to determine the right stations fro your needs and negotiate the best rates. Note that reps typically do not sell stations to purchsers based in the stations' home market, the stations handle those clients directly.

Tuesday, August 24, 1999 #2739
Do you have a list of current MEDIA OPTIONS available?

I'm asking for non-traditional, new media vehicles that reach a demographically and geographically targeted audience.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, August 24, 1999 ):
So the Guru assumes website banners are already on your list. There are several web-based enhancements and variations:

Animated banners
Interactive Banners with pull-down menus
Mini-sites (multipage, fully interactive, full motion ads/brochures)
Other multimedia web options.

Multi media cd-rom magazines seem to have had their day and passed

Essentially, "new media" are new ways to engage the senses and add new dimensions: Print engaged vision only, then radio engaged hearing, then TV did vision and hearing plus motion. Cable merely fractionalized TV and the internet added activity to sight, sound and motion.

What might be next? Cinema advertising has been very big in Europe for years and seems to be growing here. Advertising delivered on the telephone, to pay for long distance calling is underway in at least two formats:
1: listen to some ads to build a credit of long distance minutes and
2: calls interupted by ads.

In the same vein, we see another new trend, free computers which continuously display ads in a part of the screen and free internet services (ISPs) which do the same.

Tuesday, August 24, 1999 #2738
Is there a difference in Reach for the same level of GRPs if they are run in one week versus four weeks? It seems like there should be, but most media planning tools don't allow for a difference. They give the same reach result regardless of the length of time the GRPs are running. I'm interested in your perspective. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, August 24, 1999 ):
Yes, one week reach is higher than four week reach from the same number of GRPs, particularly in radio. The reason is that, while the weekly cume of stations or of the medium, does not vary much from the four week potential, your chances of capturing more of this potential is greater when GRPs are run, well dispersed, in a single week.

In TV the enormous dispersion of program options and audience fragmentation makes this less of an issue. In radio, where buys are typically on just a handful of top-ranked stations, based on the target demo, the difference can be felt.

Telmar's radio planning tools allow you to set the number of weeks in reach calculations and see the difference.

Friday, August 20, 1999 #2732
Dear Guru, I am in charge of PR and Marketing Dept in a telecommunications company. I have 5 years of experience of working for a TV and radio ad placement agency in Europe. I recently got the assignment to set up a web ad agency for my current employer. What do you think my first steps should be to approach the issue professionally? Thanks a lot in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, August 21, 1999 ):
Study the structure of traditional agencies, and think about what need to be differerent to deal with web advertising.

The Guru doesn't think the differences will be extensive; a different skills set for creative staff, different background for media people. If you are unfamiliar with web advertisng yourself, get a consultant who knows the game.

Thursday, August 19, 1999 #2729
Dear Guru, 1- Please let me know SQARE model that SQAD use to calculate CPP for TV and radio. Please let me know the detail or any link I can find more information or books... 2- Do you know any model for reach vs GRPs? Our client ask us to show the data like that. The problem that we try to find the suitable daypart mix, station mix, medium mix that is good for our advertising strategy but we don't have any optimiser programs. We have only ratings data like Telescope and Prinscope of ACNielsen. Do you know any example to solve this kind of problem? 3- Our client also want to have a model to set advertising budget to get for example 80+ reach but we can not know until it happen. How to solve this issue? warmest regards, Thai Vang

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 19, 1999 ):
A general explanation of SQAD's model is available from SQAD. They will give you the same information they would give the Guru. But the essence is manipulating actual buying data in real situations, provided confidentially by actual media buyers.

GRP's and reach do not have any standard realtionship, except within given media and population parameters. You are writing from Viet Nam, where Televison audience cume patterns are likely to be quite different than in the U.S. Even within the U.S., Hispanic TV reach curves are very, very differerent than the General Market TV reach curves.

The way to build a model, to oversimplify, is to collect a great number of actual reaches of real schedules, and then plot their frequency against reach in a regresssion analysis, which gives you the formula for the "curve." Frequency is plotted, rather than reach, because frequency is a straight line while reach is a curve. The curve formula then allows you to create a model with a reach solution for any GRP input. The more variables you use to build different curves, the more sophisticated your model can be.

Thursday, August 19, 1999 #2728
Can you tell me of a source where I can get broad, general cost and audience estimates for the major media forms? As an example, the average cost for a network TV 30-second unit by daypart and the average audience it might be expected to generate for each . . . similar cost estimate for a network radio 60-second unit by daypart . . . etc.? I guess what I'm looking for is sort of a broad strokes "cheat-sheet" on the major media forms. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 19, 1999 ):
A great deal of this data can be found here in AMIC's Ad Data area.

Thursday, August 12, 1999 #2709
I've been offered a Marketing Manager position in a non commercial fm station in a top 30 market. Where do I get information related to this type of station?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 13, 1999 ):
Your question takes you outside the sphere of advertisng and hence outside the Guru's scope.

Perhaaps National Public radio has resources which will be helpful.

Wednesday, August 11, 1999 #2705
Do you have any information on companies that track TV and radio advertising creative? We are trying to get a copy of a radio ad that ran this spring to make sure the creative is different from our client's ads. Please let us know what resources you are familiar with. Thankyou!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, August 11, 1999 ):
The Guru has used MediaMonitors and VMS.

Monday, August 09, 1999 #2702
Typically, when is the upfront selling period for network radio? Is there a gereral time of year on the network radio "calender" for this period? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, August 11, 1999 ):
Network radio doesn't have an upfront season like network TV, when they preview new programs and sell a large percentage of their year's inventory over the span of a week or so.

The radio networks are always happy to make a good deal for a year's commitment at any time, of course, and do most of these deals on a calendar year basis, most often in the August-October period, with about 30-40% of inventory getting sold.

Wednesday, August 04, 1999 #2688
What % of a budget should be allocated to on-line advertising vs. off-line (radio, billboards, events) for a Men 18-34 target. It is a retail store chain launching a web-site.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 08, 1999 ):
There are no simple answers here. If your budget is low, perhaps 0% or 100% for on-line.

Reaching a large portion of internet users can be incredibly expensive in on-line media. If you can find relevant and targeted sites, start with them, but the traditional media used to shop for the goods you web store will sell may be far more productive per dollar spent.

Friday, July 30, 1999 #2674
When comparing the impact of differenct media I have often used the base-line of a 30 second TV spot having the equivalent impact or weight as a 1/4 page newspaper ad or a full page magazine ad. Are there any comparable measures for radio and Outdoor?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 31, 1999 ):
Quarter-page newspaer seems small to compare to :30s or magazine pages, but the kind of data you want could be found at The radio Advertising Bureau (RAB) or OAAA.

Wednesday, July 28, 1999 #2664
hello, I'm doing research on radio advertising effectiveness. The main question is: which factors influence, in what way, the effectiveness of radiocommercials? There is not much literature available on this subject, so I want you to ask if you know some relevant books, articles, websites or anything that can help me? thanks a lot. Jolanda van As, scientific researcher

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 31, 1999 ):
There should be a wealth of information and guidance available from the The radio Advertising Bureau (RAB).

In addition try Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. and ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization.

Thursday, July 15, 1999 #2636
Is there any research that explores TV versus TV+radio advertising? I would like to know if and when radio should be added to TV advertising. Any advice on analyzing this would be extremely helpful. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 15, 1999 ):
Generally, assuming TV is your primary medium and your goal is to maximize reach, adding a new medium begins to be worth considering when the reach curve of TV flattens. Compare how much reach the "next" dollar ads when it's in TV to the amount of reach the dollar would add in radio (reasonable numbers of dollars must be examined).

For effectiveness research, go to the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Tuesday, July 13, 1999 #2627
How well are the newspaper advertisements remembered by readers vs. radio or television?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 14, 1999 ):
Other than the usual general research repositories the Guru often mentions, the The Newspaper Advertising Association would have the best information.

Friday, July 09, 1999 #2620
Hello GURU ! I have 2 questions for you : 1. One of the media analysis we do in our agency,mainly for TV, consists in comparing a competitor's share of spending (calculated as his % of advertising expenditure within the total category) with his share of voice (calculated as the % of his 30 sec equivalent GRPs within the category). Is this correct in your opinion ? 2. How do you define SOV ? Is this the % of the GRPs one achieve within a category or is it the % of money invested by an advertiser within a category in a certain period ? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 11, 1999 ):
1) What do you do with the results of this comparison? How does the ratio of SO$ to SOV help you make decisions? The :30 equivalent step is reasonable, but how do you do that effectively outside of broadcast?

2) Some use SOV to refer to share of spending, others use it to refer to share of weight. The Guru believes share of weight is more descriptive of the marketplace perceived by the consumer, but the person controlling the budget, that is, the client, more often cares about money. They can see the impact of money on the bottom line more easily than they can understand the differences in impact of their :30s versus a competitor's :15s or competitor's radio versus their own magazines.

Thursday, July 08, 1999 #2615
If a client gives me an advertising budget of $500,000, what percentage should be allocated to the following: research, strategy, design, and media placement? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 08, 1999 ):
Keep in mind that the media amount is the money that works to communicate your message.

Research: Do you need research? Do you have issues that must be explored? Allocating research funds without having specific research issues is wasteful. If you have research issues, they will tell you how to budget? Do you need to ask a couple af basic quantitiative questions in a national telephone omnibus for under $5000, or do you need to do a dozen focus groups for $50,000?

Strategy and creative development also varies. At $500,000 you probably aren't doing television. radio can be very inexpensive to produce, as can newspaper. Full color magazine can be more.

If you think that all this amounts to a lot of words which really amount to "It depends," you're correct.

Wednesday, July 07, 1999 #2614
I do the media planning for a targeted television network, and currently, we are evaluating our spot radio buys to answer the question: "Do these need to be more dispersed (i.e., do we need to buy a deeper station list vs. hi frequency on a few, targeted stations) in line with the recency approach? Please keep in mind that we essentially have a new brand every day, as people tend to watch on a night-by-night, as well as on, an episodic basis, rather than every week by rote. I apologize, as I may have asked this question previously, but I didn't realize I should check back for the answer -- for some reason I thought the answer would come via e-mail.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 08, 1999 ):
Recency values reach above frequency. Therefore, greater dispesion of you weight would be preferable under that theory.

But this theory is most typical for package goods, where there is less of an issue of whether or not to buy in the category. The Guru does not believe choosing whether to watch TV and what to watch on TV is strictly comparable.

Tuesday, July 06, 1999 #2608
Our company is presently trying to locate a list of kids aged roughly 12-19 for a direct mailing. Do you know where we might find such a list? We are also interested in knowing what the most popular magazines are among kids in this segment (for advertising purposes). Lastly, we would like to determine what it costs to advertise (gross, not CPM) via the following media: TV (specialty channel), radio, Internet (banner), magazine (popular), billboard, and space. Any help you could give us on these questions would be appreciated. Thanks in advance for your assistance. Sincerely, Drew Spence Market Research Associate Lac-Mac Limited

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, July 06, 1999 ):
Most list brokers would have a teenage list available. Try American List Counsel for starters.

. Seventeen ,Teen,YM,TeenPeople are among the most popuular, especially with female teens. Male teens gravitate to more broadly targeted titles like SportsIllustrated.

To discuss ad prices in the media you mention, you really must consider something other than simple gross. If the Guru tells you a :30 on a specialty channel cost $100 or $1000, how can you evaluate what you must spend to communiucate something?

Internet banners are sold in cpms and numbers of impressions, not flat gross dollars usually; major sites have more impression than you might buy so you buy a portion of the available impressions. You can get teen oriented sites' banners for $15-30 per thousand. But just putting a banner on all the teen pages of Yahoo could cost $1,000,000 per month.

or more. Billboards might cost $250 apiece, but you won't buy just one, you buy a quantity of daily effective circulation expressed as GRPs. A teen cpm might be $5-$10

Thursday, July 01, 1999 #2600
I'm coming from a traditional general market media background and am moving to a sophisticated direct response company. What are the primary criteria I should address in negotiating DR rates (on net cable or synd radio) vs. a fixed position schedule? CPP has become irrelevant. We just want the lowest unit rate that will clear. Any tips? (by the way, the DMA is no help here).

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 02, 1999 ):
In DR, response is what matters, and it has little to do with CPP, or rating. You need to track response by station, daypart, program type, etc. and buy based on what delivers.

Tuesday, June 29, 1999 #2596
Do you have any recommendations on how I can find agencies in Dallas/Ft.Worth that buy network radio? Besides the typical "cold call", is there an easier way? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 02, 1999 ):
Assuming you can't ask the networks to whom they're selling, CMR (Competitive Media Reports) tracks Network radio and also agency activity to some extent. They may be able to generate a report.

Another option is the The Standard Directories of Advertising Agencies and Advertisers ('The Redbook'), which offers geographic sorting and includes media types used in agency descriptions.

Friday, June 25, 1999 #2593
What minimal circulation a free ethnic community newspaper should have to attract an ad agency's attention? For instance, there are 4 newspapers with a circulation of 5 000 each, serving a 50 000 people community in a 3 000 000 city. Would a combined space sale proposal in all four newspapers be of interest to an ad agency?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 25, 1999 ):
If the agency cares about reaching the specific ethnic group and the newspaper is one of the largest media reaching that group, the agency will care about the newspaper, whether its circulation is 5,000 or 25,000. If the newspaper is offering 5,000 circulation when other newspapers offer 25,000 or other media like tv or radio have far greater audience, then you have an uphill battle.

And if the ethnic group is very small and the newspaper is also very small, the agency may not care anyway, unless your reader can be presented as a highly desirable prospect for the agency's advertisers. And finally, free distribution just makes things harder. But in many cases such papers are very successful. The Hispanic newspapers of Essex and Hudson counties in New Jersey are an enlightening study.

Thursday, June 10, 1999 #2568
What media are most effective to reach the 65+ market? This is a local/regional campaign, so national media aren't a consideration. I'm looking for any research that shows 65+ audience media usage habits. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 10, 1999 ):
When you eliminate the national media like Modern Maturity , it's difficult. Of course, Modern Maturity, the world's largest circulation magazine, does offer regional editions.

MRI and Simmons report media habits by age. Locally, you are more likely to want to look at radio formats and TV programs with an appeal to your target. Start by identifying one staion in each medium which you are likley to use and requesting research help. Try a talk radio station and ask for Scarborough data.

Monday, June 07, 1999 #2559
Can you tell me who the top offline advertisers are and how much they are spending on an annual basis? Where they are spending (ie: TV, Print, radio, Internet, etc.)Can you also tell me what the top categories are? Do you have any projections?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, June 09, 1999 ):
It is interesting to see this new description "offline advertisers" which from the perspective of on-line media makes perfect sense as a way to categorize 97% of all ad dollars.

The information you request is published annually by Ad Age, or can be purchased from CMR (Competitive Media Reports).

Friday, June 04, 1999 #2557
Guru - What percentage of the US Population watches TV in the average week? How much time do they spend watching? How about magazines? Newspaper? Thanks! This question seemed simple, but I can't find the answers anywhere.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 05, 1999 ):
MRI and Simmons are sources of a lot of these data, but you will find all of your questions answered between AMIC's Ad Data area and the The radio Advertising Bureau (RAB)'s Media Facts area.

Monday, May 31, 1999 #2544
Hello, I'm trying to find several statistics regarding advertising both in the United States and Globally. I'm hoping you can either tell me where I can find these figures, or perhaps even provide me with the figures themeselves if you have access to that information. The following is the information I'm trying to find out: 1. An estimate of how many advertising companies exist in the US? in the World? 2. How much money advertisers spend on radio and TV advertising each year for the past 5 years. Once again both in the US specifically, and globaly. 3. Of the amounts from question 2, how much money goes towards music licensing. Again both US and global. Thank you for your time

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 31, 1999 ):
The number of advertising agencies, U.S. and world wide, can most likely be found in the archives of Ad Age. These articles may well not be in the on-line archive, but most good libraries have archival search facilities, like Info-Trak or Lexus-Nexus, which will lead you to a microfilm copy of full articles. References like The Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies and Advertisers ('The Redbook') should have counts of companies listed. Since there is no licensing requirement, only such a directory compiler is likely to be compiling numbers. The redbook sells database searches, so they could tell you how many agencies list tv and radio billings.

There are specific annual issues of Ad Age addressing spending by media type.

Regarding music licensing, this relatively tiny percentage of all TV and radio investment less likely to be tracked by the forgoing resources. A better resource would be the licensing organizations, like the excellent site of ASCAP (The American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers) which has an extensive Guide to Resources in the Music Business. Worldwide, you will find a hodgepodge of different rules and organizations.

Friday, May 28, 1999 #2542
I have a client that is in the sausage business. He cannot afford television and wants ideas on branding with radio. Can you help me?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 29, 1999 ):
"Branding" is more a creative and promotional challenge than a media issue outside of sponsorship issues.

