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Guru Search Results: 146 matches were found

Tuesday, February 15, 2005 #6794
Local Sales Marketing. With the shrinking shares of broadcast TV and the effects of Tivo and DVRs, how are marketing/advertising agencies managing getting the most for their clients media wise? How do you foresee DVRs effecting TV shares/viewing?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 23, 2005 ):
The first solution to shrinking broadcast shares is cable, of course. And other media mix adjustments. DVRs will eventually be a bigger problem. Nielsen now tells us that DVR users are much greater consumers of other media, so to the extent these are a key target, meida mix is all the more important. Analyzing reach against this segmentation will become more important. When Nielsen begins reporting DVR-based ratings, better judgements will be possible.

Thursday, February 10, 2005 #6788
I am trying to find a share distribution of ad dollars spent by P&G by medium, all media. Do you know where I can find this out?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 10, 2005 ):
Try CMR (Competitive Media Reports) or Nielsen Monitor Plus. You're welcome.

Tuesday, February 08, 2005 #6782
Media Guru: In the LPM Markets (such as Boston), what books should you use in placing buys, such as Q2: use Feb 05 acutals against Feb 04??? I work in a small agency and have just been handed this assignment. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 12, 2005 ):
LPM is not the issue. Use the same time of year last year and consider share of most recent ratings period. When monthly books are available, sue in preference to mid month sweep for the quarter.

Sunday, November 28, 2004 #6705
MG, I believe I've seen recent news about efforts to align methods for measuring online and offline media. My first question: Are you familiar with these efforts? Second: Have you seen any data ranking the "effectiveness" of specific channels online and offline. (Clearly "effectiveness" is a tricky label, but I'm referring to it only in the sense of the effort to align measurement methods referred to above.) Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 02, 2004 ):
1. Yes, the Guru is aware of such alignment efforts. They have been going on almost since the dawn of internet advertising in 1995. Organizations like CASIE, Association of National Advertisers, American Association of Advertising Agencies and The Advertising Research Foundation have led these efforts.

More recently, The Internet Advertising Bureau is a leader. The newly linked I/PRO and BPA internet audit effort, with the participation of Agencies for Internet Audits, is also a force for this goal.

The essential unit of media measurement is agreed among traditional and online media to be the "impression;" one exposure of one ad to one person. Although measurment methods differ among media types, once there is agreement to impression numbers, moving to reach, frequency and GRP figures is relatively easy.

2. As you acknowledge, "effectivenss" is subject to interpretation and is best examined within an advertising category. One medium may be best for selling real estate another for cars and a different one for diamond jewelry. Within a medium, it is more reasonable to compare the effectiveness of various vehicles, while controlling for copy variations. And of course defintions of effectiveness are variable; sales, awareness, share change, etc.

One great advantage of online advertising is its accountability and immediately measurable results.

Friday, November 19, 2004 #6694
Dear guru ,in answering questions abt budgeting u have mentioned it is the planners Job to advice the client ,How much he should spend, I know one can use SOV:SOM CONCEPT OR AD:SALES, is there any other calculation for this as well as what should be the benchmark for a new product launch.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 21, 2004 ):
This depends on goals. For example, is awareness, trial, or market share the objective. Each of these could lead to different budget reuqirements

Tuesday, November 02, 2004 #6663
What are the most frequently used methods for evaluating the effectiveness of media plan?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 03, 2004 ):
  • Change in sales
  • Change in market share
  • Change in awareness or attitude and usage measures. or . . .
  • other available measures of target action, including click thru

Monday, October 18, 2004 #6644
Hi Guru , what are rules of thumb to hold market share, increase market share.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, October 23, 2004 ):
The only general rule of thumb, per se, is to advertise a share of voice equal to share of market to hold, greater to grow. This, of course, is a vast oversimplification.

Friday, September 10, 2004 #6599
Please explain the difference between estimated ratings and projected ratings on TV avails.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 11, 2004 ):
The terms can be more-or-less equivalent. In simple English, "Estimate" refers to a best approximation of what a situation is or was and "Projection" is a best approximation of what a situation will be. The U.S. Census Bureau uses these terms in this way in regard to population figures. "Estimate" is also employed as a label to cover the fact that statistical techniques are used which are subject to some variablilty, rather than being absolute fact. In media research, "projection" is sometimes used to refer to the actual number estimated based on sample in the report and in that case is exactly equivalent to estimate.

The Guru imagines that you are comparing avails from different sources which use these two terms to mean the same thing. But if you see both in the same avails it probably uses "estimate" to report an actual rating already measured, and "projection" to report the rating anticipated at the time of the buy, given seasonal viewing changes, competition changes in share in the time slot, etc.

Thursday, September 09, 2004 #6597
Hi guru ,could u please tell me what the difference between program TVR and program share , whether they can be used intechangbly or ther is any specific criteria .

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, September 10, 2004 ):
TV rating represents the percentage of a specified total demographic group that is in the audience of the program.

Program share is the percentage who are watching the specified program out of all the members of the demographic group who are watching TV at the point in time.

Thursday, August 05, 2004 #6563
What do TV ratings such as 3.7/13 1.9/6 stand for? I couldn't find an answer on or in the Guru archives, so hoping you can help now. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 06, 2004 ):
Numbers like that probably mean a RATING of 3.7% of the specified demographic category watched the program, which is a 13% share of all those watching TV at the time.

If you see a double set such as 3.7/13 1.9/6 it may be that the first pair refers to HH and the second to a certain demographic, all for the same program.

Wednesday, August 04, 2004 #6562
Can you please clarify the differences between objectives, strategies and tactics within marketing and/or media planning?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 06, 2004 ):
It's forest versus trees:

Objectives are the broad statements of what is to be accomplished, such as "increase awareness," "grow share," etc.

Strategies are the general ways in which the objectives will be persued, such as "build reach at high levels of frequency via network television."

Tactics are very specific approaches to eexcuting strategies, such as "select most efficient programming to extend budgets and build highest reach," or "select programming which enhances product image to build awareness in the most favorable light."

Wednesday, June 23, 2004 #6517
hi guru, would you please some methods of budget setting in a typical media planning scenario.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 25, 2004 ):
Budget setting typically preceeds media planning. Budget is input to media planners.

Budget may be set based on any of the following, or other factors, as well.

  • Advertising-to-sales ratio (A:S) for the category, and sales goal
  • share of market goal vs share of voice.
  • Heavy up test requiring 30% or greater increment
Product intro versus known product, awareness goals, promotional plans all may be factors. The possibilities are idiosyncratic and virtually limitless.

Tuesday, June 08, 2004 #6509
Hi Guru I am currently doin a research on homeware products in the USA and UK. Will you please provide me with top 5 brands in both the continents, incl market share and adspend.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 12, 2004 ):
You need CMR (Competitive Media Reports) and MRI and Kantar's BMRB

Tuesday, May 25, 2004 #6501
I work on a automotive account on the retail level. The national plan is provided by a different agency, but teh DMA plans are done by us. A retailer has just stated he does not get his "fair share" of the National TV plan. We have no control over what the National plan is, but have been asked to provide something that would prove he gets his fair share. I am uncertain of what he considers fair, and don't no anyway I can analyze the national buy in a local level other thatn explaining the way national TV works. Do you have any suggestions? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 25, 2004 ):
The Guru wonders why it becomes your job to provide this, since if there is a fault it's in the national plan, not the one you work on. Perhaps you're expected to makle the local plan balance inequities in the national?

Whichever, we must first understand the complaint: Does the complainer believe the DMA as a whole doesn't get its fair share of national? Or that the portion which is his particular trading area is short-changed?

In either case there must be some assessment from the dealers to compare against a "share." In the DMA case, if the DMA receives 5% of the national impressions and the group of dealers in the DMA is assessed 5% of the national dealers' allocation of contribution to the budget, then that would seem fair. If the assessment is based simply on DMA population or sales or something unrelated to media delivery, then that could be unfair. To consider fairness against smaller geographies will depend in part on whether there is a measurement of that geography. Nielsen provides various tools that measure network program delivery by DMA or by county with which to address the issue. Other than counties or metro areas, that is less likely to occur. There are some geodemographic systems which can estimate narrower geographic delivery of broadcast media, but balancing problems at this geographic level with local TV is only sometimes possible.

Thursday, April 29, 2004 #6476
hi guru ,yhanks for responding my previous qs. This time I want to know ,how media planners use program -share and TVR for a plan. Is there any differnce between these two as a criteria for vechile selection or can be used interchangebly.If possible give a real life example

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 01, 2004 ):
share and rating are more tools of buyers than planners; plans usually describe broadcast media in broader strokes, e.g. 50 GRP per week of Prime time TV.

When used, share is about time-period, head-to-head competition or projecting future ratings. Ratings gives a relative strength in audience appeal. Either is only a small part of vehicle consideration.

Tuesday, April 20, 2004 #6465
For a new entrant with a small budget in a high spending category, 1)What should be prioritised in terms of Reach, Frequency or , Continuity at the expense of reach & frequency. 2)Is there a rule of thumb to set higher weight than competitors atleast in the launch month for better vicibility & cut thru at the expense of number of maintenance bursts.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, April 24, 2004 ):
The Guru always recommends 'outshouting' competition. For a new entrant with awareness issues this is all the more important.

Continuity can be a uniquely powerful technique if competion is flighted; a careful study of competitors' flighting patterns might show when to be the big noise in a loud field.

Another technique is geographic selection. If your budget does not allow making enough noise nationally or in a big region, it is wisest to begin in a smaller geographic area where your campaign can have significant share of voice.

Going directly to your question, the Guru would priorize continuity over reach and frequency, if you can achieve at least a minimum R&F; perhaps 30% reach.

Wednesday, April 07, 2004 #6457
When estimating ratings for third quarter buys, is it best to look at a Jul/Jul book average or Feb'04/Jul'03? What is the best strategy and why?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 11, 2004 ):
The traditional approach is to apply the latest share to the came period of time (seasoon) in the past year.

Friday, February 06, 2004 #6377
I would like to learn more about 3rd party data-share agreements, data-share business rules. Maybe some examples.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 13, 2004 ):
If you are a data provider, talk to some third party processors, like Telmar

Friday, January 02, 2004 #6326
I want to advertise a product via direct response TV featuring an 800 number. I plan to spend $30,000 for testing over a 10 day period in the U.S. market. I called this company I found online to inquire about the cheap TV spots offered on their site. They suggested I allocate the entire budget to air on cable networks via national satellite, which has a subscriber base of 8.6 million. They quoted the cost of a 30-second spot on a top tier network airing in overnight at $80 and in daytime between $175 and $225. Having never heard of national satellite advertising, I tried to investigate further on the web. The only info I found came from a discussion group upset about a TV show on Sci-fi being canceled back in February 2000. They were discussing how to place an ad during the show's last episode on satellite and had uncovered basically the same rates I was previously quoted. I also found your answer to a like question asked around the same time (Monday, April 24, 2000, #3415) in which you replied, "you may be looking for something that doesn't exist". You further explained that "national ads on cable networks are sold by the networks as national and run as the network is carried, whether the viewer receives the program through cable or a SATELLITE receiver. Local, cable-originated advertising runs in time slots reserved for local use. These "local" slots, about 2 minutes per hour, could theoretically be sold nationally by the SATELLITE carriers". You then, however, gave numerous reasons why even that wouldn't work. My question is this: Three+ years later, has anything changed? Is the media buy I described now a viable option? If it is, would this be the way to go or would I be better off putting it on national cable? I would appreciate any other information you care to share on this subject, be it advise or referrals. Thank You, Nicole Pellegrino

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 02, 2004 ):
Today, there are spots available on DirecTV and Dish Network. The prices you cite are about right (as one-time rates) for DirecTV, the larger one of the two, with about two-thirds of the satellite market.

From your question, you seem to be looking for the cheapest "national" spots you can buy, so Dish Network may be the better choice.

"Top Tier" may as well not be a consideration, since you are persuing minusucle audiences, at best.

