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Guru Search Results: 149 matches were found

Thursday, July 14, 2005 #6974
What are the "10 golden rules" of media? (mediaadvertising)

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 17, 2005 ):
It appears that you are referring to something written or said by a specific author or expert, perhaps about planning or buying or selling. The Guru has not encountered any well know or accepted "10 golden rules" of media.

He could invent a few.

Tuesday, April 19, 2005 #6902
Thanks for your response to my question re: media buying through an online system. I believe the WebAD.vantage site you mention below is for advertising online. My question pertained to buying traditional radio media online via some kind of internet based solution. Although your point re: posting rate cards on media sites is well taken......rates for radio stations are for one dynamic so I don't understand how a radio station could effectively post their rates in a meaningful way to buyers. Not to mention other considerations that can effect rates quoted by media companies. In a recent article Chrysler's Julie Roehm said " Buying ads should be more like buying stocks." She goes on to say "creating a more efficient electronic system for buying ad spots would free advertisers to concentrate more on developing branded content and interactive TV". Perhaps I'm just looking for something that doesn't exist yet it would seem to me there is a need for a system that leverages the internet to facilitate the buying/selling of radio media....and the efficiencies would save media outlets and media buyers and their clients time/money. If this is not available today then perhaps you can tell me what's preventing this technology from coming to market? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 19, 2005 ):
The online buy/sell of media "commoditizes" advertising, that is it makes an impression just an impression; it is reduced to buying impressions or spots for a set or low-bid price. Speaking for media professionals, the Guru believes that there are important evaluative steps; audience evaluation, qualitative and quantitative, schedule refinements and actual negotiation, none of which lend themselves to handling online. Surely it is not in the interest of radio stations to support "development of branded content and interactive TV." Nor are the people most likely to have this responsibility the same ones involved in negotiating radio. They are non-intersecting disciplines in the Guru's opinion. The concept seems aimed at eliminating radio sellers and buyers, a direction not likely to be supported by agencies, and probably not by stations seeking a selling advantage, either.

Thursday, April 14, 2005 #6899
I'm interested in learning more about companies who are currently providing some version of online media or other media it doesn't matter. Do you know of where I might find a comprehensive list of such companies? Also, how is the internet being leveraged to facilitate the media buying/selling process or is it? And what is the radio industry doing to leverage the internet to help develop/facilitate business relationships with advertisers....if anything? Thanks, Brad

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 17, 2005 ):
Googling "media buying" will find sites like Media Buy$ or WebAd.vantage

These appear to the Guru to appeal to discount shoppers looking for "fire-sale" remnant space, not to media professionals trying to execute full schedules.

Radio stations as much as, if not more than, other media rely on web sites to inform media professionals about their medium. Radio stations have the advantage of being able to fully present their medium as well as their information on line. Today, every medium is expected to have a website. The Guru can only react with surprised amusement when a medium's web site does not provide a detailed media kit for planners.

Friday, March 25, 2005 #6870
advertising terminology - advertorial, co-op ad, image advertisement...

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 27, 2005 ):
  • Advertorial: An advertising unit that appears to be part of the editorial content of the publication
  • Co-op ad: an avertising unit partially underwritten by the manufacturer or brand and partially by the local retailer. In form, it may be an ad for a retail organization or franchisee that features the national brand being offered or an ad for the national brand that features a local retail supplier. Local fast food franchise outlet ads may be partially paid by the National company or ads fro automoabiles might list members of the local dealers association.
  • Image ad: A vaguer concept, but essentiall an ad aimed at influencing how you feel about a company rather than aimed at immediately selling you a product or service. E.g. "We don't make carpet, we make it better" from a chemical company that sells fiber to carpet mills.

Monday, March 07, 2005 #6842
What is the difference between Advertising and Marketing?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 07, 2005 ):
Marketing encompasses all activites aimed at selling, positioning and promoting a brand. It includes advertising but also public relations, promotion, packaging, pricing, etc..

Advertiing is essentially mass-media messaging.

Tuesday, February 15, 2005 #6795
Hello Media Guru: Now that Clear Channel Radio seems to own half of the radio stations in the major markets and have established their less is more scenario, what percentage of a sixty second spot's average quarter hour rating would you attribute to a thirty second in the same daypart?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 20, 2005 ):
Rating has nothing to do with commercial length. It is the same for a :30 or :60 in the same time period.

As far as dollar value, that is negotiable. A :30 is worth between 50% and 80% of the :60. Radio has been selling flat-priced "units" regardless of length for many years.

Friday, January 21, 2005 #6756
How do you best calculate "return on advertising investment"?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 28, 2005 ):
Most simply, it's a matter of looking at incremental returns per ad dollar. The trick is setting the standard for "return." It could be incremental dollars of sales, for example. That is, suppose I am selling $10 million dollars worth of goods right now and I spend $1 million on advertising. Then I spend another $1 million on advertising and sales rise to $15 million. I have a 500% (or 5:1) ROI for that added ad spending.

Thursday, December 30, 2004 #6729
When you begin to look at buying a new market, what is the best way to find out a reasonable CPP for that market?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 30, 2004 ):

2. Ask all the vendors at what price "the other guy" is selling.

Thursday, December 09, 2004 #6715
What are some pro's and con's of advertising in trade magazines? Is there a resource I can use to look this up myself?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, December 11, 2004 ):
The first question is "advertsing what?" For example, if your brand is aimed at specific vertical categories, which are served by a trade book, then waste circulation is avoided. I.e. if you sell oil drilling rig parts, then advertising outside pertroleum industry trades would likley involve a lot of waste. On the other hand, if you sell a business service, like inventory control systems, which is useful across many industries, then general busienss media would probably be more efficient. There are also issues such as the authoritativeness of specific trade media which strongly benefit narrowly targeted products and have little effect on selling more general brands.

A key comparison is trade magazines vs trade web sites. Often treade websites are moore efficient or can be more narrowly targeted than trade print; e.g. do you need to address petroleum engineers or pertroleum marketing executives?

Monday, November 29, 2004 #6706
Dear Guru, I have two questions: 1.What is the difference between "print run" and "circulation"? 2.What is the most precise word for the price of the magazine - price, cover price or some other word?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, November 29, 2004 ):
1. "Print run" is a count of copies coming off the press. Some are spoiled, destroyed or returned unsold.

"Circulation" is a count of copies in the hands of potential readers.

2. Cover price -- the price literally printed on the cover -- is the single copy selling price at the newsstand. It is a precise enough term. THe price at which a magazine is actually sold varies, with subscription prices and other discounts.

Sunday, November 28, 2004 #6705
MG, I believe I've seen recent news about efforts to align methods for measuring online and offline media. My first question: Are you familiar with these efforts? Second: Have you seen any data ranking the "effectiveness" of specific channels online and offline. (Clearly "effectiveness" is a tricky label, but I'm referring to it only in the sense of the effort to align measurement methods referred to above.) Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 02, 2004 ):
1. Yes, the Guru is aware of such alignment efforts. They have been going on almost since the dawn of internet advertising in 1995. Organizations like CASIE, Association of National Advertisers, American Association of Advertising Agencies and The Advertising Research Foundation have led these efforts.

More recently, The Internet Advertising Bureau is a leader. The newly linked I/PRO and BPA internet audit effort, with the participation of Agencies for Internet Audits, is also a force for this goal.

The essential unit of media measurement is agreed among traditional and online media to be the "impression;" one exposure of one ad to one person. Although measurment methods differ among media types, once there is agreement to impression numbers, moving to reach, frequency and GRP figures is relatively easy.

2. As you acknowledge, "effectivenss" is subject to interpretation and is best examined within an advertising category. One medium may be best for selling real estate another for cars and a different one for diamond jewelry. Within a medium, it is more reasonable to compare the effectiveness of various vehicles, while controlling for copy variations. And of course defintions of effectiveness are variable; sales, awareness, share change, etc.

One great advantage of online advertising is its accountability and immediately measurable results.

Thursday, October 28, 2004 #6653
Abby, given Nielsen's inability to measure niche networks, and planners' desire to provide ROI via post analysis -- how can a highly targeted Spanish- language niche network get on the planning radar?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 29, 2004 ):
Skip, first of all Nielsen doesn't put any vehicle on the radar, though it meay help prevent some from being ignored. Making direct contact with the media professionals, as you have been doing, will make you known. The key is to figure out how you are a unique solution to brand communication needs. Custom research can describe your audience, if it cannot acceptably quantify it.

If you are the only in-language non-cartoon kids programming, or if you reach a more upscale Spanish-dominant family, or if your content offers better message integration, such selling points can be important. Without ratings, you can't go into the "me-too" boxcar numbers game rgardless of target.

Wednesday, October 06, 2004 #6624
I am applying for an account executive job at a national cable network. What skills and knowledge would make me a shoe-in for that position? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, October 09, 2004 ):
Skills: you're selling yourself as a salesperson. Do a better selling job than any other candidate.

Knowledge: know the research you will sell with. Know the history of your medium and the key competitors of the network you want to employ you.

Monday, August 23, 2004 #6574
How can I get cable subscriber numbers by zip code? I want to compare to subs by syscode to see how much/little waste there is. (Client can only provide there geographical information by zip.) Thanks, dorian

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 29, 2004 ):
  • The cable company
  • The rep selling ad time on behalf of the company. Some may have data online

Nielsen would also have the data but would probably release it only to subscribers, if at all.

Wednesday, May 12, 2004 #6491
I have a company which installs computerized plasma screens in retail stores at our expense and broadcasts ads via the internet. What is the best way for me to secure advertising for my network. I have had very little success with media buying agencies.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 17, 2004 ):
You are selling a form of out-of-home media. The internet aspect here is purely mechanical and irrelevant to a media decision. You need to sell to the same buyers who place signage in stores, not the typcial media buyer, more likely promotional staff at an advertiser.

Tuesday, April 27, 2004 #6473
Is it possible to purchase a 30 minute (1/2 hour) spot on TV to run a "documentary"? If so how would this work? What would be an average cost? Would it be best to look at informercials or even better develop a DM campaign focusing on a mailer kit sent to a specified target?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 01, 2004 ):
The Guru is confused by your use of the term "documentary." There are stations which sell half-hour blocks for outside programming. When you ask about DM are you talking about selling tapes of the documentary?

In any case, "average cost" questions are too broad. A small market cable channel would have a very different price than a large market broadcast outlet; the difference could be 100:1.

Tuesday, February 03, 2004 #6375
Media Guru: Is there a correct % of sales that a retail client should spend on advertising for a G.O.B. campaign? If so, what is it?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 08, 2004 ):
The Guru doesn't think there's any "right" %. It would depend on selling prices and the need to clear merchandise at any cost versus maintain some level of profit.

Thursday, October 09, 2003 #6194
How can media house with multi media properties leverage itself to achieve accelerated revenue growth? Are there any models of media owners successfully selling cross media properties?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 13, 2003 ):
Search the literature. Try AdWeek, Ad Age, Media Magazine, Wall Street Journal

Friday, June 20, 2003 #6028
What are the advantages of having an agency with in-house media planning and buying capabilities? And the disadvantages of seeking a separate firm that works only with media buying and selling?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 21, 2003 ):
In house keeps media closer to product marketing and MAY save versus paying outside fees. A separate frim may not get fullly involved in marketing issues and may be over fcoused on price.

On the other hand, an in-house operation may become isolated from the broad picture of the market and opportunities, while the specialist firm is likley to have better negotiators with more and broader experience.

Friday, May 02, 2003 #5956
What are the costs of 30 second spots on the top 3 Nielsen rated TV shows reaching the M/F 25-44 50K+(HHI) demographic? Also, what are the ratings for these shows and how big are their audiences. Thank you o guru...

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 04, 2003 ):
For such a narrow definition of top programs, you need to go to Nielsen, these won't be among the commonly published data.

In general, citations of specific program prices are meaningless. You may ask what was the average selling price of a :30 in "Program X" over the past year. But for planning purposes you must recognize that at any given time, a programs price depends on time of year, the size of the package within which it is purchased, the overall volume of the advertiser, etc.

Tuesday, February 18, 2003 #5844
what ,would you suggest, is the most presentable / suitable media plan format that you would reccomend?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 23, 2003 ):
This depends on so many issues. Are you presenting to a continuing client or "selling" a new client against competing planners?

If you are doing a stand-up, in-person, presentation, Power Point works well. If you are sending a plan to be read, a fully worded document is better.

Content-wise, the Guru begins with a background, which is typically obsjectives and strategies, but may include a brief situation analysis.

The Tactics / Specific Recommendation should come next, followed by discussion and supporting detail. Extensive tabular data, or descriptions of media options are best kept in appendices.

For format details see the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan

Tuesday, February 11, 2003 #5823
Dear Guru, Thank you very much for helping media people around the world with their queries. I'm in the media dept of a full fledged agency. I have a major client who is thinking about using a media independent. How should I argue my case against a media independent? (I've not worked with a media independent before). Appreciate your help

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 17, 2003 ):
The first selling point of media independents is price, the second expertise leading to better schedules, smarter deals, etc. In a different aapect of price, they might proopse the client could reduce fees to your agency by a larger amount than the dfees the independent would charge.

Your case needs to address these potential issues.

