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 Monday, January 08, 2001 #4087

Guru,
First off, just wanted to let you know that I find this to be one of the most usefull sites on the web  as a management consultant in need of a crash course on media planning, the information found in these pages has proven invaluable...Now, on to my question:
I am working on the launch of a branded consumer services play (auto related), and am trying to build a marketing budget from the bottom up, rather than as a strict % of sales. I have modeled an overly simplified media plan, and am looking for guidance on placeholders to use for weights (TRP) for TV and radio, # of weekly inserts for newspaper, and showing level for outdoor. I know there are numerous factors and considerations I am leaving out (I know the GURU doesn't like sweeping generalizations), but I need a place to start. Goal: generate "substantial awareness" (think Midas, Maaco).
Thanks for your insights.
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 11, 2001 ):

The Guru thanks you for the compliments.
Keep in mind that while "substantial awareness" may be a snappy phrase for discussion of plans, you need to quantify such a term in order to quantify the building blocks of getting there.
Let's suppose we decide the goal is 80% ad awareness among the target within a given campaign period. Therefore, your advertising must reach at least 80% of the target in that period, with enough frequency for the message to penetrate and stick, let's say at least three times.
Now, you can calculate that generating that reach in TV will call for a certain number of TRP (you can use the media software at eTelmar for calculations). Or you can examine getting that reach with radio or a combination of TV and radio. Outdoor will generate high reach more efficiently than either, with a #25 showing, but outdoor's necessary simplicity of message may not stand alone in filling your needs. Newspaper has its own contribution and you need to judge from a marketing perspective whther you need a small storelocator ad every day, a full page branding message once a week, or some other approach, if any.
 Tuesday, August 15, 2000 #3705

A retail client of mine is planning a short media campaign to support a 4day event (ThuSun). I'd like to show a reach curve or the like to illustrate the reach built by a 7day media support (MonSun) and a 4 1/2 day support (Wed  Sun Noon). Vehicles will be radio, TV, and newspaper. How can I do this?
 The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 18, 2000 ):

In total, there is not likely to be much demonstrable difference between identical quantities of media delivered over a MondaySunday period.
If you want to illustrate reach accumulation day by day, then you can calculate the reach of the schedule that runs on the first day of the campaign in each case, the schedule that runs on the first two days of each campagn, etc. Then you can plot the two curves, with reach on the Y axis and days on the X axis, using the charting tools of Excel, Powerpoint, Corel, or whatever you might have. It might look something like the chart below (not actual reach data).
 Monday, June 12, 2000 #3547

I am buying radio in two different markets  one is a large market which is measured by Arbitron. The other is a small market where I get the ratings through Arbitron county measuring.
The two cities are only 45 miles apart and there is a large amount of radio overlap. Is there any way to figure an accurate combined reach & frequency? Thanks.
 The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 12, 2000 ):

First, define "market." If these radio markets are both in the same DMA, and you want DMA R&F, add the two stations' reach in thousands and divide by DMA universe. If they are in two different Metros, calculate reach within each and do a weighted average of the two:
 Metro "A" target population = 100,000
 Metro "B" target population = 20,000
 Metro "A" target reach = 40% (40,000)
 Metro "B" target reach = 55% (11,000)
 Combined, total coverage area reach = 40,000 + 11,000 ÷ 100,000 + 20,000, or 42.5%
 Tuesday, May 16, 2000 #3479

Are there parameters (highs and lows) for effective reach and frequency? In other words, is there a particular reach and a particular frequency that are considered "average" as they relate to broadcast media? How would one determine whether an advertiser is spending adequate funds to meet these "averages" when airing a broadcast schedule on a MonSun basis?
 The Media Guru Answers(Friday, May 19, 2000 ):

The Guru finds the concept of average irrelevant in this context.Such measures are relevant in relation to competition and one's own communications goals. What does it benefit an auto brand if the "average" advertiser has a reach of 50% at 3+ frequency when all automotive competitors are delivering 75% at 3+?
As to turning spending into effective reach and frequency, that's typically part of a media plan. Budget gets expressed as schedules of TV, radio, print, etc. reach and frequency are calculated by available software for these GRPs. Effective reach / frequency is an inherent part of the calculation.
 Tuesday, May 02, 2000 #3439