Wednesday, November 26, 2003 #6275
Dear Media Guru, We did a multiple regression analysis to correlate the Nielsen Awareness scores achieved by a brand with the media weights delivered by the brand. The entire category advertises only on Television. The dependent variable was the current awareness score for a brand (Y). The independent variables examined for the analysis were share of Voice achieved by the brand in the Category in the week (X1), Awareness in Previous Week(X2) and 1+ Reach achieved by the brand in the week (X3). This analysis was done for a eight-week period. The tracking continues. Hence, we are planning to extend the analysis and build a more robust base on which the analysis can be extended. The R-Square values we obtained after multiple tests for Current Awareness with all three independent variables is 0.94 The R square values for any other combination is below 0.3 The question is a) Is this a collectively exhaustive list of what can cause impact on the awareness score ? b) Is there any flaw in the method used ? Regards RSV

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 28, 2003 ):
The method seems reasonable. The only other variables which immediately occur to the Guru are
  • # of competitors.
  • Ratio of share of market to largest SOV competitor. (i.e. 25% SOV might have a different impact against four other smaller competitors than against just one at 75% SOV).
  • Some measure of commercial impact, like recall

Monday, August 11, 2003 #6120
I need to index ratings/shares on a sports event, from a market that receives overnight ratings to a local market that is rated 4 times per year. How do I do this?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 17, 2003 ):
There are two factors to consider:
  1. The average relationship of sports ratings in the smaller market to the same sports in the other market
  2. The seasonal variance, since the event in question is obviously between the 4 measured cycles

Examine all the most similar sports events that occur in both markets during the 4 measured periods (same sport, if possible). Index small market large (overnights) market. Index the season by comparing the chosen sport(s), in the target season versus the closest time also measured in the small market. The muiltiply the rating of the target event in the overnight market by both indices.

Thursday, July 17, 2003 #6085
I have an $11,000 cable schedule that achieves 182 demo rating points. In Tapscan the Reach and frequency is 12.4 and 14.7 frequency. In Strata the reach and frequency is 73% reach and 2.5 frequency. I think the truth somewhere in between. Tapscan will not share the algorithims (sp)in the formula and I haven't asked STrata. What do you think?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 19, 2003 ):
The Guru imagines that the discrepancy has two bases:

One: possibly the Tapscan R&F is assuming that the input is cable GRP and the desirted output is total market R&F, while the Strata is calculating only against cable universe. For example if a market's cable penetration is 60%, then 182 cable GRP = 109 total market GRP. 73 cable universe reach = total 44 market reach.

Two: even under these circumstances, the difference should be less. The Guru suspects that dispersion and programming selection inputs differ between the two so that reach isn't calculated the same.

Tuesday, July 01, 2003 #6055
Dear Guru, My client sets share of voice objectives and requires us to outvoice competition during any week. That was fine till now, until someone convinced him that he should be looking at Weighted GRPs (weighted by copy duration). He started to argue that for weeks he has been outvoiced bec. his competition is using a longer copy duration. I need to have your opinion on the above. Also, would appreciate if you could provide me with a solid documentation that argues against using Weghted GRPs if that is your belief. Thanks !

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 07, 2003 ):
When thinking in terms of "outvoicing" competition, it is perfectly reasonable to allow for copy length differences. If we didn't think longer copy was more effective, all TV advertisng would be :15 or less.

Monday, June 02, 2003 #5987
The brand I work on has been a market leader in consumer durables for the last 2 decades. The brand values are extremely strong and it enjoys good loyality from customers.This brand is also identified by its unique and memorable advertising thru these years. But in the last 3 years intense competition has hit us on both pricing as well as image front, resulting in loosing brand strength end eroding market share. I would like to know if there are cases of brands that have bounced back with help of brand campaign that is driving towards creating preference and retaining loyality for the brand. Is there any website/book that you can recommend? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 02, 2003 ):
The Guru deals with Media planning/Media buying/Media research/Media department managment questions.

Tuesday, May 06, 2003 #5960
If someone desires to share a regional / global media project with a leading global media marketing company and after several attempts to reach the top bossess does not get a response or even an acknowledgement with or without regret then what opinion should the person taking the initiative must have about the "Gurus of the Industry?" Regards Zahid Hussain Khalid

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 06, 2003 ):
The first conclusion is that "the Guru's of the industry" do not deal with the sorts of inquiries you are making. This is not a global company's boss's concern. You need ot find the right person in the marketing department or the agency . . . who might still not be interested, of course,

Monday, April 21, 2003 #5942
Dear Guru, Is it possible for two different advertisers to share national TV or radio space? I understand that two brands or more from the same company can run ads under one contract, but can two completely different companies agree to purchase national ad space and then split the space to run one company on the East coast and the other on the West (or broken down even further)? This question came up as a result of a clout issue. I have an AE who claims that this is how large buying shops are able to get better deals. Thanks again.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, April 26, 2003 ):
Physically, it's possible. Otherwise it's a matter of policy and negotiation. Often when one advertsier wants to buy only one region, it only depends on finding a partner who wants the remainder

Monday, April 14, 2003 #5932
define share

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, April 14, 2003 ):
In a media context, "share" is the portion of all users of a medium at a point in time who are using a particular meium or program. For example, if 48% of all TV homes are watching TV from 9-10 pm (50 HUT), and 12% are watching West Wing (12 rating), then West Wing has a 25 share (12 ÷ 48).

In other contexts, such as share of Voice (share of ad $ or share of ad weight) the calculation is similar.

Monday, March 17, 2003 #5884
Why haven't the SQAD data on the site been updated?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, March 20, 2003 ):
SQAD no longer cares to share.

Tuesday, February 25, 2003 #5856
Is it possible to share some of the "media innovative' ideas?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 02, 2003 ):
Ideas that were innovative once are not any longer. It's only innovation the first time. Click here to see past Guru responses about innovation

Thursday, February 20, 2003 #5847
We are a small advertising agency in New York and would like to pitch some larger accounts. Is it possible to partner with larger media buying companies (like Interpublic or Mindshare) to help leverage purchasing clout for our clients? Also, how would we go about this? Thanks for you help.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 23, 2003 ):
Just call and ask. Keep in mind that "clout" is more than size

Friday, January 24, 2003 #5761
Media Guru: TWO ITEMS: A. Regarding the question about print expenditure in the Nashville market, "Voice Trak" would probably be a better source. They specialize in collecting local market data inclusive of all media - not just the major media relfrected in a CMR report. B. Assuming The Super Bowl spots at $2.1 million are the most expensive, do you know the programs and costs for those which would rank 2 through 5? As always, thanks for your muchly appreciated help!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 26, 2003 ):
Thanks for the suggestion, but the Guru seems to find "share of voice" rather than dollar uspending as the Voice Trak focus.

The Guru would guess that World Series or award shows have been top prices, but predicts this year's upcoming American Idol finale may overtake the lead for 2nd place. Ad Age has probably compiled the rankings.

Monday, November 18, 2002 #5627
Can you please explain what the term "rotary bulletin" means?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, November 18, 2002 ):
"Bulletin" is the larger, 14'x48' billboard. "Rotary" refers to a way of buying these so that a set of locations is shared and your billboard rotates among them, changing every three months or so.

Friday, November 15, 2002 #5620
Dear Guru I am a Media Planner in India and currently trying to assess the potential of the news channel business in India since there are 3 seperate news channel launching in the space of 3 months even though we already have 7 new channels in the country - inclusive of CNBC,CNN,Star News. The current percentage of advertising spend from news channels to total tv advertising spend is around 5% of 1.7 bn USD. What I would like to know is 1)What is the relevant ratio for the US/Europe/Asia 2)By any parameters known to you is the current ratio too high or too low - pls comment

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 17, 2002 ):
The Guru doesn't quite see
  • How projecting the share of advetising spending of news channels fits into media planning duties
  • How a too high or too low ratio would be determined

In the US, where three major cable news channels compete with news on broadcast networks as well as hundreds of local broadcast stations there is one situation which might have no bearing on what makes sense in Europe or India. The share of audience of the all-news cable networks rises when we go through "interesting times" such as wars, elections, etc and ad share will shift a bit.

There is likley to be some trade media reportage of this share in publications such as Ad Age.

Tuesday, November 12, 2002 #5610
Media Guru, How do I find the BDI/CDI and SOV for the retail industry. Specifically NIKE.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 12, 2002 ):
"Retail" usually means stores, so Footlocker is retail, Nike isn't.

BDI is calculated by comparing sales to population, e.g. if 15% of Nike revenues are generated in the NY DMA and NY DMA has 10% of the population, BDI is 150.

CDI is similar, but based on category, rather than individual brand.

The Guru doubts that these sales data are public.

SOV is share of Voice, meaning the portion of category advertising dollars spent by the particular advertiser. CMR (Competitive Media Reports) is the data source you need for this.

Friday, November 08, 2002 #5603
I'm planning now (November) for a Q2 '03 radio multi-market buy. Can you give me an idea of what Arbitron books I should be looking at? Most recent? (in some cases, the most recent is Summer) Or is it better to go with the Spring '02 book, since I will be buying for Spring? Thanks for your help!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 10, 2002 ):
Radio usage has very little seasonality, despite common belief to the contrary (click here to see past Guru comment about radio's non-seasonality.).

Radio share trends do respond to programming and personality changes. Generally, the Guru uses the latest available book or two books.

Tuesday, October 22, 2002 #5574
Dear Guru, I am interested in the perfect values of the following media parameters for one TV campaign of beer product (May be there is some standards): 1. Number of flights per year 2. TRP s per week 3. TRP s per campaign 4. OTS per campaign 5. Reach 1+, 3+, 5+ per campaign I am interested which are the effective frequency and the effective reach. Thank you very much for your answers.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 27, 2002 ):
There are no perfect answers. Within whatever budget you have, you must consider what is possible. If you can afford 5,200 GRP per year, is it better to have 100 GRP per week every week or 146 GRP for 9 four week flights?

Part of the answer depends on how you set the effective frequency goal. Perhaps seasonality tells you you need the 150 in the summer but only the 100 the rest of the year. What level do the competitors run? What is your brand awareness? What are your awareness goals, sales goals, share goals?

In short, budget, and many circumstances need to be considered rather than any quest for abstractly 'perfect' answers

Monday, September 09, 2002 #5504
what are the advantages/disadvantages of using radio vs tv by quarter. I know 1st quarter is a good time to be on tv because of lower unit rates and high ratings and 4th q has the highest rates and highest ratings-what about the other quarters? radio in 1st quarter-low rates, ratings? the other quarters?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 12, 2002 ):
Rates, i.e. cost per unit, relate to demand, which is typically lower in first quarter, especially early in Q1. Some speculate that this is because calendar year planning runs late. In any case, rating fluctaute independently of demand, with Q1 typically highest. Radio is not really seasonal in audience, overall, while individual station shares are can vary due to various factors. See Arbitron's 'Radio Today' 2001

Friday, May 10, 2002 #5276
Dear Guru, Would like to know your comments on a proposal received from a client regarding media agency compensation structure. The assumption is that media planning commission is at 1.5% and media buying at 1% of media costs The client feels that since media Planning is done based on projected CPRP for the coming month. We should fix a band within which the CPRP can move. The variable portion of media planning commission can be linked to improvement in actual CPRP over projected CPRP. Variable portion of media Buying Commission should be linked to buying efficiency. 50% of the saving in media buying cost or the variable portion whichever is lower should be shared with the agency Thanks Ajit

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 12, 2002 ):
It seems to the Guru that all variable commission should be tied to buying, not planning. Planning does not impact the difference between projection and actual CPRP unless the agency is making the projections and deliberately projecting badly. If third-party projections are used, the idea makes even less sense.

Wednesday, May 01, 2002 #5262
A four part question- It appears that except for premium & movie channels, that an "average" cable HH receives between 30 and 40 "normal" cable networks (A&E, FX, MSNBC, TNT, etc.) that are "ad insertable." Is that a fair assumption? Second part of the question... If the first part is true, then an "average cable HH" still has many additional "ad insertable" channels to watch. Of all these "ad insertable" alternatives, what % of them (share?) do think you feel these 30 to 40 get? (Yes, I know that the strength of each network varies by day part. So the "load" carried by one of the 30 to 40 varies.) Third part, is this topic too esoteric when trying to understand the power of the normal cable network? And how it affects advertising rates, programming aside? Fourth, what other aspects of the power of "normal" cable networks should I consider when evaluating the ins and outs of investing advertising money on cable?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 05, 2002 ):
Taking your figure of 30-40 ad-insertable cable networks as correct, that only leaves a small handful of other ad supported channels available to the cable HH:
  • Local broadcast stations carried on the cable system, of which there might be an average of 5 or 6
  • Local cable origination channels with local news, weather, traffic, etc of which there might be 3 or 4.