Tuesday, January 14, 2003 #5732
I have heard comments from media agencies that emphasize quality over cost for TV spots. However I am a little skeptical, especially when their compensations are tied directly with the budget. So I would like to ask you a few questions to help me get a better understanding. 1) Does a good relationship between the director of a TV station vendor and the media buyer strongly affect the quality of TV ads (in terms of POD position, etc.)? 2) Does buying above the SQAD mean a bad buy in comparison to others who purchased below the SQAD? 3) Are there ways to measure (quantitatively) the performance of a media buyer? Your opinion would be highly valued. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 18, 2003 ):
The Guru comments:
  1. In any buying / selling situation, a good relationship between the parties is likely to improve the deal as perceived by both sides. This will affect product "quality" for the buyer and quantity sold for the seller.
  2. Buying above SQAD is a pretty reliable indicator of having spent too much.
  3. SQAD is more of a benchmark than an absolute. Once some basics are set, you can tell the buyer has gone wrong if his/her costs go up when SQAD costs trend down, or go up much more than SQAD does. Likewise, a buyer whose costs go down more than SQAD's costs do has made good deals.

A media buyer needs to be given explicit goals against which to be measured. There are no absolute quality indicators of a buy, whether you look at cost, cpm, reach, rating, pod position, etc, unless these goals are set. Undirected, a buyer will probably go for lowest cpm/cpp or his own interpretation of best reach. If you wanted high ratings or heavy frequency instead and didn't make that clear up front, it is not the buyer's performance error when you don't get your secret desires. If you did give specifications and the buyer went a different way or didn't meet goals, then that's bad performance.

Thursday, October 03, 2002 #5544
I have a client that is trying to determine the value of some editorial coverage they received on some of the national networks. I see that CPM's are available on the website. As our agency does not purchase any national TV, we have no access to audience figures. Is there a place that I can go to find this information. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 06, 2002 ):
Companies that produce audience measurement are in the business of selling their results. Only very limited data is available for publicity purposes, i.e. publication by the trade media.

One such source is Radio Online

Tuesday, August 06, 2002 #5449
what is the best medium used to reach latino's home buyers?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, August 07, 2002 ):
Spanish radio has high reach and immediacy. Outdoor has the highest reach in absolute termes, albeit with a limited message. Depending on what you are selling to homebuyers, your may like the geographic flexibility of these media or the impact of Spanish TV. Or the ability to associate with relevant real estate or decorating editorial in print, despite its much lower reach.

Monday, July 22, 2002 #5426
Hi, I work for Europes largest market research and analysis company. We are looking at selling sponsorships, advertising on our web site and in our 21 weekly newsletters as a new revenue stream. Who are the major players in interactive advertising sales? We are after sponsorship andbespoke solutions rather than CPC. If you could offer any help... Thanks, Rob

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 27, 2002 ):
Media Post's Media magazine regularly lists the players in the arena.

Tuesday, June 25, 2002 #5378
Have you heard of anyone selling advertising on CD/DVD labels or the liners of CD's/DVD's? I have an opportunity to buy such and would like to know rate basis and rates, if there are any.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 30, 2002 ):
The Guru hasn't heard of it. Sounds comparable to outdoor, unless the product is closely linked by topic to the cd/dvd contents. Start with outdoor cpms, in the under $5 range.

Tuesday, June 18, 2002 #5360
Where can I find information about how the introduction of peoplemeter system influenced audience data over the next 3 years, as well as TV inflation (selling policies) for the same period? It will be very usefull some information form Eastern Europe.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 18, 2002 ):
Look at the archives of Ad Age in the period: the mid to late 80's.

Wednesday, June 05, 2002 #5325
After selling internet advertising, what would be a likely next career step, with a goal to work on the strategic part of the business, and who would I want to talk with?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 06, 2002 ):
selling traditional advertising seems the logical step.

Thursday, May 16, 2002 #5287
Dear Guru, I was presenting media new business pitch recently and an AE chimed in and said somehting that puzzled me. We were discussing buying power and clout and he said that smaller agencies (such as ours) are better at buying because larger agencies buy huge amounts and give the larger accounts the "better" spots and that smaller accounts at large agencies get the dregs. I have always ourchased space on a per account basis and never a bulk buy. Do large agencies just by a bunch of space and hope their accounts stay with them? Also, I always thought that it was illegal to make clients purchase through you in order to get rate deals. I thought that the whole issue of clout stayed with the client because it's their money. Any insight? I want to straighten him out if he's wrong. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 18, 2002 ):
  1. AE's should be told to shut up during media presentations, rather than relating their favorite old wives' tales
  2. No one should ever contradict a selling point being made by someone on their own team during a presentation
  3. The theory is ludicrous, because:

    *If a large agency had so much clout, maybe their worst spots would be better than a small agency's good spots

    *On a given network, particular spots are not essentially better or worse except by virtue of total audience; different advertisers want different targets and program types

    *Why would a big agency want to treat smaller clients that way, anyway?

  4. It is probably true that a smaller client will get better service at a smaller agency where they matter more, but if you extend this theory, then the smaller agency's smallest clients get dumped on too, and so on.
  5. Networks do sell spots to CLIENTS through the agency, not TO the agency. The agency does not have the right to resell or reassign the spots to another advertiser.
  6. Large agency buyers do have clout by virtue of the amount of business they do with a seller, but this does not neccessarily mean it shows in the schedules. A skilled buyer can outperform a less skilled buyer who has a larger budget
  7. Because pricing goes throughout a large advertiser's buy, the size can act aginst best pricing. Networks do fear that a great price may let too much inventory go at too low a price, so on any given day a smaller advertiser may get better pricing than a larger one.
  8. In spot advertising, there are some time banks available for resale, but forewarned is forearmed
  9. Tell your AE to go back to his used car lot.

Friday, March 01, 2002 #5126
What is the effectiveness of Billboards?h

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 04, 2002 ):
Effectiveness varies according to how well your selling point can be expressed within the limited copy a billboard allows, how well an impactful graphic supports your message and how well placed your billboards are.

The Guru believes billboards can be very effective and recommends them often, as appropriate.

Thursday, February 07, 2002 #5065
How does DRTV differ from regular TV?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 10, 2002 ):
DRTV asks the viewer to call "now" with their order or information request.

selling conditions also vary, in terms of commitments on both sides.

Wednesday, February 06, 2002 #5060
Creating a media campaign. Target group: Children from 3 to 7 years. Budget is not sufficient for the whole year advertising. What would be the best period of the year for advertising then?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 10, 2002 ):
The advertising season will depend on the selling season in your category. If you adrfe selling ice cream, it's summer, soup in winter. Short pants in summer, snow suits in winter.

Sunday, January 20, 2002 #5017
We are web marketers with several sites that average about 3000 to 6000 hits per day. We wish to sell advertising banners on these sites, and are not sure how to approach accomplishing this objective. Can you refer us to anyone or make any suggestions. Thank you Guru.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, January 21, 2002 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses about various aspects of selling banners

Wednesday, November 21, 2001 #4904
What is the best place to get a comprehensive idea about US media scene and its evolution? Can I also get an intensive revire of media [particularly TV] buying selling pactices and culture in the US? I have heard terms like sopt TV and Network TV; but I diont understand it all.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 22, 2001 ):
What you are asking probably requires a month or more of work in a U.S. media department.

Meanwhile, review the Guru's media strengths page, Media Terms and the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan.

Spot TV means advertsing placed on individual local stations covcering one defined geographic market, while network refers to national placement, carried on affiliates in all of the 200+ U.S. local markets.

Wednesday, November 21, 2001 #4901
I am considering selling a simple, novel, kitchen handtool using national newspaper advertising to reach an audience of several million potential purchasors. The advert will have a black and white photo of the handtool with a simple, clear selling message and call to action (telephone orderline to place credit card payment). Assuming my product is correctly priced and has reasonable appeal and my advert is reasonably well constructed and effective, what range of order response rate can I reasonably expect to see (i.e. what percentage of the newspaper readership could reasonably be expected to order based on experience of similar advertising campaigns?). A percentage range (low to high) would be a useful answer rather. Many thanks for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 21, 2001 ):
There is not really enough information for an accurate projection. The results might be anywhere from 0.1% to 3% of persons reached.

Try Direct Marketing Association (DMA) and The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Tuesday, November 13, 2001 #4886
We are deciding between 2 DRTV ad companies. One suggests buying nationwide spots on a cable network. Another company states that's a waste of money. They suggest buying spots on nationwide cable networks in only the top 10-15 markets. What are the benefits of the 2 and how much cheaper do you think buying in single markets would be than buying nationwide? I didn't know how in depth this process could be. Thanks in advance for throwing me a life vest in the vast sea of DRTV

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 14, 2001 ):
Assuming your cost of selling and delivery is equal across the country, buying networks will be much more cost efficient on the media expenditure side of the equation. The out-of pocket dollars will be more, but the audience reached will be much more. If the one company that favors buying top markets can show you that these markets produce a better return from these markets, that may be worth listening to. Network buying is much less labor intensive.

Tuesday, November 13, 2001 #4885
We're attempting a TV DR campaign. Our DR company is a little nervous about giving any hard facts and I was hoping you could help. (1)What is the life cycle of a typical direct response campaign for unsuccesful, moderately successful and highly successful products? 2) what type of results are considered successful to unsuccessful? (3) Typically, how much as a percentage of revenues are spent on the media buys? This is the best way for us to estimate promotional expenses. It is easiest to benchmark it according to sales revenue. (best case, worst case etc??) Thanks for any help in advance!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 14, 2001 ):
  1. The beauty of DR is that you immediately know what is or isn't working. Life cycle is therefore directly dependent on "success."
  2. Successful = profitable ROI. The variables are advertising expediture and selling price versus cost of goods. The same advertisng budget might be put behind a $29 item that cost $10 to make and sells in enromous volume or a $290 item that costs $225 to make and sells many fewer units.
  3. Similar variables apply to the revenue/media spending ratio. It's all a crap-shoot and you rely on the expereience of your DR people. If they have the experience, they will show you case studies, but possibly not rules-of-thumb

Try Direct Marketing Association (DMA).

Wednesday, October 24, 2001 #4823
We are a new online business devoted to selling information about hockey. We would like to request information on how to affectively advertise our information and create an affective website. How can we make our information easily accesible to the public as well as appealing? We want as many people as possible to learn about us and what we have to offer so we want to learn what the most effective and inexpensive way of online advertisement is. We trust that we will receive answers to our inquiries soon and we thank you for your time. Sincerely, HOW2HOCKEY.COM

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 24, 2001 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses about advertising a website.

Monday, July 30, 2001 #4615
How do I decide how much I should pay for pay per click services? Is there an industry standard? We have been offered $.35 per click.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 30, 2001 ):
The Guru doesn't believe in selling cost-per-click, since that makes the web site responsible for the quality of the advertiser's copy.

Nevertheless, if you assume there will be about three clicks per thousand impressions, then $0.35 per click equates to $1.05 cpm based on impressions. On the Guru's web site, he would not be interested in business at this price.

Monday, May 28, 2001 #4431
Hi, A lot of media production houses(television program producers)and smaller televsion channels are clueless about strategic issues involved in media selection, planning and buying.I feel there is a business need gap that can be filled by media experts and consultants. Are there any instances 1.where you have been approached for such projects 2. what information/analysis areas are likely to be of great value to such production houses/television companies 3. Any specific companies/agencies doing similar work. Please do let me know Thanks ABC

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, May 30, 2001 ):
TV channels (as time sellers) might well benefit form a half day's seminar on how media buyers decide what to buy. The Guru doesn't see the direct benefit for production houses.

In his role as a private consultant, the Guru has done projects for media sellers, and for producers only when they were also seling their product directly to advertisers. These projects were about how to use media numbers as selling tools and how to present the measured aspects of the media properties most attractively to potential buyers.

The U.S. system may be different than yours.

Friday, May 04, 2001 #4365
What is the minimum TRP level ONE creative execution should have allocated for a campaign? For example, if I have 3,000 TRP's total (NATIONAL) for different products, shouldn't there be a limit on the number of commercials we run, in effect because none of the spots would have enough weight attributed to it? Thank you so much!!

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 05, 2001 ):
These decisions should be based on communications goal for each product, not numbers of commercials.

3000 GRP per year is about 60 per week. This is an adequate sustaining level for a brand, especially within recency concepts. If you are allocating this to products which have mutually exclusive selling periods of one month each, you could support 12 products comfortably.

Competitive climate should also be considered.

Wednesday, April 11, 2001 #4323
Dear Media Guru, my client is a massive audience tabloid newspaper that needs to sell advertisement. Up to now, its excesive mass profile has been a problem in selling ad space to poweful brands. What kind of campaigns to the advetisers and the media agencies do you recomend? How can I keep the newspaper in their top of mind? Could you help me with outstanding campaigns? Cecilia

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 15, 2001 ):
Pure size should not be a problem for major, reach-oriented brands. Perhaps it's your demographics. But these are marketing and not media problems.

It's no secret that advertisers and media planners can be reached in trade media like AdWeek / MediaWeek. Something more targeted like our own AMIC might also be effective.

Wednesday, March 21, 2001 #4277
Dear guru, Is there any way to assess the value of a nielsen ratings point? For example, if you could increase viewership by x, it is worth y in additional advertising dollars? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 21, 2001 ):
This is very simple. All you need to know is the average selling cost per point of the time period, available from resources such as SQAD

Monday, February 19, 2001 #4194
Dear Guru, what is "cost per aquisition" and what do you believe is the most acceptable way to count the effectiveness of a web site? Impressions or unique visitors? This is a huge problem in Greece right now. Every site has it's own general overview of it's performance and visitor's behavior so things are confused. Thanks in advance

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 19, 2001 ):
"Cost per acquistion" may refer to the marketing spending required to bring a new visitor to a site, ot the cost of generating a subscriber, or the cost of making whatever sale a site aime at.