The classic success story in this arena is probably the Blue Nun wine commercials of the '70's, done by Jerry DellaFemina with Stiller and Meara. Stan Freeberg for LaChoy was another classic. You should find information about these award winning radio campaigns in several creative books and probably at the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Friday, May 28, 1999 #2540
What is the average CPP for local radio?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, May 28, 1999 ):
See AMIC's Ad Data area

Thursday, May 20, 1999 #2518
Years ago, a broadcast buyer gave me a rule of thumb on comparing quarterly CPPs. I know there are changes by market and by media (radio/TV) but it seemed that the following indices were applied to a avg. year CPP: Q1: 85, Q2: 106, Q3: 97, Q4: 112. Do you know if these are accurate?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 20, 1999 ):
These are roughly -- directionally -- correct, with the exceptions you note.

Wednesday, May 12, 1999 #2506
We have a client who always hears our radio spots (I believe that is a good thing) but thinks they are worn out due to the high exposure. We do not agree as we are running 200 GRPs/wk. for 40 weeks with five spots with a 20% rotation for each spot. We believe that wear out is difficult as frequency is one of the goals of radio and due to listening habits. Is there an industry standard to determine when a radio commercial is worn out? For example, I know packaged goods advertisers who use TV look at the reach at the heaviest viewing quintile. If reach exceeds 25% they considering replacing or resting the spot. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 16, 1999 ):
Wear-out is

1. Subjective 2. Variable depending on the quality and memorability of the copy.

Rules of thumb the Guru has seen include

  • "It's worn out when the client starts asking". . . or
  • 2000 GRP -- you're getting close on that one . . .or
  • 20 (or 25 or 30) frequency in the second highest quintile -- you're probably past that one, and have at least a 20 average frequency depending on your target and dispersion.
  • . . . and the one that really makes sense is tracking sales and making a change in the copy when the sales trend drops.

Wednesday, May 05, 1999 #2491
We recently completed a 12 week radio campaign in a test market (79.2% reach & 12.5 frequency) for a client that sells a food product in grocery stores. The client experienced a 90% sales increase in this market at a time that other markets maintained only single-digit increases. The dilemma is that the post campaign research that was done showed only a 9% recall (aided 3%, unaided 6%) of the radio advertising. Do you have any information that will help us to support the case tht although the radio ads had a huge influence on sales, radio advertising is not generally recalled easily by consumers? Another concern is that these ads were tagged with grocery store names. Could this have caused the respondents to be confused as to who the advertiser was and in turn result in poor recall? We realize this is a long question, but wanted to give you all of the details. Thank you for your help!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 06, 1999 ):
It is an interesting problem. More often you need to prove that a good recall result is good news, but here you have amazing sales results, and the Guru presumes that you can demonstrate the radio was the only variable.

Of course, it is possible that 9% recall in itself is such a big improvement that it can account for a 90% sales increase, especially if previous market share or penetration was very low.

It is also true that tagging the spots is likely to confuse the listener.

Great advertising generally only gets 25% or so day after recall. Did you have a pre test on recall to compare? Generally, the best repository of useful researc in this topic is the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Tuesday, May 04, 1999 #2488
I am trying to reach college students (at schools with enrollments of at least 15,000 to 20,000 students) via local cable television. How can I find out which campuses are wired for cable tv, and if they are, how may students subscribe? I am talking about students on campus in dorms, and i am primarily interested in colleges located in DMA outside of the top 25.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 04, 1999 ):
Contact a cable sales rep, like National Cable Communications. They should be able to tell you which colleges are covered by cable systems.

Matching this list to colleges ranked by enrollment will probably be left up to you.

The Guru offers the following observations:

  • It doesn't seem likely that cable systems will allow you to direct commercials only to students or dorms. There will probably be much more waste coverage than if you bought campus newspapers, radio or wallboards.
  • The Guru doubts there will be records of student "subscribers." It is probably most common that the school wires a dorm for cable and students with TVs connect to the cable wiring in their room at will.

Monday, May 03, 1999 #2487
What company measured radio audiences before Arbitron?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 03, 1999 ):
Pulse, Hooper, Birch and Nielsen are among the radio ratings services of the past, though not necessarily earlier than Arbitron.

Friday, April 30, 1999 #2481
Is there any way to calculate duplication across a media plan using several media (e.g. print and radio and TV), or can I only get a duplication analysis within a media (radio duplicaton and then another duplication factor for print, etc , etc) I use telmar for research with simmons and arbitron access and we also use JDS for buys.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, April 30, 1999 ):
The standard assumption in media planning is that duplication between different media is purely at random. Therefore, the random probability formula is used:
  • Express the reach of each medium as a decimal (50% reach = 0.5)
  • Multiply the reach of one medium by another to determine the duplication.
  • Subtract the duplication from the sum of the two reaches to get the net reach

So, if you have a 40% reach in TV and a 55% reach in Print, multiply
0.4 x 0.55 to get 0.22
subtract 0.22 from 0.4+.55 and get 0.73 or
73% reach of the combined media.

There are a variety of ways to do the calculation. The Guru actually prefers to use the probablilty of not seeing each medium (reach as a decimal subtracted from 1.0) When these are multiplied they give the net probability of not seeing any of the media. When this result is subtracted from 1, the final result is net reach. This style is particulary useful for combining several media at once.The example would combine this way:

  • 1-0.4 = 0.6
  • 1-0.55 = 0.45
  • 0.6 x 0.45 = 0.27
  • 1-0.27 = 0.73 or

    73% reach.

Telmar's "Media Mix" program uses these assumptions.

Wednesday, April 28, 1999 #2478
RE: #2475 Yes, Guru, baffling is an understatement, and the bafflement is attributable to the lack of clarity in my previous query. The "station/network branded" products I was referring to are the hand held digital and analog tuners and adapters that drivers can use to access TV station signals and direct them through their vehicles' sound systems. In other words, commuters would have the CBS Eye or NBC Peacock, etc., in the palm of thier hands. The "affiliate-marketing model" makes reference to network and station website hyperlinks that both provide information about this new TV accessibility and generate a shared revenue stream from the sale of the latest hand held tuners. Initially, the increased audience and promotions would be a value-added to advertisers. Eventually market penetration will be large enough to quantify, perhaps by Nielson local diaries. Millions of people already have simple solutions that they can use but are unaware of. We'll tell them how how.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, April 28, 1999 ):
Ahh, the light dawns. Your query is now quite sensible. But if a "branded" receiver only tunes that one station, as your statemnent implies, it wouldn't be too popular. And if the idea catches on, wouldn't radio makers just build in the capability?

Tuesday, April 27, 1999 #2475
Every motor vehicle can be EASILY adapted to hear free over-the-air broadcast television programming through its EXISTING in-dash sound system. We want to work with stations/networks to promote this niche as a whole and distribute "station/network branded" products through an affiliate-marketing model. What would be the best way to quantify this usage for the benefit of TV broadcasters and their advertisers? Allen Mostow, President Synergy Systems

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, April 28, 1999 ):
The benefit to broadcasters and advertisers is obviously the audience increase. So the way to quantify it is to have either the TV or radio ratings services report its audience.

Since the stations own the signal content, and would probably have legal, technical and business problems by plugging in different content replacing purchased commercial time it is baffling to the Guru to understand what you are thinking when you say "distribute 'station/network branded' products through an affiliate-marketing model. "

Tuesday, April 27, 1999 #2474
I am new to the newspaper world and need some help. I have my cost per inch and my circulation. I need to compare CPM newspapere to radio and tv. I have my radio and tv cpm but not sure what to use on newspaper my audience is a 25-54 and i buy 28" ads... is their a quick way to convert circulation to audience and do I use cost per inch or cost per 28"... My tv cpm is around $15.00 and my radio is around $8.00 any help would be appreciated.....

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 27, 1999 ):
Compare the cpm of the ad you would use, if you are using a tv :30 then compare the cpm for a 30 second unit with your 28" newspaper cpm.

Circulation does not "convert" to audience. Each newspaper, theoretically, has a different audience in relation to its circulation. But, in reality, the differences have a fairly narrow range and you can use average readership figures from The Newspaper Advertising Association site.

Tuesday, April 13, 1999 #2441
Dear Guru, WHile I do have the numbers and quantitative arguements on the Net and its popularity ,,,is there any way I can get to know on why the Net is so popular and is the fastest growing medium ? What I am specifically looking at is the psychology behind the success of the Web ? Why do so many people get hooked on ? What is the reason for their interaction with the Net ? I know this is not a 'media' quesiton but this kind of information will really help me get a grip on the medium . Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 13, 1999 ):
Allow the Guru to take a cynical approach here.

The "net" is the fastest growing because it is smaller than other media. . .it has room to grow. At some early point in the lifecycle of all media, they are the fastest growing. radio in the 20's, TV in the 50's, Cable in the 80's, etc.

There is a lot more hype than reality in the net's popularity. It's popular with the people who are in favored target groups, media people and advertising people. New applications are being created constantly so there is a lot of press.

The Guru believes the net is leveling off in the U.S. while the less developed remainder of the world grows on.

The Guru believes the "hook" of the net is interactivity and the enormous wealth of content.

Monday, April 05, 1999 #2431
Dear Guru, I have a question regarding %US coverage with spot radio. An old boss of mine who has recently left the company had used DMA %ages rather than metro %ages when reflecting total US penetration on a spot radio buy we did. I am unsure as to why this was done. Can you provide a rationale for using DMA numbers here? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, April 05, 1999 ):
To some extent it represents TV thinking and to another, it's more realistic.

DMA's are really a TV-defined area. Every U.S.county is assigned to one DMA or another -- except for some oddities in Alaska. So the sum of all DMAs is 100% of the U.S. with no duplication. The definition is based on which TV market gets the bulk of a county's viewing. In each market, the central city VHF stations generally reach the whole DMA. Spot TV buys are usually planned on a DMA rating/GRP basis.

radio, on the other hand, is usally planned on a metro point basis. Even the strongest radio stations, audience-wise, rarely reach the outer areas of DMA's. In each DMA there are one or more Metros. Because the population of the DMAs concentrates in the metros, buys in the metros are treated as if they covered whole DMAs, and indeed, radio coverage is gernerally wider than the metro.

In the U.S. there are roughly 10 times as many radio stations as TV sations, many surviving because they cover out-of-the way areas, but others simply because we will buy small, select audiences. Consider the New York DMA. Largest in population, one of the smallest in geography, but with about 50 reportable commercial radio stations and about 9 commercial TV stations.

Thursday, March 25, 1999 #2412
1) Are the terms OTS, impressions, hits and exposures interchangeable? 2) Are there media industry norms (or even studies) that indicate a correlation between a number of OTS or exposures and audience (reader) behavior. I understand there were a number of Politz studies conducted in the 60s which suggested that one exposure produced a dicernible response and two exposures produced about double that response. Also there are European reports stating that a magazine ad should provide at least 5 OTS in order for the reader to digest or understand the ad message -- is '5' the number? Are there industry norms, and if so, do they differ by media vehicle? Thanks in advance!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 26, 1999 ):
1) Other than "hits," you may generally consider those terms interchangeable. "Hits" is a much abused term peculiar to the internet. Some people do use it when the mean impressions, but technically "hit" is defined as "an entry in a server log."

Whenever a visitor requests a page on a site, as by clicking on a link, the server log records a "hit" for the text of the page, and hits for each frame and hits for each little bullet or other icon and a hit for each ad. A single page on one of today's commercial sites may consist of several dozen items which would all create "hits" in a server log when only one page impression is happening. The internet is also unique in its ability to serve content with a different ad each time a new user arrives at a page. So page impressions and ad impressions will not agree as they do in magazines or broadcast.

"Hits" originated in the early days of the world wide web, when browsers read text only, like the venerable "Lynx," and a page was just one block of text, so "hit" then equalled "impression," more or less. Hits include server log error messages as well, which are of no value to anyone.

2) The study of effective numbers of exposures goes back at least as far as the scientist Ebbinghaus (1883) who tested how many repetitions of nonsense syllables were required to achieve learning. This was the origin of 3 as a magic media number there have been infinite numbers of other studies, more advertisng and sales focused since.

Note that European media and Europe's media environment are different than the U.S. It is a common trap to assume that media perform the same tasks with the same effectiveness when used in different cultures. The U.S. Hispanic market is a good exanple, with TV, radio and print all delivering very different reach / frequncy, reach potetial and overlap than do the parallel general market media.

The best source of studies on the topic are: Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter, Newsweek Media Research Index and ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization. The Guru has discussed this frequently.
Click here to see past Guru responses about "effective frequency"

Thursday, March 18, 1999 #2399
We are currently working with a sit-down restaurant client who has asked us to investigate a market-by- market media mix "optimization" using spot TV and Spot radio. Because the cost of radio is about half of what we are paying in TV, the optimizer continually picks radio as the dominant medium. We know, however, through experience that once we turn on the TV program, results usually happen. Is there any guidance you can provide that would help us in quanitfying this mix outside the realm of what the pure numbers tell us?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 20, 1999 ):
Optimizers, at least worthwhile ones, can be set to "optimize" to any of several criteria. It sounds like you are optimizing only for net audience (reach) efficiency, so radio has an advantage.

The Guru doesn't quite understand what "once we turn on the TV program, results usually happen" means. Has radio not been tried?

Apparently, the client believes reach is the key driver of success, while you believe there is an effectiveness issue inherent in the media types. You need to quantify this difference (is a radio reach point only 75% as sales effective as a TV reach point?) and get the client to accept the quantification, then include the factor in your optimization. Consider also the effects of mix on frequency.

Tuesday, March 16, 1999 #2394
Hello Media Guru, I am a consultant advising a sales team that sells airtime on in-store radio services in the UK. The recency model seems to lend itself to this particular media format. Are there any details available on US examples of this type of medium, and case studies etc they may have? Thanks Clive Reffell

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 20, 1999 ):
Certainly in-store radio ties in with the idea that the most effective advertising is the last exposure prior to the purchase. Yet, in-store radio has never been a great success in the U.S.

The best source of case studies may be POPAI, The Point-of-Purchase Advertising Institute.

Also visit Music Technologies International.

Monday, March 15, 1999 #2392
What do you know about radio effectiveness? I know my question is a kind of broad but please help me with whatever you know.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 20, 1999 ):
The Guru loves queries which invite him to write a textbook (overnight).
  • radio is effective. There are numerous radio success stories, most famously, but not exclusively, based on great creativity and well known voices such as Stan Freberg or Stiller and Meara.
  • Too often, radio is judged by comparing a TV commercial execution to a radio commercial execution and ignoring the key point that in a schedule a radio spot may run three or more times as often or three times as many GRPs for the same budget. In other words, even if a TV commercial is more effective than a radio commercial, a radio schedule may be more effective than a TV schedule.
  • radio commercials have sometimes tested as well as TV spots in some standard measures such as Day-After-Recall.
  • Most important: There are as many bad TV commercials as good radio spots and vice versa. Good radio will always outperform bad TV.

Wednesday, March 10, 1999 #2379
My supervisor said it is impossible to figure an average 4 week r/f if the flight is shorter than four weeks, but i remember doing it on another account. Can you please confirm who is correct, and how to figure it out if I am? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 10, 1999 ):
You're correct. There are a few workable approaches to this.
  1. One says that whatever GRPs run within four weeks are the GRPs that count in figuring an average 4-week R&F, whether these GRPs are spread over one, two or three weeks. So, if you have two weeks at 100 GRP/week you have the same average four week R&F as you would for 200 GRP across four weeks; it could just as well have been 50 GRP/week for 4 weeks or 67 GRP/week for 3 weeks.
    The Guru supports the above theory.
    A small exception might be made for one week schedules, where actual data shows that, for radio in particular, a given number of GRP run in one week delivers slightly higher reach than the same GRP spread over four weeks, due to listening patterns.

  2. Another approach uses "when-in" data. Here, if you run 100 GRP/week during your flights and your flights are two weeks in and two weeks out, then you do your R&F as if you had 100 GRP/week for four weeks. Using this theory, you get the same result for 100 GRP/week two in, two out, as you do for two in, four out, which, to the Guru, is clearly quite a different communication level.

Wednesday, March 03, 1999 #2367
Guru - How do Arbitron ratings for commercial radio stations differ from those of public broadcast stations? Our local PBS station is claiming that they're the 4th most listened to station in the 25-45 demo, which doesn't seem realistic. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 03, 1999 ):
Arbitron does not publish ratings for non-commercial stations in the printed reports. These stations ratings are in the respondent level data, e.g. Maximiser runs.

The reporting standards are otherwise the same. It seems unusual for a non-commercial station to be so highly ranked, but it isn't impossible. If they are Arbitron subscribers they should be able to document the claim. If not, a competing station with which you do business would probably be happy to do the necessary Maximiser analysis.