Depending on daypart, without consulting the latest Nielsen, Guru belives that the 30 or 40 get about 50% of the ad-insertable audience.

THe power of the individual cable network is still small, except within a specific sphere. ESPN is a power in sports, CNN is a power in news.

This relevance to the advertiser and consumer is a key consideration.

Wednesday, April 03, 2002 #5191
in the calculation of share...rating%/usage%...where is usage found? ..or how do you calculate usage?? and

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, April 03, 2002 ):
Usage is generally labelled "homes using television (HUT)," or "persons using radio (PUR)" or something similar and is found in the same audience resources as are the ratings.

Tuesday, March 12, 2002 #5145
Hi Guru, I am doing research on the correlation of Ad Response by DMA (as derived from marketing mix models) to traditional sales measures (BDI/CDI/Growth Trends) and have some interesting findings. My question relates to spot buying tactics and if the list below is exhaustive: 1) Opportunistic--Strong CDI Weak BDI 2) share Defense--Basically opposite of above 3) Spend to Business--more of an allocation strategy as opposed to a market selection 4) Impression weighting--Like number 3 but takes into account viewership Am I leaving anything off (especially sales based metrics) or not characterizing it correctly. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 17, 2002 ):
All of your tactics are presumably based on total market delivery, that is accounting for national media weight and bringing the market in line with a goal based on one of your ways of setting market levels.

Other possibilities include looking at spot on its own and at the other extreme, taking into account a complete media mix. One tactic more in line with your probable intent of allocation or level setting strategies might be share of voice or other tactics based on competitive activity.

Saturday, March 02, 2002 #5130
Media Guru - if you are already using SOV and SOD models, is there a way to determine share of EFFECTIVE voice? And How does inflation/deflation effect SOV?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 04, 2002 ):
When you use possibly idiosyncratic terms, the Guru is less certain that his response addresses your actual query.

The Guru will assume for the sake of this answer that by "SOV", you mean share of messages/ GRP/impresions being delivered in the category and by "SOD" you mean share of advertising dollars being spent in the category.

Therefore to compare effective SOV you must begin by assigning relative weights to messages depending on the media type and ad unit, so that if a TV :30 has an index of 100, perhaps a TV :10 has a value of 70, a Radio :60 has a value of 80, A newspaper full page has value of 90, a magazine 4 color spread has a value of 120, etc. (these are NOT recommended values, just for the sake of example).

Then by applying these indices to impressions measured in each medium and unit, you can calculate a share of Effective Voice.

Since SOV is calculated for a specific, measured period of time, inflation/delation shouldn't be a factor.

Thursday, January 03, 2002 #4971
Dear Guru - Was there ever a "chart" that enabled media buyers to calculate reach/freq, gross impressions etc for broadcast television planning. I have been explaining to someone that we use programs for this kind of thing, but this person seems to remember using a chart and thinks i should be able to do this manually if he could. I've never heard of it, have you? He would have been planning around 1975. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 03, 2002 ):
Yes, before computers became common in the 80's, when there were just 3 networks, with 90%+ share, no cable, and few independent stations, R&F tables were the way it was done. Every few years, using Nielsen cume studies of actual scehdules, average reaches for various GRP levels were calculated. There might be variables for the number of programs or episodes used. In this way all possibilities for a daypart could be displayed on a single, typed page.

Today, with computers on every desk, 6 broadcast networks amassing only 50% share, dozens of cable options and hundreds of independent stations, accuracy requires computer systems. Such crude tables could be still constructed, but why bother when computers and software are so readily available?

The Guru who was using the charts in the 60's, is happy with his computer today.

Thursday, December 13, 2001 #4942
Hi, Media Guru.I am looking for a place were I can be specialized in media field, an university an institute something like that. The location must be in Canada or in Italy. Can you help me with this? I working already in this field, in Romania, with Mindshare (in the last two years), but I feel is necessary to do much more than a training inside the agency.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, December 14, 2001 ):
Most universities which teach "Communications" teach advertising, with more or less emphasis on media. Your question is one for the educational guides for the relevant countries, comparable to US News more than it is for a media specialist. In the US, it is rare for a media professional to have specialized in media in college.

Thursday, November 22, 2001 #4905
Media Guru: Is there any information available that demonstrates the relationship of awareness (unaided and aided) to market share? I realize this is probably specific to product categories, markets, etc. -- but I am looking for any general "rule of thumb" guidelines. I work in business-to-business marketing, and would data from this area rather than general consumer goods. Also...can you suggest some "further reading" sources on this subject?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 22, 2001 ):
A good resource is Cahners Business Information

Monday, October 29, 2001 #4846
What are five ways that media planners might use this site in thier work??? And what would you say is the definition of share?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 30, 2001 ):
  1. Find rates
  2. Find audiences
  3. Find media sellers and buyers
  4. Find a job
  5. Learn about multicultural markets
  6. Define terms

For definitions of terms, go to Media Terms or Go to the Guru Archives Search Engine. Use "share," etc, as your search term.

Saturday, October 13, 2001 #4790
Is there one clear, absolute way to go about projecting CPP (television) for an upcoming year? What methods do you find to be most accurate?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 15, 2001 ):
No one clear method. If there were, certain people wouldn'rt be 'pulling down the big bucks.'

There are two unrelated processes here: predicting ratings and predicting costs per announcement. Both can dcepend on changes in the national state of mind as well as external economic factors and highly unpredictable viewing preference changes.

The core of ratings prediction is an assumption that overall viewing levels are stable, and allowing for seasonal changes. Predictign share is more of a crap-shoot, starting from the latest results and making increasingly complex judgnemts about the appeal of future programming.

Tuesday, October 09, 2001 #4767
Are there any studies on the effectiveness or radio as well as radio ad recall vs. television. All studies seem to favor television. Is this a correct statement.. Can you please share you thoughts?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 09, 2001 ):
The trouble with such studies, when done from a certain angle is they compare and ad to an ad. It should be apparent that an ad with 'sight sound and motion' would outperform an ad with only sound. However, in the real worls, a radio campaing for X dollars includes more units than a TV campaign for the same budget, all else being equal. The comparison needs to be equal dollars in each medium, and radio can win in such as scenario.

For research, try The Radio Advertising Bureau (RAB) and The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Tuesday, October 09, 2001 #4765
Dear Guru, As per your knowledge, is there any proved correlation between the share of voice and the share of market for a FMCG or/or durable goods ?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 10, 2001 ):
Directionality seems well accepted.

See The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Friday, September 21, 2001 #4727
Hi Guru, I am looking for a resource that provides the amount of marketing and advertising dollars spent on various demographic segments. Any ideas?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 24, 2001 ):
No, the Guru has never a source toalling spending by dempographic. How would an outside source know the demographic target of an ad in broad reach vehicles like People Magazine or on Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? Such vehicles account for a lot of the spending. If an advertiser spent only in similar niche media, a conclusion might be drawn, but the lion's share of dollars would go unaccounted for.

Friday, August 24, 2001 #4678
What is the marketshare of PC versus MAC users in the industry?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 24, 2001 ):
Total universe is about 90/10. According to the Guru's colleague, who is publisher of a Mac magazine, in advertising creative the balance goes the other way, perhaps 40/60. On media professional's desks it is could be 80/20, because agencies may standardize on Macs, even when they would not be chosen except for the creative needs. However, AMIC can determine the operating systems used by our visitors, who should be representative of media professionals:
  • Windows 78%
  • Mac 3%
  • None 18%

Thursday, August 23, 2001 #4674
hi guru, can u tell me difference between SoV and SoM and whats the significance of it?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 26, 2001 ):
Both are ways to consider the competitive situation.
  • SOV is share of voice, the advertiser's proportion of all the advertsing in the category. It's usually share of weight (impressions) but sometimes is evaluated as share of spending.
  • SOM is share of market. This is the advertiser's proportion of all the sales in the category. It can be evaluated as share of units sold or share of dollar sales.

Monday, August 13, 2001 #4653
I am doing an analyis of a local tv station. I want to track, by showing a graph, of their viewership trends for prime time progaming only. Should I show rating or share on the graph and why? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 13, 2001 ):
It depends on what point you want to make about the station. Rating will trend the station's popularity with the demographic group. share will trend the comparison to other TV sources in the market.

Unless there are different sources available at different times in the graph, the Shape of the graph will be virtually identical in either case, except for seasonality effects. share comparison would pretty much factor out seasonal differences.

Wednesday, July 25, 2001 #4607
Hi ! Two questions 1. how do you decide which cume (1wk or 13 wk or 52 wk etc) to choose. 2. where can I find the details of the ostrows grid actual one with the scales etc. Thanks and regards

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 25, 2001 ):
1. Four week R&F is standard. Otherwise, if you need to examine a specific time period related to your marketing, use the closest cume.

2. The Ostrow model aims at establishing the minimum level of frequency to be deemed effective so that the plan can maximize reach at that level of frequency. The model can be traced back to his speech, "Effective Frequency" at an Advertising Research Foundation Key Issues workshop, June 4, 1982.

Typically, the model involves evaluating a series of relevant factors on a scale of say, 2 to 6, and averaging the factors to determine the appropriate level of frequency to set as effective.

In the 1982 speech the factors discussed were of three kinds: marketing, message / creative and media.


  • Established brand vs new entry
  • Brand share
  • Brand loyalty
  • Purchase cycle
  • Usage cycle
  • share of voice
  • Target group learning capacity

Message / Creative

  • Complexity
  • Uniqueness
  • New vs continuing campaign
  • Image building vs specific sell
  • Message variation (copy pool)
  • Wear out
  • Copy unit size/length


  • Clutter
  • Editorial / program environment
  • Attentiveness
  • Continuity vs flighting
  • Number of different media
  • Repeat exposure opportunities

For the full speech, the transcript proceedings of the workshop are available from the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Sunday, July 08, 2001 #4560
Dearest Guru, i'm trying to build a media plan (include its strategy for a market leader product). what do you think about put 'product purchasing cycle' is one consideration on making tv strategy? (the product has weekly-biweekly purchasing cycle). currently, the brand is using the SOV strategy (for about the last three years), but there are no significant effect on the competitor's market share. so i start to think about - i called - reach strategy. the basic idea of reach strategy is reaching as much audience in a single week. and then i arrive to R&F weekly : 3+(70%) for maintenance activity, and 4+(80%) for launching or relaunching activity. but i have a little confidence on my strategy. what do you think ?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 08, 2001 ):
Purchase cycle should be a consideration. Obvously a brand with weekly purchase calls for different support than one with quarterly purchase, or strong seasonality.

Friday, June 29, 2001 #4539
Dear M.G., A client asked me for some textbook rule of thumb on the relationship between share of market and share of voice. He is asking in the context of determining whether to spend more in a market where our brand is weak and the category is average/weak (i'd estimate the BDI/CDI is probably 50/80. can you suggest a book or site that offers a good discussion on whether to invest more, or whether you're throwing good money after bad, or if you have specific thoughts on this, I'd appreciate hearing them. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 01, 2001 ):
The Guru's general theory is that -- all else being equal -- growth comes from increased share of voice. Many operate on the theory that added spending should go where sales are well developed; BDI emphasis. Others feel that share gap, such as your 50/80 indicate room to grow.There are some useful texts in the AMIC Bookstore (in association with

Thursday, June 14, 2001 #4488
Id like to know about media (TV and Radio) for the hispanic market at the USA, information about ratings, share, costs by State. thank you!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 17, 2001 ):
For links to US Hispanic media, the best resource is our own Abbott Wool's Market Segment Resources Hispanic page.

For general information about ratings and shares, without buying the full research from Nielsen or Arbitron, browse through Abby's Hispanic Market Weekly Media and Research articles.

For costs, you will generally need to contact the media, but SQAD offers a current Hispanic spot TV cost guide.

In the US, TV and Radio are not costed by state, but by metropolitan area (MSA) for radio or designated market area (DMA) for TV.