Sites have different goals, missions and standards of success. A site might be designed to sell retail products such as books, vdeos, muic, food, cars, etc. These sites may need repeat customers, who buy music every month or more often. A site selling automobiles will probably not see the saem customer more than once in three years once sale is made.

Other sites generate revenue via advertising, still others from subscriptions, and some by conveying information to support corporate image, with a one-time message. If you are evaluating sites as advertising vehicles, and seeking reach, then unique vistors will be the key. >"Brand Visibilty Index" is not a standardized media term. It might be a term invented by one agency or advertsing school to indicate a specific concept they use in describing some situation. It might be an index of Brand GRP versus category average GRP. Or it might be something else based on awareness, clutter, etc.

What may seem important to a site, like building impressions so that it has ad inventory to sell, may be relatively meaningless to an advertiser. Sites with a million unique visitors may be able to sell you as many unique visitors as a site with 10 million, because your needs only call for 200,000 unique audience. Evaluate according to your plan's needs, not the site's claims of success.

Thursday, February 15, 2001 #4185
I would like to start my own freelance media buying business out of my home. What suggestions do you have for me? I would like to know what is the best way to get my name out to the public so everyone knows about my business and the services I can offer them. Also, any ideas on what the average freelance media buyer charges in the midwest? Thanks a ton!!!

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 19, 2001 ):
Get your name out through sales reps you know and ads in local ad trade media. Frelancers charge from $20 to $200/hr or a percentage of placement. Reputation and selling yourself are the keys. Talk to others you know who do the same thing. If you can't find others, that may be a warning to you.

Tuesday, February 13, 2001 #4177
Dear Guru, I am a media planner from India looking for a change of job from a traditional agency. Can you suggest any options that I can look at?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 14, 2001 ):
Within the media field, there are on-line agencies, selling and marketing jobs with media vendors, and client side media work.

Wednesday, December 13, 2000 #4036
I have a opt-in email list over 150,000 that I send a weekly newsletter. I am interested in selling advertising or renting the list or even selling the list. Where can I find a authority/expert or broker that can advise me on this project? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 13, 2000 ):
Several such services are decribed in an article in The Industry Standard

Tuesday, December 12, 2000 #4035
I am starting a DVD venture, and one of my revenue models is selling ad space on the DVD. The DVD will present lifestyle entertainment content in a magazine-style format. it will be aimed at a gen x audience 25-35. The DVD will have DVD-ROM features for computer DVD players & will have web links. Ad spots will be in the form of video commercials appearing immediately prior to the films/videos, web links and disk space for down-loadable software (such as demos/shareware). Is it reasonable to expect that web companies (or other companies) would pay for ad space on the DVD? Have you heard of any web sites buying ad spots on an entertainment DVD? Thanks! Marcus Bastida

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 13, 2000 ):
The Guru has not heard of this specifically, but there was a spate of (unsuccessful) CD-ROM magazines a while ago. The only the difference the Guru sees for your idea is that the required hardware has a smaller installed base.

Essentially you are offering a potentially high-impact medium to a very small audience with potentially powerful environment for certain relevant products. The closest analog the Guru can point to is DVD content web sites selling ads, like DiVerse DVD.

Thursday, December 07, 2000 #4024
I have a question about an answer you provided on December 04 about turning commericals recieved in trade to cash (question #4014) When you are reselling these units are there any legal ramifications and do you need to confer with the station?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 07, 2000 ):
Commericial time within these deals often has contractual restrictions limiting potential advertisers, ususally barring any current clients of the station, but possibly barring any resale. In the absence of such explicit restrictions, one should be free to resell.

Tuesday, October 10, 2000 #3881
I'm a print media business-to-business editor; I've worked for my publisher for 15 years. I'm trying to encourage him to learn how to market our magazine's website, but he seems to think that selling on a website is the same as selling an ad. on a printed page. Where can I find information and guidance, to show him that this is a different world requiring different strategies and techniques?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 10, 2000 ):
Why not "walk" him through a major, successful B2B site like CMP's ChannelWeb. Point out the different types of ads, programs and relationships. Talk also about how the audeinces of various "pages" may diifere in audience size and composition, totally unlike print media.

Friday, October 06, 2000 #3874
Dear Mr. G. I am interviewing for a job at a major search engine for a position in international sales. The position would be selling the sites international properties to U.S based clients. I would like to show some inititive and come in with some sort of plan.Is there an easy way to track down agencies that buy interactive internationally? Thanks for your help. Best, WJF

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 08, 2000 ):
Observe the advertisers on international sites and find trheir agencies via The Standard Directories of Advertising Agencies and Advertisers ('The Redbook')

Thursday, September 28, 2000 #3846
What is the traditional (inhouse) process of posting a banner ad and what are the pros and cons?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, September 29, 2000 ):
Just put an <img src > tag on the page if it's your own banner on your own site. Nothing can be simpler. If you are selling lost of outside banners, there may be a reason to use posting scripts. But this is a production issue, not media.

Tuesday, September 19, 2000 #3810
What do you think the minimal amount of market coverage a business should have to consider advertising in a market? For examply, in the retail business, how many retail outlets do I need to have in a market before it makes sense to advertise with broad reach mediums (radio, outdoor)? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 23, 2000 ):
It's not simply a matter of number of outlets, it also involves competiton and desirability. For example there may be only one BWM or Hatteras Yacht dealer in a metro area, becasue the number of sales, while high-ticket are few and people will travel some distance for a unique product. If you have a restaurant or hardware stoer where choices are many, then it's more about dispersion across the market than pure numer of outlets. You need to decide how far people will go for what you're selling and compare that to coverage of the media considered. IN some parts of the country, people will drive 2 hours for dinner.

Keep in mind that there's a big difference between 'broad coverage" media and big reach media. For example, outdoor can be readily purchased to have a very high reach of a small area, like a single store's 3-mile trading circle. In some situations, local suburban radio can match a single store's trading area as well.

Thursday, August 24, 2000 #3744
Guru...I need to price the sale of advertising space on a time and temperature recorded message. I was considering using Internet CPM since I do have the call volume per month. Are there any benchmarks specifically for this time and temp service? I appreciate any insight you have -- thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 28, 2000 ):
This seems to be a unique service for any given area, so competitive benchmarks aren't likely to be relevant. Like the internet, your message gets in the way of very specific information that the consumer is sseking, but even more so. Radio is probably a better comparison, unless you are selling to someone who can really capitalize on a time or weather environment.

Sunday, August 20, 2000 #3724
What are the different types of opt-in email lists, and how does the managing of these email list names works. What are the standards, how are these lists distrbuted?,... ...i would think that these email recepients on these lists have the ability to be "opt-out", meaning that there has to be one single place where these updated lists are constantly stored. The dillemma comes from seeing all these list brokers, what are the standards of the organization.....And also, what firms play the most prominent roles in selling and managing these lists?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 21, 2000 ):
The types of opt-in lists include
  • Lists the user seeks out and requests, for example stock market info
  • Lists actually built through spam mails soliciting recipients to sign up for opt-in mail
  • Lists built from product registrations or web site memberships, where the membership or registration form includes a check-box to indicate that the user wishes to receive email. It is a bit controversial whether the default setting in this case is checked or unchecked. Legitimate "opt-in" lists are some variation of these. Many pieces of email arrive telling the recipient he has opted to receive it and many marketers may be defrauded into buying lists of people who have "expressed interest in receiving mail about . . ." whether they have or have not. The Guru gets piles of such spam.

    There do not seem to be any other "standards" at present.

    The NY Times recently covered some real opt-in list providers including FloNetwork and MessageMedia.

Tuesday, August 15, 2000 #3706
I know that CMR can produce (and Charge) me for a report on Advertising Expenditures by brand by medium, but I am looking for something FREE. I have searched the web over and over, any ideas?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, August 15, 2000 ):
There are some abbreviated reports of online ad dspend, such as those by AdZone interactive in our AMIC's Ad Data area.

The Guru gets a lot of this sort of question, but companies which are in the business of generating data in exchange for revenue have figured out that if they give it all away, noone will pay then for it. Thus audeince research companies like Nielsen, Arbitron, MRI, Simmons, and data companies like CMR only release a narorw slice of data, such as Top 10 spenders or Household ratings or 12+ share to illustrate what they do. And they are strongly opposed to anyone giving away what they are in the business of selling.

Friday, August 11, 2000 #3699
My client would like to sell ad space on their website but doesn't have the resources for a dedicated sales staff. Would you know of any independant sales reps who specialize in selling this form of media for independant companiess.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 13, 2000 ):
See AMIC's list of web ad placement services at Web Sites: Ad Placement on the Web.

Thursday, August 10, 2000 #3692
Dear Guru, What levels of commission are paid to third party agencies selling advertising inventory on behalf of websites?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 11, 2000 ):
The Guru has seen figures from 30 to 85%. Naturally, the biggest sites get better deals.

Wednesday, June 21, 2000 #3564
We are establishing a membership, where each member will provide their unique demographic information ie name, age, income etc They will also advise us of what purchases they intend to make over the next 12 months ie insurance, cars, homes etc. We will therefore act as their trusted agent directing the appropriate advertising and sponsership to them over the internet. Therefore we will be in a position to sell to advertisers the individual demographic data of our members. And for our members direct to them the information/sponsership that they request. So the question is what is the value(in $) to the advertisers for this specific information?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 25, 2000 ):
Your question appears to confuse the sale of information with the sale of targeted impressions.

Lists of people with known demographics who are planning to make specific purchases arfe fairly common options sold by direct mail list houses. You can check prices of some of these, but the Guru estimates value at about $US75 - $US 150 per thoussand.

selling targeted impressions against people of known demographics interested in particular purchases, and probably nearer the purchase decision is an option of various search engines or shopping sites like MySimon or AutoByTel, where impressions sell in the neighborhood of $60 per thousand.

Tuesday, June 06, 2000 #3533
Can you give me any advice on how to proceed selling space for two mobile billboards which I own. I am not a member of the 4A's so research information is scarce for me. Are their any directories or Associations I should speak with or you would suggest I be a member of? Are their any independant outdoor operators I can speak with? Your advice and expertise would greatly be appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 11, 2000 ):
The best compilation of advertising research, which includes all 4A's and ANA material, is the The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter.

Advertising Research Foundation membership is open to any organization.

Find local, independent out-of-home operators in your yellow pages.

Monday, May 15, 2000 #3475
My company is currently placing free internet terminals in high traffic pedestrian locations. We currently have our terminals in 3 mall locations in the Las Vegas, Nevada area. We have recently completed about 2 months of data collection in the Fashion Show Mall in Las Vegas. We are generating 1.2 million impressions per month out of that single location. We anticipate generating approximately 3 million impressions per month by the end of May. Now that we have collected all this data. We are ready to start selling the advertising. We are considering hiring an advertising firm. How do we find and evaluate an advertising firm that will meet our needs?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, May 19, 2000 ):
Two sources of agency listings by selected criteria are The Standard Directories of Advertising Agencies and Advertisers ('The Redbook') and AdForum

Monday, April 24, 2000 #3415
I am looking for any and all information on advertising via satellite television. I found some basic history of the media on, but that site doesn't provide enough info. Can you recommend sources either web sites or hard copy?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, April 24, 2000 ):
Assuming you are thinking about the U.S., you may be looking for something that doesn't exist.

Keep in mind that signal carriers, whether cable or satellite, may not insert ads in time slots already sold as national, nor into local broadcast programming, nor on advertising-free networks like HBO. When you see national ads on cable networks, these are sold by the networks as national and run as the network is carried, whether the viewer receives the program through cable or a satellite receiver. Local, cable-originated advertising runs in time slots reserved for local use. These "local" slots, about 2 minutes per hour, could theoretically be sold nationally by the satellite carriers.


  • Satellite can't sell "locally," because the ground stations are individual homes
  • With only 13 million U.S. satellite subscribers, divided among systems with between 1 and 7 million homes each, and viewing divided among 100+ channels, the audiences available to sell are vanishingly small as "national" buys.
  • Most of the slots available will be used for system promotions: selling national, paid advertising is likely to violate carriage agreements with networks, who sell category exclusivity in programs or at least pods
  • You won't even find an "advertising" link on the web sites of Dish TV or DirectTV, which, between them, account for about 80% of U.S. satellite homes.

Wednesday, March 29, 2000 #3354
Hello Guru, I'm trying to get some numbers about advertising on web-sites, especially on web-sites about entertainment. What I want to know is: how much ad space are they selling ? are they sold out or not? is there something like a "buy rate" (or sell through rate) for advertising, like percentage of ads sold? Thank you for the help.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 31, 2000 ):
The Guru has does not recall having seen the specific information you are requesting. There might be articles on the topic at The Industry Standard or NUA Internet Surveys.

Tuesday, March 28, 2000 #3350
I am asking a follow-up to the performing arts corporate sponsor question and the value of their logo on our website. Thank you by the way for your prompt response - it has been very helpful. Could you also give me an idea as to the value of a link to the corporate sponsor's webpage?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 28, 2000 ):
If by this you mean you will make the sponsor's logo on your website "clickable" to link to the sponsoe site, that is the same pricing as mentioned previously for impressions; the typical web ad impression is mad by a clickable banner which links to the advertiser's site.

