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 Tuesday, June 13, 2000 #3548

I am in the process of evaluating a print proposal submitted by a business to business annual register with company listings/profiles, accessible by category. In addition to receiving a P4C ad, my client wil also receive 8 bold type listings with descriptive information and 4 bold type listings(company name and phone # only) throughout various sections of the register. At first glance the package looks like a great idea. The circulation is nearly 100% targeted, the CPM (based on the P4C alone) is very low, and there are additional merchandising perks that will expose my client to their target for one full year. The problem is, I must put a "value" on each component of the package.
Do you have any ideas on how to place a value on the "bold type listings" described above?
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 15, 2000 ):

Your situation is analagous to evaluating reach versus GRPs or a full commerical in a special versus billboards.
Since the deal seems efficient and effective simplay based on the P4C, any value you give to the other elements can be arbitrary and will be just for the sake of dicsussion. Why not calculate the impressions of all the other elements and price them at 25% of the P4C cpm?
 Tuesday, May 16, 2000 #3479

Are there parameters (highs and lows) for effective reach and frequency? In other words, is there a particular reach and a particular frequency that are considered "average" as they relate to broadcast media? How would one determine whether an advertiser is spending adequate funds to meet these "averages" when airing a broadcast schedule on a MonSun basis?
 The Media Guru Answers(Friday, May 19, 2000 ):

The Guru finds the concept of average irrelevant in this context.Such measures are relevant in relation to competition and one's own communications goals. What does it benefit an auto brand if the "average" advertiser has a reach of 50% at 3+ frequency when all automotive competitors are delivering 75% at 3+?
As to turning spending into effective reach and frequency, that's typically part of a media plan. Budget gets expressed as schedules of TV, radio, print, etc. reach and frequency are calculated by available software for these GRPs. Effective reach / frequency is an inherent part of the calculation.
 Wednesday, April 12, 2000 #3392

Guru, I've never used a planning program as most of my planning has been national print and outdoor, local broadcast, and things I've felt I can handle on my own.I've seen so many planning programs and websites for planning it's hard to tell the good from the bad. Have you ever evaluated planning programs and, if you have, can you recommened one or two? Thanks
 The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, April 12, 2000 ):

To the Guru, the term "planning program" means programs like Telmar's AdPlus or Telmar's full set of individual media analysis programs or the eTelmar online suite of media programs.
Such programs calculate reach, frequency, effective reach, frequency distribution, and quintiles for individual media plus combinations of media as well as crosstabulations and rankers from media audience databases. Flow charting is also a typical option. These programs don't actually create media plans, that is determine how much budget to invest in each medium, ad units to use, and scheduling. There are such programs on the drawing board, but require that the planner quantify and factor those concepts which would be subjective judgements.
 Tuesday, December 07, 1999 #3033

Without the budget for postflight call out surveys what formulas or 'rules' can I use to anticipate message saturation and burn. What reach or net reach level over what period of time would be probable to achieve a 80% awareness within the target. Also what is considered too much exposure for one message before you reach a point of diminishing returns. I know that the the better measurment here is research before and during the campaign, but there must be some bench marks that are industry accepted. Can you share these and share a public location for other general assumptions like this. Thank you in advance Guru...
J
 The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 08, 1999 ):


Ad awareness will never be greater than reach, so start from a plan that delivers at least 80% reach
 To establish measurable awareness, some repetiton will be needed, so think about getting an 80% reach at a set effective frequency level. The Guru has previously discussed use of the Ostrow Model to set this goal.
 A message is worn out when its ability to generate sales falls off. This being hard to predict, many advertisers have used past experience to set mediameasurement based cutoffs. These have included a limit of 2000 GRPs and a frequency cap of 20 in the second highest quintile. In reality, the size of the copy pool, the qualities of the copy, the target, the overall media mix, and product category may all lead to wide variations in wear out. The two standards mentioned above were both commonly used in basic package goods TV advertising in a mix with print and a TV copy pool of 23 executions.
 Tuesday, October 19, 1999 #2880