Regarding effective reach and effective frequency, are there general accepted boundaries of these measurements as they relate to radio and television? How do you compute effective reach and frequency?
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 04, 2000 ):

The Guru has seen effective frequencies from 2 to 9 used in plans. Most often, 3 is the "bogie" but 4 and 5 are not uncommon.
In the Guru's opinion, the effective levels make sense when applied to a majority of the target, that is, 50%+. As far as computing effective R&F, the capability is typically built into reach and frequency calculators. As part of calculating reach, the frequency distribution is calculated. This is a calculation of the discreet number of persons reached by each ad in the schedule. Thus one can compile the number (or %) of target persons reached "at least" the set number of times.
 Thursday, January 20, 2000 #3136

Is there a simplified reach and frequency calculation formula that allows for the number of stations (TV or radio) as well as the target audience size?
 The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 22, 2000 ):

reach and frequency calculations have become quite complex today and are typically done by computer. Because reach is curvilinear, the formula can be quite complex, even without this issue. A different algorithm is needed for each dispersion scenario.
A good system will account for number of stations, at least in radio; AMIC's sister company, Telmar has such a system.
Since reach calculations are typically done with percentages of universe, like rating and percent reach, target audience size is not specifically relevant. Different curves will have been deduced for different targets, based on their accumulation patterns, which may not exhibit a direct correlataion to size. If reach in thousands is needed. it is simple to calculate by multiplying perent reach against target population.
 Wednesday, September 22, 1999 #2815

Can you please refresh my memory and tell me how to
calculate multiweek reach and frequency across television
and radio? Thank you
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 23, 1999 ):

If you mean combining these media, the formula has been addressed. Click here to see past Guru responses.
If you mean how to get multiweek reaches for either medium, you need reach curves or software, the extension formulae are tow complex for casual use.
 Wednesday, September 22, 1999 #2814

Hi Guru
The ad agency I work for has a theory that cable GRP's
and radio GRP's effectivenesss are significantly less
than network and spot television. On our flow charts
we only calculate 1/2 half of these points. I have
heard this theory before but I've never seen a plan
that cuts the GRP's in half. What do you think?
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 23, 1999 ):

The Guru has been aware of theories that use effectiveness factors in comparing media. Sometimes GRP are adjusted on the flow chart, but since the flow chart often serves as the buying control document, more often the adjustments are shown in reach and frequency comparisons.
There can certainly be an argument that radio has less effectiveness than TV, commercial exposure versus commercial exposure, all else being equal. But, the argument doesn't seem to be rationale for cable TV. The commercial is the same, the presentation is the same. Unless there are objective measures of attentiveness or clutter or recall used, why is cable less effective? Individual commerical audience size is not relevent to message effectiveness of the medium; one consumer is not aware of how may others are watching the same program.
 Thursday, August 19, 1999 #2729

Dear Guru,
1 Please let me know SQARE model that SQAD use to calculate CPP for TV and radio. Please let me know the detail or any link I can find more information or books...
2 Do you know any model for reach vs GRPs? Our client ask us to show the data like that. The problem that we try to find the suitable daypart mix, station mix, medium mix that is good for our advertising strategy but we don't have any optimiser programs. We have only ratings data like Telescope and Prinscope of ACNielsen. Do you know any example to solve this kind of problem?
3 Our client also want to have a model to set advertising budget to get for example 80+ reach but we can not know until it happen. How to solve this issue?
warmest regards,
Thai Vang
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 19, 1999 ):