Thursday, June 07, 2001 #4461
How do sales growth differ from companies who advertise compare to companies who do not advertise? Basically I am look for general percentages based on a fiscal year income. Are there any web site handy that display this type of information?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 07, 2001 ):
The Guru does not think any web sites offer this particular data broadly. Growth might well be comparable for companies that advertise at a flat rate year to year compared to those that do ont advertise. Changes in budeget and share of voice are likely more critical.

Thursday, February 08, 2001 #4172
Hello Guru:A national client of ours was asked by his regional counterpart how much money he should allocate for advertising spending in his region of No.California. How do I begin the process of figuring this out? Thanks in advance for any information you can provide.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 11, 2001 ):
Begin with these considerations:
  • Is the regional a schedule to run on top of national?
  • What is the competitive advertising level in the category?
  • What share of "voice," adding together nartional and regional activity, is desired by the regional person?

Thursday, February 08, 2001 #4170
Many experts are warning advertisers that cutting advertising during a soft economy could be harmful...however I'm finding it difficult to find current research to support this fact. Any suggestions?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 11, 2001 ):
Research like this can only really be done when an advertiser sees a "soft economy" coming, cuts ads and measures before and after. Since it's been nearly eight years since the economy last went soft, research won't be too current. It's also more likely you'll find historical perspective than research.

It is however axiomatic that when one advertiser cuts spending in such times, the ones who do not will gain market share. The one who cuts may never regain the ground. Classic case: Lucky Strike cigarrettes, which were #1 before wartime ad cuts, and never returned to former strength.

Check The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Saturday, January 27, 2001 #4129
Dear Guru, I'm looking for information concerning Fair share in television. Is there any other way to tell how much % one should invest in a television channel? Since the Fair share formula is taking the amount of breaks one channel has into account, the more breaks a channel has the more % of the media budget will go to this channel. So even if a channel has let's say 30% of bad breaks (not viewed by the audience) this channel will score good in terms of Fair share. What's your opinion on this? Thanks in advance!

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 28, 2001 ):
The Guru does not support buying based on stations' share of viewing. This practice undercuts the point of negotiation. If a station sales person thinks he/she is entitled to "X" share of your budget, then the incentive is to keep unit prices high.

It is even less logical to reward a station for having more inventory, which is a disincentive to viewing.

share might be a starting point. Efficiency, reach/rating and composition should be essential adjuctments from there, and number of breaks of little or no impact.

Tuesday, December 12, 2000 #4035
I am starting a DVD venture, and one of my revenue models is selling ad space on the DVD. The DVD will present lifestyle entertainment content in a magazine-style format. it will be aimed at a gen x audience 25-35. The DVD will have DVD-ROM features for computer DVD players & will have web links. Ad spots will be in the form of video commercials appearing immediately prior to the films/videos, web links and disk space for down-loadable software (such as demos/shareware). Is it reasonable to expect that web companies (or other companies) would pay for ad space on the DVD? Have you heard of any web sites buying ad spots on an entertainment DVD? Thanks! Marcus Bastida

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 13, 2000 ):
The Guru has not heard of this specifically, but there was a spate of (unsuccessful) CD-ROM magazines a while ago. The only the difference the Guru sees for your idea is that the required hardware has a smaller installed base.

Essentially you are offering a potentially high-impact medium to a very small audience with potentially powerful environment for certain relevant products. The closest analog the Guru can point to is DVD content web sites selling ads, like DiVerse DVD.

Thursday, November 30, 2000 #4003
What are the shares of various media in advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 30, 2000 ):
The "Coen Report" from McCann is a good resource for this information.

Monday, November 27, 2000 #3988
Hi, I am working on a toothpaste brand in India which is a national brand and has limited market share . It faces competition from Levers and Colgate Palmolive who spend many times more. The sensitivity analysis says that for 1% increase in trial, there is a 4% increase in volume. Need to know if u could advice me some models on GRPs to awareness and awareness to trial correlations Many many thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 29, 2000 ):
Awareness relates more to the reach of a plan than GRP. You must reach more people more often to increase awareness.

Click here to see past Guru responses about awareness and GRP

For research, try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Monday, October 30, 2000 #3928
What is the typical awareness decay when advertising goes off air? Specifically, we have been running a campaign since April, 2000 consisting of Cable TV, Print, Internet, and some guerilla media. The current total plan delivers 75/15.2/1138 against A12-24.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 02, 2000 ):
One theory says each weeks awarness is about 90% of the prior weeks' when there is no advertising. Of course one would expect this to vary depending on other advertising in the market, how high awareness had risen, current share of market, etc.

Monday, October 09, 2000 #3878
What are the differences between Nielsen Competitive Spending and CMR? Is one more accurate than the other?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 09, 2000 ):
CMR does all media, Nielsen is TV only. Nielsen only reports on stations with at least 3 share of households in the latest three ratings reports. Their feature is inclusion of ratings with spending. Otherwise, "accuracy" sould be comparable.

Tuesday, August 15, 2000 #3706
I know that CMR can produce (and Charge) me for a report on Advertising Expenditures by brand by medium, but I am looking for something FREE. I have searched the web over and over, any ideas?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, August 15, 2000 ):
There are some abbreviated reports of online ad dspend, such as those by AdZone interactive in our AMIC's Ad Data area.

The Guru gets a lot of this sort of question, but companies which are in the business of generating data in exchange for revenue have figured out that if they give it all away, noone will pay then for it. Thus audeince research companies like Nielsen, Arbitron, MRI, Simmons, and data companies like CMR only release a narorw slice of data, such as Top 10 spenders or Household ratings or 12+ share to illustrate what they do. And they are strongly opposed to anyone giving away what they are in the business of selling.

Thursday, August 10, 2000 #3694
Dear Guru, Have you heard of online ad agencies charging a bad debt provision to owners of inventory to share the risk that media buyers don't settle their accounts?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 11, 2000 ):
It's possible. The Guru assumes that by "online ad agencies" you are referring to ad sales representatives, since media buyers are typically employees of advertising agencies (companies that create and buy space for ads).

At the enormously high commission rates ad sales reps often charge (40%+), the Guru would expect them to absorb this risk. At ordinary commission rates, such as 15-20%, the inventory owners might share the risk on non-payment, but certainly not reimburse the representatives.

Thursday, July 27, 2000 #3656
Several sources say that 95% of online ad revenues go to the top 50 websites and that Netscape,Yahoo and MSN alone account for around 56% of online ad revenues. Is this really true? Doesnt that leave a really small slice of the pie with smaller web publishers?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 27, 2000 ):
Ad revenue and spending data compiled by AdZone Interactive, and available in our AMIC's Ad Data area would seem to support this statement.

Yes it leaves a small slice for others, but it's up to them to capture more revenue, not up to the big guys to share.

It's not too unlike the big broadcast networks versus the little guys in TV.

Wednesday, June 14, 2000 #3549
How does one go about finding out share-of-market information by DMA? For example, how could I find out total sales for the Casual Dining industry for say, a six-month period of time?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 15, 2000 ):
Market-by-market shares are the core businesses of AC Nielsen or Information Resources. Another research firm specialized in the restaurant business is Technomic.

Sunday, June 04, 2000 #3527
Hi Guru,What will be the right measure to evaluate niche media channels : reach,GRP's or share.This keeping in mind that the niche channels are traditionally viewed and used as frequency channels and are traditionally decided after the mainline reach channels are selected.Regds RKB

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 08, 2000 ):
The right measure will depend on your goals in a given plan. If you are considering niche channels to extend reach among that niche, then the reach added by the potential schedule is the standard. Note that this means how much reach you can add for the dollars available for niche channel investment, and not the total reach of the niche channel itself. It is a common miustake, in the Guru's opinion, to compare media based on an abstraction of their total performance rather than what they can realistically contribute to a specific plan.

By the same token, if the niche channels are to be used as frequency vehicles, then efficiency is probably your best comparison. share will rarely be most pertinent metric in any case.

Tuesday, May 23, 2000 #3489
hi ! where do I find information about the volume of ad's in Radio market in USA? Our company has client who wants to know the volume of radio share in USA market and ad's share spent on Radio Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 23, 2000 ):
CMR (Competitive Media Reports)

Friday, April 28, 2000 #3428
I'm working with fast food client in Puerto Rico(PR). PR is very competitive in this category. I like to know what is the effective frequency and reach in sustainning level and promotional period. I know that exist many theorical procedures to found the reach and frequency goals. But i'm very confuse what is the more accurate to this reality(very competitive environment)Please help me.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, April 29, 2000 ):
Competitive environment, e.g share of Voice, is one key variable.

Click here to see the Guru's discussion of the Ostrow model for setting effective frequency goals.

Thursday, April 27, 2000 #3425
Are there general guidelines for media planners so that they will know how and when to consider ethnic or cultural groups in the planning process? Are there any planning tools?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 27, 2000 ):
The three major ethnic/cultural groups are currently almost one-third of total population ( see AMIC's Abbott Wool's Market Segment Resource Locator ): African American is 13%, Hispanic is 12% and Asian American is 4%. The rule of thumb is always "consider" ethnic and cultural groups. There are several common or basic product categories in which these groups have a 150 - 300+ index of usage versus the remainder of population. These include fruit juice, baby products, rice, corn meal, and many brands of beer, popular foods or over-the-counter pharmceuticals.

General advertising doesn't reach the linguistically isolated portions of these markets (50% or more of Hispanics and various Asian national groups). Even those reached, among all the ethnic/cultural segments, are less impacted due to lack of appropriate cultural cues in the general advertising or the media environments.

Upon due consideration, the planner may find that for his or her particular advertiser, no special effort is required. But, the planners may also find that there is a 12% segment of their universe consuming 25% of their product, and reachable through efficient media. It is not really unusual for the "first mover" in one of these market segments to gain 10% market share among the segments, which equates to a gain of more than 1% national share, something that couldn't have been achieved for three times the budget in general advertising.

Non-ethnic segmetns such as the mature market may also bear consideration.

Telmar's media software includes a Spanish TV reach and frequency system, called STRETCH, created by Telemundo

Hispanic Broadcasting System (formerly Heftel) has created En Total which does general Hispanic radio calculations and media combinations.

The African American, Spanish, and Asian-American media all offer research analyses.

Thursday, March 23, 2000 #3335
Hi Guru, A few years ago, I saw a budget setting tool called the Jones Diagram. Do you know of this and where an explanation of how to use it might be found ? Thanks,

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 24, 2000 ):
It diagrams the findings of Jones' analysis showing that low share-of-market (SOM)brands ususally spend at a higher share of voice (SOV)than their share-of-market percent; that higher share-of-market brands underspend share-of-voice and that this situation is correct. This then allows budget setting in accord with SOM and SOV information.

The author is noted media theorist John Philip Jones of the Newhouse School at Syracuse University. It is fully described in his book, How Much Is Enough? : Getting the Most from Your Advertising Dollar published by Lexington Books in 1991. The title is out of print, but - at this writing - is currently available online through the Barnes & Noble Rare and Out of Print site.

An explantory article might be available from The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Tuesday, March 07, 2000 #3293
In a budget meeting ID been asked to reduce the number of stations planned for certain cities, in order to have money to cover other markets......My argument is that we need to buy at least 35% of total PUR (persons using radio) to have an effective impact with the promotional radio campaign...Ill appreciate your comments...AZ (MEX CITY)

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 07, 2000 ):
The Guru has never encountered a share-of-PUR-standard, nor have a couple of his senior, radio researcher colleagues.

The big issue is what you determine makes an effective impact, in concrete terms so that you can make a case. Is it reach, effective reach, frequency or what? All these issues relate much more directly to consumer communication and impact than the abstraction of share of PUR. If you can buy GRPs and reach to your needs, but have to do it with fewer stations, it doesn't strike the Guru as a very significant issue.

Tuesday, February 29, 2000 #3262
What are average ROI's for small businesses across various media- Yellow pages, print, tv, radio? Do you know where I can find this info?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 01, 2000 ):
There are too many variables in terms of ad unit and quality, offer, expenses, etc to hope to find meaningful averages.

If you narrowed the question to ROI for toothpaste on page, four color ads in the seven sisters magazines, the question would be closer to answerable. Even so you would most likely find only anecdotal information in the form of case studies, but no meaningful averages; advertisers don't share their results with the media, as a rule.