Monday, March 01, 1999 #2362
Hi Guru We are web development company based in the middle east have just launch a real audio site for a local popular radio station. The radio station has asked us to market the banners on the site as well. radio spots are sold on a 30sec basis and they have several packages for spot sales. We on the other hand have banners and require to sell them to potentaial advertisers. We cannot charge radio rates as they are too high and need to know how to set up the rates for the banners Regards Deepak

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 01, 1999 ):
Smaller sites without very specific targets are probably charging US$20 - US$35 cpms. You should begin by examining the rates of sites you consider comparable to yours.

Monday, February 22, 1999 #2351
Do you have any research or results of studies done that compare "consumer recall" by radio format (i.e. AM Talk formats might produce X% better recall than advertising aired on FM Music stations...)?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 22, 1999 ):
The Advertising Research Foundation library will be the most likely source.

Thursday, February 18, 1999 #2347
As a buyer I have always been given the necessary information needed to put together a buy. I am currently in a new position, and I am being asked to provide information that I've never concerned myself with before, or gotten involved with the how's or why's of the decision. I'm in dire need of help. Here goes: I have been asked to determine the number of GRP's that should be used in a proposal for a new client. I have not received any budget information. The schedule will run 6-8 months, my demo is A 25-35 and the GRP's should be spiked during the 1st & final week of each month. Also, I am to include TV, Cable, and radio. My question is: Do I simply request avails from the various TV & radio and cable stations within the market, put together a proposed schedule based on the avail information I receive, and add up the number of GRP's accordingly? HELP!!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 18, 1999 ):
Congratulations, today you are a media planner. But apparently you are working with people lacking professional advertising experience or perhaps a retail client.

You either need some marketing goals input or you need to suggest some goals and get agreement before proceeding. You have been presented with a question equivalent to "how many pounds of nails are needed to build a building?"

You need to know how big a building, what materials it will be made of, how many nails in a pound, to what use will it be put and how big must it be?

To recommend schedule weights you need either a budget or a communications goal to deliver. In media / marketing terms you need to establish -- whether you are given direction or someone accepts your suggestions:

  • What has priority: Reach or frequency?
  • is there a minimum reach or effective reach to attain; per week, in four weeks, or in total?
  • To help answer those questions, if no simple answer is available, you might ask is it a new or established product or service?
  • What levels are used by the competition, if any?
  • Are there any specific product awareness, ad awareness or sales volume goals?
  • (In planning advertising, assume everything is a result of advertising: there is no awareness among people not reached; there are no sales to people who are not aware of the product.)

Knowing all this, you could examine reach frequency and continuity impact of various levels and combinations of your media choices. In other words, you somehow need to establish what must be accomplished by the GRPs, before you can decide how many to use.

It is puzzling, in this great information vacuum, that someone has decided to "spike" certain weeks. Apparently there is some information around which you haven't yet been given.

Wednesday, February 17, 1999 #2344
How do you calculate the average radio or TV CPP for a specific market?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 17, 1999 ):
It depends on what data you have to work with and how you want to describe your result.

The general rule is to add up all the GRPS delivered and all the costs. Then divide total cost by total GRP.

But this assumes you are working with some real numbers, either a past buy or proposed schedules. Averaging CPPs directly is usually wrong. If you have only CPP's to work with, you will need to get either their associated costs or associated ratings to work back into the numbers you need for accurate averaging.

Tuesday, January 26, 1999 #2289
Is there a formula that radio stations use to determine the rate an advertising agency or buying service must pay for advertising? Also, would you know what the Total HH Universe for radio in America is , or where can I find this information?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, January 26, 1999 ):
In setting rates, of course a station must cover its costs of operation. But radio is a negotiable medium and the station has to consider what the marketplace pricing (cost per point) is for the demographics in which they have strength or wish to sell.

The U.S. Household universe for radio is the total household universe, or roughly 100 million. But, because radio is a highly personal medium, and audiences are based on individual listening, households are not considered relevant for radio. radio ratings for households haven't been provided in standard research for 30 years or more.

Tuesday, January 19, 1999 #2277
I have my own Saturday morning 3-hour talk radio program on a 50,000 watt station in San Diego. Although I have been hosting the program for 2 years now, I have no experience in obtaining sponsors/advertisers. I don't know who to approach nor what to say that will attract advertisers. The station doesn't have ad sales people. The owners won't invest in the station because they want to sell it. How can I get advertisers?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, January 19, 1999 ):
  1. Determine what you have to sell:

    Is it audience numbers, audience quality (the kind of people in your audience), or the specific content of your program?

    The audience data can be quantified by research, like Arbitron so be sure you have that data at hand when you try to sell.

  2. Determine who would buy sponsorships:

    To what advertisers would what you have to sell appeal? Start with clients of local agencies. Visit the buyers who handle these clients and give them the facts about your program and why it is right for their client.

  3. Check your Yellow Pages for independent advertising representatives who can handle all this for you. You may need to look to the nearest major advertising industry hub (Los Angeles) to find the rep you need.

Thursday, January 14, 1999 #2262
I am looking for a statistic that states what number of advertisements the average Amercian is exposed to in an average day. Can you help?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 15, 1999 ):
The Guru has seen figures from 1500 to 20,000. These are all used to enflame someone and sell some specific approach to advertising. Often, these statistics include exposure to product labels. Also the experience of someone walking city streets for a large part of their day is quite different than somone indoors in an office or out in a rural environment.

Let's try to give this some perspective. If a person sleeps 8 hours and is awake 16 hours, then there are only 960 (16x60) minutes of the day when the person can be exposed to advertising. If one assumes that an average ad exposure consumes :30 seconds (allowing for radio :60's and 10 second promos) then, even if the person spent every waking minute doing nothing but looking at ads, the maximum exposure would be 1920. But no one's day is 100% advertisng. If you involve yourself in watching tv or listening to radio or reading magazines, ehich are probably the most ad-rich experiences of a person's day, then not more than one-third of your time would be spent being exposed to ads, so the maximum count drops to 640. Now try to imagine how much time of your day is ad-free, while you are in a business meeting, writing a report, digging a hole, etc. How much ad exposure time is left?

Sources like the Advertising Research Foundation will have articels with some of the claims, but remeber to consider them in the light of reality.

Wednesday, January 06, 1999 #2248
Media Guru, I have been successful producing and placing radio and television campaign spots. Now, I would like to learn how to market campaign merchandise and political candidates on the internet. Where should my first stop be?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 07, 1999 ):
This is not a media question, but the Guru would warn you that there are all too many players claiming expertise in marketing on the internet. The true experts are doing it, not teaching it.

For some insights, visit The List of Marketing Lists and subscribe to a couple of the internet marketing and advertisng discussions.

Tuesday, December 22, 1998 #2232
We use a buying service for our media. I'm just learning and was asked what seems a simple question, but do I have all the elements and could you help me to formulate the equation to learn. We are running 125 TRP's weekly in radio flighted thoughout the year. 3,000 total TRP's for the year. $550,000 total budget. CPP ranges from $32 to $200, average is $90. Q. With 125 TRP's a week, approximately how many spots a week will this schedule produce?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 23, 1998 ):
The Guru assumes you are running 125 GRP in each market.

Depending on market and demographic, average ratings run from about 1.0 - 2.0 on top stations. Divide GRP by the average rating you will buy to estimate number of spots. At an average rating of 1.0, 125 GRPs represents 125 spots.

And you didn't need any of that cost or cpp data.

Friday, December 11, 1998 #2216
Dear guru- we are trying to figure out how to combine impressions for radio and newspaper across 18 markets. should we combine each market separately? or should we combine all markets for each media vehicle? what is the best way to do this? thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, December 11, 1998 ):
It depends on what use you want to make of the data. Impressions may be added across media and across markets.

The tricks come when you want to turn them into GRPs. Then you must compare impressions against the population for the relevant geography to get GRPs for that geography.

Wednesday, December 09, 1998 #2210
I need to provide some rationale for radio advertising for a local, full service nursing home (demo w50+.) Goals are to increase the number of people in the actual nursing home, as well as its independent living and assisted living facility. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 10, 1998 ):
If you want to justify radio for a target of 50+, you need to compare radio's audience and efficiency versus other media. And to focus on the various, highly 50+ skewed formats radio offers.

But the Guru thinks your target might need re-consideration. In the Guru's contact with nursing home admissions, it has been apparent that the decison is rarley made by the patient, but instead by family members, particularly their children. The overall decision that a nursing home is necessary may be made by a hospital, at discharge, as often as by family, but specific selection is usually by family.

Monday, December 07, 1998 #2205
I work with network radio and have a client that only wants to advertise 3 :30s a week (M-F / 6am-12midnite) for 12 weeks. Would you recommend us scheduling consecutive days each week using the same days every week? Is there a model to follow with these type of schedule? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, December 07, 1998 ):
In the Guru's opinion, such an insignificant schedule will not be much affected by any scheduling techniques. 3 spots per week for 12 weeks, or 36 total spots would be a erasonable 2 or three week schedule if you were buying three or four networks' similar schedules each week.

Assuming you are on some a very good network, averaging 2 target rating. Perhaps you'll get a 5% reach per week at 1.2 average frequency (and 25% over the 12 weeks, with an average frequency of 3).

With this minor weekly audience impact, scheduling alternate days, consecutive days, different days or same days in different weeks cannot have much effect.

Directionally, in theory, the more different element to your schedule, in day-of-week or time of day, the better reach you will achieve. BUt in your case, one or two reach points will be a big change.

If by some miracle, you have such an exciting product and impactful commercial that one exposure makes the sale every time, then do go for the most disperse possible schedule.

Friday, December 04, 1998 #2199
Dear Guru, From your point of view, what would be the principal reasons why media planners would prefer to use one media rather than another? Taking into consideration TV, radio, Press, Outdoor, Direct Mail, Cinema etc. What would you consider as being the attraction of each to the media planner? Many thanks for your help

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, December 04, 1998 ):
The Guru hopes that professional planners are looking at these media for their contribution to achieving the objectives and strategies of the advertiser, not for individual appeal to the planner.

Sometimes a product needs a visual medium to illustrate product benefits or shelf appearance. Other times a better known or less differentiated product benefits most from the frequency of radio.

Please visit the Guru's Media Strengths page.

Wednesday, December 02, 1998 #2195
In radio terminology can you please explain a wired and unwired network? Also, is a wired network the same as a line network? As always, thanks for your help!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 02, 1998 ):
Wired and line are the same. The terms stem from the days when telephone lines were the primary connection for a network. Wired or line networks are sets of stations under affiliation ageements to carry a network's programming, typically on a common schedule or with stated exceptions. "Unwired" is essentially a way for a spot rep to sell a long list of stations as a package. No programming is involved; just spots or GRPs.

Monday, November 23, 1998 #2170
Dear Guru! Since there are several media planning softwares in the market I wanted to ask: are there any guidelines for measuring the gap between the prediction and the actual results. What I mean is: Is there a "normal" gap, for example: 20% gap between the predicted reach\Grps (pre campaign)to the results (post campaign). Thank you!Irene Kol.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, November 23, 1998 ):
This is a two part question:

1- The "gap" in GRPs will not be due to the software, it is based on your buyers' estimating ability and the accuracy of post analysis as well as the reliability of your audience research.

2- Since reach is derived from models based on averages, there can be variance. Variance will also depend on the medium you are considering and how it is measured.

For example, if your magazine audience research is conducted once a year when you plan a quarter's campaaign of 1 insertion in each of 5 magazines and then buy exactly that, how will you ever know if the reach was different than you planned?

On the other hand, suppose you plan radio based on a specific number of GRP on a specific number of stations, in a specific daypart mix, and you buy exactly that. How would you judge that the reach goal wasn't met, unless the buy did not deliver as planned, whether because of poor estimating, station failing to schedule properly or a new ratings book?

In no case are you dealing with the accuracy of the planning software.

Many agencies and clients agree to a +/- 10% range in delivery of broadcast GRPs. Other standards are often agreed as well.

Friday, November 20, 1998 #2167
For a national radio campaign, can media be bought by format only if I wanted to reach Generation X only?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 20, 1998 ):
Like other age demographics, there is no one format that covers everyone. You will need to examine the appeal of several formats and, if reach is an issue, buy something of a spectrum.

Wednesday, November 18, 1998 #2161
Hello,I work at a health care organization and we utilize a lot of advertising (i.e., print, t.v., radio). We are interested in secondary research which includes how health care consumers (health care consumers specifically) decision making process is altered or effected by advertising mediums. I am interested in both branding campaigns as well as product line specific campaigns (i.e., heart). Is there a place I could start to obtain this information? Does ARF have any research on this topic? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 20, 1998 ):
Yes, the Advertising Research Foundation is a good place to check.

Tuesday, November 10, 1998 #2144
I need to find out more information on how to figure reach and frequency, especially four week averages as it applies to print, radio and television. What is the best source to use for finding R/F analysis including some work samples. Help me Guru, I want to be like you!

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 10, 1998 ):
When the Guru started out, Reach and Frequency was calculated manually with the aid of tables and factors. Since then media have become more complex and measurement more detailed. Complicated, multi-step algorithms such as numerous iterations of the Beta-binomial function must be calculated. Now, the computer is virtually the only way Reach and Frequency is analyzed.

Some of the measurers such as Simmons, and MRI have systems for R&F on the media they measure. A few, rare, media such as Telemundo Spanish TV Network, offer sytems (STRETCH2) for their medium.

Most common is the specialized, all-medium software system, such as the one provided by AMIC's sister company, Telmar.

Thursday, November 05, 1998 #2123
Dear Guru, we work with a medical-device company. Our primary target audiences are physicians. We have been utilizing b-b pubs as our primary form of marketing communications but are looking for other means to communicate our messages. One consideration has been direct mail. I have been unable to locate any usable reseach that would indicate that direct mail is a successful means to communicate with physicians? Are there any research studies, that you are aware of, that would help to answer the question is direct mail effective when targeting a physician audience and if it is an effective means do standard frequecy rules apply? My current belief is that direct mail is not an effective means, for this audience, if the message content is image. Possibly something to consider if the message content is that of direct response. Thanks in advance....

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 05, 1998 ):
The Direct Marketing Association (DMA) ought to have some infromation for you.

Other media to consider are physicians radio networks and video tape releases.

Friday, October 30, 1998 #2117
I have a client that would like to do an image radio schedule for the first time. An 8 week schedule was proposed - he wants to cut it to 6 weeks for budget reasons. The reach and frequency for both schedules are similar. Is there research to show him as to why the longer schedule will have more impact and long term effectiveness?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 30, 1998 ):
There seems to be a missing factor. If you were running 100 GRP per week for 8 weeks and cut back to 100 GRP per week for 6 weeks, GRP would be reduced by 25%. Therefore, reach or frequency would have to change significantly, if not both.

I.e: suppose your 8 week plan had a reach and frequency of 60 / 13.3 with 800 GRP. If you reduced the plan to 6 weeks / 600 GRP and the reach did not go down, frequency would drop to 10 -- a 25% change. If the frequency did not go down then the reach would have to decline to 45, again a 25% decline. Realistically both reach and frequency should exhibit obvious drops.

Perhaps someone is mistakenly comparing average 4-week reach in the two plan. That comparison would be irrelevant, but be "similar" if not identical.

If you mean that the 8 weeks schedule is compressed into 6 weeks, then there would be an avergae 4 week difference but no budget reduction.

In this case, however "recency" theory would prefer the 8 week version becasue it provides more chances to deliver advertising to the consumer at a time of decision making. This theory may not be appropriate for "image" campaigns.

Wednesday, October 14, 1998 #2096
Dear Guru, Could you advise me any sources about memorization indices for different media (eg. outdoor, radio, daily newspapers etc.) Thanks in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 15, 1998 ):
The Guru has not seen indices comparing recall (if that's what you mean) across media. If any exist, the Advertising Research Foundation library is most likely to have the data.

Wednesday, October 14, 1998 #2095
Dear Guru, Do you know special media models for autdoor advertising? Are there any difference of modelling diffrent media? What is the most appropriate model for calculating reach and frequency for the outdoor advertising. There are several models like Agostinis, Beta Binomial eg., what is the closest one to the outdoor models. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 15, 1998 ):
Harris Donovan of Canada has an Outdoor Reach and Frequency system.

A media reach model is based on several observations of the actual reach achieved by real schedules and finding a "curve" that matches a regression analysis of the GRP vs frequency lines. Some of the models you mention are appropriate with small ratings like radio's or medium ratings like consumer magazines'.

Thursday, October 08, 1998 #2084
How do you explain the following media terms "composition" and "coverage" to a client who can't seem to grasp the concept!

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, October 10, 1998 ):
There are two ways to evaluate the "appeal" or "power" of a medium with your target audience


  1. What portion of the target group choose to be in the audience - This is "coverage." If only 0.5% of the target watches / listens to / reads the medium, its coverage is 0.5% and it's power with that target group is small. If the number is 25%, then this medium is a powerful means of communication in that target group.

    In some media categories, like radio, the range from high to low is fairly small so comparing within the medium is important. In others like magazines, the range can be quite broad.