A general explanation of SQAD's model is available from SQAD. They will give you the same information they would give the Guru. But the essence is manipulating actual buying data in real situations, provided confidentially by actual media buyers.
GRP's and reach do not have any standard realtionship, except within given media and population parameters. You are writing from Viet Nam, where Televison audience cume patterns are likely to be quite different than in the U.S. Even within the U.S., Hispanic TV reach curves are very, very differerent than the General Market TV reach curves. The way to build a model, to oversimplify, is to collect a great number of actual reaches of real schedules, and then plot their frequency against reach in a regresssion analysis, which gives you the formula for the "curve." Frequency is plotted, rather than reach, because frequency is a straight line while reach is a curve. The curve formula then allows you to create a model with a reach solution for any GRP input. The more variables you use to build different curves, the more sophisticated your model can be.
 Friday, April 30, 1999 #2481

Is there any way to calculate duplication across a media plan using several media (e.g. print and radio and TV), or can I only get a duplication analysis within a media (radio duplicaton and then another duplication factor for print, etc , etc)
I use telmar for research with simmons and arbitron access and we also use JDS for buys.
 The Media Guru Answers(Friday, April 30, 1999 ):

The standard assumption in media planning is that duplication between different media is purely at random. Therefore, the random probability formula is used:
 Express the reach of each medium as a decimal (50% reach = 0.5)
 Multiply the reach of one medium by another to determine the duplication.
 Subtract the duplication from the sum of the two reaches to get the net reach
So, if you have a 40% reach in TV and a 55% reach in Print, multiply
0.4 x 0.55 to get 0.22
subtract 0.22 from 0.4+.55 and get 0.73 or 73% reach of the combined media.
There are a variety of ways to do the calculation. The Guru actually prefers to use the probablilty of not seeing each medium (reach as a decimal subtracted from 1.0) When these are multiplied they give the net probability of not seeing any of the media. When this result is subtracted from 1, the final result is net reach. This style is particulary useful for combining several media at once.The example would combine this way:  10.4 = 0.6
 10.55 = 0.45
 0.6 x 0.45 = 0.27
 10.27 = 0.73 or
73% reach.
Telmar's "Media Mix" program uses these assumptions.
 Tuesday, November 10, 1998 #2144

I need to find out more information on how to figure
reach and frequency, especially four week averages as
it applies to print, radio and television.
What is the best source to use for finding R/F analysis
including some work samples.
Help me Guru, I want to be like you!
 The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 10, 1998 ):

When the Guru started out, reach and Frequency was calculated manually with the aid of tables and factors. Since then media have become more complex and measurement more detailed. Complicated, multistep algorithms such as numerous iterations of the Betabinomial function must be calculated.
Now, the computer is virtually the only way reach and Frequency is analyzed.
Some of the measurers such as Simmons, and MRI have systems for R&F on the media they measure. A few, rare, media such as Telemundo Spanish TV Network, offer sytems (STRETCH2) for their medium. Most common is the specialized, allmedium software system, such as the one provided by AMIC's sister company, Telmar.
 Tuesday, September 08, 1998 #2031

Dear Guru,
I'm new in the Advertising field. I would like to know
how to calculate the Target Market reach1+, reach2+,
abd the Average Frequency.
TIA.
 SKY
 The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, September 09, 1998 ):

The answer depends upon what data you are starting with. At its most simple,
"1+" reach is the same as just saying "reach". If you know the GRPs, and the reach, then the average frequency is calculated by dividing reach into GRPs.
At bottom however, in each medium, TV, radio, print, etc. reach was actually measured at some point, rather than calculated . That is, using respondent level measurement, such as Nielsen or MRI or Simmons, actual schedules advertiser were evaluated for gross audience accumulated and the net reach accumulated, as well as how many people saw exactly one advertisement in the schedule, how many saw 2, how many saw three, and so on. As the Guru stated above, reach is defined as those who saw one or more (1+) advertisements. 2+ or 3+, etc, is determined by adding those exposed to each discreet number of ads.
Taking the results of many of these schedules as a scatter graph, a classic reach curve may be plotted. Or, by arraying GRPs and frequencies in a table, a formula equivalent to the curve can be determined statistically. This formula then becomes a "model" for calculating reaches of other schedules in similar media. Formulae for 2+, 3+ frequencies can also be calculated. There are no simple formulas for doing this. "Beta Bimodal" is one statistical function frquently used. These functions and models are usually built into large computer media planning systems like Telmar's.
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