Guru,
I’m trying to put together a print ”insert” plan for
a magazine and I have a little problem with calculating the duplication for the plan. The magzine circulation is 100.000 ex, target audience reach 40%
(1 insert), target selectivity/profile 80%. By adding a second ”round” of inserts in the same magazine the total reach ad up to 48% (same selectivity). How do I calculate the no ”extra” inserts distributed by the
second ”round” of inserts?
BR
CD
 The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 19, 1999 ):

If you reach 40% of your target with one insertion and a net of 48% of your target with two, then the duplication is 32% of the target:
Two insertions has a gross exposure of 80% (40 + 40) and if the net is 48, the duplicated is 80  48.
 Tuesday, September 14, 1999 #2792

What can you tell me about reachbased planning?
Thank you in advance.
 The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 14, 1999 ):

>
The usual assumption is that print and broadcast duplicate with random probability, there is no special, greater or lesser likelihood that persons in the audience of the print schedule will also be or not be in the audience of the broadcast schedule.
Mechanically. the combination may be calculated in a few equivalent ways. The Guru finds it easiest to consider the reaches as decimals (50% reach = 0.50). Subtract the reach of print from 1 and multiply this by 1minus the reach of broadcast. Suppose print has a 40% reach and broadcast has 55%. By subtracting 0.4 from 1 (1  0.4 = 0.6), you have the probabilty of the target not being exposed to print. Subtract 0.55 from 1 to get the probability of not being exposed to broadcast (1  0.55 = 0.45)
Multiply these two together (0.6 * 0.45 = 0.27) and you have determined there is a 27% probability of people not being exposed to either of the combined media, or a 73% reach.
This formula is typically used in media software to combine different media. Certainly there are cases where there is a somewhat better than random probabilty of media duplication, such as TV Guide combining with a TV schedule, but that's the exception, calling for judgement.
 Friday, April 30, 1999 #2481

Is there any way to calculate duplication across a media plan using several media (e.g. print and radio and TV), or can I only get a duplication analysis within a media (radio duplicaton and then another duplication factor for print, etc , etc)
I use telmar for research with simmons and arbitron access and we also use JDS for buys.
 The Media Guru Answers(Friday, April 30, 1999 ):

The standard assumption in media planning is that duplication between different media is purely at random. Therefore, the random probability formula is used:
 Express the reach of each medium as a decimal (50% reach = 0.5)
 Multiply the reach of one medium by another to determine the duplication.
 Subtract the duplication from the sum of the two reaches to get the net reach
So, if you have a 40% reach in TV and a 55% reach in print, multiply
0.4 x 0.55 to get 0.22
subtract 0.22 from 0.4+.55 and get 0.73 or 73% reach of the combined media.
There are a variety of ways to do the calculation. The Guru actually prefers to use the probablilty of not seeing each medium (reach as a decimal subtracted from 1.0) When these are multiplied they give the net probability of not seeing any of the media. When this result is subtracted from 1, the final result is net reach. This style is particulary useful for combining several media at once.The example would combine this way:  10.4 = 0.6
 10.55 = 0.45
 0.6 x 0.45 = 0.27
 10.27 = 0.73 or
73% reach.
Telmar's "Media Mix" program uses these assumptions.
 Monday, March 08, 1999 #2378

How do you figure out average four week r/fs without software?
Thanks for your help.
 The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 08, 1999 ):

Before software, there were tables to get reach from broadcast GRP, and books of factors and formulae for print.
Those old tables are probably no longer valid, perhaps someone has done some new ones. The Guru has discussed this frequently.
Click here to see past Guru responses on
reach and frequency
 Monday, December 21, 1998 #2230

I am currently analyzing a media schedule that includes consumer print, trade print and national cable. I have been
asked to pull a reach and frequency for the entire schedule. I realize that I am working with several differenct universes. I have added
the circulations and pulled the gross impressions for cable. I have added those together. Is there any formular to determan a reach and frequency?
Help?
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 24, 1998 ):

In general, different media have different audience accumulation patterns when thinking about net unduplicated audience vs gross audience.
calculating reach from a total multimedia impressions number is not practical unless the gross rating points (impressions divided by GRPs) is so many thousands that a 95+ reach can be assumed. Some media, in particular broadcast media, allow general estimation of reach from a table of GRP levels. print media are more complicated. What you really need is standardized media software for reach and frequency calculation like that which is offered by AMIC 's sister company, Telmar.
 Wednesday, December 02, 1998 #2194