  2. Some media, by virtue of their overall size, will "cover" large numbers of your target. Yet at the same time, only a small proportion of that medium's audience is within the target group.

    This is low "composition." It indicates the degree to which a medium is aimed at your target.

Tuesday, October 06, 1998 #2075
I do the planning for a brand of milk food, meant for children's consumption. My Target Audience is young mothers. Could you please suggest an innovative ad. medium, leaving aside the regular TV, radio, print, outdoor etc? Nagarjun

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 06, 1998 ):
Leaving all these aside doesn't leave room for much except the new electronic media (E.g. in the U.S., Parents' Magazine web site) or store / product related advertising.

It isn't clear from your query whether you product is a milk substitute, milk additive, or ?

You might consider "shelf talker" or other POP materials. Best of all, if feasible, you might even consider ads on milk cartons.

Wednesday, September 30, 1998 #2063
Dear Guru, another question for television audiences measurement: in an holyday period should this homes be considered zero audience or simply be excluded of the panel at this time? Do you run in your country specific holydays studies for television audiences and for press and radio?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, September 30, 1998 ):
Surely advertisers would want to know how much audience they miss due to a holyday, and the universe should be held constant.

The Guru is not aware of any syndicated studies specific to holydays in the U.S.

Monday, September 28, 1998 #2058
Hi Guru, we 'meet' again. What is the best choice of media to be used while advertising for a major shopping mall? Are there any case studies or previous campaigns I can refer to?. Thanks for your replies Guru.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 28, 1998 ):
"Best media" is always relative to the marketing goals. You will probably want to focus on media which closely cover the trading circle of your mall.

Newpapers, radio and out-of-home are the ones most often thought of on a smaller local basis.

Your target and whether you are doing image advertising or promoting a sales event will also be a factor.

AMIC is about to establish a library of model media plans including the retail category, but it isn't there yet.

Thursday, September 17, 1998 #2048
We have a client who is interested in utilizing Network radio over a two-month period (January and February) to help maximize the awareness of a new brand. Is there any research that correlates radio TRP levels with brand awareness levels to give us some direction on how many points we should buy for the period without generating too much wearout? we should buy? brand.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, September 23, 1998 ):
Awareness is more likely to correlate with reach/frequency than TRP's. Only those reached can be aware. The same level of TRPs might reach 40% of a target or 60% depending on the schedule.

The Guru has seen research that shows that any level below 100 TRP a week in TV allows awareness to decay.

Most research on wearout which the Guru has seen ties wearout to frequency i.e. a commerical is worn out (loses sales effectiveness) after "X" exposures. This may be expressed as the frequency in the next-to-highest quintile. I.e. the 40% most exposed to the commercial would have "X" or more exposures. 25 exposures might be the threshold level you choose. This level would occur at about 200 TRP/week for 8 weeks, which is more than the Guru would guess you would buy.

By the way, one Adult 18-49 plan with those quintiles would have a 66 reach. Another plan with the same TRP's and different schedule could have an 85 reach and just 22 exposures in the next-to-highest quintile.

Wednesday, September 16, 1998 #2046
Do you know of a company that brokers remanant radio time? We currently buy print advertising through two different remnant brokers, but have not found the same for radio. We need very competitive, DR rates. I'm concerned that just letting reps know of our interest will not generate enough inventory. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 22, 1998 ):
The Guru is not aware of any such brokers. In radio, the standard rep contract gives the rep a commission on any sales through any other rep, so this sort of brokering would not be financially feasible. The regular reps, however, may be a source for you.

The nature of broadcast "mechandise" which is perishable makes the situation quite different than print where last minute cancellations or less-than-national buys create space that will carry a cost unless sold. Often, broadcasters will give away unsold time as bonuses to paying advertisers.

There has been a history of buyers who are open to remnant time making themselves known to radio networks as ready to buy any remnants. The same technique might work with spot if you can identify enough stations that you are willing to buy on this basis.

Monday, September 14, 1998 #2043
Is the upfront selling period for network radio the same as it is for network television? I realize that this period for network television focuses on commercial time for the upcoming fall shows. Does network radio differ? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 15, 1998 ):
The TV "upfront" concept is based on two facts:
  • For a price advantage, advertisers will make commitments to a year's worth of Network TV, on which they spend enormous amounts of money, and

  • New TV programming introduced in September changes the buying landcsape and creates a logical starting point for a year of commitment.

Neither of these applies to network radio, which gets less than 5% of network TV's dollars and has no particular new programming season.

There isn't any Network radio "upfront."

Wednesday, September 09, 1998 #2037
I am looking for a method of calculating reach and frequency for national syndication radio vignettes. A. Does the amount of time of the vignette matter ie, 90seconds, 120seconds etc. B. Is there a method of adding multiple radio station figures together and averaging out these calculations accurately. C. Is there an inexpensive source for this information on a national level.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, September 09, 1998 ):
A) Length doesn't matter in reach and frequency (unless you are dealing with a commercial long enough to experience audience turn-over during its air time).

B) In syndication, usually stations are exclusive with a given geography, so the audiences are additive nationally, or may be mean-averaged across markets.

C) Arbitron and RADAR provide such data. "Inexpensive" is a matter of opinion.

Tuesday, September 08, 1998 #2031
Dear Guru, I'm new in the Advertising field. I would like to know how to calculate the Target Market Reach1+, Reach2+, abd the Average Frequency. TIA. -- SKY

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, September 09, 1998 ):
The answer depends upon what data you are starting with. At its most simple, "1+" reach is the same as just saying "reach". If you know the GRPs, and the reach, then the average frequency is calculated by dividing reach into GRPs.

At bottom however, in each medium, TV, radio, print, etc. reach was actually measured at some point, rather than calculated . That is, using respondent level measurement, such as Nielsen or MRI or Simmons, actual schedules advertiser were evaluated for gross audience accumulated and the net reach accumulated, as well as how many people saw exactly one advertisement in the schedule, how many saw 2, how many saw three, and so on. As the Guru stated above, reach is defined as those who saw one or more (1+) advertisements. 2+ or 3+, etc, is determined by adding those exposed to each discreet number of ads.

Taking the results of many of these schedules as a scatter graph, a classic reach curve may be plotted. Or, by arraying GRPs and frequencies in a table, a formula equivalent to the curve can be determined statistically. This formula then becomes a "model" for calculating reaches of other schedules in similar media. Formulae for 2+, 3+ frequencies can also be calculated. There are no simple formulas for doing this. "Beta Bimodal" is one statistical function frquently used. These functions and models are usually built into large computer media planning systems like Telmar's.

Wednesday, August 26, 1998 #2015
I've been asked to apply "impact factors" to my media schedules. These factors might include weighting TV as higher on the impact scale than radio. Or factoring the impact of a spread versus a single page. Or the impact of a :60 on TV vs. a :30. Has anything been published in the area of media impact factors?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 31, 1998 ):
Quite a lot has been published on the topic. Comparisons between TV dayparts often are based on attentiveness scores from resources like Simmons. In magazine page/coloration units, Starch scores are typically used. Between different media a lot of judgment comes in, unless the advertiser has done extensive testing, on its own.

The two great media research collections, the library of the Advertising Research Foundation and the Newsweek Media Research Index will be the best source of published work on the topic.

Monday, August 24, 1998 #2010
Thanks for this great service. I represent a radio syndication operation that has a unique opportunity to provide a media buying service for an advertising rep firm. This firm would like us to create a network of stations that provides a 1.4 AQH Rating for A18-49 at $1,425.00 CPP. We can easily create this network of stations and get $570.00 CPP. How do we charge this rep firm for our service?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 24, 1998 ):
Somewhere between $671 ($570 "grossed-up") which is what a rep might get with commission, and $1425, which is the price your client offered to pay. From there the decision will be based on your relationship and what you hope to do in the future

Friday, August 21, 1998 #2009
I'm having a difficult time trying to find any material that will teach me how to use CPP when buying network and spot radio. My contacts in the advertsing field tell me that they learned how to use this formula through experience. I know the formula for CPP. However, is there any resource that will show me how to implement CPP when buying network and spot radio? Something that will show me some shortcuts or maybe some examples? Thanks again for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 21, 1998 ):
Once you know how to calculate CPP, its uses are pretty straightforward.
  • CPP is an efficiency indicator. Media proposals you are considering can be ranked from lowest CPP to highest if efficency is a goal
  • CPP can be a goal you give to sales people, e.g. "I'm buying a $100 Women 18-49 CPP, what avails do you have at that pricing?"
  • CPP can be weighted with other factors like rating size or cume
  • CPP can be used to caluculate cpm when the universe is known: CPP divided by 1% of the universe expressed in thousands yields cpm
    (this is only valid when rating and audience in thousands come from the same geography as they do in Network. In spot, where you may use a metro rating but TSA thousands , the formula is imprecise at best)
  • CPP can be used as a bottom line number to compare possible schedules you are putting together

Remember - never average CPPs themselves; total the costs and total the ratings of schedules and calculate the bottom line CPP from the totals.

Friday, July 31, 1998 #1981
Is there a formula that would indicate increases in effectiveness if a direct mail campaign is supported by other media? Example: TV and radio campaign to increase awareness of a product followed by a targeted mailing with a call to action. Thanks, Guru

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 31, 1998 ):
The Direct Marketing Association (DMA) would be the best source for such information.

Wednesday, July 29, 1998 #1978
If I'd like to compare cost-efficiency of certain radiostation and certain TV station, would it be correct to apply some coefficient for radio GRP's (like 0,3 radio grp's vs 1 TV's)? Is there any reliable research findings concerning the question of comparable value of, say, the same kind of units but for different media? Thankful for your answer, Elena, Moscow

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 29, 1998 ):
Cost efficiency is typically used to compare media while intentionally ignoring "qualitative" differences. Of course, planners like to assign values to represent the differing value of communication power or whatever.

What is your measurement standard in a media plan? Reach, effective reach, sales per grp?

It is quite unlikely that a TV grp has 3 times as much of anything - recall / sales motivation / etc. And one must keep in mind that GRPs have their effects as part of schedules, not one at a time. Even if one radio announcement was 30% as strong on some basis as one tv annoouncement, the accumulation of effect over the course of a schedule would become much less, especially if radio's lower cost per GRP allowed a bigger schedule for the same money, which is why efficiency is compared in the first place.

Short answer - develop comparisons of efficiency and effectiveness separately. Then use effectiveness as an index on efficiency if you must.

ESOMAR , the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research organization or the Advertising Research Foundation may have studies on the relative effectiveness question.

Tuesday, July 28, 1998 #1976
Guru: I have a weekend talk radio program on a 50K watt station covering most of southern california (AM1170). I am on Saturdays 3-6pm and have been for more than a year. I have to obtain my own sponsors and am not very successful at doing that. My show is growing but the advertisers aren't there. Help! I have no experience at this and all that I've tried has failed.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, July 28, 1998 ):
The Guru is not familiar with the station. It isn't the norm for a show to be sold by the talent; are you buying the time for the show from the station? Does the station / your show have any measured audience? Audience is usually an advertiser's first question and lack of it is usually the worst obstacle. If no audience counts, what do you know about the kind of person who is listening or would be listening if your intended type of listener was in fact the listener?

Tuesday, July 28, 1998 #1975
Is there an accurate and reliable way to post spot radio? We have looked at two book averages(latest book and sweep book) as well as using only the latest book. In addition, is it possible to post based on specific times or are we limited to hourly data? Any suggestions?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 29, 1998 ):
1) The most accurate way to post is always using the measurement closest to the actual airing of the schedule. Of course one may have to take special programming into account, For instance if you buy the World Series, relying on data in the O-N-D book would be silly.

In ordinary cases, averaging books, when the schedule falls entirely into just one, is pointless.

2) Nothing finer than hourly is reported.

Friday, July 24, 1998 #1972
As an agency, we believe that we have made a smart and cost-effective media buy for 1998. We would like to show our client how smart the buy is in what really matters to them: dollars. Our media buy was not made to copy another so we have no base of comparison. As "an account guy" I don't have the total media knowledge of how to show savings. I have suggested building a model that shows a client that would make a buy within the market paying "average CPPs." With these average CPPs we could turn around and compare the CPPs we paid per daypart and show a savings. Is there a better way, in your mind, to show dollar or percentage savings?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 24, 1998 ):
SQAD is the leading purveyor of market average CPPs for General market TV and radio, Hispanic and other broadcast elements. Recent, sample SQAD costs are available in AMIC's Rates, Dates and Data area.

Tuesday, July 21, 1998 #1966
Sports radio networks rarely, if ever, give CPMs and TRPs for the proposals presented. When asked to provide this info, they cop-out saying "well, other agencies (i.e., JWT, Bozell, BBDO) buy our network." I understand there is a premium to associate yourself with a high profile sports team, but at what cost? Without having resources to evaluate each and every radio station in the network, how can I accurately present these proposals to my clients? Currently, I figure: total market CPP x average rating x number of spots x number of games scheduled + added value = total package value. Am I accurate?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 22, 1998 ):
When the Guru buys sports neworks, he gets audience and efficiency data. If you are saying that the networks give national data but not individual market rating, that's a somewhat different issue.If you are buying a team, its value is probably in its home market. If a network is only sold in total, what will you gain by identifying a weak station? If you have all the data to execute your formula, you should do fine.

Monday, July 20, 1998 #1962
Thanks for your response to my question (#1955.) I was refering to average frequency NOT effective frequency. In addition, our buys are targeted to the same demo, Men 25-54. Do these clarifications add any new light to your thoughts? I maintain that an average frequency of three (3) per radio station per week requires reducing the number of stations purchased which in turn reduces my reach and overall delivery. Any new thoughts. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 20, 1998 ):
The problem seems to be lack of a specific communication goal.
  • Is the plan goal maximum reach?
  • Is the plan goal optimal reach at an average frequency of 3 or more?

Once there is agreement on this, it is a simple matter to construct paper buys to illustrate what is acheived buying with and without the requirement of an average reach of 3 on each station and how each contributes to agreed goals (a buyer should not decide independently that reach is the overall goal).

The Guru notes that he does not generally support buying to goals based on set frequency per station. Some stations with low turnover will build reach slowly while frequency mounts quickly. A 3 frequency will come too early in that station's reach curve, while another station builds reach quickly and frequency slowly.

Friday, July 17, 1998 #1961
Can you offer me advice on how to buy remnant advertising on network and local radio? Are there any books that describe this procedure or other media buying procedures that save money? Thanks for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 17, 1998 ):
The simplest answer, a method followed by successful remnant buyers, is just to make yourself known to the media of interest to you. Make them understand you will take any unsold time or last minute cancellations off their hands at an agreed price or discount level. Being prepared to take any is the way to assure they come to you.

The Guru can't recommend any specific title for this question, but please take a look at the AMIC Bookstore .

Thursday, July 16, 1998 #1954
Dear Media Guru: Our client has asked that all radio stations on a spot radio buy MUST have a 3 frequency per week. I maintain that this mandate is too limiting (and is a sellers perspective) as it requires reducing the number of stations used and increasing the number of spots on the stations being bought. I do agree that a 3 frequency for the entire buy makes sense, but not by station. What are your thoughts?? Thanks so much.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 16, 1998 ):
Is that a minimum average frequency or a minimum (effective) frequency?

The idea of exhausting a station's cume before moving to the next most efficient station can make sense, as a buying strategy.

If stations are reaching definably different market segements which are individually important to your planning, and you need to reach these segments equally, than the station-by-station standard might make sense.

But if all stations are targeted to the same demo and only differ by rating size or formats which are not relevant to brand marketing, then only the overall frequency ought to matter.

Thursday, July 16, 1998 #1953
I'm "shopping" for databases/software of TV and radio station directories as well as newspapers and outdoor companies. (Comprehensive listings including address, phone and fax numbers, call letters, formats, personnel, tape requirements, etc.) Our agency currently subscribes to SRDS for this type of information, however, they will not sell their products in a database format. We want to upgrade to a more "high-tech" system so my quest has led me to do a product/cost comparison of what is available now.So far I have located the following companies: Media Market Resources (TV and radio Datatrak; BIA Companies and Parrot Media. Do you know of any other sources? I need to complete my analysis and submit this proposal to my Management by 7/22. Thanks for your assistance. By the way, this is a great forum for media professionals to gather information and share ideas. Thanks again.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 16, 1998 ):
The Guru has not seen as complete a set of listings as Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS)'. They do offer an online database version.

MRI also has a CD-ROM for consumer magazine data.

Monday, July 06, 1998 #1937
Dear Guru, I'm trying to find info on the relationship between reach and frequency known as the prime axiom in media planning. Such as, what it is, why is it useful and how is it directly or indirectly measured? Also, I need research on the volatility of broadcast media. For instance, how can broadcast media avoid law suits if they fail to run a commercial. I'm frantically completing a take home exam for a graduate class and can't find research on these topics. Any help you can give would be greatly appreciated. I'll let you know if we get an "A."