Friday, February 11, 2000 #3208
We are in the early stages of learning more abouthow internet banner advertising works and how ads are priced. Could you please help me with answers to the following? Can banner ads be placed locally, regionally and nationally? How are the rates structured - cpm? How do companies who measure website audiences determine the number of viewers? Regarding advertising costs, is there a range of what an advertiser expects to pay for banner ads? Do you know what the name of the ads at the top of the home pages are called? What about the ads that typically appear to the right as you scroll down - do they have a name or term? Thanks Guru.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 13, 2000 ):
  • In principle, all sites are accessible to all internet users. Web servers can identify the location where a web user's ISP is based and decide whether to serve specific pages or ads on that basis. The big flaw in this capability is that users of the giant, national web connectivity providers all appeat to be located at the providers' locations, such as the Virginia headquarters of AOL.
  • Most banner ads are sold based on cpm. Some are sold based on cost-per-click or share of revenue created by click-thru visitors who buy on the advertisers' sites. Others are based on a flat price.
  • The Guru is aware of cpms from under $2 to well over $100 for highly targeted sites with specific, proven value to an advertiser. The majority of sales are falling between $10 and $50, and the average is probably about $25 -$30 today. Cost per click is in the 25 cents to $1 range. With today's average click rate of around 0.5%, that equates to a cpm of $1.25 to $5.00
  • Web audiences are measured in many ways. One, which the Guru prefers, is by "metering." Software is placed on the computers of a large sample, perhaps 10,000 or more. The software tracks the users' web site visits, and on a schedule reports the activity to the measurer's computers for compilation. MediaMetrix is an example of this type of measurement.

    Another is a survey, such as the ones conducted by MRI which asks another very large sample about their web activity. This type of measurement is capable of much less detail, relies on memory, and can only report the largest sites, a fraction of those reported by metering.

    The third common measurement is analysis of a site's own server logs, preferably with a third party audit through a service such as ABC Interactive

  • When ads are sold on a cpm basis, the cost can be flexible, and advertisers can order $500 or $500,000 worth, based on the appropriate number of impressions at the agreed cpm.
  • There is no special name for a top-of-page banner. Such a postion may be part of a site sponsorship, just a rotating banner or a fixed, premium-priced position. Ads down the right side, typically smaller, or square or vertical have names for the shapes, but may be placed under a variey of deals, like the top-of-page banners.

Thursday, January 27, 2000 #3163
Just curious to find out what your thoughts are on "share of Voice". Is it realistic to conduct such an analysis or is it just a concept of an ideal situation? How would you go about determining share of voice?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 29, 2000 ):
share of voice is typically an analysis of the GRP weight of the competitors in a category. (Some use dollars, but that would more properly be separately evaluated as "share of Spending").

What can make SOV analyses unrealistic is:

  • Failure to account for different copy lengths in the GRP
  • Failure to account for different impact values of different media
  • Failure to track all media, for instance the more and more common, but hard to track competitively, online advertising.

Sunday, January 23, 2000 #3147
Dear Guru, I am compiling information on Marketing and other initiatives Indian Press Associations can take when faced with a situation where they are'losing' ad revenue shares rapidly to Television. Would appreciate if you suggest some references, or throw some light on this. SHRIPAD KULKARNI, MANAGING EDITOR, TOP OF MEDIA

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 23, 2000 ):
The The Magazine Publishers' Association or The Newspaper Advertising Association might have some ideas.

Friday, January 21, 2000 #3143
Can you please direct me to a source for brand awareness benchmarks - whatz good and/or typical preferably across a range of industry types Thanx Guru, from Sydney, Australia

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 23, 2000 ):
It is not likely that there would be awareness benchmarks in the abstract. They would only make sense in relation to market share, sales, media weight, etc.

The Guru would expect Journal of Advertising Research to have covered this and other data to be in The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Wednesday, January 19, 2000 #3131
I am marketing a beer brand through a distributor in a market where there is one dominant player with over 70% market share. I would like to know the appropriate advertising mix, both above- and below-the-line for this market. My brand is at low single digit market share, and I want more bang for my limited advertising bucks. Thanks in advance!

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 22, 2000 ):
There is no simple answer. It depends on the marketing strategies chosen to build share.

Can you segment and focus on a narrow target which has high consumption or is a taste leader?

Is package recognition the key? Is price or distribution the focus? After addressing these and similar questions, you can evaluate the contributions of different media in your marketplace against prices and your budget and make some decisions.

Tuesday, January 18, 2000 #3129
What is media planning, and how does it differ from media buying?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 21, 2000 ):
To put it very simply:

Media planning is the process of determining which media best meet the advertiser's objectives and strategies, as well as which geography merits what share of budget. Levels of spending and weight by medium and daypart or vehicle are also a planning responsibilty.

When these determinations have been made, Media buying identifies best locations of individual advertisements and negotiates their price.

Friday, December 31, 1999 #3083
Can you help me out in the following areas: 1. How can an online agency offer an advertiser pre campaign creative testing of ad banners? What are the variables involved and can you suggest links to sites that do offer such solutions? 2. Can you provide an online plan for any hypothetical advertiser? What is the step by step approach taken? I know one will have to proceed looking at marketing objectives, setting impression levels and then buying impressions based on the campaign objective and target audience. Do you have a ready framework for a full online plan that you could share with us?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 01, 2000 ):
1. There are companies which do such testing, including IPSOS. C.A.S.I.E. (The Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive Entertainment) will have a list of such vendors.

2.There are no standards for how an on-line plan should look, other than those for any media plan. Because the focus will be on selecting specific sites, the overall style will probably resemble a magazine plan more than any other specific type. One plan might focus on advertisng envorinment more than another which is more aimed at raw impresions, and both may differ greatly from a third based on click-rates or revenue generation. Analysis might focus on cpm or reach or availability of relevant pages or keywords. Creativity is more the rule than following a format.

Thursday, December 09, 1999 #3039
dear guru how can i estimate reach precentages? is their any model that i can study from? i ask you before about raech and you answered that its a judgement decision. i am trying to estimate how many people will wxposed once , twice, and more to my ads on t.v ( old brand, the first time to adverise , direct competitores are not using advertise at all the largest share of voice, the target audience: main shopper with children ) is it enough to compare my case to other t.v campaign which had some close goals( target, budgets, adverisment environment, and so on) or may you has any other way to guide me? please try to help me many thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 09, 1999 ):
There are many parameters to consider for various media and dayparts. Computer models seem to be the only sensible way to deal with all of today's options. AMIC's sister company, Telmar, which has offices in your country (Israel), is the leading worldwide provider of this type of software.

Statistical texts can give you information about some of the basic reach estimating formulas, such as the Beta Bi-modal function.

Tuesday, December 07, 1999 #3033
Without the budget for post-flight call out surveys what formulas or 'rules' can I use to anticipate message saturation and burn. What reach or net reach level over what period of time would be probable to achieve a 80% awareness within the target. Also what is considered too much exposure for one message before you reach a point of diminishing returns. I know that the the better measurment here is research before and during the campaign, but there must be some bench marks that are industry accepted. Can you share these and share a public location for other general assumptions like this. Thank you in advance Guru... J

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 08, 1999 ):
  1. Ad awareness will never be greater than reach, so start from a plan that delivers at least 80% reach
  2. To establish measurable awareness, some repetiton will be needed, so think about getting an 80% reach at a set effective frequency level. The Guru has previously discussed use of the Ostrow Model to set this goal.
  3. A message is worn out when its ability to generate sales falls off. This being hard to predict, many advertisers have used past experience to set media-measurement based cut-offs. These have included a limit of 2000 GRPs and a frequency cap of 20 in the second highest quintile. In reality, the size of the copy pool, the qualities of the copy, the target, the overall media mix, and product category may all lead to wide variations in wear out. The two standards mentioned above were both commonly used in basic package goods TV advertising in a mix with print and a TV copy pool of 2-3 executions.

Wednesday, November 17, 1999 #2983
What are advertising expenditures for e-commerce companies expected to be in the fourth quarter?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 17, 1999 ):
"dot-coms" as a whole will probably invest over a quarter-billion dollars in fourth quarter. The Guru hasn't seen a breakout for ecommerce sites alone, but they will probably be a big share in fourth quarter.

Try The Industry Standard for more information.

Tuesday, November 16, 1999 #2977
Details of Ostrow's effective frequency model

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 21, 1999 ):
The Ostrow model aims at establishing the minimum level of frequency to be deemed effective so that the plan can maximize reach at that level of frequency. The model can be traced back to his speech, "Effective Frequency" at an Advertising Research Foundation Key Issues Workshop, June 4, 1982.

Typically, the model involves evaluating a series of relevant factors on a scale of say, 2 to 6, and averaging the factors to determine the appropriate level of frequency to set as effective.

In the 1982 speech the factors discussed were of three kinds: marketing, message / creative and media.


  • Established brand vs new entry
  • Brand share
  • Brand loyalty
  • Purchase cycle
  • Usage cycle
  • share of voice
  • Target group learning capacity

Message / Creative

  • Complexity
  • Uniqueness
  • New vs continuing campaign
  • Image building vs specific sell
  • Message variation (copy pool)
  • Wear out
  • Copy unit size/length


  • Clutter
  • Editorial / program environment
  • Attentiveness
  • Continuity vs flighting
  • Number of different media
  • Repeat exposure opportunities

For the full speech, the transcript proceedings of the workshop are available from the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Friday, November 05, 1999 #2938
I'm hoping develop a reach curve for a client to shhow how audience accumuluates with increased dollar spending in the market. I have a table that shows % reached by GRPs per 4 weeks and wondered where I could get published tables and surveys realting to increased share of voice in realtion to share of market spending. Is there are projection formula that could be used?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 10, 1999 ):
share of voice usually means share of GRPs. Developing a Cost Per GRP index would give you a simple conversion. The shortcoming of share of voice is that it ignores impact differences between various media and copy units, unless comlex formulae to equate GRPs are created.

Monday, November 01, 1999 #2924
Please share your thoughts on the value of paid vs. controlled circulation of consumer magazines. Thanks so much.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 02, 1999 ):
Controlled circulation is not common among consumer magazines. It is likely to be something like pre / post natal publications, requested for a limited period.

The Guru thinks its is important to distinguish true controlled circulation magazines, meaning those received through active request, from those received incidental to a menbership, such as Modern Maturity from AARP, or Costco Magazine.

The supposed benefit of paid circulation is the presumption of interest on the part of the reader who spends money on the magazine. Yet, most magazine comparisons are based on total audience, not primary (subscriber/purchaser) audience. If a paid circulation magazine has 4 readers per copy, should we consider the 3 in addition to the purchaser more valuable than the "primary" reader of a controlled circulation magazine?

Bottom line, this issue could be a tie-breaker between otherwise comparable titles, but isn't important enough to make broad strokes eliminations.

Monday, October 18, 1999 #2878
Dear Guru, Where can I get information about the top 20 media markets in US ? Secondly, how are these markets determined ? Is it pop size, tv ownership, per capita.... Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 18, 1999 ):
Markets, under the broader definition of media markets, DMA (Designated Market Area), are ranked by their number of TV households. DMAs incorporate all of the U.S. counties, with rare exception counites are entirely assigned to one DMA, based on the share of the county's viewing attributed to stations which are "home" to the assigned DMA. This is all based on Nielsen measurement.

You can get considerable population data about DMA's from Nielsen at a nominal charge. Here at AMIC you can find the Household poulation totals in the AMIC's Ad Data area.

Metro areas are another definition used for media markets, and are particularly relevant to radio. These are Census definitions, also based on counties and use totoal population. Metros do not total to the entire U.S. population.

Wednesday, October 06, 1999 #2849
Where can I find general information regarding television viewing trends? I know that shares and ratings are higher in the Fall with more PUTs and pilots, and they are lower in the Summer. I need to find some documentation supporting these trends for NATIONAL NETWORK television. Thank you

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 06, 1999 ):
The definitive source is the reports of Nielsen.

Tuesday, October 05, 1999 #2847
How effective are off-the wall (i.e., aerial banners, blimps, in-flight ads, newspaper bags, buses, etc.) media?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 06, 1999 ):
Effectiveness of such media varies. It can be fabulous or a flop. Key issues will be matching target to the vehicle and understanding the relationship with the audience.