Dear Guru, can you name any media analysis tools and media predictive tools that media planners use on a regular basis without being too technical, of course. Many thanks
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 03, 1998 ):

Here are several:
 reach: the number of different target households or persons exposed to a campaign (most often expressed as a percentage of the target universe, and most often calculated over a 4week period).
 Frequency: The average number of exposures of the campaign to those reached.
 Gross Rating Points (GRP) / Target Rating Points(TRP): Essentially interchangeable terms for the sum of the audiences of all the ad units in the campaign, expressed as a percentage of the target universe.
 Gross Impressions: Same audience count as GRP/TRP but expressed in whole numbers rather than percents.
 CPP / Cost per GRP and CPM / Cost per thousand impressions: should be self evident from the previous. These are referred to as the "efficiency."
 Effective reach: Those in the "reach" who experienced a specified minimum number of exposures (effective frequency)
All the above stem from the audience research tools and investment figures. So called "reach and frequency" systems typically generate all these figures. Other tools, especially in print media are also occasionally used. These may include "time spent with" media vehicles, "page openings", attentiveness, etc.
 Wednesday, December 02, 1998 #2192

Dear Guru. It is not still clear to me how to
measure or calculate reach of the ad campaign
using media mix. For example, my ads on TV provided
90% reach, and ads in print reached 25% of the
target audience. What is the total reach, frequency
of the campaign? What other indexes can we find for
such campaign?
And my second question is about outdoor advertising.
It is essential to measure the effectiveness of the
ad campaign comparing awereness and sales before and
after the ads placing. But that is somehow the post
campaign analisys and my client would like to see some
feagures before the campaign starts (precampaign).
What indexes (like reach, frequency, GRPs, OTS) can
we provide to the discription of the outdoor
ad. campaign? Thank You very much.
 The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 02, 1998 ):

reach of a medium in a plan is simply a statistical probability. Further, it is generally thought that each medium overlaps each other medium randomly.
So, in your example, if you consider the reach of each medium as a decimal, the probability of not being exposed to TV is 0.10 and of not being exposed to print is 0.75.
The probability of not being exposed to either one, is therefore 0.10 times 0.75 = 0.075.
Therefore, total reach of the mix is 92.5 (if 0.075 or 7.5% don't see it then 92.5% do see it).
Other basic "counts" for a campaign are impressions (OTS), cost per rating point and cost per thousand impressions.
All of these counts; reach, frequency, GRP, OTS, etc are possible for outdoor, if the research has been done, in your country, to count the audience of the locations used.
 Tuesday, November 10, 1998 #2144

I need to find out more information on how to figure
reach and frequency, especially four week averages as
it applies to print, radio and television.
What is the best source to use for finding R/F analysis
including some work samples.
Help me Guru, I want to be like you!
 The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 10, 1998 ):

When the Guru started out, reach and Frequency was calculated manually with the aid of tables and factors. Since then media have become more complex and measurement more detailed. Complicated, multistep algorithms such as numerous iterations of the Betabinomial function must be calculated.
Now, the computer is virtually the only way reach and Frequency is analyzed.
Some of the measurers such as Simmons, and MRI have systems for R&F on the media they measure. A few, rare, media such as Telemundo Spanish TV Network, offer sytems (STRETCH2) for their medium. Most common is the specialized, allmedium software system, such as the one provided by AMIC's sister company, Telmar.
 Tuesday, September 08, 1998 #2031

Dear Guru,
I'm new in the Advertising field. I would like to know
how to calculate the Target Market reach1+, reach2+,
abd the Average Frequency.
TIA.
 SKY
 The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, September 09, 1998 ):