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, July 07, 1998 ):
One wonders at the sort of course where these terms matter but are not thoroughly taught. Reach and Frequency are the weights and measures of a media plan.
  • "Reach" tells you how many different people are exposed to an advertising schedule. It is commonly expressed as a percentage of a target group's population. E.g. 75 percent reach among women 18-49.
  • "Frequency" tells you the average number of exposure to the schedule experienced by the people reached.
The usefulness should be obvious: no matter how great or impactful an ad may be, it will not sell product unless it reaches enough people and reaches them frequently enough to have an effect on their behavior.

The various research tools media planners use which measure the audience of TV shows, radio stations, magazines, etc can also tell us how many people are reached by schedules of several uses of theses programs and books. From these direct measurements, statistical models are built which can estimate the reach and frequency of schedules being planned. Media Planners can therefore compare alternate schedules to determine which ones will best meet reach/frequency goals.

Thinking of pure arithmetic relationships, reach and frequency are linked with GRPs -- Gross Rating Points. When the ratings (audience as percent of target group) of all the individual ads in a schedule are added up, the resulting total is GRP. GRP divided by reach = frequency and reach X frequency = GRP. 2. Mistakes happen. Fine print in contracts protects broadcasters against liability if they inadvertently miss airing a commercial, or deliberately do so because a higher paying advertiser comes along, or because the decide to air a news special. etc. Their only obligation is typically to give a "makegood," another commercial location with equal or better quality.

Monday, June 29, 1998 #1929
We are producing a 90-second radio vignette for our client. It will include :30 for their commercial and :60 of new entertaining content that relates to thier product. When scheduling this vignette to air on network radio once each day for 26 or 52 weeks, is it better to get a fixed time or an ROS type schedule? Thanks for your help!

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 29, 1998 ):
There are pros and cons to either. An ROS schedule should cost less per spot and per GRP. It should also develop better reach. A fixed time lets you pick your environment, but you may not have any particular prefernces, so that can be an illusory advantage. Over the course of an ROS schedule, ROS should get the network's average rating as the schedule's average rating, or a better one if that's what you negotiate. Picking fixed positions will not likely give any advantage over that.

The greatest remaining benefit of fixed positions is being able to tell the client to listen for his spot at a specific time. However, even with an ROS schedule, the network should be able to give you a scheduled times a day or two before they air.

Friday, June 26, 1998 #1926
My client, advertising in the southeastern United States, would like to see a cost efficiency index for the different media in our plan. Spot television, spot cable, spot radio and local newspaper are currently being considered. Our target audience description includes household income and job title. We do not subscribe to local syndicated research such as Scarborough or Media Audit. Is it possible to provide such an index without this research? If so, how?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 26, 1998 ):
Among the media you are considering, some will have the data you need and will probably be happy not only to supply it but to do much of the analysis you need.

Wednesday, June 24, 1998 #1920
Who, if any companies are selling several mediums (such as radio, tv, newspaper, billboard, direct mail, etc. as one big package to advertisers/agencies?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 26, 1998 ):
The Guru does not believe there are any such companies. True giants like Time-Warner or Disney ABC may own properties across such a broad spectrum, but aren't selling such complex packages, as far as the Guru is aware.

Thursday, June 04, 1998 #1884
I would appreciate any information that you can give me regarding impact weighting ratios. I need to do an exercise comparing ratings for TV, radio, outdoor and cinema and I believe that there is an international standard that I can apply. I am writing from South Africa. Many thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 04, 1998 ):
The Guru is not aware of any international standard. Comparing the impact of various media is either based on research or on judgement. Because media are consumed differently in different countries, the relative impact would differ. For example, there is very little cinema advertising in the U.S. and not even a ratings standard for that medium.

Friday, May 29, 1998 #1616
I really appreciate this section of your web site. It is a great idea! I deal with network radio. We produce 2-minute radio vignettes for advertisers. Each vignette includes sixty- seconds of entertaining new content that relates to the advertiser's product and sixty-seconds for their commercial. The content of each feature is designed to help to sell the product. When trying to determine the CPP for a 2-minute vignette like ours, would you consider the vignette to be a 2-minute commercial (two :60s) or would you consider each vignette to only contain one sixty-second commercial?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 02, 1998 ):
CPP is a simple calculation. Divide cost by rating. Length is not a factor. Sometimes buyers will create a special cpm adjustment based on length to compare different units.

If your content is a message about the specific product, you could count the whole 120 seconds. This makes no difference, except in the buyer's special case, mentioned above. Or, you can treat it as two :60's, which does make a difference, because the cost is then divided between the two commercials.

If, on the other hand, it is just related content, such as the history of shoe shines, to accompany a shoe polish commercial, then it is just a supportive environment, and not typically counted as a commercial message.

Thursday, May 28, 1998 #1612
A comparison of TV versus radio versus Outdoor in a developing country, namely South Africa, context.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 02, 1998 ):
You are asking for the entire contents of a major text. There are certain aspects of these media which are intrinsic, and do not depend on the country:

  • TV offers sight, sound and motion and can demonstrate products better.
  • radio is sound only but can call upon the imagination perhaps more strongly than TV.
  • Outdoor can convey only brief messages, but has powerful visuals. In a developing country, literacy will be a factor in assessing the value of outdoor.

Beyond such basics, every country will vary, as will sub segments within that country. If the Guru offered generalizations about the English language South African market, they might not apply to the Afrikaans segment.

In different cultures, the relative strengths and audience accumulation patterns of media vary, depending upon availability, penetration, language/literacy factors and much more.

Wednesday, May 27, 1998 #1609
Quick you have any suggestions on a specific book or person I could gleen information from about buying national network television and radio? The kind of how-to/phylosophy type stuff you can find anywhere when talking about local spot..???

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 01, 1998 ):
The Guru does not know of any worthwhile book on the topic. It would be better to search the archives of Ad Age and MediaWeek for articles written by the major buyers and media strategists. There have been many good ones, especially now, with optimizers all over the news. The Guru particularly likes Erwin Ephron's work. See his paper on the Telmar Awards Papers pages.

Saturday, May 23, 1998 #1602
I am looking for any guidelines / research about: 1- number of spots for radio (sustaining level, 50% heavy up, 100% heavy up 2 - if I have continues strategy what maximum gap of not being on air may I allow without harm to sales (one week, two, three?) 3 - in my country (Russia) we have practice in outdoor not to place competitors on two opposite sides of billboard, ahzt I think is not correct, as each face of billboard works for different directions and can not compete with each other. What is the practice regarding this in other countries. Thank you very much.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 26, 1998 ):
1) The Guru doesn't judge radio effectiveness in terms of numbers of spots. If one schedule of 12 spots, for example, has an average rating of 0.5 (one-half of 1 percent of the target audience), which is common, it cannot be considered equal to another station's 12 spots with an average rating of 2.5 (also reasonable for top stations in the US). The first accumulates 6 GRPs and might reach 3% of the target, the second accumulates 30 GRPs and might reach 12-15% of the target.

So GRPs' or other audience measure are more realistic ways to determine levels. Having done this, if you determine that 100 GRPs, for example, is the correct sustaining level, then by simple arithmetic, 50% heavy-up is 150 GRPs and 100% heavy-up is 200 GRPs

2) Awareness begins to decline as soon as there is any advertising gap. Current thinking is that sales of a continuously purchased product are better supported by continuity at whatever level is affordable rather than an arbitrary minimum effective weekly level, separated by periods of inactivty. The U.S.'s Advertising Research Foundation has considerable literature on the topic and so might ESOMAR , the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research organization

3) The Guru agrees with you regarding opposite sides of a billboard. The competitive protection policies the Guru is familiar with in the U.S. only deal with advertising seen by the same audience, that is, traffic headed in the same direction. Usually there will be a certain range specified, such as "Within 500 feet" for metropolitan 8-sheet boards, which are about 5x12 feet and can be placed in dense concentration within cities.

Wednesday, May 20, 1998 #1599
Dear Media Guru, I am developing and producing a short radio feature for barter syndication. On what basis do syndicators typically set their ad rates? I realize that the rates may be highly negotiable but are there any common formulas (based on CPM, CPP or some other data) used by syndicators to arrive at an "asking price"? Also, can you recommend any resources helpful in developing and marketing syndicated radio programming? Thanks for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, May 20, 1998 ):
Some of the issues in syndicated programming pricing are:
  • CPM or CPP better than spot radio pricing for similar audience size
  • Possible premium for an attractive program environment.
  • %U.S. coverage

There are numerous radio syndication companies, handling everything from Rush Limbaugh to obscure musical formats. One good way to solicit response from -- or tips about -- the right resource would be to post a message about your program to the "radio Media" discussion list. Send your request to join the discussion to

Thursday, May 14, 1998 #1591
we are in the process of recommending to a new client a media strategy that will help him sell more olives and cucumbers (both products in either can and glass containers). The client has a large marketshare, about 42%. Neither this client nor competitors have ever advertised their products. In this respect the category has been rather dormant. What guidelines can you provide regarding a 3 year plan. Since the company name is very well known, does it make sense, for example, to 'fortify' TV advertising with radio? Providing that radio has very good reach, is there a synergetic effect with TV or is the money better spent in one media? Thank you Irene Kol

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 14, 1998 ):
Modern thinking for such products emphasizes reach over frequency. It is more important to have some presence at any time that a purchaser might be making a purchase decision, than to drive reach to high levels (with more frequency) over a short campaign.

One guideline tha comes from this is to make a media mix more valuable, since a secondary medium almost always adds more reach than additional investment in the base medium.

Assuming then that you can afford an acceptable minimum continuous level of TV, addding radio will be wise.

No matter your client's awareness and market share, the first entry into advertising in this category will probably change the picture.

Wednesday, May 13, 1998 #1590
Is there any research regarding the value of a radio remote vs. a regular maintenance schedule.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, May 13, 1998 ):
The radio Advertising Bureau (RAB) compiles information of this kind.

Thursday, May 07, 1998 #1584 to achieve better reach in lesser media budget? 2.please provide some tips on clever media planning. 3.who is best media planner as per you and why?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, May 08, 1998 ):
1. If reach is the only concern then it is usually easy to find media with higher reach per dollar. For example, outdoor delivers enormous reach and has the lowest cpm of all traditional media.

Smaller units also stretch budgets without losing reach. Fractional pages or TV :15's instead of :30's, radio :30's instead of :60s also help.

But of course, there are other, copy effectiveness and impact issues associated with these media choices. There is always a trade off; you can't get more reach in the same media for less money, unless you can persuade the sellers to lower the prices.

2. Clever media planning includes some of the ideas above, but also requires a planner to sell the ideas for their benefits, and get past the negatives. The goal of media planning is to deliver on the marketing objectives.

"Clever" is doing it in non-standard ways. Can you persuade the media to create special programming which ties into your campaign? Can you show the media a benefit to them in carrying your ads so that they want to resduce the price or give more than the usual value added elements?

If the Guru has one real tip on clever planning it is: Learn to use and understand the research which is available. Few in media today do. An knowledge of what research is available and how to apply it to media decision making will make a planner stand out, and appear clever and creative, because that planner, in fact, will be so.

3. The Guru himself is the best planner he knows. The nature of the media planner's position in the ad business is to be subordinated to creative and account services. There is little chance for planners to become known beyond their agencies. No doubt the "best media planner" lurks in unsung obscurity in a hundred agencies.

Monday, May 04, 1998 #1579
Guru, A partner and myself have recently started a company that specializes in custom audio for radio and television advertising (eg. jingles,custom music beds,voice-overs, or anything audio). My question is this: How do we go about finding the agencies or businesses that could benefit from this service? Our goal is to be the most cost effective professional service provider in this field. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 04, 1998 ):
The The Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies lists contact information, services and staffing of Advertisng Agencies

Thursday, April 30, 1998 #1578
what is the mathematical relationship between the cpp and cpm, is there any formula linking this two concepts?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 30, 1998 ):
CPP (Cost Per rating Point) is the cost of a number of media impressions equalling one per cent of a given population group (the specified "target"), as in Women 18-49 CPP.

CPM is the cost of 1000 target media impressions.

Therefore, the mathematical relationship depends on the number of thousands of people who equal one percent the target group.

For example, suppose there are one million women 18-49 in a market, and a radio spot has an audience of 20,000 women 18-49 at a price of $50.

The rating points generated by the spot are 2.0

(20,000 divided by 1,000,000).

The CPP is $25

($50 divided by 2.0)

The CPM is $2.50

($50 divided by 20[thousands])

Since CPP is the cost of impressions equal to 1% of the population, the CPM to CPP relationship is:

CPP divided by 1% of the population in thousands = CPM

In this case, $25 CPP divided by 10 [thousand]= $2.50 CPM


CPM times 1% of the population in thousands = CPP

While this works perfectly for national media, it can be tricky in local media unless geography is tightly defined. I.e. a broadcast CPM is usually defined as being on a Metro Area or DMA basis. CPM though, is often based on all impressions generated, even if outside the basic geography. Common geographic population definitions are essential to the accuracy of the formulas.

Tuesday, April 21, 1998 #1571
Do any of the radio rating services do a report on Christian radio?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 21, 1998 ):
Arbitron, the big name in radio ratings, does an every-other-year report on formats which includes "religious." MRI, the print and product usage study, also reports on the religious/gospel format. Other audience measurement studies will likely be similar.

The "Christian" format you refer to is a subset of religious and may only be specifically available in custom studies.

Tuesday, April 21, 1998 #1570
First of all, you have a great service. Thanks. Do you have any recommendations on how I can find independent sales representaives who specialize selling network radio?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 21, 1998 ):
If you literally mean network radio, i.e. interconnected stations carrying the same program fed at the same time (though clearances may vary) with imbedded commericals, these typically have in-house sellers. If you mean syndicated radio, with a program carried at various times by otherwise unrelated stations, there are several representatives.

One is Premiere radio Networks. If they can't help you, they can probably suggest several others.

Monday, April 20, 1998 #1568
What is the methodology (if there is a protocol) of giving a cash value to value-added promotions the client engages in with TV and radio stations? The value of the spots is the simple part, it's the out-of-home type promo that I find hard to mix, dollar for dollar, with the value of broadcast time.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, April 20, 1998 ):
Valuing Out-of-home merchandising is easy. You should have no trouble finding out from the vendor what the cost would be for you to buy the same out of home space (and production, if included).

Friday, January 16, 1998 #1488
What are the key strengths and weaknesses of Network radio?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 16, 1998 ):
In the Guru's opinion, Network radio's key strengths are coverage and efficiency. Weaknesses are rating size, and lack of clearance in-program.

See also the Guru's Media Advertising Strengths Page

Wednesday, January 14, 1998 #1486
Dear Guru, I would like to know whether there is a booklet having all the media information on Asia Pacific market, such as Advertising Expenditure, economic data, media environment (TV, press, radio etc) on a country by country basis.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 15, 1998 ):
Saatchi and other major multinational agencies often prepare these booklets.

The Telmar (AMIC'S sister company) office in Honk Kong might know specifically which agencies are best to ask.

Contact Lawrence Federman Telmar World Offices

Monday, December 22, 1997 #1481
I would like to have the E-Mial address of radio Recall Reserarch Inc., Holmdel, New Jersey My E-Mail Address is thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, December 23, 1997 ):
Switchboard and Four11 are two sites which offer email address search.

Monday, December 15, 1997 #1476

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, December 15, 1997 ):
Obviously the transfer can't affect radio until the TV message has acheived some penetration. As the campaign continues, the simultaneous start becomes irrelevant.

Friday, December 12, 1997 #1475
Dear Media Guru: This query addresses: How are advertising agencies generally organized? and How do I determine the proper person to present a proposal for a media buy? I work for a five-year-old minor league baseball team that has, until now, concentrated its efforts in selling advertising upon local businesses. However, we are the top entertainment attraction in our region, and we feel our market size combined with our reach and influence in the market should warrant our attracting some business from regional and national advertisers. Our availabilities include print, radio, billboard, and promotions. What would you suggest is the best strategy for approaching regional/national advertising agencies regarding the opportunities we have available? Should we work to contact the people in each agency who are responsible for making buying decisions for each individual client? Or would establishing a relationship with those individuals who are familiar with buying our market on behalf of many different clients be more productive in the long run? Thank you in advance for your assistance.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, December 12, 1997 ):
Agencies generally have a media department or at least a Media Director / Media Buyer who is responsible for evaluating a media proposal. If an agency is so small it doesn't have any media titles, the acount executive for a given advertiser would be the appropriate person.

Be sure to do your homework and be ready to talk about which clients at the agency wold benefit from your proposal and why. It is generally annoying to agency people to have a media seller show up with a non-specific proposal and ask "which of your clients would want this?"

Tuesday, December 09, 1997 #1474
How do I put a dollar value on pr media placements? For example, how is a 6 column inch pr mention in the NY Times or a 30 -second mention on a radio station measured in terms of dollars? Is there a formula to use for PR, or do I use the straight advertising rate?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, December 09, 1997 ):
The Guru believes equal space in PR coverage is worth more than an ad, but it's a judgement call how much more.

