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Guru Search Results: 139 matches were found

Wednesday, November 23, 2011 #8304
Hi Guru again, question 8303 Client have communication in TV, radio, print, internet, event, outdoor etc. In every media I can have GRP, but not all GRP are equal in terms of quality. For example 1 TV GRP is better than 1 radio GRP while 1 event GRP (calculating from contacts) is maybe better than TV GRP. How to evaluate communication impact in terms of GRP, but also to evaluate quality of GRP? Maybe to have coeffiecient? Thank you for the answer!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 23, 2011 ):
You must determine the bases of relative value for yourself. There are no established general standards. Many large, multibrand advertisers have developed their own indices besed on measurements or sales / recall / awareness / change in purchase intent / viral effects, etc.

Tuesday, November 22, 2011 #8303
Hi Guru, Is there any simple method to evaluate GRP quality? For example it is clear that GRP on TV is more impactful than GRP on radio or other media? Thank you for the answer!

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 22, 2011 ):
Each target and product category could have different comparisons. Your tracking of sales results, recall tests, pre/post awareness measures, etc, could give you a way to create relative value scores.

Tuesday, November 15, 2011 #8297
hi Media Guru! we are participating in the media pitch. One of the question from client: how to evaluate their Communication Effectiveness in different media (TV, print, internet, radio, outdoor, mobile advertising etc) by using Unified measurement metric? thank you! Gediminas

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 15, 2011 ):
This is not a standard term for the Guru.

It would seem that the client is lookiing for one common metric that can be used to evaluate each medium's communications effectivenenss individually.

"Communication effectiveness" leads one to consider response and recall measures, such as ad or brand awareness, intent to purchase, commercial recall, etc. These typically call for pre/post measurment. It would be difficult to distinguish the effects of different media on these metrics unless you could geographically isolate them or conduct laboratory-style testing.

Saturday, July 30, 2011 #8157
Dear Media Guru, I came accross research that states, that advertising on smaller tv stations with specific programming generate better advertising and brand recall. The research has been conducted on TV channels in Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic, by Gfk, using qualitative and quantitative method. It is assumed that the better recall is caused by the fact that people pay more attention to the program they actively selected and while in this model they also remember better the advertising that comes with it. If this is true, we could also say that GRP can have lower and higher quality. I remember also from the past that there is research that reveals that prime time spots or certain programs can score better for some target audiences. And here is the question: 1. Does Guru believe the GRP can be of different quality, and is there more industry research that shows this? 2. What would be the successful way of taking the quality of GRP into account when selecting channels/ constructing buying schedule. Thank you. Hana

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 30, 2011 ):
As the Guru said in Query # 8153, this is a reasonable finding, consistent with his experience. Other research has shown the same. For similar studies, consult The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. ARF materials will also be available through American Association of Advertising Agencies and Association of National Advertisers.

A GRP should always be a GRP; a percentage of the target population. Developing weighted or adjusted GRPs, based on research findings is quite appropriate and commonly done, using an index of results of the "better" programming versus average programming.

Sunday, July 24, 2011 #8148
Hi Guru, as a brand manager in a leading packaged goods company, am a bit let down that so many media decisions are based on thumbrules than on validated quanitiative data. Are there any quantitative tools as definitive as LINK is for ad quality testing, that can help answer critical media planning questions below to maximise media dollars? 1/ Effective Frequency: Ostrow tool is not validated, application is highly judgemental, doesnt account for fact that exposure

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 24, 2011 ):
First off, let's consider your own creative-oriented bias here, no offense meant.

Within ad quality measurement there are some measures that are quantitative and within media planning there are some measures that are solidly quantitative. The problem is how the quantitative measures can "accurately" guide marketing action.

Just because you can use proven methods to reliably measure ad quality in terms of recall or intent to purchase and use that to select the better piece of copy, does not mean there is a better way to plan a copy pool, or forecast advertising results except with your own application of judgement to use of these tools.

Similiarly, media planners have identified solidly measurable, quantitative metrics like GRP, frequency and reach that, at least directionally, have known impact on plan success. Highly experienced media professionals like Joe Ostrow have built logical ( and, importantly, repeatable ) approaches to integrating these metrics with other marketing factors, such as competitve pressure, brand awareness, market share, category interest, etc.

Each Brands' unique combinations of market factors, ad quality, and goals, make it virtually impossible for a single organization to collect enough sets of media plans / marketing backgrounds / sales results to build a simple, proven model to guide all media decisions reliably. For a given set of results in the quantitative tools and a specific set of advertsing goals, the tools should reliably distinguish better choices. Advertinsg goals handed over to the media planners should guide many of these decisions. Budget vs reach goals versus marketing timing issues; branding vs retail promotion, etc. are key controlling factors in setting :30/:15 mix as well as timing of introduction of different copy. Experience, guided by logic and available quantitative tools are the best we are likely to do, in the Guru's opinion.

Tuesday, April 05, 2011 #7841
Dear Guru, my question is about 30sec GRPs, how can we convert GRPs into 30 sec GRPs. Let suppose i have aired 20 spots of 20 sec each and got 25 GRPs how can i convert these GRPs into 30 secs. is there any formula regarding this? is it fine if i divide each spot;s GRPs by its duration and than multiply the result by 30 to find 30 sec GRPs (spot duration is 20 sec, its GRPs are 2, 2/20x30)?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 05, 2011 ):
You need to establish a standard; what is the reason for your analysis?.

Most simple is the linear conversion you propose, where a :20 is worth two-thirds of a :30, but in what context? If you are concerned with pricing or "equivalization" issues, this is appropriate.

However, in absolute measurement, or for reach estimation purposes, a GRP is a GRP. It is simply reflective of a number of pairs of eyeballs exposed (impressions) divided by a population universe.

By the way, in the early days of :15s, recall measurement showed :15s were "worth" 77% of :30's and some people used that factor in some analyses.

Monday, November 15, 2010 #7815
I have a client that wants me to run a TV R&F analysis on different GRP levels...65, 100, 125, 150 and 200. The reason they want me to do this is, we have just completed a 5 week TV campaign that ended the 1st wk in Oct..1st time client has advertised in 3 years. Client hired a research company and their findings reflected that there was a low recall the last couple of weeks of the campaign. We started with 200 points 1st wk, 250 pts 2nd wk (based on historical info, spike in sales that wk) 150 third, hiatus for 2 wks and then back on air for 2 final wks @ 200/wk.The research company has recommended for 1st quarter that we use low GRP levels, 50-65 pts/wk over a long period of time. I recommeded that we run heavy GRP's in 1st quarter for all the obvious reasons plus the most important...impact into the markets. We will have been black for 11 wks prior to our 1st quarter placement. We are selling sausage not trying to brand their name. Please give me your thoughts.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, November 15, 2010 ):
AMIC has lots of material on this topic of Recency vs Continuity vs peaks. Click here to see past Guru responses Briefly, in a situation where consumer goods has little to no seasonality and regular purchase, Recency theory holds that the impression closest to the purchase decision is the most effective one. And that since there are purchase decisions constantly being made, continuity at low but sufficent levels (say, a threshhold of 30 reach per week) is best.

The other side of the coin, for which you seem to be groping, is that you need a certain level of awareness, before constant reminder messages are effective.

A further, important factor arguing against hiatuses, is that whatever level of awareness you establish decays by about 10% of the previous week's level for every week of hiatus.

So the Guru would quickly build to an effective reach level at least equal to your awareness goal and then sustain at whatever level of continuity is affordable. 50 - 65 GRP/week should work at that point.

The Guru cringes at metrics like "impact" in such discussions. Goals need to be defined in all the other terms of this discussion:

  1. reach
  2. effective reach
  3. awareness
  4. recall
  5. Etc.

Thursday, October 14, 2010 #7806
Hi..Greetings from Egypt. I went through your archive and searched all over the internet to desperately find an answer for this question, so please help. The diary gives equal ratings to the spot regardless of its length. Simply assuming that a :5 GRP is the same as a :30 is unrealistic. Also assuming that the :5 is 1/6 of the :30 GRP does not seem right and will ruin the CPP. Is there any formula out there to used by a credible source to convert the GRPs based on duration?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 14, 2010 ):
GRP, like impressions, is simply an audience size measure, so duration is not a part of it.

Many buyers use "equivalized" GRP, which do allow for weighting by length. This is based on using :30 as a standard, and as you surmise, taking a simple ratio based on relative length.

Even in this scenario, it is common to leave the GRP untouched and just manipulate the impressions / cpm.

When :15s were new and various metrics showed they were about 70%+ of the recall value of a :30, that was used as a factor.

If GRP are being used in projecting reach, then the idea of holding GRP equal makes perfect sense; 100 GRP of :05 reaches the same number of persons as 100 GRP of :30, albeit much less effectively. You need to make a judgement call as to relative effectiveness and apply it logically. The Guru is not aware of an established standard for :05s.

Tuesday, May 04, 2010 #7778
We are a front-door media advertising company specializing in door hangers. I'm the marketing director and one of our sales reps asked me whether there are any published statistics on advertising recall across various types of media, including: - Direct mail - Outdoor advertising - FSI's - Radio - TV - Magazines - Internet We'd like to be able to compare message recall and comprehension scores with those of our own doorhanger media when presenting our media for consideration to ad agency media planners and buyers. Thank you, Barry

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, May 05, 2010 ):
There are too many different sources, measurers and metrics for good comparisons. One classic is Starch AdNorms. Otherwise try the industry associations, like Direct Marketing Association (DMA), Outdoor Advertising Association of America, The Newspaper National Network, TV Bureau of Advertising, The Radio Advertising Bureau, The Magazine Publishers' Association, and The Internet Advertising Bureau.

Tuesday, April 21, 2009 #7688
The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 05, 2009 ): Bookend :15's are the first and last elements of a commerical break. For all practical, purposes, there is virtually no audience growth from the first to the last, usually just :90 apart. So for reach purposes, they are equivalent to a single commerical unit. This is an informed judgement. But by the definition of GRP, they are two separate exposures of ads. Just like two separate ads in the same issue of a magazine. This is fact. Therefore, the GRP contribution counts both units and reach calculation treats them as one. Dear Media Guru: We, as a buying group, support and understand as an industry standard both :15s in a bookend have the full TRP value of a :30 spot. However, we have been asked to provide documentation to support this fact. Are there any resources you can suggest we could utilize to support this?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, April 22, 2009 ):
This is a matter of standard definitions.

GRP's are simply defined as impressions divided by populaiton universe. An impression is a single exposure of an ad. Length of exposure is NOT a part of the definition. "Documentation" of this fact could be found in any elementary media text or on several web pages with media definitions. Even the wikipedia entry for GRP / TRP is clear on this, although it is written poorly otherwise.

It is entirely reasonable to use judgement to assign different values to TRPs based on their commercial length. It is common to create weighted GRP measures based on length, awareness scores, recall scaores, etc,

Tuesday, March 17, 2009 #7673
A hospital client has referenced recent research concerning advertising recall, that recommends doubling up on local affiliate network ads (two 30 second ads per show when possible) to increase recall significantly. Are you familiar with such research and the validity? Also, do you see any benefit for a hospital to run a Wed-Fri only schedule?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 17, 2009 ):
The Guru has not seen this research.

Obviously doubling frequency will increase recall, as wouild any increase in frequency.

Why affiliates in particular?

Wed-Fri makes no apparent sense. Grocery chains do this because of shopping days. Does a hospital have heavier days? Do they even know on what days people decide about elective surgery? Emergency admissions might tend to weekends and holidays, but how many of those would be based on advertising?

Monday, August 04, 2008 #7575
What are the pros & cons of running 15 second TV ads or bookend ads?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, August 05, 2008 ):

:15's Pros

  • Lower unit costs, which creates opportunities for greater reach and frequency


    Less communication of message
  • Less awareness building
  • Lower recall, possibly even when all savings are reinvested in greater frequency.

Using bookends may offset some of the cons, but not without offsetting the pros. :15s typically cost more than half of a :30.

Friday, June 27, 2008 #7561
Are you aware of any existing research that shows that one TV spot (vs. none) can increase brand awareness? I've seen one report on that and I am trying to see if I can get my hands on a copy. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 28, 2008 ):
There may be such studies, but they are rather pointless. In what realistic situation would a schedule consist of one exposure?