Some deals are made on a cost- per-click basis. On this basis, clicks are selling for a ridiculously low 25 cents. It is not a good deal for a site. When a site sells impression for a $40 cost per thousand, it needs to get $8 per click as an equivalent.

Monday, March 27, 2000 #3341
Hello I am currently enrolled in the 3-year advertising program at Mohawk College in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. In response to a class project and of great interest to me, I am in search of answers to the following questions regarding obtaining a career in the Internet advertising field. 1. What programs are used in the creation of Internet advertisements? 2. What are the job titles and descriptions of jobs within Internet advertising? 3. What are the specific qualities looked for when hiring a person for Internet advertising? 4. How does Internet advertising differ from other forms of advertising? 5. What should a student keep in mind and focus on while attending school in order to further their changes in Internet advertising related career? 6. Is there an organization solely devoted to Internet advertising? 7. What forms of Internet advertising are offered? (Ex. WebPage design yes, banners, etc) 8. When should a company inquire about Internet advertising as a form of advertising? 9. How long has Internet advertising been around and how has it grown throughout the years?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 27, 2000 ):
Since this is the Media Guru, we will address those of your several questions which relate to media issues.

  1. Not a media question
  2. Other than "webmaster" all internet advertising media titles are approximately the same as in other media: General manager/publisher, sales manager, sales account executive on the website side; Media Director, Media planner, media buyer on the buying side. Some companies may have invented special titles either to reflect their individuality or special business structure, such as "Channel manager" when selling multiple sites that can be grouped topically
  3. There should be no specific qualities sought in hiring media people for internet purposes rather than any other media, other than possibly better computer skills and internet familiarity. It was not unusual, in the early days of internet advertising, for employment ads to be signed only with a website or email contact information, so that those who didn't understand such information wouldn't apply.
  4. The chief differences of internet advertising versus other media include:
    Interactivity: Any consumer action in response to an ad generates a reaction by the internet
    Combines the full animation potential of TV with the detail capability of static print
    Consumer action in response to an ad 'place-marker', i.e. the banner, is required before the full ad, i.e. the click-thru target, is exposed
    Unlike other media where the medium's full audience is attributed to each ad, the internet allows us to count actual ad exposures
  5. A student should take any internet courses offered in addition to the full standard advertising curriculum, if working in internet media is the only goal.
  6. There are several organizations devoted solely to internet advertising: The Internet Advertising Bureau, which is the Web site owners trade group, C.A.S.I.E. (The Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive Entertainment) which is primarily, if not exclusively internet focused, is the advertiser/agency internet trade group. Of course there are numerous internet sales representative organizations and ad agencies/media services.
  7. Internet advertising forms include websites, banners (meaning any less-than-full-page ads displayed on websites) interstitials, and e-mail advertising. Within e-mail advertising are three principal types: ads as sponsorships, inserted into subscription email newsletters and discussion group posts, Opt-in email, where the recipient has actually agreed to receive by email commercial information from the sender, and SPAM, or Unsolicited Commercial Email, which is commercial messages posted to newsgroups or sent by direct email. This last is completely disreputable and banned by most consumer ISPs.
  8. An advertiser should consider internet advertising alongside all other media when selecting media for any plan. Internet media should be used when it offers an advantage in efficiency (quite rare), an opportunity to reach an otherwise difficult-to-reach prospect, or the opportunity to deliver a message of a kind or in an environment which enhances message impact.
  9. Internet advertising of one sort or another has probably existed since the early days of the internet. As a real medium, internat advertising is traced to the beginnings of the commercialization of the World Wide Web at the end of 1994. The year 2000 will generate over US$5 billion online ad revenue

Friday, March 24, 2000 #3337
I am trying to evaluate media value of our website. We get about 4000 hits daily and anticipate greater number of hits as we advertise and develop the site further. What would be the estimated media $ value for banner advertising? Thanks,

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 24, 2000 ):
Let's assume when you say "hits" you mean page loads or page impressions, since "hits" literally means server log entries. A single web page can include 10, 20, 30 or more files of text, pictures, decorative graphics and banner ads, which cause server log entries, when a visitor requests the page. The ad banner impressions you can sell relate to page impresions; but as you will have seen, there can be multiple ads on one page.

As media value, the range of selling prices for ad impressions is anywhere from under $2 to $200 or more. The difference depends on the rarity and desirability of the web site's audience. Let's assume the average, for specialized web sites, is about $50 per thousand impressions.

So if you have 4,000 page impressions daily, or 120,000 per month, when you put an ad banner on every one of those pages, you might charge the advertiser $6000.

Saturday, March 11, 2000 #3309
Dear Guru I would like to know, what are those documents, reports I need to present in selling TV media. And, how should I prepare them? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 11, 2000 ):
The basic information a buyer wants in considering TV includes ratings for the demographic target, price, and audience composition. In the U.S., the rating and composoition data typically come from Nielsen Media Research.

Other information can include program content details and competitive information.

The first thing to find out from each buying prospect is how the prospect wants data presented. You want neither to leave out a desired fact nor to bore the prospect with unwanted detail.

Monday, March 06, 2000 #3285
I am considering becoming an internet consultant for an established media-buying agency who currently does no Internet/banner advertising work, but wants to start. I have many years experience in Internet, web site production, and marketing, but I know little about media buying. Where would be a good place to start? I will be attending Thuner Lizard Web Advertising 2000 conference in Ny in April.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 06, 2000 ):
The Guru is quite opinionated on this concept. His opinions include:

  • It is far easier for a media professional who knows buying to learn about the internet than for an internet / web site production person to learn about media buying

    Conferences like the one mentioned are likley to offer an experienced person a few new insights, but not likely to confer job skills.

  • There are far too many people currently selling web media who toss around web jargon but have no idea of the meaning of key media concepts, like reach, frequency, duplication, efficiency

Your best hope is that the company you are joining, if they are hiring internet specialists from outside the media buying world, is putting on some sort of training / mentoring program, where you can learn by doing.

Wednesday, March 01, 2000 #3266
Guru, I have a tough question for you. We are coming out with a new print form of direct marketing/advertising for a specific market niche. Although I cant explain the details of the piece, my question is what type of incentives (i.e. price discount off base rate, more/larger ads, betters terms, etc.) do you suggest we offer in order to entice prospective advertiser to come aboard in our inaugural issue(s) knowing that we dont have a track record? Also, what % of available ad spots do you think well be able to sell over the first 6 issues of our monthly piece assuming we have a sales force of proven sales reps. Any help will be greatly appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 01, 2000 ):
The more unique your vehicle, the harder it might be for prospects to understand the benefits, so the more incentives you would need. A good salesperson's job is to discern whether there is a probability of making a sale and what the considerations are that will make the prospect say yes (see the online excerpts of High Probability selling. The best approach might be to arm your sales force with a variety of discounts, bonuses, and deal enhancements, with instructions to offer one only when they can tell that it will close an order. After a few attempts, you should be able to learn what works and what doesn't, or if it's a case-by-case situation.

As in many other selling scenarios, some buyers are looking for price and others are focused on buying what will lead to their company or client's success.

Thursday, February 03, 2000 #3188
My company sells publicy accessable internet kiosks we would like to generate additional revenue streams by selling the advertising available on the kiosks. I would like to know about any available resources that would pertain to demographic / psychographic information. For example: In a geographic are, say a zip code. What % in that area have health insurance, what % go to a pharmacist and how often, also income levels, etc.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 03, 2000 ):
Resources you might use include Scarborough or Standard Rate and Data Service's (SRDS) Lifestyle Market Analyst

Tuesday, February 01, 2000 #3178
What would be the first thing you would do if given the job of advertising sales manager for a new web based business to business site and had no previous experience in selling advertising on the internet?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 02, 2000 ):
  • Hire an internet rep company
  • Hire a salesman who knows the internet

As a media buyer, the Guru imagines he would get quite impatient receiving a sales call from someone without internet selling experience.

Saturday, January 22, 2000 #3144
Hello Guru : Ive many questions : 1 Do you know how i can add the impacts in TV, Radio, Newspapers and Magazines. Exist a table of factors for obtain this results

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 23, 2000 ):
"Impact" is a term with no standard defintion. First you will have to quantify the term before any intelligent answer could be given.

For example, if you decided impact equalled reach, weighted by historical selling ability, you could first establish each medium's weighted reach and then combined these media impact scores by a probability equation just as you would combine reaches. But a different way of defining impact might lead to another approach.

Monday, January 17, 2000 #3124
Hi, Media Guru... I am new to media planning and need to know how to figure out how to distribute the budget among media. We have decided to use Direct Response TV ads and Radio, but how do I determine how much of the budget to put in either? I understand the definitions of the terms reach and frequency but do not know how to use these tools. Also, is there an online (free) resource that can help me come up with psychographic data either in general for a demo or by market and demo? Thank you in advance for your help!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 21, 2000 ):
When the planner has a free hand, media mix is determined by examining various combinations to see which best meet the Media Objectives and Strategies.

You may go through an examination of efficiency, communication impact, environmental support, etc, of broad types prior to testing various mixes for reach and frequency or other measurable contributions.

In the case of direct response, you probably have some track record of the relative selling ability of each medium on which to base an intial distribution. After start, careful tracking of response will lead you to modify budgets. This direct tracking of sales, typical in DR, makes reach and frequency analysis moot.

The Guru does not believe there are any free online market psychographic/demographic resources.

Monday, January 03, 2000 #3088
Master Guru: I have a wireless telecommunications engineering firm that I am planning to take public the 2nd or 3rd quarter of this year. What kind of advertising would be most effective for me on the web and would banner ads help here at all? I have patented products and expect to carve out a small percentage of this Multi-billion dollar industry. At this time though, money is a considertion and we wish to get the most bang for our buck. Richie V.P. Operations-VosiTechnologies

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 05, 2000 ):
Not enough information for a reasonable answer. The key quetions should be:
  • Who is your marketing target?
    -It sounds as if you will be an industrial, Business-to-Business advertiser
  • Is your target using the web on an identifiable set of sites which could offer you well targeted advertising vehicles?
  • Do you have a link to which the banners will click through that delivers a valuable selling message?
    -This last one is easy to achieve and worthwhile, if you get the right answers to the first two.

Thursday, December 23, 1999 #3073
Dear Guru, I would like to know the pro's & con's of sponsorship on TV , The minmum added value that we have to ask for, the payment terms that we have to agree on, the primium to be paid by the client in case of exclusivity of product, we are operating in the gulf market , dominated by few TV station (Satellite ) and weak teresterial TV Station. On the other hand I would like to know if there is any sites that features pictures of Media (TV, NP, ,,,) just to make the presentation more friendly ... Thank You

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 23, 1999 ):
The essence of sponsorship is to give the consumer the idea that you, the advertiser, are responsible for the program. You want to pick programs that fit well with your product or selling points, just as beauty contests are typically sponsored by cosmetics companies. Secondarily, you wish to deny the competitor the opportunity of advertising in a powerful program.

For full sponsorship you would minimally expect opening and closing billboards, plus "bumpers" into and out of breaks. Major fractional sponsors might expect opening and closing billboards.

Sponsorship is premium-priced and the benfits are mostly judgemental and image-oriented.

A sponsor might earn participation of the actors in ads, rights to use logos and scenes from the show in ads, packaging and point-of-purchase material.

Pictures of media can be found on the sites of various media themselves as well as the associations such as The Newspaper Advertising Association or The Radio Advertising Bureau (RAB).

Wednesday, December 15, 1999 #3055
Dear Guru, There is a general perception in the mature online market like u.s.a that the effectiveness of a banner is coming down with sites reporting less percentage of CTR nowadays. what is guru's view in this. Does guru see any alternative form of web advertising(other than banners) emerging?. if so, can you inform me the examples practised by sites in this connection?.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, December 19, 1999 ):
Yes, click-thru is declining. Interstitials, and more detailed and animated ads with full selling messages are alternatives.

If clicks are your only goal, you need to buy at $/click which makes economic sense.

Tuesday, December 07, 1999 #3034
Great Guru, As part of our consumer print advertising for our local convention and visitors bureau we run in a couple of in-flight publications. They have been chosen on the basis on the highest numbers of deplanements at our airport and the fact that they provide service in our region (the western United States). It is our assumption that many people have a loyalty to an airline, and we can entice regional travelers to our locale. (Although we do consider ourselves a national destination, our budget only allows us to advertise regionally.) What is your opinion on our reasoning...are we "preaching to the choir?" What considerations do you take into account when evaluating in-flights (within the category and also against other consumer print)? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 09, 1999 ):
A very complex question. To break down the answers into managable pieces:
  • Airline loyalty seems a questionable basis for selection. While people may be loyal to an airline when it serves their destination, the Guru doubts that people decide where to vacation based on whether or not they can get there on the airline which they like best
  • If you were promoting one casino versus others, then advertising on the airline with the most traffic to Las Vegas would be a strong choice, but once the travelers are on a Las Vegas-bound plane, you can stop selling the city. And it doesn't make sense that a traveler presently headed to Phoenix or Ontario, CA is necessarily a better prospect for Las Vegas than a traveller headed to San Antonio or Kansas City
  • If budget is only enouogh for regional coverage, better to concentrate on the region where most visitors come from than the local region, if there is a difference.
    Preaching to the choir might be a good description of your plan.
  • Choosing among in-flights, in your case, is probably better based on ones which have travellers who like to gamble on vacation, if that's your selling point. Certainly there are media which will have a higher readership index on gambling or the other entertainments of your town than do the in-flights.