Tuesday, December 02, 1997 #1469
I am conducting a study on factors influencind effectiveness of ads on FM radio. I will be measuring ad-recall, w.r.t factors like ad-length, ad-position, ad block length, likeability. I am scouting for secondary info, but i do not seem to find any. I would like a copy of Mr. Colin McDonald's study on factors affecting ad-recall. Could you tell me as to where i could find the study and other relevant info. thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 03, 1997 ):
The best source is likely to be the Advertising Research Foundation library.

Friday, October 24, 1997 #1443
I work for an ad agency that does patient recruitment advertising for clinical trials. We have experienced great difficulty in recruiting older patients (such as 65+) in alot of our major markets, such Philadelphia, Phoenix, Miami,Charlotte. We have tried newspaper advertising, radio advertising and television. But our response rate is still very low. Is there something I'm forgetting, do you have any tips on targeting and recruiting individuals over 65. Help!!!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 24, 1997 ):
Persons 65+ have media preferences that differ from younger consumers. Presumably, you have used Nielsen TV, Arbitron radio and Scarborough or other newspaper research to determine the best media placement, quantitatively.

Newspapers may also offer research on preferred sections for this demographic.

When you have determined that your message is reaching enough of the targeted persons, and yo're certain that you're using programs that enhance credibility (such as TV/radio news and personality radio, then you need to look to the creative to determine if there is adequate credibility and persuasion.

The mature market has been shown to respond differently to ads, to seek more detail, and want to trust an advertiser.

Major metropolitan markets may raise more trust oriented issues.

Thursday, October 23, 1997 #1440
Hi Guru- 1) Briefly, what does CPP stand for? 2) Have you seen any good sources that compare the costs (CPM) of various media (billboard, banners, radio, newspaper etc)?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 23, 1997 ):
CPP is Cost Per Point. "Point" refers to Rating Points, the sum of the ratings of the ads in a schedule. So cost per point is schedule cost divided by number of rating points.

CPP is also used in describing the average cost of media or programs.

MediaWeek publishes a handy guide to media costs. SQAD publishes guides to various broadcast media.

Tuesday, September 16, 1997 #1414
We are in need of international media planning sources. We need planning data for the U.K. and the Caribbean. We are interested in sources that will identify available local market advertising media to begin our media selection process. We also need audience delivery research sources. The media classes that we are considering are: television (local broadcast and cable), local market radio, newspaper, magazines, outdoor and transit. If anyone could help, we would appreciate it. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 16, 1997 ):
There are media services which offer international support. The Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies (The Redbook) would list these. Another option is to form an affiliation with small local agencies in each country.

"The Caribbean" covers a multitude of countries and you will find agencies mostly divided along language lines, i.e. Spanish speaking vs English speaking vs French speaking islands, such as Puerto Rico vs Jamaica vs Martinique, as well as by national affiliation, i.e. different agencies for Puerto Rico vs The Domincan Republic.

One organization, Publicitas offers print representation around the world and may be helpful with other media.

Thursday, September 04, 1997 #1409
Dear Media Guru, I would be grateful for any tips or direction you could provide in researching the trends of movement from large agency media buying to more specialized independent media consulting and how it impacts clients?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 06, 1997 ):
This "trend" dates back to 1969 or earlier and has been covered extensively in the media trades, many now defunct, like MediaScope, TV/radio Age, and Inside Media Others, still in business, like Ad Age have also covered the topic extensively. Good libraries will have back issues and a searchable index.

Friday, August 22, 1997 #1400
Where could I find information regarding how automotive companies (i.e. Toyota, Oldsmobile, & Cadillac), handle their media planning and buying on a local/regional level?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 22, 1997 ):
Contacting the radio and TV stations or reps in the regions in which you are interested should tell you who is buying for each auto company in a given area. Only two or three calls to the major reps, should produce all the information.

The planning techniques may well be closely-guarded proprietary information.

Whether A/S style budgeting, investment spending, share gap, etc., etc. is used. Whether computer models and optimizations are used or not. Whether regions have freedom or just participate in nationally-based plans.

Whether agency leads in media selection or the advertiser.

Whether media types are purely based on creative considerations or media effectiveness and targeting ability.

Thursday, August 21, 1997 #1398
Is there a place on your site or any other site where there is a listing of media (specifically radio and tv and newspaper) terminology? Also is there a site that gives some info. of the basic techniques of buying radio, tv and newspaper?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 21, 1997 ):
For terminology, see the Guru's Encyclopedia of Media Terms The Guru is not aware of any sites that "teach" buying techniques. One interesting resource is the U Texas Austin TECAS Media Planner site.

Thursday, August 21, 1997 #1397
Where could I find information regarding how automotive companies (i.e. Toyota, Oldsmobile, & Cadillac), handle their media planning and buying on a local/regional level?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 22, 1997 ):
Contacting the radio and TV stations or reps in the regions in which you are interested should tell you who is buying for each auto comapny in a given are. Only two or three calls to the major reps, should produce all the information.

The planning techniques may well be closely guarded proprietary information, whether A/S style budgeting, investment spending, share gap, etc., etc. is used. Whether computer models and optimizations are used or not. Whether regions have freedom or just participate in nationally-based plans. Whether agency leads in media selection or the advertiser. Whether media types are pruley based on creative considerations or media effectiveness and targeting ability.

Wednesday, August 20, 1997 #1396
Who puts out a good radio and tv buying training book? How do I go about getting a hold of this information?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 21, 1997 ):
At Amazon Books, the Guru found Ntc Business Books' Introduction to Advertising Media : Research, Planning, and Buying by Jim Surmanek, who also has one of the standard media planning texts.

The same publisher also offers The Media Handbook / A Complete Guide to Advertising, Media Selection, Planning, Research & Budgeting by Helen E. Katz

The old standard media text Advertising Media Planning by Jack Z. Sissors, Lincoln Bumba probably gives less attention to buying.

There are many more books about planning than buying. Probably because (the Guru believes) broadcast buying can't be learned from a book. After the basic facts are digested: understanding ratings, cpm, programming and forecasting, it's people skills and technique that matter.

Tuesday, August 05, 1997 #1384
Are there any benchmarks for radio advertising as far as how many marketsto be in, how many $ to spend, etc. Especially for retail stores.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, August 06, 1997 ):
No, these facts change with the marketing situation. It should be obvious in a retail case that market selection depends on store locations.

Budget depends on availability of funds and the specific marketing task, like awareness or image building which may depend on continuity and long term presence, versus driving trafic to a specific, one-shotmsale or promotion.

The question suggests a student project withn an inadequate marketing brief.

Tuesday, April 29, 1997 #1330
Dear Guru, what is internet advertising place among aother media in theese days. Thank You Tomas Gedminas

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 29, 1997 ):
In U.S. terms, the web remains the smallest "national" medium, at about ½% of total ad spending. This makes it about half the volume of network radio.

Wednesday, March 19, 1997 #1016
What are the going numbers for total ad exposures per person per day? Is it possible tobreak down the average into the different media?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 19, 1997 ):
The Guru has seen estimates from a few hundred to many thousands.

The Guru tends to go along with one of the best accepted estimates, that there are about 245 ad exposures daily, 108 from TV, 34 radio and 112 print.

Others estimate 3000, 5000 or more. Even the 245 is "potential" and perhaps only half are real exposures.

The higher estimates probably include all marketing exposure including being in the vicinity of product labels or actual products with trademarks visible, such as your car, computer, fax, phone, shirt, pencil, paper towel in the bathroom, etc.

Just think, if we were really exposed to 3000 advertising messages per day, at an average of just 10 seconds apiece (accounting for radio :60's and brief exposure to billboards), these exposures would consume 8.33 hours out of our 16 waking hours per day.

The Guru is sceptical.

Wednesday, March 19, 1997 #1015
What are the going numbers for total ad exposures per person per day? Is it possible tobreak down the average into the different media?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 19, 1997 ):
The Guru has seen estimates from a few hundred to many thousands.

The Guru tends to go along with one of the best accepted estimates, that there are about 245 ad exposures daily, 108 from TV, 34 radio and 112 print.

Others estimate 3000, 5000 or more. Even the 245 is "potential" and perhaps only half are real exposures.

The higher estimates probably include all marketing exposure including being in the vicinity of product labels or actual products with trademarks visible, such as your car, computer, fax, phone, shirt, pencil, paper towel in the bathroom, etc.

Just think, if we were really exposed to 3000 advertising messages per day, at an average of just 10 seconds apiece (accounting for radio :60's and brief exposure to billboards), these exposures would consume 8.33 hours out of our 16 waking hours per day.

The Guru is sceptical.

Tuesday, March 18, 1997 #1017
What are the going numbers for total ad exposures per person per day? Is it possible to break down the average into the different media?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 19, 1997 ):
The Guru has seen estimates from a few hundred to many thousands.

The Guru tends to go along with one of the best accepted estimates, that there are about 245 ad exposures daily, 108 from TV, 34 radio and 112 print.

Others estimate 3000, 5000 or more. Even the 245 is "potential" and perhaps only half are real exposures.

The higher estimates probably include all marketing exposure including being in the vicinity of product labels or actual products with trademarks visible, such as your car, computer, fax, phone, shirt, pencil, paper towel in the bathroom, etc.

Just think, if we were really exposed to 3000 advertising messages per day, at an average of just 10 seconds apiece (accounting for radio :60's and brief exposure to billboards), these exposures would consume 8.33 hours out of our 16 waking hours per day.

The Guru is sceptical.

Saturday, March 15, 1997 #1303
Dear Guru. I have some questions about radio media-planning: 1. Could you recommend the book(s) which contains: a) definitions of the standard coefficients: GRPs, Reach, Frequency, Time Spend Listening (TSL), Average Rating b) Information about statistical models used for computing these numbers c) Sample outputs from radio media-planning software 2. I have download an educational software from University of Texas. Do you know any other places where can I import demo or edu software for media-planning 3. TSL is additive what means that: a) TSL for (say) 3 hours is a sum of appropriate 12 quater data b) TSL for a whole day is a sum of 12 x 4 quater values c) TSL for (say) three stations is a sum of appropriate three components But what is the behaviour of the Average Rating in these three, described above, cases?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 24, 1997 ):
radio planning is covered in general planning texts, such as Sissors and Bumba, mentioned in the adjoining Guru answer. The booklet provided by the RAB (radio Advertising Bureau) will give you the definitions you want. So would a technical reference manual from Arbitron. Since TSL, (time spent listening) is behavior expressed as a quantity and attached to one station at a time by one listener, the TSLs may be added together. This is different than ratings which are percentages and can only be combined or averaged with weightings according to the population groups projected.

Wednesday, March 12, 1997 #1304
Dear GuruI am interresting in your oppinion on the changing shape of the media environment.What do you think how the media changing for the near future, what are the main trends in the media and how will it change the media planning?Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 24, 1997 ):
Media have always changed. Once there were only print media and billboards. Then radio, then TV. Not only do new media arise, but the numbers of media vehicles of each type of each type proliferate. The web is only the latest and most explosive example of this proliferation. What causes the changes for the planner is the availability of research and hard facts on which to base decisions, rather than using theory. One of the biggest changes may be the growing emphasis on direct response models for evaluating media effectiveness, rather than awareness, recall, or requests for additional information.

Or is it the ability to apply computer models to planning?

Saturday, March 08, 1997 #1312
Dear guru, I was just wondering if there were any ratings listed for national tv, cable, and radio buys? I've checked various sources, and all I could muster up was ratings by spot markets, but nothing for average national ratings.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 24, 1997 ):
There are some data on AMIC at Rates, Dates and Data. Since the ratings providers are in the business of selling these data, you will have to buy the information or ask the individual media which buy them to share the data with you, in pursuit of your order.

Tuesday, February 25, 1997 #1036
We are planning a radio schedule with a demo of Adults55+. We have no research that gives us a cpp for thatdemo. If we took a Sparc cpp for Adults 25-54 and increased it, what would you recommend the increaseshould be? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 26, 1997 ):
Determine the rating for 55+ and its index to the 25-54 rating.

Divide the 25-54 cpp by this index

(remember to treat the index as a decimal equivalent)

E.G. if 25-54 cpp = $100
and 25-54 rating = 2.0
and 55+ rating = 2.2
the index = 2.2 / 2.0 = 110 (or 1.10 in decimal form)

55+ cpp = $100 / 110 = $90.91

Since SPARC is market average, stations bought will effect accuracy. The stations making up a typical 25-54 buy maybe quite different than the ones you would buy for 55+.

Targeting should allow you to do better.

Friday, February 21, 1997 #1040
Do you have any information on retention of an ad, radio vs. television?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 22, 1997 ):
Studies like the ones you require are best found at Newsweek Media Research Index and Advertising Research Foundation.

Friday, February 07, 1997 #1060
With the multiplication of TV with network, cable, direct through satellite, etc, radio already fragmented and press, what in your opinion are the more efective media investments? The traditional or new media? If new media? Which?. If a combination? A hint on what proportions?50% traditional against 50% new?.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 08, 1997 ):
The Guru believes broad generalities in answer to such questions are always mostly wrong.

Effectiveness of media investments always "depends." Who is your target? / what is the target's involvement with the specific medium? / how do the medium or individual vehicles of the medium fit with your message or creative or marketing strategy? / how does your product relate to the medium?

To bring people not very involved in the web to your web site you probably need traditional media mixed with web ads. To sell web related products, advertising on the web is probably the best investment. Media are not abstractions, they must be matched to targets and marketing goals.

Monday, January 27, 1997 #1068
What does the radio Format NAC stand for?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, January 28, 1997 ):
This is "New Adult Contemporary" a sometimes described as a "smooth jazz" format.

In the New York market, WQCD is an example. Their Real Audio, top 10 for the month playlist, at WQCD /The music includes Luther Vandross' Goin' Out of My Head at #1, Whitney Houston's I Believe in You and Me at #4 and a couple of Kenny G songs.

Other NAC stations with web sites include KIFM, San Diego KKSF, SanFranciscoKBZN, Salt Lake City

Wednesday, January 15, 1997 #1076
Hi, I work for a News radio station. Is there any place I can look for format research that shows the effectiveness against different product categories? Likewise, are there any success stories on record that I could use to sell my product? Thanks very much for your assistance .

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 15, 1997 ):
The radio Advertising Bureau has a great compilation of radio research facts.

Interep maintains an excellent collection of case studies of radio successes, indexed by format.

Simmons and MRI report on format listening versus product consumption.

Wednesday, January 15, 1997 #1077
Wow, who knew?
there was someone like you
the great media guru!

My question...Where can I get more information on the retention of advertising within a commerical cluster...specifically radio advertising. I've heard the first and last commercial have the highest retention levels, but I can't prove it. Any suggestions?Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 15, 1997 ):
The Guru would first try The radio Advertising Bureau ( RAB) and also The Newsweek Media Research Index.

Saturday, January 11, 1997 #1079
dear guru, how do you see the future of radio?and what are the audience's feeling about this medium?what are the peculiarity of this medium, its main features among the other media?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, January 13, 1997 ):
There are many possible futures for radio, which has been rather stable for years, mostly changing only with the publics taste in music and personalities. Today, links with the WWW, like "net radio," may lead to some changes.

(Outside the US, radio is often a relatively stronger medium, versus TV)

It would be interesting to take this question to the MediaPlan e-mail discussion list, or to the radio-Media list.

Subscribe to MediaPlan by sending the message "subscribe" to"

Subscribe to radio-Media by sending a request toradio-Media

Saturday, January 04, 1997 #1084
I've heard that co-op advertising is on the rise. It seems like a great way to share advertising costs. Do you know of any standard letters or agreements used to present the idea from business to business (like from a store owner to a supplier?) Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 05, 1997 ):
The typical situation is that the manufacturer establishes a co-op program and advises dealers and distributors, who can then request the form to apply for participation.

This is how the manufacturer establishes a budget reserve for its share of the costs.

There is at least one book in print which lists co-op programs in existence. The Guru can't recall the name, but your local newspaper or radio station probably has a co-op manager who has a copy. These media are great beneficiaries of your use of co-op advertising!

There is also a National Association for Promotional and Advertising Allowances, Inc. which includes on its resouce list Co-op Works,

"a new online service that helps retailers, product vendors and media make the best use of co-op and MDF programs. Co-op Works standardizes the language and simpifies the entire process. Retailers and manufacturers can track incentives and accrued funds instantly-reducing the questions, phone calls, and headaches."

Tim Fisher, President
2665 Villa Creek #208
Dallas, TX 75234-7309
Phone: 800-810-2025
Fax: 214-243-6310

Thursday, December 19, 1996 #1089
Dear Guru...I am in the process of starting a retail mail order business..I am literally starting on a shoestring ...I was wondering what advice you could give as far as the most effective media for the money and any general media advice as well. Thanks..