There are recall or laboratory studies, which are based on one forced exposure, These are typically meant to measure something other than awareness, but may incidentally deal with your question. The best repository of such publicly availabe studies is The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. ARF materials will also be available through American Association of Advertising Agencies and Association of National Advertisers.

Sunday, April 20, 2008 #7532
Hi Guru - I need to compile a fair-share delivery analysis of our spot tv buy for a typical QSR Fair Share co-op. As I have been doing this on an as-needed basis, I have been using what is reported by county for a M-Sun 6AM - 12M daypart and not specific to the stations or shares on buy....this, out of the nielsen county-by-county analysis. Not the best but for my immediate purposes, was ok. Now I want to step up and perform the analysis in the best way possible and for the whole 820+ restaurant system. When I worked on a competing brand in the 90's, we had a software package that allowed us to drop in points and would generate a share of viewership index by county to the full DMA. The software package also took the aggregate of entries and reported spill in and out of the DMA. This, I am pretty sure, was proprietary to the QSR I was servicing. Are you aware of anything new/available to help me with automation and/or provide more finely tuned readings? Howard Spies Senior manager - Media Checkers Drive-In Restaurants, Inc. 813/283-7025

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 20, 2008 ):
The Guru recalls a similar program, called "MARS," created by our sister company, Telmar, in the 80's. It may be currently available and updatable.

Nielsen now offers software to manipulate their own data but, of course, you need something that lets you overlay your chain's geographic distribution, which was a feature of the "MARS" program the Guru recalls. Start with Telmar.

Friday, March 14, 2008 #7513
Do you know what O.E.S Analsys is? Someone mention that it had to do with the amount of spots you had to have a week, in order to reach your reach and requence goal. I'm not sure, I would like to find out more infomation about it. Where can i look?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 14, 2008 ):
The Guru believes you are referring to "Optimal Effective Schedule" analysis, an old-fashioned radio scheduling technique from before the advent of PCs on everyone's desk and the availability of station-specific radio R&F software or R&F modeling programs like that of our sister company, eTelmar.

The concept was that rather than buying each radio station in your plan to some arbitrary number of spots per week like 12 or 18, it was more efficient (in building reach) to buy each station to a number of spots that generated a certain percentage of the station's cume potential. As the Guru recalls, the standard was commonly 80% of the cume potential. In this way, stations with higher "turnover" (cume potential ÷ average rating) got more spots, and the best reach of the plan was most efficiently attained. Today it is so easy to analyze reach and frequency of various schedule options that these old techniques have fallen out of use. Still, in developing schedules to test in your R&F software, the cume potential and turnover may be useful, directionally.

Thursday, December 06, 2007 #7457
Dear Media Guru, Kindly compare a 15" spot with a 30" one. Sate the advantages & disadvantages in addition to when is each duration better used. Thank You

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 06, 2007 ):
In the days when the TV :15 was new and controversial, various studies seemed to find that :15's generated about 77% of the recall of :30"s, which was close to a typical price trade off. So, when the price advantage is better, you can be ahead. On the other hand there is less messaging time, so you may need twice as many spots to convey the same information or you may find the message can't be effectively conveyed in a :15.

In today's clutter and DVR zipping climate :15's are easier than ever to miss or fail to capture the viewer.

:15's are best used as reminders in a well established campaign.

Monday, November 26, 2007 #7453
What is the current practice for calculating the most effective daypart mix? Are there new media tools or research to do this analysis?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 29, 2007 ):
Optimizers have been around for 20 years or more. Reach and frequency analysis is even older.

But you have to define "effective" first. Is it based on reach, frequency, efficiency, sales, awareness, recall, etc?

Friday, August 03, 2007 #7401
We are being offered a bonus advertorial page based on a paid ad schedule in a trade magazine. Are we better off running the advertorial opposite our paid ad to create a Spread execution? Or should we place the advertorial and paid ad in separate sections of the magazine opposite editorial? Which placement will generate higher awareness overall?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 03, 2007 ):
As a rule of thumb, multiple smaller ads generate higher recall than equal space in one esingle ad. It somewhat depends on ad style and placement of course. In one test, three One- column (outside edge) ads on consecutive right hand pages far out-performed a single full page ad of similar content.

Tuesday, July 04, 2006 #7158
What are basic key points on tv copy length influence on campaign effectiveness? Naturally, creation is crucial, as well, but - assuming that creative affairs are "stable" and cost aspects are also foreseen (shorter copy is nominal cheaper)- are any findings how copy length influences on pure media campaign effectiveness indicators? Could you give some short points on it, please? Thank you in advance, Cesear

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 07, 2006 ):
When you say "shorter copy is nominally cheaper," the Guru imagines you refer to production not media time costs.

Typically, longer copy has more impact, better recall and better awareness generation than shorter copy. . . on a unit-by-unit basis.

But typically the cost of shorter copy is also less than longer copy by a margin that exceeds the advantages above, and therefore, reach, frequency, awareness and other campaign metrics work out better for shorter copy.

Obviously, you should work out these numbers with specific reference to your own copy and media buys.

Tuesday, June 27, 2006 #7156
Hi guru, please i am working on an in-house presentation on creativity in media planning. the document is supposed to speak to qualitative issues outside of the regular Reach, frequency, GRP that we are familiar with. could you help with resources? Also help with definition of impact as a media term. thx.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 02, 2006 ):
Some other metrics and issues include
  • Engagement
  • Recency and
  • ROI
Look up each of these at the Go to the Guru Archives Search Engine. Use these as your search terms.

"Impact" is a term cients and account execs love to use without definition. Loosely, it means some sort of effectiveness. Measures that may relate include memoribility, recall, awareness, engagement, and of course, various sales measures.

Friday, November 18, 2005 #7051
Can you direct me to any available research on the difference in recall between :10 second tv and :15 second tv?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 20, 2005 ):
Try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. ARF materials will also be available through American Association of Advertising Agencies and Association of National Advertisers.

Tuesday, July 05, 2005 #6965
Hello Guru, I am trying to find information that supports (or not) the use of Tandems (advertisement cut-downs) in the same ad pod and it's effects (positive or negative) on ad recall. Additionally I would like to know if it makes any difference if the tandem is creatively related to the main spot, meaning must there be a dynamic continuance of the main spot, or can it be simply used to give added information that is not in the main spot? Do you have any information on this subject or is there any chance you can point me in the direction of a study that has examined the use of tandems. I am in a discussion with any agency executive that tells me that tandems make a huge difference in recall, however he has no evidence to back this up, although it has been ask for. I understand the frequency argument, however 15" tandems cost me 75% of a 30" spot. Should I try and communicate within 30" or do tandems really work that well?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, July 05, 2005 ):
Try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. ARF materials will also be available through American Association of Advertising Agencies and Association of National Advertisers.

Wednesday, February 09, 2005 #6784
Do you know of any research that makes an effectiveness comparision of full-page print ads vs. 1/2-page prints ads (specifically in business trade publications). I would love to be able to answer the question....full-page ads have an x% higher recall rate than 1/2-page ads.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 12, 2005 ):
Try In-Stat or The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. ARF materials will also be available through American Association of Advertising Agencies and Association of National Advertisers.

Friday, February 04, 2005 #6774
Do you have any information on the effectiveness of a 30 second TV spot over a 10 second ad. My organization is ROI driven and we seem to be doing well with the 10's. Since the cost of a 30 second spot is at least 3X, would I expect to see at least a 3X return on a 30 execution?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 06, 2005 ):
Media costs of :30 are usually well under double the cost of a :10. When they were new, many tests showed :10's to get about 75% of a :30's recall. But the longer form is more than just numbers of seconds or recall scores. Costs and effectiveness should be roughly in line, especially if you mix the formats. But you know what your standards of success are.

Wednesday, December 22, 2004 #6726
I am looking for an up to date CPM rate comparison across traditional media that includes Blimp (Airship) aerial advertising. (TV, Cable,Radio, Newspapers, Magazines, Billboards, Blimps) The recall and retention rate with viewers of a blimp, unlike traditional types of media, is extreemely high - 70 to 80%

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, December 26, 2004 ):
The Guru has not seen this in one place. Perhaps Outdoor Advertising Association of America can compare blimps to other out-of-home placements. Even something as "niche" as blimps has several variables: small to large tethered blimps or piloted blimps or radio controlled blimps. Blimps reaching enormous audiences on New York City public beaches versus much more targeted blimps at spoecific events.

Friday, August 27, 2004 #6580
Is there any research out there on recall for Spot radio vs. Traffic sponsorhsips? Is there any standard on what is the most effective use of both traffic and spot radio?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 29, 2004 ):
Ask the traffic report vendors or The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

ARF materials will also be available through American Association of Advertising Agencies and Association of National Advertisers.

Monday, August 02, 2004 #6560
Dear Guru: In one of your answers re efficiency of :15 spots vs :30 you said: "In a campaign, these latter measures may mean overall recall and impact favor :15s, if the message can be communicated". Can you give me any references to such studies. The references I have been referred to so far support the opposite view: "Television viewers' attitudes and recall of 15 second and versus 30 secund commercials. James S.Gould" and "Max Sutherland & Alice Sylvester "Advertising and the mind of the consumer". Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 06, 2004 ):
The issue is what do you measure; under almost any circumstances, a :30 has better recall than a :15. But the consumer experince is not about seeing a :15 or a :30. If a campaign has 50 to 100% more exposures because it is executed in ;15, the reach and frequency will definitely be increased and if the ;15 communicates the message, overall effect may be better. It's about camaign versus creative. i.e the media director view rather than the creative director view.

Sunday, February 15, 2004 #6382
My question: Is there a way to measure impact? is there such a term in media "impact"?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 15, 2004 ):
"Impact" is not a media term, it is a term used by advertisers (the dreaded client) and account execs, when they know they are supposed to insist on something special but are too lazy or insufficiently knowledgable to try to define it.

Impact could mean better sales results, more awareness building, more recall,etc, but the essence is to have more effect, somehow, on the target group and to generate better results for the brand. Impact is a useful shorthand term, if one knows the fuller meaning.

Wednesday, January 28, 2004 #6366
what are some quantitative value factors that palnners assign to different tv dayparts assuming primetime equals 100

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 30, 2004 ):
Typically these factors are based on attentiveness as measure by syndicated research such as MRI or Simmons or recall factors from advertisers' proprietary research. These data vary from demographic to demographic and year to year. See sample attentiveness data in our Ad Data area at MediaDynamics Attentiveness data.

Wednesday, November 26, 2003 #6275
Dear Media Guru, We did a multiple regression analysis to correlate the Nielsen Awareness scores achieved by a brand with the media weights delivered by the brand. The entire category advertises only on Television. The dependent variable was the current awareness score for a brand (Y). The independent variables examined for the analysis were Share of Voice achieved by the brand in the Category in the week (X1), Awareness in Previous Week(X2) and 1+ Reach achieved by the brand in the week (X3). This analysis was done for a eight-week period. The tracking continues. Hence, we are planning to extend the analysis and build a more robust base on which the analysis can be extended. The R-Square values we obtained after multiple tests for Current Awareness with all three independent variables is 0.94 The R square values for any other combination is below 0.3 The question is a) Is this a collectively exhaustive list of what can cause impact on the awareness score ? b) Is there any flaw in the method used ? Regards RSV

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 28, 2003 ):
The method seems reasonable. The only other variables which immediately occur to the Guru are
  • # of competitors.
  • Ratio of share of market to largest SOV competitor. (i.e. 25% SOV might have a different impact against four other smaller competitors than against just one at 75% SOV).
  • Some measure of commercial impact, like recall

Thursday, November 13, 2003 #6243
On average, what is the % of unaided ad recall for TV & magazine print respectively. Does TV have a higher ad recall than print?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, November 15, 2003 ):
recall is defined differently in the two media and measured differently. There are so many other differences that comparing the two is relatively meaningless.

Wednesday, August 20, 2003 #6133
I am looking for information on newspaper recall studeis. Where can I find information to prove that running one half page ad in a newspaper will generate better results than running 4 1/16 of a page ads?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, August 20, 2003 ):
The Guru believes you are wrong. 4 one-sixteenth page ads should create better recall than one half. The Guru recalls one such test comparing a one page ad magazine to two one-third page ads (Starch metrics).