Aerials and blimps have a long history of apparent success on the beaches promoting beach realated goods from sunscreen to beer, plus local concerts and clubs. The same vehicles might be far less successful for on-line brokerage or high-ticket luxury goods.

College wall boards are often succesful with products aimed at college students.

In flight and transit media are much less "off the wall." The Guru has seen subway car-cards generate a full, local market Nielsen share point increment in 6 weeks for a basic household food staple, with a message aimed solely at Hispanic consumers.

Wednesday, August 04, 1999 #2686
Dear Guru,We need viewership and viewership shares accross news channels vis a vis entertainment channels. Only an indicative data of the curent scenario in the USA and Europe.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 08, 1999 ):
For details, you would have to acquire the syndicated research, but you'll find some of the data at UltimateTV

Thursday, July 29, 1999 #2668
What is book-ending, road blocking and stripping ?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 31, 1999 ):
These are descriptions of commercial or program scheduling techniques.

Bookending places the same commercial in the first and last positions of commercial pods.

Road blocking airs commercials at the same moment on multiple channels, to maximize reach by avoiding duplication. The idea goes back to the days when just three networks had virtually all the viewing audience at a point in time, and not only was duplication avoided, but virtually all viewers at the moment, a 90+ share of viewing were reached with just three commercials. Today, when most viewers have over 30 program choices at any time, road blocks are impractical and practically impossible.

Stripping refers to programs, typically of the sort broadcast in daytime or fringe time at the same time each day Monday-Friday. Buying a one-a-day commercial schedule in such a program is also sometimes called stripping.

Wednesday, July 14, 1999 #2628
I know there has been some research conducted into the effect that share of voice can have on the share of market of new brands, established brands, brands in maintenance mode and brands in innovation mode. I heard either John Phillip Jones or Nigel Hollis referring to the subject recently but can't remember where to reference the information. Can you help? Thanks. Chris Maloney - South Africa.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 14, 1999 ):
Best bet is ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization or the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Friday, July 09, 1999 #2620
Hello GURU ! I have 2 questions for you : 1. One of the media analysis we do in our agency,mainly for TV, consists in comparing a competitor's share of spending (calculated as his % of advertising expenditure within the total category) with his share of voice (calculated as the % of his 30 sec equivalent GRPs within the category). Is this correct in your opinion ? 2. How do you define SOV ? Is this the % of the GRPs one achieve within a category or is it the % of money invested by an advertiser within a category in a certain period ? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 11, 1999 ):
1) What do you do with the results of this comparison? How does the ratio of SO$ to SOV help you make decisions? The :30 equivalent step is reasonable, but how do you do that effectively outside of broadcast?

2) Some use SOV to refer to share of spending, others use it to refer to share of weight. The Guru believes share of weight is more descriptive of the marketplace perceived by the consumer, but the person controlling the budget, that is, the client, more often cares about money. They can see the impact of money on the bottom line more easily than they can understand the differences in impact of their :30s versus a competitor's :15s or competitor's radio versus their own magazines.

Friday, July 09, 1999 #2619
Given some historic data on consumer awareness and media spends, how do i go about in modelling the same so as to enable me to make decisions on future media spends for a brand or new execution for a brand?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 11, 1999 ):
Like any model, the more data you can include, the better the result.

Obviously, it is too simplistic to assume a simple direct correlation of money spent to awareness.

Other factors could be unit ad/size/coloration; the same money spent in :60 TV would have a different effect than if spent in :15s. Reach and frequenccy, daypart mix in the broadcast media and media mix are key factors within media data, but other factors outside media measures may be more significant, such as copy quality, brand maturity, proir awareness, share of voice, etc.

Thursday, July 01, 1999 #2599
Any ideas on creative placement/positioning of :10 & :15 second TV & Cable spots? We have, of course, selected programs and networks that reach our target audience based on ratings and qualitative info; however, our challenge goes beyond that. We've reviewed book-ending, road blocking, double spotting, and stripping, but can't quit seem to get that "ooh-aah" factor going. Any thoughts???

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, July 02, 1999 ):
"Ooh-aah" is a lot to expect from commercial position alone. First in pod is a favorite. Roadblocking is meaningless today. It was powerful when TV audience share was 90+% for the big 3 networks in Prime time, during the 60's and 70's.

The best ooh-aah, the Guru recalls, was use of the program star, in character, in setting, to pitch the product. A specific example was Phil Silvers as Sgt. Bilko telling his corporals about the wonders of Luck Strike cigarettes. But this was in the day of full program sponsorship, when the advertiser owned the program. It might be possible today with a fully- or half- sponsored special.

Such "product integration" is still available today on the Spanish language networks, at least.

But of course :10s and :15s offere less flexibility than :30s and integration is really long-form.

Thursday, July 01, 1999 #2597
Caluculating SOV/SOM indices. I understand that standard practice is to only include advertised brands in the analysis. Thus SOV will add up to 100 but SOM wont unless all brands that are read by Nielsen are also advertised. This very seldon occurs. So, my question is: Should one re-profile the market shares so that they add up to 100 like SOV or not?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 01, 1999 ):
It's a matter of what you're trying to evaluate and what the share of unadvertised brands adds up to.

For example, if advertised brands are 90% of the market, then the others may not matter much. If advertised brands have only 50% of the market, you would want to know that and consider what the other brands are doing to achieve their share.

Monday, June 28, 1999 #2595
is there a place to get share of market data for free?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 28, 1999 ):

Thursday, June 24, 1999 #2591
How can I find the demographics, lifestyles and media usage of people, particularly women, who shop for toys on the internet?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 25, 1999 ):
MediaMetrix or Net Ratings could give you the demographics of vistors to appropriate sites like E toys.

Simmons or MRI could answer the rest of your questions if E toys has been covered by either one.

In either of the above cases, the information would be about vistors rather than buyers. E toys itself might have buyer data, but might not want to share it.

Wednesday, May 05, 1999 #2491
We recently completed a 12 week radio campaign in a test market (79.2% reach & 12.5 frequency) for a client that sells a food product in grocery stores. The client experienced a 90% sales increase in this market at a time that other markets maintained only single-digit increases. The dilemma is that the post campaign research that was done showed only a 9% recall (aided 3%, unaided 6%) of the radio advertising. Do you have any information that will help us to support the case tht although the radio ads had a huge influence on sales, radio advertising is not generally recalled easily by consumers? Another concern is that these ads were tagged with grocery store names. Could this have caused the respondents to be confused as to who the advertiser was and in turn result in poor recall? We realize this is a long question, but wanted to give you all of the details. Thank you for your help!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 06, 1999 ):
It is an interesting problem. More often you need to prove that a good recall result is good news, but here you have amazing sales results, and the Guru presumes that you can demonstrate the radio was the only variable.

Of course, it is possible that 9% recall in itself is such a big improvement that it can account for a 90% sales increase, especially if previous market share or penetration was very low.

It is also true that tagging the spots is likely to confuse the listener.

Great advertising generally only gets 25% or so day after recall. Did you have a pre test on recall to compare? Generally, the best repository of useful researc in this topic is the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Wednesday, April 28, 1999 #2478
RE: #2475 Yes, Guru, baffling is an understatement, and the bafflement is attributable to the lack of clarity in my previous query. The "station/network branded" products I was referring to are the hand held digital and analog tuners and adapters that drivers can use to access TV station signals and direct them through their vehicles' sound systems. In other words, commuters would have the CBS Eye or NBC Peacock, etc., in the palm of thier hands. The "affiliate-marketing model" makes reference to network and station website hyperlinks that both provide information about this new TV accessibility and generate a shared revenue stream from the sale of the latest hand held tuners. Initially, the increased audience and promotions would be a value-added to advertisers. Eventually market penetration will be large enough to quantify, perhaps by Nielson local diaries. Millions of people already have simple solutions that they can use but are unaware of. We'll tell them how how.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, April 28, 1999 ):
Ahh, the light dawns. Your query is now quite sensible. But if a "branded" receiver only tunes that one station, as your statemnent implies, it wouldn't be too popular. And if the idea catches on, wouldn't radio makers just build in the capability?

Thursday, March 04, 1999 #2372
Dear Media Guru, Can you help me find case studies that support the argument that, with the right creative, increased spend levels may lead to increased share when launching a new product in a parity category?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, March 04, 1999 ):
Best source would be Advertising Research Foundation library.

Tuesday, March 02, 1999 #2364
Dear Guru: Our little website uses two software packages to track user sessions, impressions, etc. Web Trends gives us daily, weekly and monthly reports, while AdJuggler administers and tracks banner impressions, and reports same to our banner advertisers. Our problem: Web Trends reported total 2/99 page views as approx.144,500; while totalling the AdJuggler reports for each banner yielded 68,500 total banner impressions. What's going on? Our Webmaster claims this huge discrepancy is a function of the way browsers cache pages vis-a-vis ads; our sales manager is awfully frustrated with that answer, and unsure how to explain this situation to prospective and current advertisers. (If we give them the WebTrends total, they'll wonder why their banner is not delivering its fair share of impressions; if we give them the more conservative AdJuggler numbers, our stats are nowhere near as compelling.) Can you shed any light on this situation, or point us in the direction of someone who might be able to? Thanks Very Much, -Chuck

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 02, 1999 ):
Please understand that the Guru cannot possibly be familiar with the workings of every piece of web site utility software.

With that understood, here are a few possibilities; all of these have caused the same problem here at AMIC until they were understood and corrected:

  • Are you sure every single page of your site displays banners? Some pages deep in the directory srtucture may have been missed.
  • Pages generated by .asp scripts or other "on the fly" systems may not carry banners.
  • Pages served by sub servers, such as those holding data bases or data archives may not be displaying banners. This might be particularly true if there are mixed operating systems, such as using Windows NT for the primary server and Unix for others
  • There may be other possibilities; does one utility detect whether a visitor's browser has images "turned off" and therefore delete banner impressions while counting page impressions?
  • etc.

Friday, February 12, 1999 #2328
Our agency has had some recent difficulty in posting about 90% is some spot markets. We are looking for research and/or articles that say whether other agencies are having trouble as well. We have read some research that talks about network erosion -- but nothing that mentions how this relates to post buys. Any thoughts?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 15, 1999 ):
The Advertising Research Foundation library will have information published on the topic.

The Guru doubts that network erosion is a part of your problem, unless you are buying mostly day and prime on affiliates and doing buys and estimates a couple of years ahead of posts.

The ability to post within 90% depends on two factors

  • The accuracy of buyers' estimating techniques, and
  • the stability of program performance

Network erosion is small but steady and easy to allow for in projections. Buyers' estimates are usually primarily based on historical usage trends and most recent share performance plus some intelligence about programming changes. Unless there are very volatile schedules, estimates should be within +/- 10%. Some will be over by more and some will be under by more, but these should balance. Some buyers may be overly optimistic, so that buys appear to come in on goals, but this practice causes just the sort of post-buy problems you seem to be facing.

Friday, January 22, 1999 #2285
Dear Guru, This is a bit of a theoritical problem.I am currently working on a shaving cream brand which has been on decline for a few years now. Currently it has a market share of 3.9% and is ranked 7th.The markets where it is doing relatively better are actually the smallest markets, but here too, it is not better than 5th on market shares. It has a media budget which is about 1/5th of the biggest spender, which incidentally is not the market leader. My dilemma is - in the given scenario, for a relaunch, where should media focus be - on the overall smaller markets but where the brand is but marginally stronger or on the bigger markets for the category, where a greater potential lies ? The distribution strength is the same in all markets and no directions have been provided by the marketing team on priority markets. Thank you Guru. My name is Abu Huzaifa and i am media planner in Bombay, India.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, January 22, 1999 ):
Firstly, these are really marketing issues, not media issues, but to try to look at it from a purely media perspective, consider:

Think beyond the "bigger opportunity of the larger markets," because the impact you can deliver in a market is important. In other words, do you get more consumer response to 100 GRPs against 2 million people or 200 GRPs against 1 million people?

For example:

1. Assume that every impression delivered, no matter the market size, has the same potential to generate sales and / or share growth - where will your budget buy the greatest number of impressions?

2. Assume that the ability of the impressions to generate sales growth is influenced by current share of market. Estimate the value of this effect, plus or minus. Apply this weighting to the impressions you can buy and recalculate sales potential, according to paragraph 1.