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, December 21, 1996 ):
How much money? In given circumstances, radio, outdoor, direct mail, newspaper or TV might be the most productive use of money. It depends on total budget, what geography one needs to cover and what sort of message needs to be conveyed

Monday, December 02, 1996 #1101
Is there a standard industry statistic on using a 1-800 number in tv and radio spots and what the response levelpercentage is? If it is a percentage, is it a percentageof the number of times the spot ran or a percentage relatedto the target audience?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, December 03, 1996 ):
There are a number ov variables in this kind of direct response, several of which are more important than the ones youmention.

Is the 800 number purely informational or a sales responsevehicle?

What is the product, how unique, how interesting?

What is the product's price?

How good is the commercial?

The Guru believes there are almost mystical aspects to Direct response. Sometimes spots with smaller audience seem toproduce more response than others with larger audience, whenthere are no apparent difference in target composition orprogramming "fit".

Sometimes one station seems to outperform a similar station whenimpressions, spots and programming appear identical.

Overall, 2% of people reached, is generally considered anoutstanding response rate.

Monday, November 18, 1996 #1106
Oh great media guru, I feel as if I have been thrown into an impossible situation. We're a start-up internet company and I think I'm in over my head. I am not experienced in the advertising industry and yet I am supposed to create and execute an advertising campaign with a $300,000 budget. The partner who has given me this task wants to advertise in at least two cities and in at least 7 different mediums. My first question is... Is this a rational task for an inexperienced person? When I call the reps for TV stations and radio stations I feel like I should REALLY be working with a consultant to point me in the right direction and to make sure I don't get ripped off. Any advice? I need to find a place where I can estimate costs. Is there any source where I can find rate estimates. Do you know of anywhere where I can find general rates for multiple mediums? Or maybe a directory that would give me phone #rs to call. For example, how do you find info. on freeway billboard advertising in different cities? Are there media buying consultants that work on a flat-rate basis that can help me? (I don't want any commissions to get in the way of prudent spending....dazed and confused

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 19, 1996 ):
Yes, there are media consultants will work for flat rates (pure "media buyers" are more often paid on commission.)

The Guru does not believe that commission should necessarily be assumed to cloud buyers' judgement, as "buying on the spread" might.

The Guru will send you a private message with references to a media consultant.

Sunday, October 13, 1996 #1127

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 13, 1996 ):
Teleseker has a multi=media study (including newspapers, magazines,radio and TV) for the Israeli market. They are also the represetnativeof Telaar (the parent of AMIC) for Isreal and can provide Telmarsoftware along with their study. They can be contacted at:

Teleseker Ltd.
The Twin Towers
33 Jabotinsky St.
Ramat Gan 52511
Tel: (3) 613-0333
Tel: (3) 613-0341

Sunday, October 06, 1996 #1132
I am creating a hypothetical advertising campaign for a class at Columbia Business School and I need informationon the costs of advertising in media (TV, radio, internet,publishing, etc.). I would like to know if anyone cansend me a table with comparable costs (per ad, city, audience)or a sample advertising budget, or even better a sampleadvertising plan.

Also, any information on advertising costs on the internet.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 09, 1996 ):
The Guru doesn't provide personal answers; like Dear Abby's, Guru questions and answers are for all to see and use. One of the most important parts of advertising education is learning how to find information, but the Guru isn't going to do your homework.

Your school library will have the publications of Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) which list media rates for most media, including interactive. You can look up internet sales reps through Yahoo or AltaVista search engines. Many advertising agencies also publish their own cost guides, and AMIC itself offers media cost information, at Rates, Dates and Data accessible from the AMIC home page.

Wednesday, October 02, 1996 #1134
what is your view on the "accordion assumption"?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 02, 1996 ):
By the "accordion assumption" the Guru assumes that you arereferring to the situation in radio, for example, where 25 spots ineach of 4 weeks is considered the same as 100 spots in 1 week.

In general the Guru believes that it will slightly underestimate thereach. Since there is a larger potential audience over 4 weeksthan over just 1 week, it is reasonable to expect less duplication with the same number of spots over the longer period. However, in atypical schedule, the differnce will likely be small. Unfortunately there is little in the way of concrete data to make more than just a small general adjustment when using a longer period.

You might consider posing this question to the "Media PlanDiscussion List" and see what opinions you can ilicit fromthat group.

Tuesday, September 24, 1996 #1139
What do media specialists have to learn to prepare 21st century?What will be the most important change for media specialists?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 26, 1996 ):
Media specialists will need to learn how to deal with change. In the hardly more than first half of the 20th century alone, we have gone from the dominance of Newspaper, to the dominance of magazines, to the incredible dominance of radio to the overwhelming dominance of TV.

In the latter half of the century we have seen the fragmentation of media as the key trend. When the Guru entered the business (yes, in the latter half of the century) there were only 75 independent TV stations. Now there seem to be that many in the New York DMA.

With cables growth there are nearly that many networks now. The World Wide Web is millions of individual media fragments.

Something other than computer based media will probably be the big news before 2010.Personal, wrist based satellite dish receivers?

Wednesday, September 04, 1996 #1151
My company runs a popular, ad-supported web music directory, and I was wondering what is the best way to learn what advertisers have upcoming online campaigns? Currently, I just spend hours calling them all and asking what their plans are. This seems to work OK, but there has to be a better way. Is their a single source that lists current and future online campaigns for advertisers, and if so what is it and how do I get it?

Any help would be much appreciated.Thanks for a great resource!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 05, 1996 ):
The Guru doesn't believe there are alert resources such as you desire for any of the traditional media, either. Advertisers naturally guard information about their forthcoming plans. TV, radio and print salesmen go to great lengths to spot advertisers running in the competitve media, and build relationships that help assure they'll be the first thought of when plans are brewing.

It's just plain hard work until you spot some action or luckily call the right person at the right time.

Friday, August 30, 1996 #1155
Greetings, Guru--Firstly, thank-you for this service. It beats climbing K-2 looking for some soothsayer in the Lotus position.

On to the serious.I own and operate an audio production house, geared toward radio. We write, voice and produce. Our first two years in business we catered directly to radio stations, and would now like to shift our focus to ad agencies (with a definate, if not primary, interest in radio). Can you suggest any lists, resources, tips or leads that might "weed out" the irrelevant candidates?Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 30, 1996 ):
TheStandard Directory of Advertising Agencies (TheAgency Redbook) includes in each agencies listing the approximate investment in each medium. Though not likely to be especially accurate in a statistical sense, the agency's claims should at least indicate their interest in radio.

The Guru is one of the few still in the lotus position, most others apparently preferring X-cel.

Thursday, August 15, 1996 #1169
How can I find information about differences in retentionrate between different Media

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 19, 1996 ):
The Guru finds his generic research most often at Newsweek Media Research Index or through the Advertising Research Foundation

If one finds retention rate of media, it is worth considering that budget must be considered as well. In the laboratory, a radio commercial might have far less retention than a tv commercial, for example, but in the real world, 10 radio spotsmight produce better message retention than 3 tv spots, for the same budget.

Sunday, August 04, 1996 #1168
I am working with a client in Los Angeles. It is a group of Opthalmologist promotingPRK (PhotoRefractive Keratectomy) or corrective vision by use of thelaser. It is a direct response type of account as we have an 800# to call and telemarketers tracking the number of calls. The target audience is Adults 25-49, withHHI $75+, Professional/Managerial with active lifestyles. This is an elective surgery. I used television duringfirst quarter. It worked for a while, but because I did not have the budget for prime, Iused only early morning, early fringe and prime access. Programming such as Home Improvementand Seinfeld and etc. It worked for a while and then my cost per lead began to rise. I've usedradio and it has been fairly successful. Is there any book that I can purchase or can you direct me onwhere do I go from this point? Several years ago, I has a book on direct response, but it has disappeared.Please help a tired old media person. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, August 20, 1996 ):
There are many (mostly) unpredictable aspect to direct reponse, and ordinary media measures do not seem to be good predictors of results. Saying "prime doesn't fit the budget" is likely to be a reflection of the typical desire to run a lot of spots as opposed to determining the "best" spots. With an exrtremely narrow target as you have defined prime may be more valuable than cost per spot indicates.

One basic aspect of DR, especially for low-interest, one-time purchases like elective surgery, is that there is a definitely limited potential consumer base in any given medium. This would accunt for your unsurprising rise in cost per lead. The quick cure would be new media vehicles. On a cost per lead basis, perhaps prime will now be most affordable.

Tuesday, July 23, 1996 #1176
My telecommunications client is planning a multimedia (TV, newspaper, radio) launch in Chicago this fall, hoping the phone will ring off the hook. Is there a way to predict response levels per medium (or in total?) for the client to effectively staff its phone lines? I have total population, target population, reach & frequency levels (for TV - a 6 week flight; for radio a different 6 week flight; print used in both flights). The kicker is: this is not a direct - response spot (of course, an 800# will be included, but generally, it's an image builder). I also know that it will depend greatly on many things creatively (length of time the 800# is on the screen, is it a pnemonic number, is there an offer, etc). I'm thinking if there is an easy answer to this, I wouldn't have a job.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 24, 1996 ):
The safe answer is to contract an "inbound telemarketing"service which is large enough to expand or contract around your actual traffic. Depending on the offer and strength of copy, calls could equal .01% to 5.0% or more of persons reached. Using a service the first time out, especially if you're not specifically setting up a DR business, will give you benchmarks for the future.

Tuesday, June 25, 1996 #1191
In ranking radio station, should you rank thenagainst average quarter house rating or is it better torank against cume and why? Thank Media Guru

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 25, 1996 ):
Rankings are usually done against AQH ("Average Quarter Hour" -- there are no household measurements in radio ratings)

One reason is that these numbers have a correspondence with cost per point and cpm, which are other typical evaluation standards for radio buying.

Depneding on your overall goal rankings on cume may or may not be useful. If a particular station is trying to convince you to use cume rankings, it -- no doubt -- fares better on cume than rating.

However, if you are buying to a reach goal, buying stations in order of cume or cume/efficiency may be the best way to acheive your reach goal for the least dollars, rather than by amassing GRP in order of cost per point. This is especiallytrue if you are planning to buy many spots on a station. In that case, the cume better reflects your reach potential. Conversely,if you are buying very few spots on a station, the AQH will betterreflect the situation.

Monday, June 03, 1996 #1207
Hello, Media Guru. Could you help me find current costsof various media rates. (radio,tv,newsprint,internet and so on) Thanks Don

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 03, 1996 ):
The only reasonably comprehensive source of the information you request would be from Standard Rate And Data Service.

Your media list covers over 20,000 individual US media alone, usually divided among over 200 Designated Market Areas or evn more Metro areas

Friday, May 17, 1996 #1213
Dear Guru,I have two questions which you might have heard before.
a)I do know that a :15s commercial on TV cost between 50% to 75% of a :30s depending on market etc. Is there any studies that show what the benefit of either length is (if any) in terms of reach, frequency, effectiveness, memorability, etc.
b)I have seen studies praising the advantage of multiple media usage above single media; in other words using TV and radio instead of just TV. Can you elaborate on that and update with new info about this topic. Reason being a client who would like to slash the budget down to just using TV for campaigns. I however feel that there is an added benefit in using multiple media.Please respond by Monday if you can.Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 19, 1996 ):
a) There is is no difference in reach and frequency between a :15 and a :30. In the same time period, they have the same audience, within the tolerances of research measurement.

On the other hand, a schedule using :15's in place of some or all the :30's will provide more reach and frequency, because it has more announcements, hence more GRP, etc, for the same budget.

When :15's started to become popular several years ago, there was considerable research regarding effectiveness versus :30's. The general findings were that :15's had about 70 - 75% of the recall of a :30. At the time, :15's were typically a network option priced at 50% of :30's so the trade off of price vs effectiveness seemed favorable.

b) Multi-media plans chief benefit is in reach development, though the effects of the added reach have ripples in many directions.

Adding a new medium adds more reach than adding weight in the same medium: There are more likely to be different people in the audience of a different medium, over a given period of time. This applies to effective reach as well.

There are a variety of philosophical approaches to taking advantage of this.

One approach says to build reach up to a minimum effective level in the primary medium first, before adding the next medium. Another says build the first medium to the point where the reach curve flattens, then add the next medium to resume reach growth.

A newer, different line of thought, the "recency" theory, de-emphasizes reach in favor of delivering messages to the consumer closest to the point of making a purchas decison. This argues for continuity, to reach more people at all times rather than highest levels in sporadic flights. Again, multi-media will produce more reach, but other theories of minimum weekly levels may effect scheduling, ie radio bought to a minimum of 12x weekly when active.

Judgements must also be made regarding whether TV and radio is perceived as the same message by the consumer. Of course, this same judgement must be applied to different executions in the commercial pool of each individual medium as well.

Wednesday, May 01, 1996 #1230
Are there any software packages that allow you to collectmedia data over the internet? Also, what are the latestprograms dealing with media planning? I work with a small agencyin New York that places local radio, newspaper and televisionin a few markets in the midwest and we are looking forways to go take our media planning into the digital age.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 02, 1996 ):
Telmar, (AMIC's parent corporation) is in the business of providingits clients with leading edge technology for internet, dial-up and local access to media software as well as to the hundreds of syndicated databases available for clients with legal access.

Telmar has programs for print, television,cable, radio, and newspaper. The All Media Planner allows the user to do all media advertising media planning, including reach/frequency analysis, media mix, optimization, budget allocation, flowcharting, graphics. Also note that there is free cost per point information provided by SQAD on AMIC.

Contact for further information about Telmar's services.

Monday, April 29, 1996 #1234
Ever heard of Duncan's radio Market Guide? Does this thing give local market radio advertising expenditures? Who's the publisher and what's the contact info? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 30, 1996 ):
Duncan's radio Market Guide is published in Indianapolis by Jim Duncan, at (847) 577-4660.

Monday, April 29, 1996 #1702
Ever heard of Duncan's radio Market Guide? Does this thing give local market radio advertising expenditures? Who's the publisher and what's the contact info? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 30, 1996 ):
Duncan's radio Market Guide is published in Indianapolis by Jim Duncan, at (847) 577-4660.

Saturday, April 06, 1996 #1249
Interested in locating research re radio programming, in-depth info re radio listeners (psychological characteristics as well as demographioc variables). Most research seems to be reach and frequency. Has any qualatitive research been done with various types of radio listeners? [Interests, values, what turns them on, etc]

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 07, 1996 ):
The major syndicated media studies MRI and Simmonscover demographics, psychographics and purchase behavioralong with radio listening by format. The studies are notprincipally focused on radio, but would be useful. radio Networks and major stations have access through their national reps, if not locally.

Many major stations may also have proprietary studies, butit would be harder to fairly compare different studiesacross formats.

Friday, April 05, 1996 #1731
Interested in locating research re radio programming, in-depth info re radio listeners (psychological characteristics as well as demographioc variables). Most research seems to be reach and frequency. Has any qualatitive research been done with various types of radio listeners? [Interests, values, what turns them on, etc]

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 07, 1996 ):
The major syndicated media studies MRI and Simmons cover demographics, psychographics and purchase behavior along with radio listening by format. The studies are not principally focused on radio, but would be useful. radio Networks and major stations have access through their national reps, if not locally.

Many major stations may also have proprietary studies, but it would be harder to fairly compare different studies across formats.

Wednesday, March 20, 1996 #1259
I am buying a radio schedule (100 GRPs/wk for A25-54) in a market that is approximately 28% black. The urban station in this market is relatively efficient, but is by no means a "must buy". In fact, there are about 10 stations with 9/10 of a rating point of each other (AQH rtg, M-F 6a-7p). This urban station claims that I must have at least one urban station on every buy or I will miss 28% of the market. I disagree. When buying so few points a week, I do not have the budget to buy as many stations as I like. A better use of the money would be to cover the various age cells in this broad demo and try to balance the male/female reach. My question is, What is your opinion on this subject? Is an urban station a "must buy" in this market any more than a country, rock, or news/talk station?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 22, 1996 ):
There are several levels at which this question can be considered:

The essence is determining the true value of that station: "should you buy it", not "must you buy it"

- If you ignored the fact that this is an urban station would you buy it, based on the general parameters of the buy? Rating/efficiency/rank, etc?

Are you having a negative reaction to being told you must do it?

Do you really miss 28% of the market just by not buying that station? To what reach level are you buying? At 100 GRP / week you're not likely to reach more than 72% of the target in a typical 4 weeks, anyway. So if the station is the onlyone reaching its market segment, how much does it matter if that segementis the 28% you miss rather than any ther 28% of the market.

Is that station is the only one reaching its segment? It is likely that several other stations in a market with that high penetration of Black population also reach that audience, but perhaps with a lower audience composition. Check the schedule you will buy to see how its African-American audience reach compares to its general market reach. Perhaps it's comparable even without that station.

On the other hand, if that segemnt is important, reaching it in a culturally relevant program environment can substantially enhance selling opportunity.