Research resources would be Starch and The Newspaper Advertising Association

Wednesday, August 06, 2003 #6111
What is the recall "lift" that a full pg 4-color unit with a 1/3 horizontal strip running opposite get vs. just a full pg 4-color unit.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 10, 2003 ):
See Starch

Tuesday, June 17, 2003 #6022
hi again...i wonder how to assess a definite hit program before airing as it is the era of sponsoring these programs and get the highest ad exposure and recall..much appreciate

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 21, 2003 ):
To eversimplify:

You need to determine what has led to success previously; e.g. content, style, audience focus, competitive time slot. Then consider trends in audience interest. Then consider programming from the competition in the same time slots. It isn't simple.

Thursday, May 29, 2003 #5983
what is the formula or how can we calculate the recall impact or residual impact after a TV campaign

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 31, 2003 ):
recall is not a factor of media so much as an artifact of the power of the creative. In general, some formulae show a loss of approximately 10% of the preceding week's ad awareness level for each week with no new activity.

Tuesday, March 04, 2003 #5865
What are the pros and cons of using a :15 tv spot versus a :30 tv spot? Does emotional based creative work well in a smaller unit size, like a :!5 tv spot? Thanks, WP

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 08, 2003 ):
By any measure of impact, e.g. recall, persuasion, etc. :30's will always beat :15s, one for one. By measures of media communications, e.g, reach, frequency, GRPs, impressions, :15's will always beat :30's, in a campaign. In a campaign, these latter measures may mean overall recall and impact favor :15s, if the message can be communicated.

Thursday, February 13, 2003 #5834
Do you have information regarding effectiveness or recall of 60 second television spots v.s. 30 second spots?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 17, 2003 ):
Lots of coverage of this in the late '70's. See Ad Age

Monday, November 25, 2002 #5645
Is thany research that shows the impact, audience recall and effectiveness of a series of 3 consecutive 1/3 pg ads versus the standard full page/spread? I've heard that Starch had done a study, but is there any info available that is free to the public?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 26, 2002 ):
One such study was conducted by Vitt Media International many years ago. If Starch doesn't have it, The Magazine Publishers' Association, Newsweek Media Research Index and The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. are other possibilities.

Tuesday, November 05, 2002 #5596
Are there any established or compiled norms for ad recall, especially proven ad recall?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 05, 2002 ):
See Starch

Friday, November 01, 2002 #5592
I seem to recall that there's a way of asking for spot TV avails over the Internet, instead of having to call multiple stations or reps. Does it still exist?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 05, 2002 ):
There was a page within AMIC called "MediaQuote" with links to several online avails systems. They seem to have died off.

They were essentiall dealers in remnant time, and didn't cover the full scope of what mught be bought.

Monday, September 09, 2002 #5503
Dear Media Guru: I have read in some of your previous responses that the rule-of-thumb wear-out level for a typical 30" TV copy is about 2000 GRPs. What would the wearout level be for a 15" copy, about 1500 GRPs (75% of the 30")? And what about a 5" copy? Thank you. R.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 12, 2002 ):
The 2000 GRP level related to quintiles of frequency of exposure, therefore the copy length chage does not inherently call for a change. Is there a reason to think the :15 wears out faster than the :30? 75% is an impact or recall ratio. If rcall were less, wear out might be, too.

Thursday, August 08, 2002 #5456
Do you know of any research that would show which is more effective in gaining audience attention: a medium length schedule with larger ads (6x with spread ads for example), or a longer schedule with smaller ads (12x with full page ads). Any insight is appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, August 10, 2002 ):
There will be many studies of this nature. The key is your definition of "audience attention." Reach will be greater with the greater number of ads. recall or noting is likely to be greater with the spreads. Ad or brand awareness might be the more decisive difference.

Try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter,

Thursday, July 25, 2002 #5435
Many years ago I used a formula to measure brand recall on TV. It was called the Zielski Study, and basically you applied a formula to the TV weekly TARP weightings when on air and another formula to current recall % achieved to measure the recall "drop off" factor when off air. You were then able to manage flighting of a TV schedule to either maintain a target recall %, or analyse exactly how many weeks you could be off air before dropping below a nominated recall % and then calculate how many TARPs were required to lift recall to the desired target. You wouldn't happen to have that algebraic formula would you?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 27, 2002 ):
You seem to be talking of awareness, an aspect of a brand or of advertising, rather than recall, a phenomenon usually attributed to an individual advertisement.

The kink in these formulae is that they seem to be keyed to 100 GRP per week for a brand with established awareness. Click here to see Guru discussion of awareness decline formulae.

Wednesday, July 10, 2002 #5405
Quick question, I have an AE who keeps bringing up "impact factor" with planning. And that the impact factor needs to be addressed when planning and GRP's and total R/F need to be adjusted. I have no clue what he means or an idea how to do this. Any help is greatly appreciated. Thanks again.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 10, 2002 ):
It sounds like your AE just arrived from working on an account which used such factors. Perhaps he never worken on any other acount and doesn'r realize this is ideosyncratic. Or perhaps he came from an agency with their own factors.

In any case, "impact" factors might be based on an index of recall or attentiveness or some other measurement of results specific to media types, from synidcated or proprietary research.

Typically, the "best medium" which is probably going to be prime time television has a 100 index and the others are set in relation to that. Also typically, the GRP are adjsuted and reach is then calculated based on the adjusted GRP.

None of this "impact factor" process is absolute or standard, but it can be done.

Saturday, June 22, 2002 #5373
I am interested in recall norms for TV and radio commercials by length of commercial (60-30-20-15-10), and magazine & newspaper ads by size and coloration. Can you help? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 30, 2002 ):
Start with the relevant associations, TV Bureau of Advertising, The Radio Advertising Bureau (RAB) and The Newspaper Advertising Association.

Then try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Wednesday, June 19, 2002 #5366
Dear Guru, have you heard of anything called the "New Network" I have been told it is similiar to MNI, in that it is able to group magazines together on a market basis. Do you know of any other compnay that groups together national magazines on a market basis?? Thank you for your service.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 22, 2002 ):
The Guru hasn't heard of "New Network." Since the early days of MNI (the '70's, as the Guru recalls) the magazine landscape has changed considerably. Today, the Guru would approach the large, multi-title publishers like AOL Time-Warner's Time, Inc. to structure such market-oriented placements.

Tuesday, June 18, 2002 #5363
I was curious.... is there any correlation between recall of an ad and the context of the program? (I saw one recently... on Scrubs, for a J&J spot celebrating nurses)... but wondered if there is any higher recall.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 22, 2002 ):
There is a theory that a connection of ad to environment enhances communication, not necessarily recall versus other "impact" benefits. For research try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Thursday, May 23, 2002 #5306
In my heavy spending media test, the control markets will not receive advertising. Therefore what should I look for in the control market results when we ultimately compare pre and post scores?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 23, 2002 ):
This does not seem to make sense. A "Heavy Spending Test" is a comparison to a normal spending plan. If there is NO advertising in the control market, you lose your comparison base.

In any case, pre and post would compare increases in the heavy market to the control. Are you trying to drive awareness? Is the percent lift comparable to the spending increase? Have you projected sales in relation to awareness? recall?

Tuesday, May 21, 2002 #5295
Avoiding media jargon: provided client have 2 spot (each 30") and he would like to hear recommendation of rotation. Particularly he asked of any proven examples of tactics when one spot is placed 1st in commercial block and the second spot is placed last in block- he called it "top-&-tail" (any research saying it is more effective than random placing in block). The other side of the story is - I suggested to rotate as follows: 1 spot - any other commercial- 2nd spot- other commercials (I heard it is called "consecutive spots". Both spots are in form of reportage- this connects them and therefore I recommended such rotation. I read in couple of books that qualitatively placing 1st /last in break is more effective, as peaple switch to other stations after 1st spot and than come back likely at the end of the block, but it was not proved by any examples, case studies, which is requested by my client.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, May 22, 2002 ):
There is research showing first and last in break are more likely to be viewed. The alternate 'consecutive' might be more effective in awareness / recall building. among those who view the entire set.

So the first issue is to set a standard of "success." Is it most viewers or most recall? Or is it really sales in resonse to audience size versus audience impact?

Best research resources are ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization and The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Friday, May 17, 2002 #5290
What is attention in media and how is it different from retention?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 18, 2002 ):
The Guru uses the term "attentiveness" for the measure he presumes you mean by "attention." Attentiveness pertains to the audience's relation to the medium or programs, dayparts, etc. It refers to how well the audience is focusing on the content. For example, to qualify attentiveness, research may ask, in reference to television viewing, is the respondent
  • In the room, paying full attention, or
  • in the room, doing something else, such as reading or sewing, or
  • out of the room?

Retention, on the other hand, pertains to the audeince's reaction to the message, determined by measuring how much of a commercial's content can be recalled at some point after exposure.

Tuesday, April 09, 2002 #5210
Guru . . . Is there a source for general, top-line numbers on day-after-recall scores on advertising for the various media?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, April 15, 2002 ):
The Guru doesn't think so, and it would be fairly useless. Day-after recall is really a measure of a piece of copy's ability to stand out from the surrounding media content.

Additionally, such measures have usually been done by such differing techniques that they never really described comparable results. One exception, perhaps 20 years ago. was a radio technique designed to closely replicate Burke's TV day after recall.

Even then each research vendor maintained and offered the norms only for their own technique, where comparison would have some validity. Some major advertisers which conducted many such tests might have had proprietary comparisons.

There might be some broad-strokes comparisons available through The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Friday, April 05, 2002 #5200
Are there any advertising research studies on the effectiveness and recall of :60 spots vs. :30 spot lengths.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 07, 2002 ):
Yes. Try the The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Friday, February 22, 2002 #5107
What is media effeciency rate in terms of buying time for infomercials? I've been told the goal is to achieve a rate of 1.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 23, 2002 ):
The Guru wonders, "1 what?"

Infomercials are relatively expensive, because they are longer in format than ordinary commercials, even if traditionally priced at "half the rate" of non-direct advertising. Because the lengths vary and demand pricing plus preemtability are factors, the Guru does not recall having found pricing standards for this form.

Thursday, February 07, 2002 #5067
Is there an industry standard, on the agency side, for ratings of a five, ten or fifteen second television spot? If the spot clearly gets your full message out in a :10 or :15, wouldn't it get a full rating? These are not sponsorships. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 10, 2002 ):
Rating is not effected by commercial length. Rating is simply about the number of viewers. Other factors might be applied judgmentally to adjust ratings according to commercial length, based on research regarding recall or effectiveness.

Tuesday, January 15, 2002 #5006
I have been asked to provide the impact of advertising by medium, for a multi-media retail plan. The advertising consists of TV, Radio and Outdoor. The percentages are: TV 80%, Radio 14% and Outdoor 6%. The communication is both branding and price/item. During the TV campaigns the creative split is 60% branding/40% price & item. The radio is almost exclusively price and item and the outdoor is 100% branding.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 17, 2002 ):
First you need to define the 'civilian' term 'impact'. Is it
  • Sales contribution
  • recall
  • awareness
  • or something else?

    Are the percentages Budget, impressiosn, reach contribution or . . .?

    This is not a reasonable question.

Friday, January 11, 2002 #4997
Where can I find average responses/summary numbers for advertising print readship tests (such as Starch) and television recall (such as Burke)? All I need are average responses over the period tests have been given with (1) recognize, (2) advertizer associated and (3) Read most, for print; and recall commercial and recall advertizer for television. Thank you for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, January 14, 2002 ):
See Starch, Newsweek Media Research Index and The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Saturday, October 27, 2001 #4835
What wins ad size or frequency? Are there any case studies or research available that proves either theory? Your assistance is greatly appreciated to help settle this debate.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 28, 2001 ):
What wins what?

The Guru finds that frequency will do better at generating awareness, recall or reach. Size may convey a different impression of "importance." Frequency is probably better for sales, but ad size may be better for image or to convey certain highly graphic ideas.

Tuesday, October 09, 2001 #4767
Are there any studies on the effectiveness or radio as well as radio ad recall vs. television. All studies seem to favor television. Is this a correct statement.. Can you please share you thoughts?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 09, 2001 ):
The trouble with such studies, when done from a certain angle is they compare and ad to an ad. It should be apparent that an ad with 'sight sound and motion' would outperform an ad with only sound. However, in the real worls, a radio campaing for X dollars includes more units than a TV campaign for the same budget, all else being equal. The comparison needs to be equal dollars in each medium, and radio can win in such as scenario.