The answer depends upon what data you are starting with. At its most simple,
"1+" reach is the same as just saying "reach". If you know the GRPs, and the reach, then the average frequency is calculated by dividing reach into GRPs.
At bottom however, in each medium, TV, radio, print, etc. reach was actually measured at some point, rather than calculated . That is, using respondent level measurement, such as Nielsen or MRI or Simmons, actual schedules advertiser were evaluated for gross audience accumulated and the net reach accumulated, as well as how many people saw exactly one advertisement in the schedule, how many saw 2, how many saw three, and so on. As the Guru stated above, reach is defined as those who saw one or more (1+) advertisements. 2+ or 3+, etc, is determined by adding those exposed to each discreet number of ads.
Taking the results of many of these schedules as a scatter graph, a classic reach curve may be plotted. Or, by arraying GRPs and frequencies in a table, a formula equivalent to the curve can be determined statistically. This formula then becomes a "model" for calculating reaches of other schedules in similar media. formulae for 2+, 3+ frequencies can also be calculated. There are no simple formulas for doing this. "Beta Bimodal" is one statistical function frquently used. These functions and models are usually built into large computer media planning systems like Telmar's.
 Friday, September 04, 1998 #2028

I am currently pulling together information for one of
my clients on national cable advertising. I have spoken
with different network reps and have been told that they
can not provide reach, frequency, or TRP's. They have
said that they are not measured this way. Is this true?
The network reps have provided gross impressions (in
thousands). Is there a minimum threshold for this
measurement?
 The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 05, 1998 ):

Everything which has its impressions measured in national tv has TRPs, which is merely a calculation: the division of impressions by the relevant population base, either in the cable network's coverage area or the total U.S.
Any metered measurement can produce the data for calculation of reach of schedules or the production of formulae which will allow estimation of reach.
The Guru would guess you are dealing with smaller networks whose ratings and reach would be unimpressive and therefore are not a part of the sales effort.
A 0.1 rating is the usual threshold for reporting in a printed report. There may be a requirement to earn this rating over a specified time span before even this level is reported. On the other hand, networks with ratings normally below this level are likely to be bought strictly for their content/environment, not their audience delivery.
 Thursday, May 28, 1998 #1610

1.Please, where can I find "Archives" by topic?
2.I have seen a table showing Awareness Level correlat
ed to Target GRPs.Could you, please, tell me how they
estimate Awareness Level?
3. I also have seen a table showing Audience engagement
in various activities when average commercial is aired.
Would you, please, tell me how the information is obtain
ed? Is it from a national panel? If yes, does this panel
also provide audience data? Thank you, Inocima.
 The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 02, 1998 ):

1) The Guru Archives may be accessed from their link on the Media Guru Page. In the next few days, we will be adding a search engine to allow you to find all all past Guru answers on the topics of your choice.
2) The Guru isn't familiar with the table you have seen. Since you are writing from Brazil, it could be based on research totally unfamiliar to the Guru. The proper way for such a table to have been created would use just estimates of awareness, but actual survey results. An advertiser or agency which has conducted many awareness studies and correlated them with actual GRP's of the plans running in synchronization with the studies could create such a table. In fact, just a few actual measurements could be the basis of a table if it is assumed that the awareness / GRP relationship follows some sort of curve as does the reach / GRP relationship. The Guru is familiar with one formula for predicting awareness based on GRP, which came from analyzing several plans and surveys. In essence, it predicted that when there was any significant starting awareness, awareness declined in any week where there were less than 100 GRP.
3) Again, Brazil's audience engagement data is not familiar to the Guru. In the U.S. such data usually comes from secondary sources such as our Simmons or MRI, which ask these questions but are primarily print audience and product usage studies.
 Monday, January 27, 1997 #1067

My client is requiring me to use adjustment percentages whencalculating grp's in print. I was always taught that reach x frequency= GRP's. Now if I calculate the adjustment to my grp's, the formula no longer works. Is this correct, or do I have to do something else to my reach/frequency? Help!!!
 The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, January 28, 1997 ):