Tuesday, December 07, 1999 #3030
Dear Guru, could you give an advice which media I should choose. I have one magazine with a big cover among target audience, small cost per thousant and Affinity Index 180. Another edition has twice smaller cover among target audience, twice bigger CPT, but the Affinity Index is about 500 (first one has very big total cover and another's total cover is small).

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, December 07, 1999 ):
The Guru will assume your term "affinity index" is a measure of past purchase or usage behavior. Use the affinity index to adjust (weight) coverage and efficiency and then see which is better. That is treat the index as an indicator of selling opportunities. If the first magazine has 1000 target members, then the 180 index indicates 1800 selling opportunities. If the second magazine has 500 target members, the 500 index means 2500 selling opportunities.

Is your budget so limited that you can only use one insertion in one magazine?

Monday, November 15, 1999 #2971
Hi Guru I have just been given the task of working out how best to sell advertising space on our clients web sites. The clients have clear well defined up market products but I know little about advertising and I need to know the simple route to selling this space without cocking up. Is there a list of reputable advertising agencies specialising in the internet? Andrew

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 16, 1999 ):
The advertising trade media, like Ad Age and MediaWeek frequently publish lists of such agencies.

You might do better to connect with a good on-line advertising sales rep.

Friday, October 22, 1999 #2900
Dear Guru, what are the advertisement options available in the net other than the banner?. what are the types of banners carried on the net?. what is called "interstitials"?.what distinguishes interstitials from ordinary banner?.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 27, 1999 ):
Banners come in a large variety of sizes and shapes. The C.A.S.I.E. (The Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive Entertainment) has a display of various standard banner sizes.

The options are as many as advertiser and web publisher's imaginations allow. Physically almost everything begins with some form of banner or "pop-up" which is a text message keyed to appear in response to user interaction such as entering search terms.

Interstitial is a term whose meanning has changed over the past few years. Literally, "interstitial" means something in the space between two other things. Originally, an interstitial was a web ad, often full-screen which was the target of a banner click, when the advertiser wanted a better selling opportunity than just bringing the user to the advertisers' site. Today, interstitials are generally multimedia units.

Thursday, October 21, 1999 #2895
Dear Guru,I want to know why ad agencies work with standards like a 15 % commission. Why are these norms like - commission on gross or net amount followed as a standard? When are the commissions charged on gross amount and when on the net amount? For ex. why only 15 % but not any other figure. Similar norms are followed when charging for media space/ time bought by a client. I have read your answers on the concept of 3 + frequency for ads. Could you please provide similar information for the aforementioned norms and the various norms/ standards followed during billing by ad as well as media buying houses and Agencies of Records. I would also be obliged if you could direct me to any site which provides this information.( The commission rates which I have mentioned are followed in India. Are they the same worldwide?) Thanking you in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 21, 1999 ):
15% of the gross media cost has been the standard for so many years that no one questions the rationale any longer, though many big budget advertisers negotiate other deals, and many small budget advertisers must pay a different fee. When commission is based on net, 17.65% is used to get the same proportions.

Not all media have always used 15%. It used to be common for outdoor to base prices in 16.67% of gross, on the theory that more work was required of the agency for "riding the boards." Some media only publish net rates which agencies must mark up. These media are typically smaller locally oriented ones useed to selling direct to advertisers. Internet web sites often quote net rates as well.

On other items and services which agencies purchase for clients, such as production the 17.65% of net is commonly used.

Thursday, October 21, 1999 #2894
how do independent buying houses opearate and what are the advantages/ disadvantages of using one?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 24, 1999 ):
These buyers usually charge 5% commission or less for media placement and also offer planning and media research services.

Many also buy "on the spread" meaning they earn all or a portion of the money they save compared to the client's buying benchmarks.

Their presumed advantage is that they negotiate better rates. This is credible, since this is often the only selling point. A buy "on the spread" demonstrates the reality of this advantage. Planning may or may not be superior. The key disadvantage, for an agency, is the cost. If the expense is less than maintaining a full scale buying capability, and the agency doesn't feel a need to have staff buyers for the sake of image, then there's an advantage.

Tuesday, October 19, 1999 #2886
What is the appropriate time that a broadcast or cable schedule should air to be effective?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 20, 1999 ):
There is no set rule. First you have to determine how you will define "effective." If you are selling a parity package goods product with a frequent purchase cycle, you may need to be on the air continuously to maintain market position. If you are promoting a retail or entertainment event, anything more than two weeks prior to the target date might be wasted.

Wednesday, October 06, 1999 #2854
What are the advantages/disadvantages of advertising during sweeps? We have a client who is TOTALLY hung up on advertising during sweeps. Isn't there a lot of self-promotion going on in TV? The client is a newspaper. Also, I've heard that political advertising during the fourth quarter 2000 is projected to be phenomenal. Do you have any information on how advertisers are reacting? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 07, 1999 ):
It is true that ratings are higher during sweeps, because programming is selected to increase audiences when they are being measured. And yes, there is a lot more self promotion in these periods.

But, assuming your client is going to buy "X" GRPs, they will get them with fewer announcements in a sweep than otherwise. If it takes 20 announcements to get 100 GRP in October but only 15 to get 100 GRP in November, the difference to the advertiser should be infinitesimal in terms of more impact. If any measurable effects are seen, there would be a hair more reach and a speck less frequency in the sweeps scenario. The cost per point might be higher.

Political advertising surges during every presidential election. Advertisers will not be visibly reacting today, since Fourth Quarter is sold as the first quarter of a network's year. When Q4 2000 selling starts to move next May, the upfront advertisers will secure their time comfortably. Some advertisers who don't usually buy upfront will. As the year goes on, some money which would have been spent in some places will go elswhere, network to spot, TV to radio, broadcast to print.

It happens every four years and used to be worse when both summer and winter Olympics fell in these same presidential election years.

Sunday, September 26, 1999 #2826
Our market is the Hispanic population in the Midwest. Research conducted at a national level reveals details of how consumers purchasing behavior. However, the Midwest affects the consumers purchasing decision based on climate and other elements. Should there be a research that demonstrates the diference of Hispanics in the Midwest compare to the national data? Is there one already available? Thank you. Adriana

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, September 26, 1999 ):
It isn't clear how you define "midwest." Chicago, the top midwestern Hispanic market, is one of the top five U.S. Hispanic DMA's, but only contains 4% of all U.S. Hispanics.

If we consider the midwest to be these states: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin, then Chicago holds over half of the Midwest's Hispanics. Chicago is an available market in Hispanic Simmons, and other research, and might readily be used as an analog of the midwest Hispanic. The way marketing typically works, there will be little interest in the other individual DMA's from national advertisers.

Should there be research on the midwest's Hispanics? If you are selling a medium which covers this area or have a product which is distributed primarily in the midwest and has an opportunity in the HIspanic market, it would serve your interests to do so, but but the Guru recommneds you don't count on industry support.

Monday, September 20, 1999 #2806
Dear Media Guru (and we need one), We are an Offshore race team. Offshore racing appears to be garnering more and more interest as ESPN2, TNN and Speedvision devote a lot of air time covering the races. Offshore race boats are a terrific billboard. Most decks are flat...there is a lot of room for messages, web addresses etc. Race sites are not cluttered and sponsors can have tents, trailers etc. for promotion some of which gets on camera. Executive involvement is welcome, it is not a frenzy like car racing, yet is dramatic and exiting. How do we go to space buyers who could match up what we have to sell with sponsors who can use the space to get their message to a sizable audience very reasonably? Thank you. Ted Zoli, Driver Critical Lift Racing 888 485-5776

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, September 22, 1999 ):
What you have is more of a promotional buy than a media buy. And space buyers do not seek media first and then hunt for advertisers who might use the media, their job is finding media which meet their clients' needs.

The Guru suggests you contact the marketing/promotion departments of likely advertisers: boating gear makers, beverage advertisers, and anyone else who has bought ESPN time in your races. If they use an agency for this sort of buying, they'll direct you to the right buyer.

There are also selling agents who represent sports teams and racing drivers. ESPN can probably give you a list.

Saturday, September 04, 1999 #2767
What's the best way to find radio stations in the NYC to Washington DC region that have a high percentage of our target customers.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 06, 1999 ):
Thinking in straight-line terms, there are just a handful of defined radio markets in the region:
  • New York
  • Philadelphia
  • Baltimore and
  • Washington

Arbitron and Scarborough are the two pricipal research resources which evaluate market-by-market demographic and product-user audiences of radio stations.

Most stations in these markets will have access to onor both resources for their market, and be prepared to rank stations according to your needs in the selling process. You can also contact the major radio sales representative firms, like the various divisions of Interep and Katz.

Monday, August 16, 1999 #2721
How do you plan your media buy using the "recency" philosophy when advertising products with a long cycle re-purchase period such as an automobile?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 16, 1999 ):
The central concept of recency is that the message received closest to a purchase decision is the most effective message. Continuous advertising will reach more people at any given time and is best for products purchased all the time, no matter how long the purchase cycle. That is, no matter whether it's 4 weeks or four years. So the only question is whether there are always people in the market for cars. This doesn't mean you shouldn't vary levels at peak selling times.

Sunday, August 15, 1999 #2719
Those selling web advertising cite recall statistics --- recall of web advertising versus television advertising. I personally do not think that you are able to make an apples to apples comparison between the two as the mediums are so very different. Those who are surfing the world wide web are there for a reason and more inclined to tune out much advertising --- as opposed to television which is more a passive medium. Are there any studies or statistics that speak to this subject?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 16, 1999 ):
The Guru agrees that web users more readily tune out ads than do TV viewers. But that is why recall is a useful measure. It lets you know what the person exposed retains from an ad exposure. If the tested exposures are "real-world" and not in a an artificial laboratory situation, the Guru believes recall is a valid metric. AOL did some research along these lines and the results should be posted in their media kit area. It was also reported in Ad Age.

Friday, August 13, 1999 #2714
I currently sell screen printing, p.o.s. signage, fabricated plastic and Sheetmetal. I have been concentrating on the point of purchase display Industry as it is what my background is in and my companies have a lot of Experience with point of purchase houses. Recently I have been knocking on The doors of advertising agencies. Should I be asking for the media buyer When calling or should I be asking for someone else. I know ad agencies Come across all types of promotion opportunities and I know I can help

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 13, 1999 ):
It would be exceedingly rare for Media Planners to be invloved in POS materials. It's somewhat rare for agencies, except in the creative end. If you talk to agencies, see Print Producers, or Account execs. Some agencies may have a promotions department who deal with what you are selling.

Monday, August 09, 1999 #2702
Typically, when is the upfront selling period for network radio? Is there a gereral time of year on the network radio "calender" for this period? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, August 11, 1999 ):
Network Radio doesn't have an upfront season like network TV, when they preview new programs and sell a large percentage of their year's inventory over the span of a week or so.

The radio networks are always happy to make a good deal for a year's commitment at any time, of course, and do most of these deals on a calendar year basis, most often in the August-October period, with about 30-40% of inventory getting sold.

Friday, August 06, 1999 #2696
I am in the business of selling banner inventory and it is like pulling teeth to get in touch with media planners and when i do make contact they blow me off.can you offer some advice on makeing contact and working with planners.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 08, 1999 ):
Try Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Friday, August 06, 1999 #2695
can you give me some advice on makeing contact with ad agency media planners.I sell online ad inventory.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 08, 1999 ):
Advertise to media planners in MediaWeek, Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) or AMIC .

Otherwise, like any media salesman, build a target account list, find out what agency handles it and call to find the planner. It is annoying to busy planners to have sales men call to say "I'm selling "X," so which of your clients can uses it?"

If you think your offereing is of general interest, you might talk to media directors to arrange a departmental presentation.

Have good materials ready to mail to planners who have some interest. Planners are legitimatley too busy to sit down for a meeting with every salesman who wants to. They have to judge before meeting whether there is potential use for what you are selling in their media plans.

Wednesday, July 14, 1999 #2632
What are GRP's and what do they stand for in a media buy? I am an Account Manager and don't have the Media background but need to explain the GRP levels to my Product Managers. Please help.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 15, 1999 ):
GRPs are gross rating points, the pounds and ounces of media buying and selling. The target audience of an advertisement divided by the population of the target group is the ad's rating. The sum of the ratings of the ads is the Gross Rating Points. Plans specify how many GRPs of each medium to buy. For print, specifications are more often numbers of insertions in specific titles, but the GRPs can be calculated the same way and one plan compared to another.

Allowance must be made for :15 versus :30 GRP or half page versus full page. A given program or magazine has the same rating (GRP) whatever the ad size/length, but obviously there is more benefit from 100 GRP of :30s or pages than from 100 GRPs of :15s or half pages.

Tuesday, June 29, 1999 #2596
Do you have any recommendations on how I can find agencies in Dallas/Ft.Worth that buy network radio? Besides the typical "cold call", is there an easier way? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 02, 1999 ):
Assuming you can't ask the networks to whom they're selling, CMR (Competitive Media Reports) tracks Network Radio and also agency activity to some extent. They may be able to generate a report.