For research, try The Radio Advertising Bureau (RAB) and The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Wednesday, October 03, 2001 #4754
Is there an "equivalancy" formula comparing the effectiveness of one newspaper and and a television commercial that appears "x" times for equal recall?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 08, 2001 ):
No standard formula. Once you set your units, you mught compare awareness or other measures. The right comparison should allow common budgets, not compare unit to unit.

Tuesday, June 26, 2001 #4523
Have there ever been any major mistakes with Nielsen data reporting in the recent past. I seem to recall soemthing happening, but can't find anything on it. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 26, 2001 ):
The Guru seems to recall that there was a problem with too much sample in Laredo in the early NHTI.

Nilesen has also been correcting under-representation of Spanish-dominant Hispanics in major market NSI samples.

Monday, June 18, 2001 #4496
While the numbers show a TRP as a TRP, there is no doubt in my mind that a :60TV ad (for example) creates more "impact" than a 1/2 page black and white print ad (for example). Have you seen any data/studies that account for this difference in impact by medium (specifically print vs. TV vs. TV billboard)?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 19, 2001 ):
The problem is to find comparable aspects of the media to measure. recall is one. Try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Monday, May 07, 2001 #4372
Dear Guru, this question was last asked in 1997. I would love to hear your comments based on current(2001) and beyond...your opinion on the changing shape of the media environment. How the media is changing for the near future, what are the main trends in the media and how will it change the media planning? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 07, 2001 ):
In 1997, the Guru said

Media have always changed. Once there were only print media and billboards. Then radio, then TV. Not only do new media arise, but the numbers of media vehicles of each type of each type proliferate. The web is only the latest and most explosive example of this proliferation. What causes the changes for the planner is the availability of research and hard facts on which to base decisions, rather than using theory. One of the biggest changes may be the growing emphasis on direct response models for evaluating media effectiveness, rather than awareness, recall, or requests for additional information. Or is it the ability to apply computer models to planning?

Today, the emphasis on the new has shifted to internet. Its importance as media must always be kept distinct from the prblrms of dot-com's business models. In 1997 the direct response issue and internet were moslty on the same track: click rate and sell-through. Today CRM is the buzz word and the webs' data capture and branding ability fit well with marketings new emphasis on those two issues.

The Guru believes that other technologies promoted as the coming thing will continue to languish until they give the user more than they demand of him/her, these are interactive TV and wireless internet.

Tuesday, March 13, 2001 #4250
My ad agency is putting together a media plan for a client. Currently, the client is spending about 15% on radio and 85% budget on broadcast television. I am recommending a combination of radio, cable and broadcast. I am trying to show a combined reach and frequency. I am able to do this for radio and broadcast tv with my media software. How can I add in the reach and frequency of cable (since universes are different)? My cable rep says she can enter my entire schedule (broadcast & cable) to come up with reach and frequency. Is this possible? Won't I be neglect in showing reach to those HH without cable???Please respond ASAP. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 13, 2001 ):
The Guru can recall when some managers opposed the introduction of computers because people would no longer know basic media math.

Keep in mind that the real story is how many people you reach. Once you determine that, it is simple arithmetic to express that number as a percentage of a target group, as we are used to seeing reach.

It is also standard to show reach within the cable universe and in the remaining U.S. For example, you might show that you reached 75% of the cable universe and 60% of the remaing U.S.

And. . . if the cable universe is 80% of the U.S. then your average U.S. reach is 72%

0.8 x 75
+ 0.2 x 60 =

Monday, February 26, 2001 #4208
I am trying to come up with an estimate of the number of advertising messages the average adult is exposed to in the average day. I remember seeing something on this somewhere, and I seem to recall a debate on the issue, but I can't find my source. Any suggestions?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 26, 2001 ):
It depends upon what you consider "advertising messages". If you mean TV / radio commericals, print and out-of-home ads, then the common estimates you see in the thousands are ludicrous. If yoiu assume a person is awake 16 hours per day and does nothing but consume media all day, the answer will be several hundred. Just think about TV and Radio's 20 or so per hour, or the number of ads you would see in an hour of reading newspaper and magazines.

The higher numbers are typically based on counting ecvery exposury to product names, logos and labels, as one might experience shopping in a store.

An issue of Consumer Reports is the most recent place the Guru has seen such estimates.

Monday, February 19, 2001 #4196
Do you have any statistics concerning the effects that adding color to an ad, increasing ad size, and/or increasing the frequency of an ad run on sales and recall of consumers? Could you please back these statistics up with studies and dates that these studies were conducted?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 22, 2001 ):
Visit Starch.

Also consult The Newspaper Advertising Association and The Magazine Publishers' Association.

Monday, October 02, 2000 #3856
Are there any standardized formats for measuring the effectiveness of place based media? Said another way, what are the most common criteria used in mesauring OOH media effectiveness...

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 08, 2000 ):
"Effectiveness" is a matter of interpretation, but OOH is judged by the same standards as any other medium: recall, awareness, sales impact, etc.

Thursday, September 21, 2000 #3824
You have stated in the past that "it has been demonstrated... that two, consecutive, one-third page ads on the outside column or right hand pages will do far better in awareness, recall, etc. than one full page." Will you please tell me where to find a source that will support this statement? Thank you!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 21, 2000 ):
The testing which the Guru has seen was done by Starch on a comissioned basis, but there should be some comparable public data, if nat at STARCH, then The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Thursday, September 14, 2000 #3796
Is there a metric for evaluating the performance of online advertising (Internet), print, radio and tv advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 18, 2000 ):
The absolute metric is sales. Short of that there is ad awareness or recall. Otherwise there are audience measures; impressions, or reach.

Tuesday, September 12, 2000 #3792
Dear Guru : Topic : TV Advertising Awarenness I would like to know that if it is a factor or rate, that afect the ad position in the comercial break thanks :

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 16, 2000 ):
Ad awareness is a broad measure, taken against full schedules of advertising. With the variance in positions experienced over a schedule, among som many othter factors, it seems unlikely that awareness could be attached ot pod-position.

There probably have been tests of day-after-recall for this, however. Check The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Wednesday, August 02, 2000 #3666
Ref. question 3663 Thanx for answering my question. I buy slots with high eff. index when my objective is to accumulate GRP's and drill my message into my consumers mind. This is the secondary stage where after creating the initial reach i focus on accumulating greatest total number of impressions (Funnel Treatment). As for the decay factor it reflects the decrease in the recall leval when advertising is reduced or stoped. I normally use 10% decay level in IMphase(IM horizontal planning technologies) The question that i want to ask you is what is the better way of flighting. There is a 70's 3+ eff frequency model by Prof. MacDonald which says that brusting is a better flighting patteren.On the other hand there is more recent Recency concept championed by Prof. JP Jones of Syracuse university of NY which says that as far as FMCG goods are concerned people are in the market every week and infect only needs one OTS to stimulate purchase.Please comment MY second question is how do you calculate Eff Frequency. Normally i use Eff frequency model where i calculate the eff frequency by applying judgement and common sence in a disciplined manner using Marketing, Advertising and competitive factors Thanx Sarwar Khan Media Manager R-Lintas Lahore,Pakistan

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 06, 2000 ):
1. In regard to 3+ effective frequency versus recency, the Guru tends to favor recency for "Fast Moving Consumer Goods." Recency is not really a contrast to the 3+ frequency theory, but an extension. As championed by Erwin Ephron, a core concept of recency is that once the third exposure is delivered, all additional exposures are at 3+.

2. Once again, there seems to be a semantic issue when you say "calculate" effective frequency. If you mean setting the frequency level to be considered effective, then your "judgment and common sence in a disciplined manner using Marketing, Advertising and competitive factors are the right approach, and the Ostrow Model will be helpful.

If instead, you mean to calculate the effective frequency delivered by your schedule, this has absolutely nothing to do with the subjective factors you have listed. A reach model determines how many persons are exposed to each discrete number of ad units in the schedule. That is if your reach is 75%, that means, explicitly, that 75% of the target has experienced one or more ad exposures. Within this, perhaps 70% of the target has been exposed to 2 or more, 66% to 3 or more, etc, up to the full number of units in the schedule. Reach models allow for expressing all of these levels. "Effective reach" mean those reached at least the minimum number of times established as effective, most typically 3.

Friday, July 28, 2000 #3659
Do you know of any sources of studies regarding Vertical publications. Specifically, are there differences between"how" people read vertical pubs vs. consumer pubs? Is there any quantifiable data on awareness/recall/intent to try from ads in vertical pubs vs. consumer pubs? Thanks in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 29, 2000 ):
No publication is itself "vertical." A set of publications is "vertical" because they cover the same topical area. If what you meant, judging from your context, is trade publications versus consumer, then Cahners might have what you need to know.

Saturday, June 10, 2000 #3546
Guru, Is there any published papers that tell us the efficacy (in terms of quantitative analysis)of "out of home options" with respect to measurable media like TV/Print? Basically the "impact scores" of mass measurable media versus the consumer's out of home options- any type of outdoor media. Would really appreciate if you could provide some light in this area. Thanks Gyan

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 11, 2000 ):
There should be comparisons of sales response, recall, etc in the materials at the The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Wednesday, May 03, 2000 #3443
Hi Guru - I have seen information on how different positions within a magazine can impact on ad recall, but is there any research available on how inserts affect ad recall? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, May 03, 2000 ):
If so, Starch would be the most likely source to check, Then The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Tuesday, May 02, 2000 #3437
Can you tell me what percentage of people who have seen a television public service announcement will recall having seen it? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 02, 2000 ):
To a small extent, this is based on placement, but to a much greater extent it depends on the copy. In short, this isn't a media question.

Wednesday, April 19, 2000 #3410
What is your opinion on using out-of-home (30-sheets or bulletins) as a stand-alone medium for a brand-building campaign? On a related note, are there any "rules" for adjusting different types of media for their "impact" versus other media (e.g., impact of an all-newspaper campaign versus an all television campaign given the same TRP levels and the same "likelihood of use" by the target market)?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, April 21, 2000 ):
The Guru has seen impact adjusments across media based on recall, on attentiveness and on an advertiser's proprietary research, but no general rules-of-thumb.

Unfortunately, such adjustments are too often based on one unit of the advertising, such as a TV spot versus a radio spot, and don't take into account the crucial difference in number of spots or GRPs per dollar.

As for brand-building in outdoor, there are two principal considerations in the Guru's view:

  • Definition of "brand building:" The term, one of those nebulous buzz-words which seems to mean whatever the speaker wishes, implies, to the Guru, the creation of a brand image and positioning from a low-awarness start.
  • Limited message: How much can a brand be "built" by the few words and large graphic allowable in out-of-home media?
  • Yet, the Guru is very favorably inclined to taking advantage of the enormous reach and frequency possible via out-of-home

In short, the Guru's gut feeling is that outdoor can contribute greatly to brand building, but that the process needs at least one longer-form medium.

Wednesday, April 19, 2000 #3407
Dear Media Guru, could you tell me what you know about beta-coefficient for different media measuring the percentage of the target audience who remembered the brand or at least one of visual or text elements of message after the first contact. Do you have any statistics on beta-coefficients for different media? Great thanks, Ekaterina

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, April 21, 2000 ):
"Beta-coefficient" is not a standard term in defining recall. It sounds like a measure of correlation of two metrics, perhaps GRP and recall, which were cited in some unknown person's study.

For a collection of such studies, try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Wednesday, March 29, 2000 #3354
Hello Guru, I'm trying to get some numbers about advertising on web-sites, especially on web-sites about entertainment. What I want to know is: how much ad space are they selling ? are they sold out or not? is there something like a "buy rate" (or sell through rate) for advertising, like percentage of ads sold? Thank you for the help.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 31, 2000 ):
The Guru has does not recall having seen the specific information you are requesting. There might be articles on the topic at The Industry Standard or NUA Internet Surveys.

Friday, February 18, 2000 #3231
Are there any sites that offer free PR services to new websites? I recall having seen something similar but have been unable to find it since. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 23, 2000 ):
You may be thinking of Submit-it or Add Me! which submit your site to multiple search engines at no cost.

The Guru does not know of any, more traditional, PR services available free to websites.