3. Or assume that every exposure after the third one (or a level of your choosing) is some degree more effective. How many "effective impressions" can you deliver to each market set?

Monday, December 21, 1998 #2229
Dear Guru I am from South Africa and new to the online planning function.My question to you is as follows: Are there any sites or has any research been done on internet browsers, specificaly which "brand" and version is most common?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 23, 1998 ):
The Guru doesn't think this data will have much effect on your planning but Iconocast is one of many sites which keeps track of browser share. MSIE continues to close the gap vs Netscape. Here at AMIC for example, we serve virtually identical numbers of pages to MSIE and Netscape versions 3.X and 4.X. The version 3 vs version 4 splits of the two are comparable as well, at about 70 / 30 Ver4.x vs Ver3.x. The two represent over 90% of browser traffic.

Wednesday, December 02, 1998 #2193
Dear Guru! We were asked to prepare a presentation for one of our clients about media planning, since he works with several agencies and wants to concentrate the media planning in one of the agencies' hands. I visited the "parts of a Media Plan" which I found very helpful. Do you have some other tips? Specifically, we were asked to present a formula for a benchmark acocrding to we recommend to define what reach is needed for a campaign. Basically, we define it according to various factors such as competitors' share of voice, share of market goals etc. but we don't know any formula. We should be grateful if you supply any guidelined in this matter.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 02, 1998 ):
You just need to formularize the thinking you are already doing.

For example, you could say that your formula to set reach for a campaign to equal competitor's share is:

Competitor's Reach times an index calculated by comparing the goal share to your current share. (i.e. to increase share 25%, exceed competitor's reach by 25%).

The Guru is not recommneding this particular formula, just illustrating how to turn philosophy into something apparently quantifiable.

Another approach is to build a matrix of your factors and set a 5 point scale for each; for example competitor's share: 0 point if it's equal to yours 1 point if it's 10% better, 5 points if it's 50% better, etc. Suppose you have 8 factors based on the sort of considerations you mentioned. Suppose further that you set a minumum for all campaigns of 50 reach (reaching the majority of the target). Now add a reach point for every point in the matrix. You have a maximum of 40 added points (90 reach), and an apparently highly logical "formula" for getting there.

The cleverness will be in setting up each 5 point scale. Or perhaps youy will have fewer factore and more possible point on each scale.

Tuesday, December 01, 1998 #2189
Dear Guru. I've got several questions. 1. What is the difference between the following three types of compensation for the ad agency services: commission, fee and percentage? Are there any other compensation systems used by the ad agencies? 2. What is the right way to evaluate the efficiency of the advertising campaign: a) held in several cities at the same time (each city has its' own media vehicles and their ratings are measured for the target audiences based in those cities); b)using several medium at once (i. e. TV and print). 3. How can we measure the effectiveness of the outdoor ad campaign? Thank you in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, December 01, 1998 ):
  1. Commission is based on a percentage of the agency's spending on the advertiser's behalf. The spending will primarily be media purchase and (in the U.S.) traditional commission, usually included in media rate cards, is 15% of the gross spending. Other expenditures, such as production, are marked up 17.65% of the net spending; this is exactly equivalent to 15% of the gross.

    Fees are flat amounts of compensation for performing agency tasks. On very small accounts, 15% commission may not cover the work required to create and place advertising. On very large accounts, 15% far exceeds what would compensate the effort.

    By Percentage the Guru imagines you mean an agreed commission other than the 15 / 17.65% structure.

  2. Efficiency is typically expressed in one of two ways: CPP - Cost Per gross rating Point or CPM - Cost Per thousand audience impressions (Roman numeral "M")

    In comparing markets, CPP is problematic because the universe number for calculating the Points - or percentage of universe - changes. However, CPM just uses impressions, which can be added and compared across markets. Other issues, about units and print versus broadcast can merit separate consideration, but these would be beyond efficiency.

  3. Effectiveness measures depend on a definition of the effect desired; is it awareness or sales or share? To best measure outdoor specifically, you need to set up your standard of effect and measure it with and without outdoor.

Monday, November 30, 1998 #2182
Dear Guru. What does index SoS/SoM mean? What should be the value of that index at various periods of the ad campaign? Thank You, Zina.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, November 30, 1998 ):
The Guru gets a lot of queries asking what does this or that abbreviation mean. Many agencies make up their own terms for planning concepts. Many of these are based on the language of the country where they are invented (this query comes from Russia). The Guru needs to know the full terms to explain the meaning of an index of two terms. Preferably, the Guru likes the full context of the terms' usage, because similar abbreviations may have different meanings in planning versus marketing contexts.

Just guessing, the Guru thinks your index may refer to share of Spending divided by share of Market. There are no absolute rules. Theories typically are,"spend at 100 index to maintain share of market, spend at over 100 index to grow share of market."

Obviously this is an over-simplification, since various media types and units will have a bigger impact than simple money caluculations indicate.

Wednesday, November 11, 1998 #2146
I am looking for a third-party listing of the top 100 or so websites, ranked by total traffic counts. I don't want to have to pay for the report. It seems I've seen countless articles in the trades with top 100 lists but don't have any handy for websites. Ideally, the source of the traffic would be either @Plan, Relevant Knowledge, or Media Metrix. Do you know if I can get this online somewhere? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 11, 1998 ):
RelevantKnowledge and MediaMetrix, which have now merged, both used to openly post top sites lists. But not as deep as 100. Since their data is protected by copyright and contract, it is not likely to be on-line anywhere (legally). If you are planning an on-line media buy, one of your potential vendor sites will probably share the data they subscribe to from one of these sources.

Friday, October 30, 1998 #2118
This is a two part question: PART 1: Attendant to the: (1) clutter in primetime television and (2) the erosion of the 4 network's share of audience, are there any current studies out that addresses the effectiveness of advertising on network TV in prime? PART 2: If the effectiveness of advertising in prime on the net is being affected, then how much less effective does advertising in spot tv (in prime) become? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, November 02, 1998 ):
Answer to Part1:

The Guru has not seen studies of the specific factors and chain of causation you desire to examine. It seems most likely that the two causes you cite would work entirely separately to erode the effectiveness of prime time.

The two key benefits of prime were generally taken to be

  • attentiveness, which is likely to be hurt by clutter and

  • high ratings, not important in themselves, but leading to what is often cited as a planning goal, -- high reach. This becomes less avialable with the decline in network share.
The diligent planner will seek various combinations of vehicles to deliver the desired reach within budget, and put the supposed "prestige" of prime time in perspective. (Do viewers of E.R. accept the commercial more readily because they know they are part of a larger than ususal viewing audience?)

Answer to part 2:

Spot prime will or will not be effected to the extent it suffers from the same clutter and erosion. (See the adjacent query about clutter and attentiveness for related information). Your definition of spot prime will effect your answer, too. If you define spot prime as only that which runs on the 4 networks affiliates, that means the effect are more similar. But if spot prime on "independent" stations counts that changes the picture. After all, a good portion of the 4 networks' erosion is due to the WB and UPN shows like Buffy, Felicity, Dawson's Creek, Charmed, etc.

Monday, October 12, 1998 #2090
Dear Guru, We are intending to shift to Awareness led planning where we set media weights according to the Awareness benchmarks . I would like to know if there re any clear cut guidelines to foollow. Are there any experiences that can be shared .. Thank You

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 12, 1998 ):
The Guru's only sure guidelines are that ad awareness will never be greater than reach, and that awareness declines during any advertising hiatus.

Otherwise, the best resource for published research, as always, is the library of the Advertising Research Foundation.

Sunday, October 04, 1998 #2070
My client is a large medical-surgical products manufacturer. Their audience is nurses and sometimes physicians. Their budgets are small, they advertise several products with separate b-to-b campaigns. They are urging me to recommend online instead of or in addition to business print. This does not seem effective to me given their small budgets. Do you have any info on how I could recommend an effective online ad effort instead of using print?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 04, 1998 ):
Is the goal of adding on-line to add reach or to reduce costs?

In either case, the first step is to identify media which draw an audience of "nurses and sometimes physicians."

Then, the efficiency in audience impressions per dollar can be evaluated as can the total audience which is reachable.

Your first step may well be to locate the websites of the print media you use (and if you find these, they may offer free on-line ads as merchandising for your print schedule). Other possiblities are the sites of non-competitive advertisers who share your target.

Once you have explored these possibilities, you can decide whether you can make an effective recommendation or can support a decision against on-line.

Tuesday, August 18, 1998 #2001
I have been using Simmons as a resource for consumer research information, my contract is up for renewal and I am evaluating Simmons vs. MRI. I have been hearing that many companies have been moving to MRI. What is the share each has of the market (simmons vs. MRI)? What are the key differences/benefits now that Simmons has changed their research methodology to the same approach as MRI with regard to magazine readership? I thought that was the key differentiator between the two. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 20, 1998 ):
The differences have indeed lessened. A detailed analysis will discern small technical differences remaining in methodology. Brand lists and other aspects of measurement other than media will have differences.

Otherwise, if you have no special comfort level with your service people, or the Choices software, it will come down to which vendor offers you the better deal.

Monday, August 03, 1998 #1988
Dear Guru Thanks for answering my last question on major media planning changes over the next five years, however I am based in London England where we have had three terestrial commercial stations and around fifty cable and satalite stations. Over the next few years that number is expected to increase to around 150 - 200 Terestrial stations and who knows how many satalite and cable stations. We expect a lot of changes in the way we operate. Any comments greatfully recieved Newboy

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 03, 1998 ):
If you accept the idea that Television is Television, you will find only two issues relating to this growth:
  • The variety of types of programs available will increase.
  • The average audience available to each programming source will decrease.

In the U.S., as broadcast stations increased from 3 or so available in in each market area to 6 or 10 or more, programming quality stayed with the 3 which were network affiliates. Little changed, in Prime Time (evening), at least.

As cable networks increased from a handful to 50 or 100 with 30-50 available in most places, and quality programming was delivered by cable, audiences shifted from the broadcast networks to cable, until today where cable's share is often greater than broadcast networks, although it is divided among many outlets.

Still, this does not change the questions faced or techniques used by planners. More detail oriented research tools are needed (some of which is already more typical of UK vs US research) and it is only the answers which become different. But the planners' job is not much changed. Certainly not as much as is the buyers'.

Thursday, July 16, 1998 #1953
I'm "shopping" for databases/software of TV and radio station directories as well as newspapers and outdoor companies. (Comprehensive listings including address, phone and fax numbers, call letters, formats, personnel, tape requirements, etc.) Our agency currently subscribes to SRDS for this type of information, however, they will not sell their products in a database format. We want to upgrade to a more "high-tech" system so my quest has led me to do a product/cost comparison of what is available now.So far I have located the following companies: Media Market Resources (TV and Radio Datatrak; BIA Companies and Parrot Media. Do you know of any other sources? I need to complete my analysis and submit this proposal to my Management by 7/22. Thanks for your assistance. By the way, this is a great forum for media professionals to gather information and share ideas. Thanks again.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 16, 1998 ):
The Guru has not seen as complete a set of listings as Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS)'. They do offer an online database version.

MRI also has a CD-ROM for consumer magazine data.

Saturday, July 11, 1998 #1945
Dear Guru, I have seen you use "advertising weight" in other response. Please clarify the meaning of this percentage. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 11, 1998 ):
Advertising weight refers to the gross audience of a campaign. It may be GRP/TRPs or impressions. It may be considered in total or by individual demographic segment. While some look primarily at expenditure, "weight" is a better guide to communications impact.

In competitive analysis, each advertiser's weight is compared to all others as a percent of the total weight in the category to calculate "share of Voice."

Saturday, July 11, 1998 #1943
What does SOV stand for? I was asked to respond to an RFP with avail info, SOV and a CPC proposal?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 11, 1998 ):
In media terminology, the Guru understands SOV to be "share of Voice" or percentage of all advertising weight in the market place. Without knowing what your RFP is about, the Guru can't explain further.

Friday, June 26, 1998 #1925
I'm looking for early news ratings in Syracuse, NY. We don't subscribe to NSI in Syracuse, so, I thought you may have this information. I need 5pm and 6pm news ratings on all stations for Adults 25+. If you do not have this info, is there a place on the web that would have the ratings info by market. Thanks for your help!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 26, 1998 ):
If the Guru had NSI data, it would be a viloation of contract and/or law to share them with you. Since these data are what Neilsen exists to sell, they are not likely to be legitimately available free anywhere.