Another option is the The Standard Directories of Advertising Agencies and Advertisers ('The Redbook'), which offers geographic sorting and includes media types used in agency descriptions.

Tuesday, June 15, 1999 #2575
Hi Guru.... I am a student studying in South Africa, and I have a huge interest in advertising and advertising media. I need help on something though. What I would like to know is how media companies price their space? How do television stations price their advertising space? Are there any sites which could help me price ad space? Also, how would one price an audience of 11 million people per month, being reached through video's/televisions? And 11 million people per month being reached through posters? Thanks for your time.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 15, 1999 ):
The elements of pricing include:
  • Unit size/ length
  • Competitive pricing- what is the price per audience member of other, similar media?
  • Premium for pure size-the largest media of a type can usually charge more per auidence member than others.
  • Premium for selectivity - are your audience members more desirable to advertiserts than the average for your medium?
So in essence it's the competitive climate and how space/time much you are selling that determines price

Wednesday, June 09, 1999 #2563
What are the best buying and selling tools available to media buyers and sellers? How much do the systems cost and how easy are they to implement?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 10, 1999 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses about selling and buying software.

Monday, May 31, 1999 #2545
Client has asked on how to advertise on their extranet. What does that involve? Should they use a third-party like NetGravity? How do I get started?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 31, 1999 ):
The Guru assumes you mean the client wishes to sell banner advertisng on their web site. Generally,the web representative firms are not interested in site getting less than 1 million impressions or 50,000 visitors per month. Deals for samller sites offer few advantages to the sites, so self-selling is the best option.

Your client should document, as well as possible, its site traffic and then approach a sales rep if the numbers are big enough or otherwise approach firms with which they do business who could benfit from reaching the same audience as those who would visit your client's site.

Friday, May 28, 1999 #2541
Greetings, Guru. An advertising agency is interested in buying space in our magazine, but says it will depend on our "microzoning". What is "microzoning"?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 29, 1999 ):
This seems to be the term more familiar with newspspers, referring to selling a portion of the circulation in a very small or on an otherwise very selective basis.

Visit the The Newspaper Advertising Association site.

Wednesday, May 19, 1999 #2515
I want to know about the procedure involved in doing the advertising on internet. Which are the factors that has to be considered by a client or a agency to go for internet advertisng? Also how effective is this mode of communication? Don't you think it is more of personal selling ?The another thing is that how adevrtising has changed in the last decade interms of creativity and new ideas with the advent of internet?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 23, 1999 ):
The factors involved in selecting the internet as a medium ar e the same as any other medium:
  • Does the medium reach the target audience?
  • How efficiently?
  • Does the internet environment help the advertising message to make an impact?
  • Are there aspects unique to the medium that create added marketing opportunities, like interactivity, audience involvement, direct selling?

The effectiveness depends on the goal. Brand building may be less effective than in other media, direct reponse more so. Computer-related products may be more successful than those whose relevance is less universal among the internet user.

Tuesday, May 18, 1999 #2510
Could yu give me some insights regarding pricing ad space on the net on the basis of fixed number of impressions? How are the slab rates decided upon? What is the minimum number of impressions one can sell for, 5000, 10000 etc.?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 18, 1999 ):
Most larger, commercial general audience sites are selling at cpm's in the $15 - $30 range, barring special deals or unusual volume. This would make $5000 worth 167,000 to 333,000 impressions.

Tuesday, April 20, 1999 #2459
I am working on my thesis progect and gathering the information about internet bookselling. I was wondering if there is any way I can get the actual media plans of those booksellers. Would you tell me where I can get those info.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 22, 1999 ):
Don't you imagine these would be considered trade secrets? One of the first things you will learn when you enter the real world is that information about advertising is treated as highly confidential.

Competitive spending tracking services, like CMR (Competitive Media Reports) can report media choices an advertiser has made, but that is far form seeing the whole picture of a media plan. Especially on the internet, many media investments will be below the "radar" of tracking services.

Also, particularly for the booksellers, transactional deals are prevalent and distort the picture. That is, sites have banners and links to booksellers and are compensated when a visitor sent by the link on the site makes a purchase from the bookseller.

There has been extensive trade media coverage of these deals for years.

Tuesday, March 16, 1999 #2395
Dear Guru, What is the status on (Real)Buying for Mass Media on the Internet Worldwide? How is the Security handled ? - Shripad Kulkarni,India

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 20, 1999 ):
The Guru is not aware of any site selling mass media in e-commerce on the World Wide Web. If it was happening, the Guru expects that the same "secure server" used by major e-retailers like Amazon, etc. would be adequate for security needs.

Thursday, January 07, 1999 #2249
Dear Guru! Are there any references or research done which support a recommendation for 2+ reach when tv advertising strategy is focused on frequency? (I happened to find only such that support a 3+ reach recommendation). Thank you for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 07, 1999 ):
In the Guru's opinion, 3+ became a popular base level because of classic research from 1883 by a physiologist examing learning of nonsense syllables. He found 3 repetitions to be the crucial level.

Many people have come to use 3+ as a rule of thumb and others using various analyses of competition, clutter, product interest, etc have judgementally justified levels from 2+ to 9+. It is essentially a judgment and selling excercise.

Wednesday, January 06, 1999 #2244
Dear Guru: Here is a question from your fan in Taiwan. Can you briefly introduce how the guaranteed CPM, the upfront and scatter market systems work in the U.S.TV market? Can you also recommend some web sites related to the preceding issues? Thanks a lot!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 07, 1999 ):
Briefly "guaranteed CPM" means that if the schedule purchased does not deliver the audience promised, additional announcements will be provided until the added audience delivery brings the CPM down to the guaranteed number.

The upfront system primarily sells to larger advertisers, who will spread their buy over all four quarters of the selling year (fourth through third quarters), with scaled ability to cancel portions of the successive quarters. CPM guarantees are included.

Scatter buys are smaller, as needed throughout the year, and may still include cpm guarantees, but the pricing structure will be higher than upfront. When upfront has sold well, inventory for scatter will be more restricted.

Advertisng industry news sites such as Ad Age will report on the upfront and scatter marketplaces as develoments occur.

Wednesday, December 16, 1998 #2222
Does the guru know if it is possible to buy air time on SPECTRAVISION, the hotel-room movie channel?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, December 20, 1998 ):
The Spectravision site gives no indication that they are selling advertising, but they do offer means of contact, so you could ask them.

Friday, November 13, 1998 #2150
Please supply us with a very detailed definition of advertising as pertaining to TV advertising

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 13, 1998 ):
Advertising is a paid message or an unpaid public service (e.g. charitable, non profit or governmental) message intended to influence consumer behavior including purchase of products and services, voting, attitude toward a person or company, etc. It is executed in standard units such as 15 seconds, 30 seconds, 60 seconds. It can include infomercials, which are 30 minute selling exercises.

There are grey areas, such as underwriting of Public Broadcasting System programs and the limited-sell "commericals" run on those stations.

Monday, November 09, 1998 #2142
On an interview I was recently asked the following question: "If I were a client and I told you I had a budget of $3MM, what would you tell me to do?" I find this question extremely broad, esp. considering I do not have all of the factors required in advance before making a recommendation (i.e.,marketing objectives, targets, etc.) What is the best way to answer this on an interview without giving too much information? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, November 09, 1998 ):
Assuming that the specific job gave no clues (i.e. you weren't interviewing for a job selling a specific medium), and you were just interviewing for a job at some level in media planning at a general agency, the Guru thinks you were on the right track; your answer should have been:

"That's an extremely broad question. I would tell the client that we need to know marketing goals, advertising targets, geographic concentrations, etc, before making any recommendations regarding media investment.And then I would offer help in collecting and analyzing the information."

Of course, the danger in such a response is that the interviewer will realize you're smarter than the interviewer.

Friday, November 06, 1998 #2136
what are the parameters taken into account, when a site claims to be making profit.Some write that even newyork times online edition incurring loss.what do they mean by that?.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 08, 1998 ):
Profit = revenues minus costs. A site like the New York Times' has substantial costs, in part because it has extensive daily updates as well as a vast data base to maintain. If advertising revenue plus the number of "premium service" subscriptions don't balance the costs, the site loses money.

The site may be worth its cost for the image building or public relations value but this some abstract value doesn't figure in the accountants' profit equation.

The Guru believes there are very few sites making a profit unless they are actively selling merchandise or services, such as Amazon, CD-Now, Music Blvd, and pay-for-smut sites.

There are also some computer hardware and software sites which are said to take such a great customer service burden off the human service techs that they supplement that they more than pay for themselves.

Thursday, October 22, 1998 #2108
Can you refer me to any marketing examples which involve marketing companies using / branding software as a media to intensify their brands ? Is there any forum which facilitates a contact between software developers and marketing / media professionals so as to help them identify mutually profitable opportunities ?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 23, 1998 ):
Perhaps brand name encyclopedias on CD-ROM fit your description. Or topical CD's from magazines and cable networks. Of course, these would be media themsleves creating line extensions.

Unless the software related to the original brand, like a computer maker or content supplier, it isn't likley to "intensify" a brand, in the Guru's opinion.

Rather than forums like you suggest, it would seem that a simple selling process is needed.

The Guru believes that your software idea is more likley to be categorized as a promotional item than media by most marketers.

Thursday, October 22, 1998 #2107

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 23, 1998 ):
First, please do not send queries in all-upper-case.

Second, in regard to channel bundling, the Guru doesn't recognize this as a standard term. It may refer to buying/selling several cable networks under one ownership or representation.

Since cable ratings of individual channels are typically low, channel bundling can give a semblance of a bigger medium. As an nattempt at old-fashioned "roadblocking" it will fall short.

Friday, October 09, 1998 #2085
Dear guru, A publication charges a 25% premium on bleed ads over non-bleed ads. How I do I find out if the premium is justified ? Thanks. Nagarjun,

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, October 10, 1998 ):
The only way to "justify" the bleed charge is by comparison to competing publications. In the Guru's experience, bleed charges range from no charge to a high of 15%.

However, if you are dealing in some specific trade publication category or one in which the publications face some unusual production issues, perhaps all are charging 25%.

On the other hand, it seems unlikely to the Guru that you can support a bleed ad having 25% greater selling power, memorability or other aspect justifying the premium, even if it is common to a set of candidate publications.

Tuesday, October 06, 1998 #2076
I am looking for services such as 24/7 Media to assist in the selling of our impression inventory. Our inventory is growing rapidly being at about 100,000 for the month. Can you make any recommendations for me. Thanks in advance, Todd

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 07, 1998 ):
All such reps of which the Guru is aware require about 250,000 minimum impressions inventory.

Friday, October 02, 1998 #2068
Hi Guru! We have a client who has $80-100,000 extra budget to spend this year. The budget has to be spread out nationally (in over 150 markets). We were offered a full page ad with a magazine (that reaches our demo) with a circulation of 7.6 mill. for 90M. We were also considering running a cable schedule on only one station since that's all we could afford. Which do you think is the better option? In addition, we are looking to run the first 2 weeks in December.Thanks for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 02, 1998 ):
There really isn't enough information here to make an informed decision. For instance, a lot would depend on what media are in the base level of the plan, what your base reach and frequency are already, and what are your goals.

But let's play with it anyway: Suppose your magazine is Better Homes and Gardens, which reaches 26% of Adult Women. You would be achieving 26 Reach, a frequency of 1.0 and, of course. 26 Women GRPs.

Let's suppose your cable network is Lifetime. Does your money buy 26 GRPs there? More ? Less? It might get you 13 reach and a frequency of 2.0. Which is more important to you, reach or frequency? Does the magazine or does cable offer better content as an environment for what you are selling?

You need to reduce the question to specific factors which you can evaluate.

Monday, September 14, 1998 #2043
Is the upfront selling period for network radio the same as it is for network television? I realize that this period for network television focuses on commercial time for the upcoming fall shows. Does network radio differ? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 15, 1998 ):
The TV "upfront" concept is based on two facts:
  • For a price advantage, advertisers will make commitments to a year's worth of Network TV, on which they spend enormous amounts of money, and

  • New TV programming introduced in September changes the buying landcsape and creates a logical starting point for a year of commitment.

Neither of these applies to network radio, which gets less than 5% of network TV's dollars and has no particular new programming season.

There isn't any Network Radio "upfront."

Sunday, August 02, 1998 #1986
Im looking to compare average household cpms across the following television segments: Broadcast Network Broadcast National Spot Broadcast Local Cable Network Cable National Spot Local Cable Can you help me with these figures or point me in he right direction on where I can find this data?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 02, 1998 ):
AdWeek's Marketer's Guide to Media might have all of these media but probably not local or spot cable.

These latter two are

  1. Sold in too many ways to average sensibly and
  2. Too often priced based on costs of selling and or integration, rather than audience.

To explain:

Local spot cable can be bought as part of a regional buy, in a DMA interconnect or system by system within a DMA. Often, buying one quarter of a DMA on a given network is more costly than the interconnect because too many individual systems need to individually load and swith your commercial.

Thursday, June 25, 1998 #1923
Guru, I work for an online interactive media group (Vickers and Benson). We are planning a large campaign for a major Canadian bank. One problem however is trying to find the value of a high priced CPM. If I'm going to pay $85CPM on AOL can I be certain that it will result in higher clickthroughs? Do high CPM's mean good clickthrough rates? More imprtantly, how does one determine CPM value? If I concentrate my budget on a few high-end sites am I bound to get a higher clickthrough % than several low-cost CPM? Thakx in adavnce

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 26, 1998 ):
Absolutely not! There is no inherent, reliable correlation of web cpm with clickthrough.