Thursday, February 17, 2000 #3221
Guru: Got an e-tailing site performance question for you. What sort of visitor-to-sale conversion rates do most online retailers typically experience? I would suspect that large, well branded sites like JC Penney, Amazon, etc. experience much higher conversion rates than smaller, lesser known sites experience. Am I right? I haven't found any marketing research source sites that have any relevant stats. Thanks Guru! Jim P.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 17, 2000 ):
It's not a media questions, but the Guru recalls that there was an article just before Christmas, in NY Times comparing such results for a dozen or so e-commerce sites showing results all over the place, with no apparent realtionship to advertising or other obvious factors.

According to a survey posted at NUA about 2.7% of e-commerce shoppers buy, on average.

Monday, February 07, 2000 #3195
I recall that there were starch tests comparing the noting of ads in Magazines , measuring the relative noting of front vs back of book , noting of left vs right hand page , OBC's , and different sizes of ads . Do you have access to this info , or do you know where I can source it ?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 07, 2000 ):
Go to Starch

Saturday, February 05, 2000 #3194
Guru: We're planning to use magazines, national newspapers, banners and direct mail to promote a new shopping portal we expect to launch in a few months. I pretty much know what results we should get from the mags, newspapers and banners, but have no idea what to expect from the direct mailer. Went to DMA's site but got no answers. Need your help, Guru! Here's my question: What sort of "recall rate" should we expect from mailer's recipients when we do our post campaign reader-recall follow up(i.e., out of 1,000 recipients, what percent should typically recall receiving the mailer)? I realize lots of varibles come into play, but give it your best shot. Thanks, Guru!! Jim Pflaum

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 07, 2000 ):
The Guru does not evaluate direct mail in terms of recall rate. Since the only result that really matters is a sales inquiry or other consumer action. Direct Mail is more often evaluated on its opening rate.

The Guru would not expect as much as 3% site visits resulting from mailing recipients.

Thursday, January 27, 2000 #3168
Are you aware of any studies that examine the ability to recall Internet Addresses in TV commercials. I have only been able to find a few studies that examined cross-promotion (when a previously established company included internet addresses in their advertising). I would like to find a study that specifically focuses on Internet-only companies.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 29, 2000 ):
Something of the sort is available from a Cahners Business Information Advertising effectiveness study.

Otherwise, the most likely and complete source would be the The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Tuesday, January 18, 2000 #3126
Dear Media Guru I know this sounds "absolutely creative" in a sense but an account executive has gone ahead and quoted a "certain research" that he claims to have read which says that in the outdoor medium high clutter actually contributes to higher recall(this is only specific to outdoors). I have been given the task of substantiating this research or finding references to this research when my basic media sense tells me otherwise. Keeping all things constant - creative impact, innovation, size or placement and the like - are you aware of any data that suggests such a hypothesis ? Thanks a lot

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 21, 2000 ):
The Guru doubts the validity of this hypothesis. If such research exists, the Outdoor Ad Association would likely have it. Otherwise try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Friday, October 15, 1999 #2876
Can you explain the difference in "awareness curves" and "reach curves"

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 17, 1999 ):
The "curve" reference in both cases simply means that both of these metrics can be comapared on a simple x/y graph and the result, whether reach or awareness (the dependent variables) charted against total exposures or toal spending (the independent variables), creates a line that is a curve. In other words. each increment of input yields somewaht less gain in reach or awareness than the prior increment.

But reach is a simple, process, it merely counts the different people exposed to advertising. Awareness measures retention of message or recallable knowledge of product or advertising. Awareness may be seen to decline when messages cease to eb delivered, but once someone has been reached, they've been reached. The curves are different. Reach can even be the independent variable in plotting awareness.

Tuesday, October 05, 1999 #2846
Is there any study to show that spots in prime time(say 8pm to 11pm) are more effective than those telecast in off prime (say 1pm to 3 pm or 6 pm to 8pm)?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 06, 1999 ):
Over the years there have been many such studies. Some focus on attentiveness or ad recall, some on other metrics. Best compilations would be Newsweek Media Research Index or Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Tuesday, September 28, 1999 #2831
Is there a documented research/ benchmarks followed which indicates a) how long (in units of time and GRPs) should a TV commercial last before fatigue for that commercial sets in. b) Is this likely to be different for FMCG or durables? if yes, how much? Thanks, Praveen

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 28, 1999 ):
There have been many studies, most of them proprietary. The variables are too many to be generally applicable: Commerical length, quality, recall, enterntainmnet/annoyance value, number of executuions in rotation, etc. The differences in cultures and media environments probably also have an effect.

Some set a standard based on quintiles of exposure, others on GRPs.

The major compilations of publicly available research are at ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization and Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter.

Wednesday, September 22, 1999 #2814
Hi Guru The ad agency I work for has a theory that cable GRP's and radio GRP's effectivenesss are significantly less than network and spot television. On our flow charts we only calculate 1/2 half of these points. I have heard this theory before but I've never seen a plan that cuts the GRP's in half. What do you think?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 23, 1999 ):
The Guru has been aware of theories that use effectiveness factors in comparing media. Sometimes GRP are adjusted on the flow chart, but since the flow chart often serves as the buying control document, more often the adjustments are shown in reach and frequency comparisons.

There can certainly be an argument that radio has less effectiveness than TV, commercial exposure versus commercial exposure, all else being equal. But, the argument doesn't seem to be rationale for cable TV. The commercial is the same, the presentation is the same. Unless there are objective measures of attentiveness or clutter or recall used, why is cable less effective? Individual commerical audience size is not relevent to message effectiveness of the medium; one consumer is not aware of how may others are watching the same program.

Monday, September 20, 1999 #2808
Hi Guru!For maintainence level of advertising for an established brand, on TV why is an OTS of three considered to be a minimum ? Or does no such rule of thumb exsist?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 20, 1999 ):
The 3x rule-of-thumb is based on studies dating back over 100 years to a researcher named Ebbinghaus. He determined that it required 3 repetitions of a string of nonsense syllables for them to be retained by experimental subjects.

Advertising researchers extended the research to posit that only after three exposures to a message would a consumer understand, recall and be prepared to act on the information. Media planners then started using an average frequency (as in "Reach and Frequency") of 3 as a minimum.

More recently, the concept of effective reach has used the theory that only those exposed at least 3 times should be counted as "effectively reached." So, for example, a media plan with an average four week reach / frequency of 76 / 5.2 might reach 50% of the target 3 or more times.

Some planners will evaluate several issues surrounding the copy, competition and media options to decide what effective level is appropriate and set a level of 4 or 6, etc. Of course, this is meaningless without also setting a reach goal at the stated frequency level. A plan that delivers 50 reach at 3+ might also deliver 42 at 4+, 33 at 5+ etc, so there is an issue of the goal versus the level at which the plan is examined.

Thursday, September 09, 1999 #2778
Dear Guru I' m interested in any information about 'effectiveness measurement' on online advertising.What are the most important criteria measuring effectiveness of online advertising?Where can i found more about this subject?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 13, 1999 ):
"Effectiveness measures" are many and "most important criteria: depends upon your goals. Some internet campaigns are solely on achieving click-thru, which is easily measured. Others might be based on building awareness, recall, or direct sales effects.

Good sources of on-line ad effectiveness research are C.A.S.I.E. (The Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive Entertainment) and the Internet Advertising Bureau

As always, the most complete compilation of this research will be at the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Wednesday, September 08, 1999 #2777
Re: Ad rotation in business-to-business publication for first-time advertiser What is the best rotation for two print ads in a business-to-business trade advertising campaign running during a one-year schedule? Ad #1 runs 3X, ad #2 runs 3X, and rotate the remainder of the year? Or rotate evenly? Or 2X each, etc.? What is most effective for building ad recall? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 13, 1999 ):
The Guru doesn't see any basis for 'rules of thumb' here. Considerations might include:
  • How similar or different the ads are in content and/or impact
  • Reasons to emphasize one message over another
  • Seasonal marketing issues
  • Depth of magazine list
  • Prior awarness
  • etc.

Sunday, August 15, 1999 #2719
Those selling web advertising cite recall statistics --- recall of web advertising versus television advertising. I personally do not think that you are able to make an apples to apples comparison between the two as the mediums are so very different. Those who are surfing the world wide web are there for a reason and more inclined to tune out much advertising --- as opposed to television which is more a passive medium. Are there any studies or statistics that speak to this subject?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 16, 1999 ):
The Guru agrees that web users more readily tune out ads than do TV viewers. But that is why recall is a useful measure. It lets you know what the person exposed retains from an ad exposure. If the tested exposures are "real-world" and not in a an artificial laboratory situation, the Guru believes recall is a valid metric. AOL did some research along these lines and the results should be posted in their media kit area. It was also reported in Ad Age.

Monday, August 02, 1999 #2679
our peoplemeter claim that we must weight commercial lenght according its duration for example: if the commercial lenght is 15 second and the rating of the commercial is 20% so the multiplie the rating 20% in 0.5 and the weighted 15" commercial is 10% (the ration between the commercial length to 30 second i claim that it is wrong since they want to put an impact index and the rating is a quantity index which tells as how many people watch? and if the same people so 30" commercial and 15" second commercial it is means that the same amount of peolple so the commercial besides, the meseaure unit on the meter is 60" and last why the dont weight reach and frequency to commercial? who is right?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 05, 1999 ):
Commercial length has no effect on reach unless your peoplemeter considers second-by-second turnover, so that some additional people might be reached in the latter 15 seconds of a :30. Even in this case, the ratio would not be 2:1.

For all practical purposes, any length commercial at the same time in the same program has the same reach.

Impact however, can differ by having a longer message. When fifteens were new, most studies fount they had about 75% of the impact of a :30, based on recall.

Sunday, August 01, 1999 #2676
Hey, I would like maximum information on comparisons of 15 and 30 seconds ads in the aspects of - consumer recall, efficiency and if using both 30 and 15 secon ads is effective? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 01, 1999 ):
Try Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Thursday, July 22, 1999 #2654
Other than from the NAA, are there any independent studies that measure ad noticeability or recall by ad size in newspapers.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 28, 1999 ):
Individual newspapers may have their own studies. When advertisers do them, they are generally not published. The best collection of published studies is the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Wednesday, July 07, 1999 #2613
Dear Guru, I'm trying to locate an article or research that reflects consumer recall of a :15 bookend vs. a :30 spot. I've tried the 4As and all they have are articles of :15 stand alones vs. :30s. Please let me know where Ican find this. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 07, 1999 ):
The best source is the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230, but the 4A's would have checked there for you, usually

Thursday, July 01, 1999 #2599
Any ideas on creative placement/positioning of :10 & :15 second TV & Cable spots? We have, of course, selected programs and networks that reach our target audience based on ratings and qualitative info; however, our challenge goes beyond that. We've reviewed book-ending, road blocking, double spotting, and stripping, but can't quit seem to get that "ooh-aah" factor going. Any thoughts???

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 02, 1999 ):
"Ooh-aah" is a lot to expect from commercial position alone. First in pod is a favorite. Roadblocking is meaningless today. It was powerful when TV audience share was 90+% for the big 3 networks in Prime time, during the 60's and 70's.

The best ooh-aah, the Guru recalls, was use of the program star, in character, in setting, to pitch the product. A specific example was Phil Silvers as Sgt. Bilko telling his corporals about the wonders of Luck Strike cigarettes. But this was in the day of full program sponsorship, when the advertiser owned the program. It might be possible today with a fully- or half- sponsored special.

Such "product integration" is still available today on the Spanish language networks, at least.

But of course :10s and :15s offere less flexibility than :30s and integration is really long-form.

Tuesday, June 15, 1999 #2576
I'll launch a new 20" copy with a minimum Grp's level (70 Reach A4W) during 13 weeks. The creative team is recommending a 10" lift for the fifth week. This, of course will give us more weight or more weeks on air (I must pay 15" instead of 10" because of the TV Network policies). In cuantitative basis I will win using shorter copies but I would like to know how to evaluate the qualitative part to make the best recommendation. Thanks in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 15, 1999 ):
If 10" costs the same as 15", why use 10's instead of 15's? 15's must have advantages over 10's.