Examine the product usage data about your client according to Simmons/MRI/Scarborough/MMR, etc. Perhaps the African-American consumer is far more valuable to your client as a prospective customer than is the general market, and that Urban station, with its good efficiency, is the first one you should buy, even if it does sell aggressively.

Wednesday, February 21, 1996 #1755
Dear Media Guru- I have a two part question , both dealing with the same subject, tv sampling error. Suppose ER gets a 20% rating and Seinfeld gets an 18%, both off a sample of 1000 resondents. What are the odds of there being absolutely no difference between these two ratings? This is not as simple as looking up the standard error of each rating. I remember that it has something to do with the standard error of the difference, but I just can't recall the calculating process.Could you please explain? Then to complicate matters, I'm looking at the same phenonena on a grander scale. Suppose the estimated delivery in rating points for a tv schedule is 1000 grps and it underdelivers by 10%- ie. 900 grps. What is the likelihood that the difference had to do with pure chance ( sampling error) and how do I calculate that? I know this is more difficult since you have to account for buying many programs in the estimate and the actual. Naturally, we are assuming that the error differences are all due to sampling, and not the idiosyncrasies of the marketplace or the impurity of the sample. In this case I know the answer is going to be technical, but that is what I need. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 23, 1996 ):
The Guru loves this kind of stuff. The answer is technical but hopefully, in simple terms.

First, if ER has a 20 rating and Seinfeld has 18, with a sample of 1000 (for that demographic), then the ER 20 rating's standard error is +/- 1.265 while Seinfeld's 18's is 1.215 (See formulas in the Jan 25 18:23 Guru Q&A below).

Note that the absolute size of the error on the 20 is larger but it is relatively smaller. Also note that the range of these errors is such that they can make the two programs' ratings equal: 20 - 1.265 = 18.735 which overlaps 18 + 1.215 or 19.215.

There is a 68% probablity that these two ratings fall within this range. But the swing could go either way on either number. And could fall anywhere within the +/- range specified

There is a 90% probabilty that these two ratings fall within +/- 1.999 on the 18 and +/- 2.081 on the 20. The odds are 95% that they fall within +/- 2.381 for 18 and 2.479 for the 20.

These odds actually relate to reliabilty. That is, if you repeat the same rating study 100 times with the same actual facts existing, 68% of those studies will give ER a rating between 18.735 and 21.265.

Now the 1000 GRP underdelivered by 10% is different As the beginning of the explanation showed, while there is a swing around any rating (a 5 would be +/- 0.689 in the same study), the odds equally favor underestimates and overestimates. This is the same as the reason why small samples don't necessarily underestimate ratings. So in 1000 GRPs made up of 500 spots with an average 2 rating, the sampling error on the individual ratings somewhat cancels out.

To calculate this in an Arbitron measured radio buy using a single survey and one station, for example, the formula is

GRP x ((100 x #spots) - GRP) / sample x Factor)))

"Factor" is from a table provided, specific to demographic and #quarter hours in the daypart of the buy.

So, if your 1000 GRP were based on Adults 18-49 ( with a 1000 A18-49 sample), and a Mon-Fri, 6a-7p schedule, the calculation would be:

(1000 x ((100 x 500) -1000) / (1000 x 2.42)))

or +/- 143 GRP at the 68% confidence interval. Obviously, if the average rating were higher, hence fewer spots or if the sample was larger the variance would be smaller. With an average 20 rating, the swing is about +/- 40 GRP.

So, depending on average ratings and sample sizes, the 10% underdelivery could be within the range of standard error.

Tuesday, February 20, 1996 #1754
what is the total dollar value of the New Orleans radio market per year?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 23, 1996 ):
Two companies provide this sort of data: Duncan's 317-630-2888 and BIA (Broadcast Investment Analysis) 703-818-2425.

Monday, February 19, 1996 #1757
Television's (network, spot are cable) and radio's (network and spot) advertising costs are typically measured in CPP's (cost per rating points). On the other hand, Newspapers' and magazine's advertising costs are measured in CPM's (cost per thousand). It seems the Internet is moving towards the CPM model and I have no idea how "out of home" or Direct Mail are measured. Apples to apples, based on CPM, how do these mediums compare on cost? -- how about ROI?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 22, 1996 ):
First, understand that CPP and CPM are just cost indices rather than "measures." CPM (cost per thousand audience impressions) may be converted easily to CPP (cost per percentage point of population universe):

CPP = CPM x universe in thousands x .01


CPM = CPP / (.01 x universe in thousands)

CPM is simpler to deal with because we only need to know the audience exposed, a figure just beginning to be reported on the internet. CPP requires us to know a "universe," the number of people in the whole category under discussion. For the internet, or more specifically the WWW, where ads are usually found, universe is a hotly debated question. Is it the number of people with computers and modems or the number of people with the theoretical possibility to browse the web (an ISP and browser software) or the number of people who actually ever do use the Web? Even if we pick one of these, there are radically varying research estimates of the size of these possible universes.

If we decide to just use the total population as a universe for internet measurement, the ratings are agonizingly small, and we are still working toward how to define the rating. In print, no matter how often a reader picks up the same issue of a magazine, he or she only counts once in that issues impressions or rating. But website accesses are usually counting multiple weekly visits without the ability to distinguish repeats of the same viewer. There is not yet any common ground in pricing to talk of averages. There may be over 100,000 commercial sites, more than all the tv, radio and print vehicles put together.

The comparison you suggest between all media cpms also changes as we define which demographic to consider. TV has established averages to consider and companies like Spot Quotations and Data publish these cpm/cpp.

Print may vary from $5 to over $200 cpm depending on selectivity of audience and total circulation.

ROI can't be discussed without knowing the goals and depends on ad content, other marketing efforts and how revenue is measured. Web site development and web ads may be meant to sell product, build image or just bring viewers to sites. Web advertising needs to be evaluated against very goal specific potential and possibility.

Friday, February 16, 1996 #1756
Dear Media Guru, Do you know of any service that will monitor television advertising (will track the actual commercials that are airing in a certain city or state). Would you also know of any company that does this on an ongoing basis and on a large scale. Does Nielson do this?? Any feedback would be greatly appreciated. Thanks Nick

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 22, 1996 ):
Video Monitoring Services (212-736-2010) and radio TV Reports (212-309-1400) both track advertising by the specific commercial for national and local television and other media. Both can also capture and deliver copies of competitors' commercials as tapes or photoboards.

Neilsen and MediaWatch (an Arbitron/CMR service) are more oriented to tracking spending by brand / product.

Thursday, February 01, 1996 #1769
My company is looking to market an advertising medium to national/international companies looking to reach the teen market. My questions: (1) Is the teen market generally considered "difficult to reach"?, and (2) Is there a "rule of thumb" ratio of advertising expenditures to gross sales? (i.e. advertising budget is 6%-9% of gross sales)

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 02, 1996 ):
Question 1. The teen demographic group is one of the harder ones to reach cost-efficiently. This is largely due to the fact that this group is really many groups, with a wide range of interests and lifestyles.

The broader media types, television and newspaper, are very poorly suited to reaching this target group. radio and select cable television networks are far more likely to be successful and affordable.

There are some magazines which can be very useful, especially niche targeted publications rather than broad books like Time, Newsweek or TV Guide. Many teens strongly identify with their interest in music, sports, cars, motorcycles or lifestyles. Therefore titles such as Spin, Skiing, Hot Rod, Cycle World or Seventeen can and often are very successful as advertising vehicles.

Remember, this is a very unique and complicated set of groups rather than a single homogeneous group.

Question 2. The development of an adequate advertising budget linked to a sales ratio is very hard to accomplish. For example, companies at an early stage of development may have its lowest sales when it has its highest need for advertising support to build sales. At this earliest stage of development, an advertising to sales ratio could be as high as 15%-20%. Later on, when the company has matured and sales are robust 3%-5% may very well be adequate to the task.

Thursday, January 11, 1996 #1789
What is the average CPP in the Atlanta Metro and ADI for radio and TV? Please break this out by quarter.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 02, 1996 ):
Your ultimate source will request a demographic specification for the CPP. Spot Quotations and Data, Inc. (SQAD) provides this sort of information. Contact SQAD at (914) 524-7600 or

Monday, January 08, 1996 #1794
Please explain the future of advertising in media terms? Is internet going to take over other media or is it just going to be another media ?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 02, 1996 ):
There is little prospect of the internet "taking over" other media in its current incarnation.

Look at the history of advertising technology, its always moved FROM media that had more cost and work attached TO media that had less cost and work to enjoy:

First there was print. One had to buy a newspaper or magazine everytime one wanted to use it. One had to do the "work" of reading.

radio was a one time outlay, and almost no effort to digest, except for conjuring up a picture in the "mind's eye"

TV again was a one time outlay and gave you the picture with the sound leaving no work for the mind.

The internet requires ongoing subscription payments, in many cases (AOL/Prodigy/Compuserve/ISP) payments increase with increased use. Then there's "work" typing. clicking and selecting. The cost of owning necesssary equipment and learning to use it is another barrier.

No doubt technology will ease the cost and work burdens of using the internet but it is more communications than entertainment. It is perhaps analogous to catalog shopping versus retail advertising combined with the store shopping experience: another useful and rapidly growing marketing vehicle, but not the ultimate one.

Some compare the 'net to cable. Microsoft is said to be visualizing 50% computer HH penetration soon, which is in the cable ballpark. But cable still has barely 50 channels competing for audience in any system. The web represent 10's of thousands of commercial sites for a brower to try to find.

Also, today the baby boom is hitting 50, and it's the big population group. Computer use is still primarily a feature of the next consumer wave.

The 'net is not to be ignored, but it's not likely to be the next Television (or even the next Cable) for a while.

Thursday, January 04, 1996 #1802
How do television and radio advertisers value an impression? That is, if someone advertises on television is there a formula used to determine prices for :15, :30 and :60 spots? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 02, 1996 ):
As a general rule, :30 impressions are the standard reference for TV and :60 for radio. "value" and "price" may or may not correlate:

In TV, a :60 is usually double a :30's price but has the same value in reach. Some advertisers use attentiveness or recall factors to adjust the "value" of a :60 vs a :30 impression. Your question focuses on pricing.

In most cases, :15's are priced at 50% of 30's, but there are instances where 65 or 75% is used.

In radio, :60 is the standard, with :30's typically priced at 80-85% and :15's not in use. Some stations today, especially top rockers with a sensitivity about clutter and inventory sell "units" not differentiating between :60's and :30's in price.

Monday, December 11, 1995 #1809
We've created a sponsor-supported online music directory to be launched in January. Each sponsor gets their logo on the bottom of nearly every page as well as a rotating banner ad, and we want to sign them up before we launch. How should we go about attracting these sponsors, and what should we charge?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, December 11, 1995 ):
Likely sponsors are music companies, music cable nets, radio stations, and finally any advertiser targeting segments within age groups 12-24 / 12-34 (Levi's, Coke, A-B). A great number of these have web sites of their own. They would be therefore web oriented and looking for worthwhile links.

Why not do a search through Yahoo or your favorite search engine, and then e-mail your porposal to the webmasters of the sites you find.

Wednesday, November 29, 1995 #1814
I need a some information buying spot radio and tv. I bought broadcast about 6 years ago, but have been out of the loop recently. Can you suggest current texts? How about sources that cross market demographic information with radio and television usage?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 29, 1995 ):
A media planning text that is popular is "Media Planning" by Sissors and Bumba. Media buying texts are rare. Many syndicated studies cross market demographic information with either radio, television or both. These include Nielsen (TV), Arbitron (radio), MRI (both), SMRB (both), Monroe Mendelsohn (both), Media Audits (both), etc.

Wednesday, November 08, 1995 #1822
Do you have any ideas where I can find information regarding the benefits of trade (business-to-business) advertising? Specific case stidies would also be helpful.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 08, 1995 ):
The MPA (Magazine Publishers Association) would have case studies. Many Trade Publications might also have some. The Interep radio Store also compiles success stories, some of which would include Business to Business.

Tuesday, October 10, 1995 #1834
Do you know of any research that discusses the success rate of Point-of-Purchase (POP) radio both Domestically and Internatinally?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 10, 1995 ):
The ARF library, which is for members only, is the foremost collection of such material. AAAA and ANA members can access the ARF library through those organizations. Phone (212)751-5656 or write ARF, 641 Lexington Ave., NY, NY 10022 or send email to The Newsweek Media Research Index, online at is a possible source as well as is any library's index of AdAge articles.

Tuesday, August 29, 1995 #1844
Advertising merchandising. Do you know of a list/source of examples of good merchandising ideas from either publications or other mediums? What merchandising is? What is good merchandising? What to expect? What can and can't do...

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, August 29, 1995 ):
Merchandising is the enhancement of a media purchase through the media seller's supplying of addditional marketing support.

This may take forms as varied as running contests with the advertiser as "sponsor" or using the advertiser's product as prizes in bigger contests, helping to secure trade distribution, sampling programs, salesman's incentives, media logo merchandise (the classic station t-shirt) in-store remotes or just additional free advertising.

Anything extra the medium does for the advertiser in consideration of a purchase is merchandising.

Good merchandising is created in response to specific advertiser needs. What are the marketing goals.

For example if product sampling is a goal, a radio station may have an event every week (WXXX nite at ____Dance club) that could distribute 1000 samples to members of the target.

National Media can do the same thing in a bigger way with mall tours. As a general rule, the smaller players in more competitive situations have the more creative merchandising (I don't have an audience but I can put your Logo on the front of my booth at the Annual County Fair, 100,000 in attendance).

Any radio station's promotion director should have a 3 inch looseleaf binder of the past year's merchandising events. The binder will probably be thicker for stations in markets below the top 50, Spanish Stations, small market newspapers, etc.

Friday, August 25, 1995 #1846
How can I obtain historic, actual radio costs for A 18-49, over the last ten years? Top twenty ADI's?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 25, 1995 ):
There are a few approaches. Ad trade publications publish cpp/cpm trends annually. Libraries would have back copies. General media cost guides like AdWeek's Marketers Guide to Media which predict costs can be used retrospectively to examine cost trends.

Specific cost guide sources such as SQAD (Spot Quotations and Data) which closely follow marketplace costs (but don't post analyze) can look back at cost history for a probably nominal charge.

Saturday, April 15, 1995 #1850
I,m working in a concept here in Miami in where I will add all the ratings for all the Spanish-language radio stations and present the total as one radio station. Can this be acceptable?. If the answer is "yes" what do I need from Telmar?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, April 15, 1995 ):
1) To whom do you intend to present this? It would not be acceptable to present this as an advertising vehicle. The top stations in Miami, except WXDJ/WRMA, have contracts with radio representatives like Caballero and Katz.

2) It would not be acceptable to advertising agencies to present this as a single advertising audience, because there would be duplication between the stations, rather than the audiences additive, unless the spots were "roadblocked," which is to say that a given spot runs at the exact same moment on all stations.

Telmar software for radio planning includes: Generic radio Planner, radio Plan (requires access to Arbitron data), and radio Ranker (requires access to Arbitron data).

Contact us for more information.

Thursday, April 13, 1995 #1852
When you are measuring delivery of media, can you combine various media to come up with a single answer? If so, is it reliable? What is the most economical way for a small agency to pick up software that can accomplish this. By combined media, I am referring to traditional medai such tv, radio, magazines, etc.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 13, 1995 ):
The Reach of various media may be combined once the reach and frequency for a media schedule has been computed. Check out Telmar's ADplus product for an inexpensive approach to your problem.

Friday, April 07, 1995 #1855
How do you obtain MRI information?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, April 07, 1995 ):
MRI, at (212)599-0444, are in the business of selling their information.

However, the media you might buy for your plan will have access, and can provide it. The major radio rep firms, like KATZ, etc., can analyze MRI, etc for media planners.

Friday, April 07, 1995 #1856
Do you have information on how to promote new releases of computer software via radio?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, April 07, 1995 ):
MRI or SMRB, or perhaps Mendelssohn, would cross software or PC users with radio formats to help media planning. Some radio stations may have such information available through Scarborough studies or their own custom research.

Wednesday, March 08, 1995 #1864
I am looking for background for a POV on Network radio Posting. Can you recommend anyware on the Net that might be helpful?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 08, 1995 ):
The key points in Network radio posting are: 1) decide what book is post basis; latest at buy or closest to schedule dates

2) what book is buy/post basis; RADAR or Arbitron Nationwide.

However, since neither really allows exact quarter hour post whole issue may be moot.

As for places on the Web, the only place you might try are the sites of some of the radio stations that have gone up recently. A list is available in our Web Sites section.

Saturday, February 11, 1995 #1872
Any profile on Country Western radio listeners? What TV programs/networks do they most prefer?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 11, 1995 ):
If you subscribe to a data base such as MRI, you could crosstab country radio format listeners against TV programs for any demogragphic or product category. Telmar;s software can help you get the answer if you subscribe to the data.