Clickthrough is a function of two things:

  • Placing your banner on a site where the visitors are likely to be interested in what you are advertising, and
  • Making your banner interesting enough to attract clicks.
In the first case, it is between you and the seller to determine if the right audience will see the banner. One way is to attach the banner to specific key words in search engines or site searches. Another is to select sites with very targeted content. The former can be far less expensive cpm-wise than the latter. Often high-end cpms are charged for highly targeted sites which have smaller, but more select audiences.

If you are looking for clickthrough guarantess, some sites are sold on a cost-per-click basis, and you should ask for that if the seller insists his audience will deliver high clickthrough.

Becasue the real burden of attracting clicks is born by the ad copy and also depends on how fresh it is to the eyes of the prospect, the Guru thinks selling cost-per-click is a sucker bet for a web publisher.

Wednesday, June 24, 1998 #1920
Who, if any companies are selling several mediums (such as radio, tv, newspaper, billboard, direct mail, etc. as one big package to advertisers/agencies?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 26, 1998 ):
The Guru does not believe there are any such companies. True giants like Time-Warner or Disney ABC may own properties across such a broad spectrum, but aren't selling such complex packages, as far as the Guru is aware.

Wednesday, June 24, 1998 #1919
What kind of advice could you give someone who is just starting out with online advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 26, 1998 ):
Are you starting out selling online advertising, buying / planning online advertising, using online advertising to build your business or building a web site to be supported by advertising?

Your question could have so many implications. However, the Guru's advice would be similar in most of these cases. Begin with a major firm well established or connected to traditional marketing. The greatest weakness the Guru sees in the online field is a lack of the ability to discuss marketing / advertising in industry terms, so that a general agency or traditional marketer interested in adding online elements to a plan can make neccessary decisions.

Granted, online has distinct and valuable aspects, but explaining these in comparable terms vs traditional marketing makes the advantages clear.

Or, not everything on-line is a concept sell, there are still quantitative realities to address.

Saturday, June 20, 1998 #1912
One of my clients would like to sell pottery/teapots made by local artists in the Seattle area. We have decided that the internet is the best way to sell them, but we do not know if our sales projections are accurate. We need at least 10 sales per month in order to break even. Is this a realistic goal? We would like to start with simply registering on the search engines and maybe running a banner ad on a wedding web site. Do you think that we will be able to get at least 10 sales per month with this limitted type of advertising? thanks, Stewart McCullough

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 25, 1998 ):
There is no reasonable way to predict sales for such a product. Many sites selling computer related goods or broad-appeal goods like books and CDs are very successful. The reputation and quality of the product and how persuasive the selling message are surely more influential factors than just the selection of the medium.

Monday, May 25, 1998 #1606
what are the types of advertisement carried out in online other than banner advts.?.what are jump pages and interstitials in online

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 26, 1998 ):
Banners are the most common. The term is used to refer to any less-than-full-page advertisement placed on a web page. Other on-line media, such as e-mail has other ad froms such as simple text ads.

A "jump page" is one form of interstitial. The term "Interstitial" in common terms just means something that is in the gap between two other things. So a web interstitial is a page where you go by clicking on a banner, before actually arriving on an advertiser's web site. This is done because web sites are often about companies in genreal terms and do not do the selling job of an actual ad.

A jump page is typically understood to be a static page with ad copy and a link on top the site. When called an interstitial, it is more often animated in some way or automatically sends the visitor on to the website of the advertiser.

Tuesday, April 21, 1998 #1570
First of all, you have a great service. Thanks. Do you have any recommendations on how I can find independent sales representaives who specialize selling network radio?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 21, 1998 ):
If you literally mean network radio, i.e. interconnected stations carrying the same program fed at the same time (though clearances may vary) with imbedded commericals, these typically have in-house sellers. If you mean syndicated radio, with a program carried at various times by otherwise unrelated stations, there are several representatives.

One is Premiere Radio Networks. If they can't help you, they can probably suggest several others.

Monday, March 23, 1998 #1548
what is the correct television weight for a campaign

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 30, 1998 ):
The "Correct" weight depends on many factors, there is no one correct weight.

One way, but certainly not the only way, to calculate an appropriate level is to follow this checklist:

  • (A) How many new sales / product units, etc are your monthly sales goal?
  • (B) What percentage of the prospects who are successfully exposed to your campaign are likley to buy what you are selling?
  • Divide (A) by (B) to determine with how many prospects per month your advertising must effectively communicate.
  • Using the reach and frequency calculating system of your choice and your judgement of "effective levels of communications, calculate what level of weight delivers the desired effecively reached audience.

Thursday, March 19, 1998 #1535
Im a printer wanting to target "Preprints" as turnkey to companies that are buying printing from me and buying inserting from the newspapers direct. I have called some newspapers and even news associations about rates but get the feeling that they're suspious of me. All I want is to sell voulume printing and give my customers accurate information for targeting areas and possibly handle that for them for a 15% agency commission. Do you have any advice?????

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 20, 1998 ):
Generally, major newspapers have "rep" firms contracted to do the selling for them, and might be obligated to pay commission to the rep assigned to cover the customer you bring in, leading to double commission.

Try working with the reps. Ask the newspapers for the contacts at their rep firms.

Tuesday, March 17, 1998 #1533
I am starting an online business soon, and I am perplexed as to what methods to utilize with our limited budget of $5000 per month. I want to initially do my advertising exclusively on the net, and I have been looking into using an interactive ad agency. What kind of targeted traffic should I expect for my budget, and what methods will an agency use to create traffic, besides search engine listings and optimization?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 20, 1998 ):
$5000 might buy just a month of banner display on a major, general audience website. at $10 per thousand impressions. Therefore, you would have 500,000 impressions and perhaps click-thru 5,000 - 10,000 traffic to your site. Of this traffic, you might get 25 - 100 sales, depending on what you're selling.

Other, more targeted sites might sell for less out of pocket, at a higher cpm (e.g $25-$100), but ultimately generate more sales ROI because their audience is more likley to be interested in your product.

Another technique that an agency might use is a revenue sharing model, wherein sites which send you customers earn a share of your revenue from visitors "referred" by their site.

Friday, December 12, 1997 #1475
Dear Media Guru: This query addresses: How are advertising agencies generally organized? and How do I determine the proper person to present a proposal for a media buy? I work for a five-year-old minor league baseball team that has, until now, concentrated its efforts in selling advertising upon local businesses. However, we are the top entertainment attraction in our region, and we feel our market size combined with our reach and influence in the market should warrant our attracting some business from regional and national advertisers. Our availabilities include print, radio, billboard, and promotions. What would you suggest is the best strategy for approaching regional/national advertising agencies regarding the opportunities we have available? Should we work to contact the people in each agency who are responsible for making buying decisions for each individual client? Or would establishing a relationship with those individuals who are familiar with buying our market on behalf of many different clients be more productive in the long run? Thank you in advance for your assistance.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, December 12, 1997 ):
Agencies generally have a media department or at least a Media Director / Media Buyer who is responsible for evaluating a media proposal. If an agency is so small it doesn't have any media titles, the acount executive for a given advertiser would be the appropriate person.

Be sure to do your homework and be ready to talk about which clients at the agency wold benefit from your proposal and why. It is generally annoying to agency people to have a media seller show up with a non-specific proposal and ask "which of your clients would want this?"

Wednesday, November 19, 1997 #1460
I am trying to calculate the value of various components of a partnership (co-op) program. I am particularly interested in knowing how to go about calculating the value of in-store POP/signage. Could you please help me. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, November 22, 1997 ):
There are two key issues:

How many exposures you get, and

The value of those exposures

It should be simple enought to determine how many people will see your POP; the vendor should have store traffic data.

The value is judgmental. Using as a base something standard like a TV :30 is a starting point.

For how many seconds will a POP sign engage the viewer?



That numbers of seconds' ratio to the :30 is a first step in calculating relative value.

Then, what is the selling power of a sign versus a full sound/motion TV commercial?




All these factors should tell you thata single POP exposure is worth "X"% of a TV :30 exposure. Combined with the exposure count, you have your valuation.

Monday, June 09, 1997 #1364
Many television stations are assigning dollar values to sponsor audio/video tags on television promo spots which are essentially promoting a THEIR television special. Do you see any inherent "VALUE" to these audio / video mentions on promos? If so, how would you value it? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 10, 1997 ):
It is reasonable and normal for sponsor mentions in promotions of on-air programs or off air events to be presented as having some sort of value. Most marketers would accept that any Brand mention has some value. Certainly, the value is not comparable to a commercial announcement; it lacks any sell and may be mixed in with other Brand's mentions.

The Guru has always calculated the value of these mentions in two steps:

1 - Calculate the pure time ratio of the mention, i.e. if the metion runs 5 seconds, that's one-sixth of a :30.

2- Reduce that value by half, to account for the lack of selling power. Of course this is an arbitrary factor. In any case, the Guru would not pay for these mentions, but only consider them as added value in making a purchase decision.

Friday, June 06, 1997 #1362
Advertising sales models. do you have any for newspapers new staff.

My question is aimed at finding your opinion on web sales staff development or integration. Should a newspaper company try to train the existing print staff to sell their internet products and services or should a new internal staff be formed. Do you have any examples?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 06, 1997 ):
This is purely a matter of opinion. On one hand the major computer magazine publishers, like Ziff-Davis or CMP who sell print space as well as space on major web sites, use different salespeople for each.

Smaller newspapers may not find there is sufficient business to justify a separate staff. Whether the website advertising is most often given away as merchandising or sold in its own right to the same local advertisers as the print or sells to national advertisers who might not be in the paper, would contibute to the decision.

The kinds of measurement and ways of deciding about where to advertise are quite different for on-line vs traditional media. It would seem most efficient to the Guru to train one of your print sellers in the intricacies of the 'net, and build around that person's learning with additional staff.

You may also find that there is insight offered by the very useful site of the Newspaper Advertising Association. The Guru believes they may have compiled various newspapers experience with selling the web. If not, they should.

Thursday, May 29, 1997 #1355
Advertising sales models. do you have any for newspapers new staff.

My question is aimed at finding your opinion on web sales staff development or integration. Should a newspaper company try to train the existing print staff to sell their internet products and services or should a new internal staff be formed. Do you have any examples?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 06, 1997 ):
This is purely a matter of opinion. On one hand the major computer magazine publishers, like Ziff-Davis or CMP who sell print space as well as space on major web sites, use different salespeople for each.

Smaller newspapers may not find there is sufficient business to justify a separate staff. Whether the website advertising is most often given away as merchandising or sold in it's own right to the same local advertisers as the print or sells to national advertisers who might not be in the paper would contibute to a decision.

The kinds of measurement and ways of deciding about where to advertise are quite different for on-line vs traditional media. It would seem most efficient to the guru to train one of your print sellers in the intricacies of the 'net, and build around that persons learning with additional staff.

You may also find that there is insight offered by the very useful site of the Newspaper Advertising Association. The Guru believes they may have compiled various newspapers expeience with selling the web. If not, they should.

Friday, May 02, 1997 #1337
Dear Guru, CBS TV network is targetting for the audience 25-54 years of age. Since when are they doing? Is it a success - do they make more money per second sold than, say NBC, ABC or FOX, who aim at younger targets?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, May 02, 1997 ):
One alternate theory is that CBS is getting that audience by default, since everyone else is doing a better job of targeting the more "desirable" younger demographics.

The Guru recalls reports showing the other networks selling for higher unit prices. Publications like Ad Age provide regular reportage of ratings trends, audience demographics and up to the minute (claimed)average selling prices.

Wednesday, March 12, 1997 #1023
I am interested in marketing a new high-tech unifiedmessaging product on the internet. I am presently puttingan internet site together complete with an autobot. During this process, I received an e-mail from someoneselling a "direct e-mail" service. This person indicatedthat he had had significant success by mailing about 1000mailings a day. He said that the direct e-mailings weredone in such a way that it was not spamming. The productis described at the following web site: Would you give me feedback as towhether this is what it advertises itself to be. Is it a"friendly" way to do advertising via e-mail or is it amass spamming service.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 12, 1997 ):
The Guru found this URL to produce a "Server does not have a DNS entry" error.

Nevertheless, the Guru believes
-E-mail spamming service vendors always claim a high success rate and that what they send is not SPAM.

- The only way the Guru would consider such a mailing not to be SPAM is if the mailing went to known users of messaging software or messaging hardware, i.e . a legitimate target. Even then there is no basis to assume the mail would be welcome. (The Guru himself has an alphanumeric-capable cell phone, but would find such an e-mail an intrusion)

Saturday, March 08, 1997 #1312
Dear guru, I was just wondering if there were any ratings listed for national tv, cable, and radio buys? I've checked various sources, and all I could muster up was ratings by spot markets, but nothing for average national ratings.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 24, 1997 ):
There are some data on AMIC at Rates, Dates and Data. Since the ratings providers are in the business of selling these data, you will have to buy the information or ask the individual media which buy them to share the data with you, in pursuit of your order.