The important factor is the relationship to the cost of a 20". Years ago, when 30's had become the accepted U.S. standard, 15's were introduced and extensively evaluated. The general finding was that 15's had roughly 75% of the value of a 30' at half the cost, so they were a very good buy

Defining "value" is the trick; is it recall, consumer motivation, sales effect? The archives of that old U.S. research will be available in the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

However, since you are writing from Mexico, it must be kept in mind that consumer reactions might differ, depending on what typical advertising units and exposure are for your consumers.

Thursday, May 20, 1999 #2520
Which are the main criterias to evaluate the impact of newspaper ads? We are suggesting to have different sizes and positions (all at the same cost), but we don't know exactly how to measure their impact. I remember that there is a study about the visual process of the eye when reading. That study includes informtation about the parts of the page that are the most visual. Thanks in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 23, 1999 ):
Ad impact is typically measured in terms of recall, awareness, and sales results. Awareness and sales are usually measured by custom studies of awareness and panel or scanner studies of sales. Starch is well known for recall studies of print.

Tuesday, May 18, 1999 #2511
Hi Guru We are doing a study on ad recall involving dailies. An analysis of results half way show that recall is abysmal. Is it because while sampling, we did not use the filter of "Intention to Purchase". Would our recall scores have been higher if we had asked the respondents of their intention to purchase any of the top 10 categopries advertised in press before asking them questions ? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 18, 1999 ):
It is typical that "interest" plays a big role in recall, and purchase intent would be a good indicator of interest.

Thursday, May 06, 1999 #2492
I am trying to find research about the recall effects of ad size & position. Where could I find it? It doesn´t matter if the research is not new. Thanks in advance

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 06, 1999 ):
This is the sort of information provided by Starch

Wednesday, May 05, 1999 #2491
We recently completed a 12 week radio campaign in a test market (79.2% reach & 12.5 frequency) for a client that sells a food product in grocery stores. The client experienced a 90% sales increase in this market at a time that other markets maintained only single-digit increases. The dilemma is that the post campaign research that was done showed only a 9% recall (aided 3%, unaided 6%) of the radio advertising. Do you have any information that will help us to support the case tht although the radio ads had a huge influence on sales, radio advertising is not generally recalled easily by consumers? Another concern is that these ads were tagged with grocery store names. Could this have caused the respondents to be confused as to who the advertiser was and in turn result in poor recall? We realize this is a long question, but wanted to give you all of the details. Thank you for your help!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 06, 1999 ):
It is an interesting problem. More often you need to prove that a good recall result is good news, but here you have amazing sales results, and the Guru presumes that you can demonstrate the radio was the only variable.

Of course, it is possible that 9% recall in itself is such a big improvement that it can account for a 90% sales increase, especially if previous market share or penetration was very low.

It is also true that tagging the spots is likely to confuse the listener.

Great advertising generally only gets 25% or so day after recall. Did you have a pre test on recall to compare? Generally, the best repository of useful researc in this topic is the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Wednesday, March 24, 1999 #2409
Dear Guru - This may seem like a vague question, but what is meant by "adjusted GRPs?" I am looking at a combined TV and print plan that delivers 425 avg. 4-week GRPs against W25-54, and under "adjusted GRPs" it says 336. These are 52-week plans, and there are only :30 units (no copy split). Your help is much appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, March 25, 1999 ):
Your question isn't vague, but "adjusted" is. Somone has done you a disservice by presenting something labeled "adjusted" with no explanation. There are numerous bases used to adjust GRPs including:
  • Variations in measured daypart attentiveness
  • Variations in measured daypart recall
  • judgement regarding sales effectiveness of different media
  • copy length/size versus some established standard
  • etc
. Various advertisers have set policies on these matters and planners trained on those advertisers' business report Reach/Frequency/GRP including these adjustments almost without thinking about it. But the first time someone sees such data, they deserve an explanation.

There are no universal standards for "adjusted GRP."

Wednesday, March 24, 1999 #2407
How did the industry standard of requiring television stations to post at 90% of the estimated TRPs on local spot buys originate?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 24, 1999 ):
Just because your agency and many others use this figure, it doesn't mean it's an "industry standard." But it is probably most common. The practice began in recognition of the statisical instability of the audience research, due to sampling issues. Two people, negotitating in good faith, and agreeing that a schedule should deliver 100 GRP, can find that, without anyone doing anything wrong, the schedule is reported to underdeliver because of "bounce" in the ratings. So to avoid arguements over probably half of all the schedules bought and sold, it became common to agree that if the schedule posted at least 90% of what was bought, it was "no harm / no foul." In fact, in most cases, schedules estimated in good faith should, statistically do better than 90%. And if a buyer finds that every schedule bought from a specific station came in near 90%, then there's something wrong; schedules should post over as often as under if statistical bounce is the culprit. Of course a buyer doesn't want all schedules to post 110% or bigger either, that would imply bad estimationg and overspending.

The 90% figure shouyld be a negotiating point. Don't automatically expect a station to honor it unless it's your stated policy or by agreement. Many schedules are bought without guarantees.

The Guru recalls his own buying experience when one salesman would offer 90% guarantee and the next 95%. It made it too hard to compare proposals. So the said to all the sellers. Give me only numbers which are 100% guaranteed. Raise the cpm you are offering, if you must, to compensate, but all sales must be on the same basis.

Monday, March 15, 1999 #2392
What do you know about radio effectiveness? I know my question is a kind of broad but please help me with whatever you know.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 20, 1999 ):
The Guru loves queries which invite him to write a textbook (overnight).
  • Radio is effective. There are numerous radio success stories, most famously, but not exclusively, based on great creativity and well known voices such as Stan Freberg or Stiller and Meara.
  • Too often, radio is judged by comparing a TV commercial execution to a radio commercial execution and ignoring the key point that in a schedule a radio spot may run three or more times as often or three times as many GRPs for the same budget. In other words, even if a TV commercial is more effective than a radio commercial, a radio schedule may be more effective than a TV schedule.
  • Radio commercials have sometimes tested as well as TV spots in some standard measures such as Day-After-recall.
  • Most important: There are as many bad TV commercials as good radio spots and vice versa. Good radio will always outperform bad TV.

Thursday, March 11, 1999 #2385
Will you explain to me how one ad size is better or worse than another? For example: 1/4 pg bw @ $830 with a $36.09 CPM - vs 1/8 pg bw @ $520 with a $22.61 CPM (within the same publication). I am working on a mediaplan and I am not certain which one would benefit my client more and/or how to justify it. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 12, 1999 ):
It is very straightforward to compare cost or cpm of two ad units. Creatives usually like a bigger ad (and will judge executions from across the room).

The question for a media planner is "if ½ page costs 60% more than ¼" does the larger ad give 60% better results?

"Results" might mean sales, copy recall, awareness or many things. And the percentage differential in question is key. Rarely if ever does a spread do twice as well as a page, though it cost twice as much. Cost must be balanced against impact. One of the common research bases of results comparisons, when past sales results are not an available standard, is Starch .

Monday, February 22, 1999 #2351
Do you have any research or results of studies done that compare "consumer recall" by radio format (i.e. AM Talk formats might produce X% better recall than advertising aired on FM Music stations...)?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 22, 1999 ):
The Advertising Research Foundation library will be the most likely source.

Friday, November 27, 1998 #2175
where can i get some information on magazine research studies pertaining to reader profiles/clutter/advertising recall ? any articles on websites ? thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 27, 1998 ):
See Starch .

Thursday, November 12, 1998 #2147
If you were launching a consumer product, what is a reasonable response of recognition (in terms of percentage)for aided and unaided recall after 30 days, 90 days and six months. Is there any research available on response rate or is this an unanswerable question because of all the variables? Thank you for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 12, 1998 ):
As you surmise, he variables, in type and amount of marketing communications of all kinds are too great to offer general rules. The big research compilations, such as Advertising Research Foundation and Newsweek Media Research Index probably have several casae studies to offer.

Thursday, October 22, 1998 #2110
Dear Media Guru, Can you please tell me about media readership surveys for different countries? It would be great if apart from the normal numbers by demographics, cross tabs, other info like product-linkage, duplication across media/ vehicles etc. is also available. What more info has been atempted as an add-on with the readership surveys, anywhere in the world ? - Planner in dark

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 23, 1998 ):
As far back as the Guru can recall -- 30 years or so-- U.S. and Eurpoean readership studies have commonly included "other info like product-linkage, duplication across media/ vehicles etc."

See Simmons, MRI or U.K.'s TGI.

Wednesday, October 14, 1998 #2096
Dear Guru, Could you advise me any sources about memorization indices for different media (eg. outdoor, radio, daily newspapers etc.) Thanks in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 15, 1998 ):
The Guru has not seen indices comparing recall (if that's what you mean) across media. If any exist, the Advertising Research Foundation library is most likely to have the data.

Wednesday, July 29, 1998 #1978
If I'd like to compare cost-efficiency of certain radiostation and certain TV station, would it be correct to apply some coefficient for radio GRP's (like 0,3 radio grp's vs 1 TV's)? Is there any reliable research findings concerning the question of comparable value of, say, the same kind of units but for different media? Thankful for your answer, Elena, Moscow

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 29, 1998 ):
Cost efficiency is typically used to compare media while intentionally ignoring "qualitative" differences. Of course, planners like to assign values to represent the differing value of communication power or whatever.

What is your measurement standard in a media plan? Reach, effective reach, sales per grp?

It is quite unlikely that a TV grp has 3 times as much of anything - recall / sales motivation / etc. And one must keep in mind that GRPs have their effects as part of schedules, not one at a time. Even if one radio announcement was 30% as strong on some basis as one tv annoouncement, the accumulation of effect over the course of a schedule would become much less, especially if radio's lower cost per GRP allowed a bigger schedule for the same money, which is why efficiency is compared in the first place.

Short answer - develop comparisons of efficiency and effectiveness separately. Then use effectiveness as an index on efficiency if you must.

ESOMAR , the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research organization or the Advertising Research Foundation may have studies on the relative effectiveness question.

Tuesday, July 28, 1998 #1977
My question concerns recency planning and how it may or may not be best applied to different business categories. The research and planning models that I have come across regarding recency typically focuses on packaged goods type products. I cannot recall any examples of recency being applied in a retail or QSR planning environment. Do you feel that recency holds any value as a planning approach for a retail and/or QSR account where scheduling typically emphasizes short term flighted promotional windows with a high to low cascading of broadcast weight?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 29, 1998 ):
Recency is most particularly relevant for packages goods which have regular, short purchase cycles.

(When an advertiser relies on promotions, the Guru always looks to see whether the advertising is supporting the brand/product or just the promotion).

The best discussion the Guru has seen about applications and exceptions for recency theory occurs in AMIC's Awards Papers e-mail discussion group. Particpants include "Mr. Recency," Irwin Ephron, as well as John Philip Jones, Eric DuPlessis, AMIC Publisher Abbott Wool. The archive of the AwardPapers discussion is at Ad Talk/ Chat .

Click here to subscribe to AwardsPapers

Thursday, July 23, 1998 #1970
I'm looking for a statistic that demonstrates the increase in ad recall for 2c newspaper ads versus b&w newspaper ads. Can you help?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 23, 1998 ):
Three possible resources:

Advertising Research Foundation

Newsweek Media Research Index

The Newspaper Advertising Association.

Or subscribe to -- and ask your question in -- the newspaper research e-mail discussion: Send e-mail to with a message that says only:

Subscribe Newspaper-Research

Wednesday, July 22, 1998 #1968
I am trying to study the factors related to unaided recall of TVCs. In your experience, is the prevalence of potential buyers connected to recall? In particular I have in mind several campaigns to baby products. Providing that all have the same reach and GRP, and that X% of mothers intend to buy Y product and 2X% intent to buy product Z. How should this effect the results? Irene Kol Israel

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 22, 1998 ):
The Guru would expect consumers in the market for the product to have better commercial recall. Also that people with specific brand intentions might recall that brand's commecial better.

But the actual content of the commercial should be the major factor. If intenders of product Y see a product Z commercial with important information about that product it may greatly enhance their recall, especially over a schedule as you posit the question.

Surely at least part of a commercial's intent is to convert users from one brand to another. At any point in time, those still intending to buy Y will probably have better recall of Y, and vice versa.