There are various approaches. If the GRP adjustment is just an index reflecting characteristics of the vehicles and their audiences, it may be sufficient to show R/F/GRP/AdjGRP
If the adjustments are meant to change actual value of the GRP, it is usual to recalculate reach from the new, adjusted GRP. Since print r&f is usually calculated from actual schedules, via a "black box" algorithym, rather than from a grp "curve," this may be impractical. If your system allows you to enter factors for each publication before calculating reach, that may solve your problem. Lastly, even with adjusted GRP to represent some abstraction, the people reached would not be reached at a different average frequency, so one quick and dirty answer, if you must use adjusted grp, is just to divide them by the original frequency, to get reach. It's similar to the concept of changing a spot coverage area, broadcast r/f to its national equivalent: The GRPs are weighted by the coverage area % and the frequencyremains constant, to calculate the reach.
 Monday, August 05, 1996 #1171

In regards to print advertising, what is a wearout report? What data do I need to complete this report (reach, frequency, formulas)?
 The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 08, 1996 ):

The Guru has discussed Wear Out previously (see below July 17 and May 7).
A wear out report would state the status of various print executions in your campaign in comparison to the wear out standard you have established. Clients have a way of asking the wear out question without setting a standard or even being able to decide how to set one. Essentially an ad is worn out when it loses all or most of its ability to accomplish its marketing purpose with its target. The purpose may be as simple as product sales, or lead generation in a direct response campaign, or it may be as difficult to define as building brand imagery or awareness of a specific product benefit. Since directly relating any of these to a specific ad would require custom research, it is typical to use whatever research has been done in the past as related to easily modelled media measurements, such as reach, frequency, GRPs or quintiles. For example if in the past, a custom study showed the average ad was worn out at a time when the planners knew that 80% of the target had seen it 8 or more times, or when the frequency in the top 2 quintiles passed 30. (Don't use these examplenumbers). Naturally, different ads perform differently, but you will need to work on an average basis. A wear out report then becomes a matter of reporting something like how many of thetarget have seen the ad at least "x" times, or that the frequency in the top 2quintiles will exceed the standard measure as of a certain month of the schedule, or"X" number of GRPs will have run for the ad by some date. The key is knowing how one of these media measures relate to your wear out standard. Then the report is a simple task.
 Friday, March 08, 1996 #1266

Guru:Is there a formula for calculating reach & frequency for trade vehicles.
 The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 10, 1996 ):

There is no truly simple formula for calculating reach and frequency of any medium. The key datain print R&F are pairwise duplication between different vehicles and between two or more insertions in the same vehicle.
As the number of insertions in a plan increase, the number of data elements to include in a formula increase. The number of possible pairings for just a 10 insertion plan is 45 ((n x n1) / 2). Telmar among others, offers software designed to quickly perform these calculations on defined schedules of media measured by SMRB, MRI, MMR, J.D. Power or others. Using measured media as prototypes, reach of various schedules you might want to consider could then be calculated. From these numerous calculations, you could, by regression analysis, develop a "simple" formula of the form y=ax+b to calculate frequency based on GRP of typical plans of the sort you run in these media (y is frequency; x is grp; a and b are factors from the regression). A formula of this kind is very specific to the audience dynamics of the media vehicles involved. Please understand, this is not a recommended technique, merely a response to your question.
 Sunday, February 11, 1996 #1765

What advantages does marketing/advertising on the internet have above marketing/advertising in the "USUAL" media?
 The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 12, 1996 ):

he internet offers many disadvantages to go with its advantages. These all pertain to the WWW.
Some Advantages:  Immediacy: Ad copy and new product news can be online immediately.
 Selectivity: Ads can be aimed broadly at computer users, or narrowly at Quentin Tarentino fans, or afficionados of the wines of Australia.
 Relevance to the moment: Ads can be tied to today's crucial interest, by buying keywords on search engines.
 Participation: Ad viewers can become involved in the ad by clicking on links to product info most relevant to them, filling out and sending requests within the ad. This is far more inolving than the "paste this stamp here" tricks of direct mail.
 The ability to link Email autoresponders to web sites outdoes the capabilites of faxback servers as well.
 Minor advantages include savings on postage, paper and production costs versus traditional print and broadcast media.
The disadvantages are chiefly in audience and audience count:  At the most optimistic count, only 3040% of households are reachable by the Web.
 Very few individual websites reach even 10% of this universe.
 reach versus frequency is not well understood or capable of calculation.
 Audience demographics are not well known nor well distinguished between thosecapable of using the web and those regularly doing so.
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