Monday, February 10, 1997 #1051
Dear Guru,Our publishing company has recently aquired another company that hosts a site on the internet. This site is very popular with a solid demographic. As of yet there has been little effort to sell advertising/banners on the site. What would you suggest is the most effective (revenue producing) way of getting advertisers to place ads on our site?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, February 11, 1997 ):
The Guru suggests determining who is the ad decision maker at companies which would most benefit by advertising on your site; ie, have their own site an target the same demographic. Then approach them by mail or by phone followed with a good written piece documenting your selling points.

Tuesday, October 08, 1996 #1133
I wonder if you could enlighten me on your thoughts onthe following: currently, within our market, we lookat cost per point (CPP) for TV. This has been the casefor a number of years now. Recently, however, certainTV stations have been trying to encourage the use ofcost per thousand (CPT). Is there any right or wrongway of looking at a cost measurement for TV?My thinking is that CPT does not prove to be stablewhen measured across a time period, simply becauseuniverse sizes change over time (thousands do increasebut not necessariily the penetration into a market).Therefore CPT could be used when measuring off the sameuniverse size, but is not feasible in showing trendsover different years using different universe sizes.CPT works to the advantage of the media owners as it isseen as much less of an amount than a CPP is (at themoment)???Please help.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 09, 1996 ):
The issues you raise with the use of CPT as against CPP are real, particularly in that when you have people meter data and the universes are changing they will affect the 'thousands' calculated conceivably more than the change in the audience itself.

In people meter panels the universe can vary if it does not form part of the weighting cells.

In addition as a rating using people meter data is a time weighted average it is not strictly speaking possible to convert them into whole 'people'.

selling or buying TV based on CPT derived from respondent level people meter data would be fraught with hidden difficulties for both the users and the TV stations.

Note that this question was posed about the South African market.

Friday, August 16, 1996 #1166
Are any of the multi-level marketing plans that are everywhere on the internet any good?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, August 20, 1996 ):
Though your question has absolutely nothing to do with media, the Guru is confident in saying "no."No selling business which is dependent, for its revenue, on recruiting more sellers rather than on selling whatever is its product or service, can perform as promised. If you do the arithmetic on a typical MLM's promises, you usually find that within 6 months, everyone in the world would have to be a selling for the company. And you've antagonized your friends and family, who you sucked in as your first level downline.

Monday, August 05, 1996 #1170
Our client is interested in selling web site advertising to local advertisers in serveral markets throughout the U.S. How do we go about finding a local Web advertising sales rep for these areas?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 08, 1996 ):
The easiest method is to use a search engine like Yahoo and combine a search for web reps with the specific locality you need.

Otherwise, a geographic list of ISPs such as The Listwill guide you to access providers by area, who will know what sites they have which carry advertising.

Wednesday, July 24, 1996 #1175
Is there an industry standard in regards to ad reps average sales call:close ration,# of resp needed to sell available inventory, profit per rep, etc.? My company is looking to build an internal ad sales dept. and any info/guidelines would be helpful.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 25, 1996 ):
The Guru is not aware of any such standard. It would seem that there would be considerable variation depending on
  • magazine category -- some books are a given to most of their advertisers, while in some categories magazines are a hard sell altogether
  • magazine page rate -- a magazine that can sell a $100,000 page probably is more profitable per successful sale call than one selling a $10,000 page

You might learn more by raisng your question on e-mail discussion lists devoted to media or marketing or sales. Some are listed below, in a March 4 and March 22 Q&A's, and most others are listed at The List of Marketing Lists .

Wednesday, July 17, 1996 #1179
Do you know any research about how much average frequency is enough before the consumer turns against the advertised product. I mean before they are fed up with the ad. I would like some articles or tables about different product categories concerning this effect.Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 18, 1996 ):
There does not seem to be any definitive research on this. Planners dread the question "when is the campaign worn out" almost invariably asked without any definition of "wear-out." Certainly some ads are less enduring in terms of selling ability, which may have little to do with consumers being "fed up." Some advertisers use frequency in top quintiles as a guide, some just accumulated GRP, others study the competitive environment and clutter of their usual advertising media.

The "propinquity theory" gaining in appreciation argues for lower frequencies and if it catches on generally, may change the concept of wear out. Probably the best source of published study and opinion would be the Advertising Research Foundation Library

Wednesday, March 20, 1996 #1259
I am buying a radio schedule (100 GRPs/wk for A25-54) in a market that is approximately 28% black. The urban station in this market is relatively efficient, but is by no means a "must buy". In fact, there are about 10 stations with 9/10 of a rating point of each other (AQH rtg, M-F 6a-7p). This urban station claims that I must have at least one urban station on every buy or I will miss 28% of the market. I disagree. When buying so few points a week, I do not have the budget to buy as many stations as I like. A better use of the money would be to cover the various age cells in this broad demo and try to balance the male/female reach. My question is, What is your opinion on this subject? Is an urban station a "must buy" in this market any more than a country, rock, or news/talk station?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 22, 1996 ):
There are several levels at which this question can be considered:

The essence is determining the true value of that station: "should you buy it", not "must you buy it"

- If you ignored the fact that this is an urban station would you buy it, based on the general parameters of the buy? Rating/efficiency/rank, etc?

Are you having a negative reaction to being told you must do it?

Do you really miss 28% of the market just by not buying that station? To what reach level are you buying? At 100 GRP / week you're not likely to reach more than 72% of the target in a typical 4 weeks, anyway. So if the station is the onlyone reaching its market segment, how much does it matter if that segementis the 28% you miss rather than any ther 28% of the market.

Is that station is the only one reaching its segment? It is likely that several other stations in a market with that high penetration of Black population also reach that audience, but perhaps with a lower audience composition. Check the schedule you will buy to see how its African-American audience reach compares to its general market reach. Perhaps it's comparable even without that station.

On the other hand, if that segemnt is important, reaching it in a culturally relevant program environment can substantially enhance selling opportunity.

Examine the product usage data about your client according to Simmons/MRI/Scarborough/MMR, etc. Perhaps the African-American consumer is far more valuable to your client as a prospective customer than is the general market, and that Urban station, with its good efficiency, is the first one you should buy, even if it does sell aggressively.

Friday, February 09, 1996 #1766
I plan on launching an ol-line magazine and in doing research have discovered the provider I have an account with for access currently has told me they "don't do web sites for customers who will in turn rent out that space to someone else". I, of course, want to rent out ad space on my on-line mag. Is this a common practice? Or am I dealing with some small timers? I plan on getting clarification, but thought I'd ask the master.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 09, 1996 ):
The guru believes you are dealing with very shot sighted small timers. It is not unusual for providers to have a different rate structure for "commercial" (ad bearing) sites versus personal web pages. Personal home pages may be part of a $15 per month interrnet access package while the same provider charges $50 - $5000 per month for commercial sites, depending on storage, traffic, cgi programming, domain registration, etc. There may be some which prohibit reselling ad space; the web is too new to have absolute standards, as yet.

Many providers aggressively pursue such business. It should be easy to find a local one interested in your business. If you are in the NY area, try

Thursday, February 01, 1996 #1768
In developing Web pages for our clients, the question of "the importance of placing reciprocal hotlinks on our Web site" always comes up. Is there any research available that proves it is worth the time/money investment to place links on your site that lead to related sites on the Web?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 02, 1996 ):
There is just barely beginning to be research that verifies site visits, which would seem to be the minimum starting point to put a value on reciprocal links.

General feelings among marketers seem to be that the more links the better, if your primary mission is to generate visits to your site. The guru will attest that there has been an increase in visits to his site as other sites have linked to it. Browsers and web servers would need to be able to track "previous site browsed" to track links. Of course survey research and "guest books" are a possibility.

There seem to be two principal kinds of comercial sites:

1. A site meant to promote your own company by virtue of offering information of interest to potential customers or information about your products and services.

2. A site meant to draw visitors by virtue of offering entertainment content, and which profits by selling advertising in the site

Some sites of course, Like AMIC, combine the two.

In either case, but especially the second, it is a concern if links on your site send visitors away from your site without exploring.

Reciprocal links must be carefully selected if your site is committed to a theme or category of content. Many general sites will link to specialized ones but the reverse link may seem odd from the base of a specialty site.

Perhaps the best research is a sort of literature review which can discern the thinking of marketing pros on this question.

"Market-L," the major marketing discussion e-mail list operating on the internet, has been considering this topic this week. The Market-L Archive is available for review. Join the discussion of Market-L by sending a message saying 'SUBSCRIBE (your real name)" to

Another list which has discussed this topic is Inet-Marketing. The Inet-marketing Archive can be searched as well. To join this list, send an empty e-mail to

Monday, January 08, 1996 #1797
Our non-profit has a web service which we would like to fund by renting out space to sponsors. Where do we start to see if this is feasible?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 02, 1996 ):
There are several companies today in the business of listing and or selling space available on the web. One is Webtrack . Another is a website sales representative firm operated by Neil Monnens

telephone 415 776-4866. Otherwise, you might use search engines like AltaVista to locate web user comapnies with a possible affinity for your non-profit who might become sponsors.

Wednesday, December 27, 1995 #1804
what is the difference between general media and direct response television media? and would I ever recommend to my client DRTV as an inexpensive way of getting exposure?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 02, 1996 ):
General TV and DRTV are different in the way they are purchased and in key aspects of the copy used. To qualify for DRTV, the copy usually must be selling something through an 800 telephone number. Mail is also possible, but the immediate nature of telephone response is preferable (900 number ads are typically under a different rate structure).

DRTV rates are usually based on half of the going rate for the time period. The concept of "going rate" is hard to pin down with any certainty, unless you are buying the same schedule at the same time as "general media." These half price schedules are typically in remnant time or relatively undesirable times late at night or early in the morning or weekends. They are also instantly preemptible. You can't rely on delivering a schedule of "50 GRP per week in prime and 75 GRP per week in early fringe" through DRTV.

General TV schedules are used to build awareness through planned levels of reach and frequency or timely impressions delivery during specific promitions or campaigns DRTV schedules are opportunistic buys, with each airing anticipated to generate a certain quata of responses for a product ready to sell at all times without specific timing issues.. DRTV advertisers often track resonse minute by minute to associate each call with the specific commercial airing responsible. This is in clear contrast with the awarenes building aspect of general media.

When your client measures "exposure" in reach or effective reach terms than DRTV is not an efficient way to get exposure. Those remnant timeslots are not reach builders.

A DRTV advertiser is generally selling something worth the investment in inbound telemarketing expenses for each 800 number order, and assuming a certain minimum of orders per airing. (You cant make money if a $5 an hour operator has to spend 10 minutes taking address, size, flavor and credit card info to sell a $2 item, unless you add $3 shipping and handling). This means it doesn't work for toothpaste, floor wax, soap or cookies, unless you're selling the $29 bag-o-groceries special.

Monday, November 06, 1995 #1824
Do you have any information about "Wear-out" of TVCs?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, November 06, 1995 ):
The first thing to know about wear-out is that there are no absolutes. Different people mean different things by "wear-out" There are numerous ways to set a standard for wear out and numerous ways to measure a commercial's approach to that standard. The simplest, as stated by one of the industry's great researchers is, "a commercial is worn out when the client asks about wear out." Realistically, a practical definition of wear out is when the commercial no longer stimulates additional sales. However, it's rare that any commercial is tracked closely enough to determine that point, and the trick is to *predict* that point. Commercials differ in their quality, impact, and memorability, as well as in the clutter and audience duplication of the schedules used to air them. A commercial that's one of a pool of three closely related commercials for a brand might wear out at a different point in time than one that's one of three dissimilar executions. A commercial airing repeatedly in a single daypart wears out before one in a broad rotation. The audience target and its media habits will also have an impact. Once the wear out level is determined base on the above, then it needs to be associated with a media measurement. Measurement might vary from "when the top quintile is exposed x number of times" to "when effective reach is x% over xx weeks" to "when the commercial has accumulated xxxx TRPs." Bottom line, the answer is a commercial is worn out when it stops selling. How to determine this is a question of judgement and specific research.

Monday, October 30, 1995 #1830
There seems no shortage of ad agencies and people selling ads and such, but I have found zero information about people who are selling space -- and that's what I need.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 30, 1995 ):
The most readily available lists of "sellers of space" are the Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) Sources for Consumer magazines, Newspapers and other media. These books ara available at all ad agencies, many public libraries or from the publisher at (800)-851-SRDS. Many magazines and other media have web sites and are listed here at AMIC in the Important Web Sites section.

Friday, April 07, 1995 #1855
How do you obtain MRI information?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, April 07, 1995 ):
MRI, at (212)599-0444, are in the business of selling their information.

However, the media you might buy for your plan will have access, and can provide it. The major radio rep firms, like KATZ, etc., can analyze MRI, etc for media planners.

Monday, February 27, 1995 #1866
Do you have any data on the fees charged to advertisers, ie the equivalent of the CPM in the magazine world?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 27, 1995 ):
Each of the online services will provide their membership statistics and rates in their media kits. Audience statistics on most Internet sites, however, are somewhat vague at this point in time and pricing is less structured than the online services. As with all media today, both traditional and non-traditional, negotiation is part of the media buying and selling process, and it is up to the planner and buyer to evaluate the audience or potential audience estimates provided by the medium in the determination of the value and efficiency of the media proposition. Some media, including Internet and online services, may be willing to consider a payment based on the number visitors to their site. They have this information, but whether or not they're willing to make it a part of the buying or negotiation process is strictly up to them and your negotiating skills.