Friday, June 26, 1998 #1927
Are you aware of any published research that indicates at about how many GRPs recognition (or even recall) measures begin to level off?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 27, 1998 ):
There may be many such studies, most likely available through the Advertising Research Foundation library or Newsweek Media Research Index. However, when such single variable sudies are published, it makes it all too easy to overlook the fact that the creative carries the greater burden for your measures. Thus the perpertual questions about how many GRP = wearout.

Tuesday, June 23, 1998 #1917
Dear Guru, 1)I have heard the concepts "awareness" and "response curve" But I need more detailed explanations for them. E.g. what kind of researches are needed, how to judge the findings, how to use these results to improve/evaluate a tv ad. schedule... 2) What do you think about "conversion factor" which represents an index in terms of ratings for a target based on another one. The point makes me unconvinied with this concept is: Some targets are heavy wievers and some are not. But there is nothing for these differences in the "conversion" calculation. Thank you..zrb

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 25, 1998 ):
1) Awareness and response curve can both have more than one meaning. Advertising awareness is a result of quantitative, random sample survey research, where questions are asked to determine whether respondents can recall ads for a prodcut and/or what elements of the advertising they recall, e.g. copy points, which medium was seen, etc.

There is unaided awareness, i.e. "When you think of toothpaste, what brands' advertising have you seen?" and

Aided awareness, i.e. Which of these brands' advertisng have you seen?

  • Colgate
  • Crest
  • Aquafresh
  • Mentadent
  • Other

There is also brand awareness, considered without regard to advertising.("What brands of toothpaste are you familiar with?")

Response curve too, can mean many things. The "curve" part just refers to plotting on a graph with one axis representing some form of behavior such as purchase, purchase intent, ad recall, brand awareness versus another axis representing some stimulus, such as advertising weight or promotional effort.

2)Conversion factor does explicitly account for differences in viewing behavior between one target and the next. For example, if a certain program or daypart has an average Household rating of 10.0 and an average women 18-49 rating of a 6.4, and an average Men 18-24 rating of 2.5 there is a conversion factor of .64 for the W18-49 and a factor of .25 for the M18-24.

This difference is because of the difference of heaviness of viewing of the specific programming by these demographics. Their general heaviness of viewing relating to any other dayparts is irrelevant here.

Monday, June 22, 1998 #1915
Do you know of any awareness tracking studies or models that relate recall by medium to purchase intent? Would it be feasible to carry out this kind of effectiveness study to determine what kind of results a media placement agency is delivering to clients?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 25, 1998 ):
No doubt some users of recall tests have made an effort to relate recall to sales or purchase intent. This involves using their own, proprietary test scores and sales data. It is possible that the Advertising Research Foundation Library or the archives of their Journal of Advertising Research or conference presentations include the sort of analysis you need.

However, whether this is a basis for judging the performance of a media service is another question altogether. Has the media service been instructed to buy for optimal recall? Has the media service been instructed to buy to optimize purchase intent? In the Guru's experience, these are rarely part of the media goals conveyed to a buyer. More often, buying efficiently or to achieve a reach, frequency or effective reach goal is the instruction.

Further, if you wish to make recall or purchase intent your standard of evaluation, it only makes sense if you share the model you wish to use with your buying service

Thursday, June 11, 1998 #1895
A] How can a newspaper and a magazine be analysed for their advertising effectiveness on parameters such as 1. Reproduction quality 2. Clutter level 3. Editorial content B] Suppose 20 magazines and newspapers are being analysed, can each one be rated according to the above parameters? c] What is the method of rating these publications?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 25, 1998 ):
Any analysis of advertising effectiveness against such standards has two elements
  • an effectiveness measure and
  • a quantification of the standard

Sales tracking, purchase intent research or recall studies might be appropriate as the effectiveness measure.

As to the parameters of the media, you would probably want to develop your own scales of judgement as objectively as possible. For example, if you rate reproduction quality on a scale of 1 to 10, and compare the ratings for ads of several campaigns to their scores on your effectiveness scale, perhaps using a regression analysis in a spreadsheet program, you can see the correlation of the variables.

Thursday, April 16, 1998 #1565
What is a good source to learn more about magazine ad recall by size, color, editorial adjacency and position?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 16, 1998 ):
The Starch division of Roper Starch is the best known producer of these measurements.

Monday, December 22, 1997 #1481
I would like to have the E-Mial address of Radio recall Reserarch Inc., Holmdel, New Jersey My E-Mail Address is thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, December 23, 1997 ):
Switchboard and Four11 are two sites which offer email address search.

Tuesday, December 02, 1997 #1469
I am conducting a study on factors influencind effectiveness of ads on FM Radio. I will be measuring ad-recall, w.r.t factors like ad-length, ad-position, ad block length, likeability. I am scouting for secondary info, but i do not seem to find any. I would like a copy of Mr. Colin McDonald's study on factors affecting ad-recall. Could you tell me as to where i could find the study and other relevant info. thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 03, 1997 ):
The best source is likely to be the Advertising Research Foundation library.

Saturday, October 18, 1997 #1438
Dear Guru Could you please give me your views/suggestions on the following: 1. How can you set media objectives for a banking client in a market with only two major competitors; both of whom do not have a clear-cut advertising campaign? Would a % above last years GRP levels be appropriate; in proportion to the market share desired? What other parameters should I consider? 2. Qualitatively or quantitatively, how can front page solus positions in newspapers be compared with inside pages and ear panels? 3. And lastly, how do you add TV and press GRPs; for a specific audience? Sorry about the long query. Thanks in advance

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, October 18, 1997 ):
As a rule, the Guru sets media objectives based on marketing goals, not competitors' activity. Some marketing goals do indeed lead one to comparsions with competition, and awareness of competitors' plans is always a consideration.

If the key marketing goal is share growth, then a proportional increase in weight is one approach. But consider that share, like reach, exhibits an asymptotic curve. In other words, it can't pass 100%, so the higher it goes, the more effort is required to "move the needle."

Consider: You first assume that "X" amount of GRP's are required just to maintain share, on the assumption that competitive activity doesn't vary (and that advertising is the only variable influencing share).

Have you considered whether current share is proportional to share of GRP weight among competitiors?

Would 50% more GRPs grow share by 50%? No, if only because it increases the size of the total advertising arena. Your 50% increase in GRP does not increase your share of GRP by 50%, so calculate the right number to increase share of GRP, if you follow that philosophy.

But since there are competitors, perhaps it takes 50% more weight to gain 25% more share?

Newspaper positions can be compared on a basis of noting, reading, recall, etc. In each country or culture (you are writing from India), the relative power of media and the way consumers relate to them are different.

In the U.S., for example, a front page ad in a newspaper would be quite unusual if not unheard of.

Contacting the U.S. Advertising Research Foundation or ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Marketing Research organization, or your own country's newspaper advertising association may turn useful up research on positioning.

The Guru treats GRPs of different media as simply additive. When there are established effectiveness factors, as some advertisers have developed, GRPs may be accordingly adjusted before adding, in comparing plans.

Tuesday, July 15, 1997 #1373
Media Guru, I would like to know your opinion or if there are any generally accepted principles regarding advertising in print with multiple ads for the same brand within one issue. Thank you for your response.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, July 15, 1997 ):
Generally accepted rules? The Guru thinks not. From a media perspective it has been demonstrated, for example, that two, consecutive, one-third page ads on the outside column or right hand pages will do far better in awareness, recall, etc than one full page ad,

Despite this, it is difficult to convince advertisers to use multiple, small space ads. Unfortunately, from the media planners perspective, advertisers are more likely to judge an ad's impact by the single ad alone rather than what can be achieved in a schedule.

Wednesday, June 25, 1997 #1370
Dear Guru, I have a fundamental question for you. As media planners we recognise the need to look beyond numbers. How do you factor in the context in which the media is consumed,i.e. the frame of mind or mindset in which a program is viewed or a magazine read and the content of the medium, i.e. the edit environment, or the surrounding advertising. Is there any international learning on this subject? I am looking for research in this area, and examples of application of the same. Are there any brands you are aware of, that have consciously used such a philosophy in guiding their media plans? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, June 25, 1997 ):
This "factoring" is the art of media planning. If it were achieveable by application of established values, media planning would all be done by computers and there would be little use for media planners.

Expressing a Brand's synergy with specific media placements, and expressing the interaction of that synergy with the marketing situation and goals, then using those ideas to "sell" a plan are the art and craft of media planning filtered through experience.

The writing of plans for many brands uses these techniques. Major package goods companies have long used general factors for weighting media, based on measured attentiveness, average recall scores, etc.

About 12 years ago a company called TAA developed a more complex measure for evaluating attentiveness and attitude toward programs, as an added way to evaluate programs, beyond cpm and similar, simple counts. It went out of business fairly quickly.

Two research compilations the Guru mentions regularly, at the Advertising Research Foundation and the Newsweek Media Research Index are the best sources to consult for published research in this area.

Thursday, May 15, 1997 #1346
Are there any studies that quantify the differences in ad impact/recall etc. by varying sizes of outdoor (8-sheet, 30-sheet, bulletins with or without extensions)? Where could I find that info?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, May 16, 1997 ):
The Guru always begins with the libraries of the Advertising Research Foundation and the Newsweek Media Research Index, for topical research needs. You can also try the major out-of-home vendors, such as Outdoor Systems at (212) 297 6400

Friday, May 02, 1997 #1337
Dear Guru, CBS TV network is targetting for the audience 25-54 years of age. Since when are they doing? Is it a success - do they make more money per second sold than, say NBC, ABC or FOX, who aim at younger targets?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, May 02, 1997 ):
One alternate theory is that CBS is getting that audience by default, since everyone else is doing a better job of targeting the more "desirable" younger demographics.

The Guru recalls reports showing the other networks selling for higher unit prices. Publications like Ad Age provide regular reportage of ratings trends, audience demographics and up to the minute (claimed)average selling prices.

Wednesday, March 12, 1997 #1304
Dear GuruI am interresting in your oppinion on the changing shape of the media environment.What do you think how the media changing for the near future, what are the main trends in the media and how will it change the media planning?Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 24, 1997 ):
Media have always changed. Once there were only print media and billboards. Then radio, then TV. Not only do new media arise, but the numbers of media vehicles of each type of each type proliferate. The web is only the latest and most explosive example of this proliferation. What causes the changes for the planner is the availability of research and hard facts on which to base decisions, rather than using theory. One of the biggest changes may be the growing emphasis on direct response models for evaluating media effectiveness, rather than awareness, recall, or requests for additional information.

Or is it the ability to apply computer models to planning?

Saturday, January 04, 1997 #1084
I've heard that co-op advertising is on the rise. It seems like a great way to share advertising costs. Do you know of any standard letters or agreements used to present the idea from business to business (like from a store owner to a supplier?) Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 05, 1997 ):
The typical situation is that the manufacturer establishes a co-op program and advises dealers and distributors, who can then request the form to apply for participation.

This is how the manufacturer establishes a budget reserve for its share of the costs.

There is at least one book in print which lists co-op programs in existence. The Guru can't recall the name, but your local newspaper or radio station probably has a co-op manager who has a copy. These media are great beneficiaries of your use of co-op advertising!

There is also a National Association for Promotional and Advertising Allowances, Inc. which includes on its resouce list Co-op Works,

"a new online service that helps retailers, product vendors and media make the best use of co-op and MDF programs. Co-op Works standardizes the language and simpifies the entire process. Retailers and manufacturers can track incentives and accrued funds instantly-reducing the questions, phone calls, and headaches."

Tim Fisher, President
2665 Villa Creek #208
Dallas, TX 75234-7309
Phone: 800-810-2025
Fax: 214-243-6310

Tuesday, November 26, 1996 #1104
I currently publish a quarterly newsletter for a doucmentmanagement firm which outlines some of the services, software,and hardware that is available today in our industry.In recent converstaion it has come across that we wouldlike to focus our information based upon customer needsand wants in document management.

My first thought was to release a survey that wouldeffectivley find data that would allow us to analyze thecurrent market trends and cater our publication to theirparticular interests or needs.

The only problem I have at this time is findinginformation that will guide me in the right direction ingenerating effective surveys that do not sway theresponses of people taking the survey. I am planning toinclude this survey in the next release of the publicationwhich will be late December early January. (hopefully)

If you could direct me to books, websites, or any otherresource that can provide me with some "good" information oneffective question design I would really appreciate it.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 27, 1996 ):
The Guru regards questionnaire design as an art, rather than a formualristictechnique which can be learned from books. The Guru haspracticed the art himself, and learned it by being part of anorganization which had the expertise and through formal academictraining. Having visited many marketing research sites, the Gurudoes not recall seeing any attempts to teach questionnairedesign. Questionnaire designers begin with a good understandingof the way the intended respondent thinks about the products orprocesses to be surveyed. Often this is doene by conducting"qualitative research" such as focus, groups first. The best wayto learn something quickly about designing questionnaires is toread through actual questionnaires that have been used, alongside their survey results, the oiriginal hypotheses or issuestatement and the conclusions drawn from the data.

Surely there are text books in this field. Try Barnes and Noble.

You are wiseto realize that questionnaire design can substantiallyinfluence the validity of the data. But so can sample design. Agood questionnare used among a poorly selected sample, such as"any customer willing to return a survey" will be equallyunreliable in predicting consumer behavior.

Sunday, September 15, 1996 #1147
Where do I look for Lifestyles and Demographics for Filipinos between the ages of 12 and 20? Is there a page where I can view stat information such as: number of population for each major city in United States, age breakdown, etc.?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 17, 1996 ):
Filipinos are a fairly small segment of the Hispanic and/or Asian-Pacific Islander cultural segments, and the Guru, who has an especial interest in multicultural marketing, does not recall seeing any such data on the web. Lifestyle information is relatively rare for an under-18 demographic, except for the general market or its major segments.

Some of the listings at Abbott Wool'sMarket Segment Resource Locator might provide good leads.

A search engine such as AltaVista or Yahoo might produce some leads as well.

Finally, American Demographics Magazine frequently covers such topics, though the Guru's check of their archives was not productive.

Wednesday, August 21, 1996 #1165
What kind of data do you have regarding Hispanic portrayal in the media?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, August 21, 1996 ):
This isn't exactly a media question in the sense we use it here. However, the Guru recalls seeing something on the topic ie how many hispanic characters, how many hispanic actors, how positive the image, etc in a recent trade article. Try Minority Markets Alert, 212-941-1622 or

Tuesday, May 21, 1996 #1212
We're currently considering an "advertorial" program for one of our advertisers. I have been able to find some information and case studies regarding this kind of message, but was wondering if you have any good stuff. Have you seen any good "advertorials" or know of any articles/case studies?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 23, 1996 ):
The Guru recalls some good advertorials for Genie Garage Door Openers in home mechanics and do-it-yourself magazines in '92 or '93.

"Vertical" books have more opportunity for advertorial, so you should request samples and case studies from the publications you deem most likely to be your advertorial vehicles.

Friday, May 17, 1996 #1213
Dear Guru,I have two questions which you might have heard before.
a)I do know that a :15s commercial on TV cost between 50% to 75% of a :30s depending on market etc. Is there any studies that show what the benefit of either length is (if any) in terms of reach, frequency, effectiveness, memorability, etc.
b)I have seen studies praising the advantage of multiple media usage above single media; in other words using TV and radio instead of just TV. Can you elaborate on that and update with new info about this topic. Reason being a client who would like to slash the budget down to just using TV for campaigns. I however feel that there is an added benefit in using multiple media.Please respond by Monday if you can.Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 19, 1996 ):
a) There is is no difference in reach and frequency between a :15 and a :30. In the same time period, they have the same audience, within the tolerances of research measurement.

On the other hand, a schedule using :15's in place of some or all the :30's will provide more reach and frequency, because it has more announcements, hence more GRP, etc, for the same budget.

When :15's started to become popular several years ago, there was considerable research regarding effectiveness versus :30's. The general findings were that :15's had about 70 - 75% of the recall of a :30. At the time, :15's were typically a network option priced at 50% of :30's so the trade off of price vs effectiveness seemed favorable.

b) Multi-media plans chief benefit is in reach development, though the effects of the added reach have ripples in many directions.

Adding a new medium adds more reach than adding weight in the same medium: There are more likely to be different people in the audience of a different medium, over a given period of time. This applies to effective reach as well.

There are a variety of philosophical approaches to taking advantage of this.

One approach says to build reach up to a minimum effective level in the primary medium first, before adding the next medium. Another says build the first medium to the point where the reach curve flattens, then add the next medium to resume reach growth.

A newer, different line of thought, the "recency" theory, de-emphasizes reach in favor of delivering messages to the consumer closest to the point of making a purchas decison. This argues for continuity, to reach more people at all times rather than highest levels in sporadic flights. Again, multi-media will produce more reach, but other theories of minimum weekly levels may effect scheduling, ie radio bought to a minimum of 12x weekly when active.

Judgements must also be made regarding whether TV and radio is perceived as the same message by the consumer. Of course, this same judgement must be applied to different executions in the commercial pool of each individual medium as well.

Wednesday, February 21, 1996 #1755
Dear Media Guru- I have a two part question , both dealing with the same subject, tv sampling error. Suppose ER gets a 20% rating and Seinfeld gets an 18%, both off a sample of 1000 resondents. What are the odds of there being absolutely no difference between these two ratings? This is not as simple as looking up the standard error of each rating. I remember that it has something to do with the standard error of the difference, but I just can't recall the calculating process.Could you please explain? Then to complicate matters, I'm looking at the same phenonena on a grander scale. Suppose the estimated delivery in rating points for a tv schedule is 1000 grps and it underdelivers by 10%- ie. 900 grps. What is the likelihood that the difference had to do with pure chance ( sampling error) and how do I calculate that? I know this is more difficult since you have to account for buying many programs in the estimate and the actual. Naturally, we are assuming that the error differences are all due to sampling, and not the idiosyncrasies of the marketplace or the impurity of the sample. In this case I know the answer is going to be technical, but that is what I need. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 23, 1996 ):
The Guru loves this kind of stuff. The answer is technical but hopefully, in simple terms.

First, if ER has a 20 rating and Seinfeld has 18, with a sample of 1000 (for that demographic), then the ER 20 rating's standard error is +/- 1.265 while Seinfeld's 18's is 1.215 (See formulas in the Jan 25 18:23 Guru Q&A below).

Note that the absolute size of the error on the 20 is larger but it is relatively smaller. Also note that the range of these errors is such that they can make the two programs' ratings equal: 20 - 1.265 = 18.735 which overlaps 18 + 1.215 or 19.215.

There is a 68% probablity that these two ratings fall within this range. But the swing could go either way on either number. And could fall anywhere within the +/- range specified

There is a 90% probabilty that these two ratings fall within +/- 1.999 on the 18 and +/- 2.081 on the 20. The odds are 95% that they fall within +/- 2.381 for 18 and 2.479 for the 20.

These odds actually relate to reliabilty. That is, if you repeat the same rating study 100 times with the same actual facts existing, 68% of those studies will give ER a rating between 18.735 and 21.265.

Now the 1000 GRP underdelivered by 10% is different As the beginning of the explanation showed, while there is a swing around any rating (a 5 would be +/- 0.689 in the same study), the odds equally favor underestimates and overestimates. This is the same as the reason why small samples don't necessarily underestimate ratings. So in 1000 GRPs made up of 500 spots with an average 2 rating, the sampling error on the individual ratings somewhat cancels out.

To calculate this in an Arbitron measured radio buy using a single survey and one station, for example, the formula is

GRP x ((100 x #spots) - GRP) / sample x Factor)))

"Factor" is from a table provided, specific to demographic and #quarter hours in the daypart of the buy.

So, if your 1000 GRP were based on Adults 18-49 ( with a 1000 A18-49 sample), and a Mon-Fri, 6a-7p schedule, the calculation would be:

(1000 x ((100 x 500) -1000) / (1000 x 2.42)))

or +/- 143 GRP at the 68% confidence interval. Obviously, if the average rating were higher, hence fewer spots or if the sample was larger the variance would be smaller. With an average 20 rating, the swing is about +/- 40 GRP.

So, depending on average ratings and sample sizes, the 10% underdelivery could be within the range of standard error.

Friday, February 16, 1996 #1760
Dear Mr. Guru, Thank you for your last reponse on how to calculate GRP's. You had mentioned that you had explained it fully except for Neilson's calculation methodology. I would be interested in hearing more about this method of calculation as well. Also, is there a "better" way to measure the actual "Impact" an ad campaign has had if you know the actual length of each ad, the frequency the ads ran and the channels(and shows) that they ran during. ie. frequency X length X Audience(rate for each time slot)?? This is obviously a simplified formula, but your feedback on this would be greatly appreciated. Lastly, for television advertising, what are some of the other accepted methods of measurement. Thanks (Again)

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 16, 1996 ):
It is Neilsen's survey methodology that wasn't covered. They would use the same calculation formulae. The full description of Neilsens methodologies for People Meter, household meter and diary would cover several pages. Contact Neilsen who will be happy to send you methodology booklets.

Regarding "impact" there are as many ways to evaluate this as there are advertisers.

Some advertisers use a factor for copy length based on norms from recall tests. For example, 75% of a :30 is a typical value for a :15.

Some use attentiveness by daypart.

Some use a combination of the two factors.

Some apply the factors to GRP as an indicator; some apply to GRPs and then estimate reach from those adjusted GRPs as an impact indicator.

The frequency of a schedule, as discussed so far, refers to the average frequency of exposure for all pesons reached.

There are those who use "effective reach," counting only persons reached at least 3 times (or any designated minimum) when evaluating the impact of a schedule.

Thursday, January 18, 1996 #1782
Is there any magazine research comparing the value of newsstand circ. vs. free point of sale publications? I would like to verify a sales rep's claim that his publication is a better buy, because it is at point of sale.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 02, 1996 ):
Two traditional concepts are worthy of consideration here:

1) It's a salesman's job to tell you his product is better, no matter what is provable

2) Basic media thinking holds that there is more perceived value, to the consumer, in something he/she has paid for than in something received for free. If that is the only distinction, the newstand publication should be stronger

Aside from that there are several questions to consider:

Is the point of sale publication literally at the place where the product is stocked in a store, as in a home decorating guide in the paint and wallpaper section or at paint stores, and you are advertising paint and brushes?

Or is it a general recipe magazine at the supermarket cashier while you are advertising dog food?

If the free title is topical and well placed, is the newsatnd title equally on topic?

How do you measure effectiveness, add recall, coupon redemption, movement on the purchase intent scale actual sales attributable to the magazine?

About the best catalog of print research on-line is the Newsweek Media Research Index

Thursday, January 04, 1996 #1802
How do television and radio advertisers value an impression? That is, if someone advertises on television is there a formula used to determine prices for :15, :30 and :60 spots? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 02, 1996 ):
As a general rule, :30 impressions are the standard reference for TV and :60 for radio. "value" and "price" may or may not correlate:

In TV, a :60 is usually double a :30's price but has the same value in reach. Some advertisers use attentiveness or recall factors to adjust the "value" of a :60 vs a :30 impression. Your question focuses on pricing.

In most cases, :15's are priced at 50% of 30's, but there are instances where 65 or 75% is used.

In radio, :60 is the standard, with :30's typically priced at 80-85% and :15's not in use. Some stations today, especially top rockers with a sensitivity about clutter and inventory sell "units" not differentiating between :60's and :30's in price.

Saturday, October 21, 1995 #1831
The big one-humour in advertising! Any studies on the impact on recall brand awaresness, sales, wearout/decay, product category relevance and cultural differences All pointers welcome!

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, October 21, 1995 ):
The ARF library, which is for members only, is the foremost collection of such material. AAAA and ANA members can access the ARF library through those organizations. The Newsweek Media Research Index, online at is a possible source as well as is any library's index of AdAge articles.

Tuesday, April 11, 1995 #1853
I'm looking for information on Sports Marketing. In particular, the effectiveness of stadium advertising and any studies that have been conducted on this subject i.e. cost effectiveness, audience recall, and demo & pycho info on people who attend sportin g events and are exposed to this advertising. Also any competitive info. Any suggestions on possible resources? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 11, 1995 ):
This one looks new, and I trust the recently forwarded covers the others. Demo and psycho would be in MRI/SMRB/MMR.

Sellers of stadium advertising have probably done custom studies of recall / effectiveness and eagerly share results with potential clients. Of course, they might feature the results they find favorable. If advertisers did proprietary studies, they'd be propritary. The ARF (Advertising Research Foundation) library or conference proceedings might have something. We're going beyond media here, you know.