The stations from which you might buy time, however, would have the data and be entitled t present it to you.

Monday, June 22, 1998 #1915
Do you know of any awareness tracking studies or models that relate recall by medium to purchase intent? Would it be feasible to carry out this kind of effectiveness study to determine what kind of results a media placement agency is delivering to clients?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 25, 1998 ):
No doubt some users of recall tests have made an effort to relate recall to sales or purchase intent. This involves using their own, proprietary test scores and sales data. It is possible that the Advertising Research Foundation Library or the archives of their Journal of Advertising Research or conference presentations include the sort of analysis you need.

However, whether this is a basis for judging the performance of a media service is another question altogether. Has the media service been instructed to buy for optimal recall? Has the media service been instructed to buy to optimize purchase intent? In the Guru's experience, these are rarely part of the media goals conveyed to a buyer. More often, buying efficiently or to achieve a reach, frequency or effective reach goal is the instruction.

Further, if you wish to make recall or purchase intent your standard of evaluation, it only makes sense if you share the model you wish to use with your buying service

Thursday, June 18, 1998 #1905
Is there a threshold at which you maximize on reach (TV) at a certain weight level? I am purchasing a high concentration of grps (60% in prime / 20% in news/prime access / 20% early morning/daytime/late night) in excess of 300 Ad 18-49 GRP's per week for 4 weeks. Running R&F against such a plan shows reach at 99% --- which I feel is impossible. Isn't the threshold of maxing out on reach at 96%?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 19, 1998 ):
The typical, short term cume study gives a 96% top end. But 99% of Homes have TV so a 99 reach is theoretically possible.

Since either 96 or 99 is the result of all TV collectively, a very heavy plan is required to achieve it, especially in today's fragmented TV environment, where cable has so great a share of viewing.

For your schedule, even 96 is probably somewhat high. If your R&F system is unsophisticated, outdated or unable to adjust to the number of weeks in the schedule, that may explain the high result you are getting.

Tuesday, May 26, 1998 #1608
We have a client who is considering terminating all spot TV advertising in markets where he has provided support for the past couple of years. His thinking is that additional advertising here would be wasteful as he feels that his sales have now optimized and he would experience bigger growth by diverting these funds into new expansion markets. Is there any research that says he should continue to provide support in the original markets for fear that he would be risking experience a high degree of share erosion by pulling the advertising there?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 26, 1998 ):
There are a lot of "ifs".

IF the spot TV is the only advertising in the old markets, it seems too obvious to discuss that he will lose share without the advertising, IF we assume advertising correlates with sales at all, which we must since we are in the advertising business.

So the question is whether the sales in new markets will be greater than the lost sales in the old markets. IF the new markets can be bought more efficiently than the old markets, then there is a good chance that they will eventually be more productive than the old, after we establish awareness in those markets.

On the other hand, what kind of product is it? IF it is a product that everyone only buys once or rarely over a lifetime, like sodding a lawn, or cemetary plots, and the old markets are deemed saturated, then it will be easy for new markets to show a better ROI than the old.

But, IF the spot TV is just part of a mix including national media, then this become a very complex question. The Advertising Research Foundation library would be the best place to look for research on the topic.

Thursday, May 14, 1998 #1591
we are in the process of recommending to a new client a media strategy that will help him sell more olives and cucumbers (both products in either can and glass containers). The client has a large marketshare, about 42%. Neither this client nor competitors have ever advertised their products. In this respect the category has been rather dormant. What guidelines can you provide regarding a 3 year plan. Since the company name is very well known, does it make sense, for example, to 'fortify' TV advertising with radio? Providing that radio has very good reach, is there a synergetic effect with TV or is the money better spent in one media? Thank you Irene Kol

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 14, 1998 ):
Modern thinking for such products emphasizes reach over frequency. It is more important to have some presence at any time that a purchaser might be making a purchase decision, than to drive reach to high levels (with more frequency) over a short campaign.

One guideline tha comes from this is to make a media mix more valuable, since a secondary medium almost always adds more reach than additional investment in the base medium.

Assuming then that you can afford an acceptable minimum continuous level of TV, addding radio will be wise.

No matter your client's awareness and market share, the first entry into advertising in this category will probably change the picture.

Tuesday, March 17, 1998 #1533
I am starting an online business soon, and I am perplexed as to what methods to utilize with our limited budget of $5000 per month. I want to initially do my advertising exclusively on the net, and I have been looking into using an interactive ad agency. What kind of targeted traffic should I expect for my budget, and what methods will an agency use to create traffic, besides search engine listings and optimization?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 20, 1998 ):
$5000 might buy just a month of banner display on a major, general audience website. at $10 per thousand impressions. Therefore, you would have 500,000 impressions and perhaps click-thru 5,000 - 10,000 traffic to your site. Of this traffic, you might get 25 - 100 sales, depending on what you're selling.

Other, more targeted sites might sell for less out of pocket, at a higher cpm (e.g $25-$100), but ultimately generate more sales ROI because their audience is more likley to be interested in your product.

Another technique that an agency might use is a revenue sharing model, wherein sites which send you customers earn a share of your revenue from visitors "referred" by their site.

Monday, March 02, 1998 #1518
Have you come across any qualitative research on impact of TV spot position in break? Increasing number of our clients have started insisting first and last in break being the best spot in any given break. Is it true? Any supportive research aside from rating analysis? From: mindshare

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 02, 1998 ):
The Advertising Research Foundation library is your best bet.

Saturday, October 18, 1997 #1438
Dear Guru Could you please give me your views/suggestions on the following: 1. How can you set media objectives for a banking client in a market with only two major competitors; both of whom do not have a clear-cut advertising campaign? Would a % above last years GRP levels be appropriate; in proportion to the market share desired? What other parameters should I consider? 2. Qualitatively or quantitatively, how can front page solus positions in newspapers be compared with inside pages and ear panels? 3. And lastly, how do you add TV and press GRPs; for a specific audience? Sorry about the long query. Thanks in advance

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, October 18, 1997 ):
As a rule, the Guru sets media objectives based on marketing goals, not competitors' activity. Some marketing goals do indeed lead one to comparsions with competition, and awareness of competitors' plans is always a consideration.

If the key marketing goal is share growth, then a proportional increase in weight is one approach. But consider that share, like reach, exhibits an asymptotic curve. In other words, it can't pass 100%, so the higher it goes, the more effort is required to "move the needle."

Consider: You first assume that "X" amount of GRP's are required just to maintain share, on the assumption that competitive activity doesn't vary (and that advertising is the only variable influencing share).

Have you considered whether current share is proportional to share of GRP weight among competitiors?

Would 50% more GRPs grow share by 50%? No, if only because it increases the size of the total advertising arena. Your 50% increase in GRP does not increase your share of GRP by 50%, so calculate the right number to increase share of GRP, if you follow that philosophy.

But since there are competitors, perhaps it takes 50% more weight to gain 25% more share?

Newspaper positions can be compared on a basis of noting, reading, recall, etc. In each country or culture (you are writing from India), the relative power of media and the way consumers relate to them are different.

In the U.S., for example, a front page ad in a newspaper would be quite unusual if not unheard of.

Contacting the U.S. Advertising Research Foundation or ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Marketing Research organization, or your own country's newspaper advertising association may turn useful up research on positioning.

The Guru treats GRPs of different media as simply additive. When there are established effectiveness factors, as some advertisers have developed, GRPs may be accordingly adjusted before adding, in comparing plans.

Tuesday, October 14, 1997 #1431
I want to place some standard banner advertising. What is the best pricing model to use for banner placements on search engines and other sites? I've been getting CPM prices from the search engines, but I've been told to negotiate page views or visits.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 14, 1997 ):
There are three basic pricing models in play at present, cpm, click-thru, and transaction based.

In click-thru, you pay for each time someone clicks on your banner to be taken to your site or full ad.

In transaction-based, if your site actually sells something, like books or cd's you pay a share of sales to the site which "referred" the customer.

"CPM" typically means you pay a given "cost-per-thousand" exposures of your banner. This is not different than page views or visits. The thousands of exposures in the calculation are page views which include your banner, not thousands of impressions of the site.

If you think a site intends to charge by their site exposures instead of your ad exposures, you should get written clarification, and then do insist on paying according to your banner exposures.

Wednesday, September 10, 1997 #1410
Dear Guru, we are utilizing newspaper to reach the leisure travel market(weekend travelers)for hotel properties. Can't find any research on how well the "weekend guide" versus the Sunday "travel guide" sections perform in regard to : How well do each of the sections reach the local market and/or feeder markets? Are readers looking at Sunday "travel" for outbound opportunities only? Any answers on the use of each section would be appreciated. I know it looks like a no-brainer, but we need some info. to back- up our recommendation. Thanks tons,

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, September 10, 1997 ):
The The Newspaper Advertising Association is a good source for this type of information.

Another is the e-mail discussion list they operate, where such questions might be answered from the differing perspectives of the many newspapers which participate in the discussion

To join this discussion send e-mail to . The message should have no subject and a body saying only


don't type the quotes, and be sure to insert your name, not your e-mail address, where indicated.

Another resource where your media professional peers can share information, is AMIC's own Media Planning discussion, whose archives are in Ad Talk.

To join this discussion send e-mail to . The message should have no subject and a body saying only

"SUBSCRIBE Mediaplanning"

again, don't type the quotes.

Friday, August 22, 1997 #1400
Where could I find information regarding how automotive companies (i.e. Toyota, Oldsmobile, & Cadillac), handle their media planning and buying on a local/regional level?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 22, 1997 ):
Contacting the radio and TV stations or reps in the regions in which you are interested should tell you who is buying for each auto company in a given area. Only two or three calls to the major reps, should produce all the information.

The planning techniques may well be closely-guarded proprietary information.

Whether A/S style budgeting, investment spending, share gap, etc., etc. is used. Whether computer models and optimizations are used or not. Whether regions have freedom or just participate in nationally-based plans.

Whether agency leads in media selection or the advertiser.

Whether media types are purely based on creative considerations or media effectiveness and targeting ability.

Thursday, August 21, 1997 #1397
Where could I find information regarding how automotive companies (i.e. Toyota, Oldsmobile, & Cadillac), handle their media planning and buying on a local/regional level?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 22, 1997 ):
Contacting the radio and TV stations or reps in the regions in which you are interested should tell you who is buying for each auto comapny in a given are. Only two or three calls to the major reps, should produce all the information.

The planning techniques may well be closely guarded proprietary information, whether A/S style budgeting, investment spending, share gap, etc., etc. is used. Whether computer models and optimizations are used or not. Whether regions have freedom or just participate in nationally-based plans. Whether agency leads in media selection or the advertiser. Whether media types are pruley based on creative considerations or media effectiveness and targeting ability.

Sunday, August 03, 1997 #1382
Im looking for any information on how to calculate ratings for future periods under condition of an unstable schedule. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 03, 1997 ):
The potential implication of "unstable schedule" is unclear. Beginning from the simplest application of total usage, seasonality trend and most recent share, up to refinements in trending vpvh or programming and counter-programming changes, all depends on being able to predict the future. "Unstable"" implies that no trends or reliable information are available.

The Guru would be forced to use available data and hope for the best.

Saturday, March 08, 1997 #1312
Dear guru, I was just wondering if there were any ratings listed for national tv, cable, and radio buys? I've checked various sources, and all I could muster up was ratings by spot markets, but nothing for average national ratings.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 24, 1997 ):
There are some data on AMIC at Rates, Dates and Data. Since the ratings providers are in the business of selling these data, you will have to buy the information or ask the individual media which buy them to share the data with you, in pursuit of your order.

Saturday, January 04, 1997 #1084
I've heard that co-op advertising is on the rise. It seems like a great way to share advertising costs. Do you know of any standard letters or agreements used to present the idea from business to business (like from a store owner to a supplier?) Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 05, 1997 ):
The typical situation is that the manufacturer establishes a co-op program and advises dealers and distributors, who can then request the form to apply for participation.

This is how the manufacturer establishes a budget reserve for its share of the costs.

There is at least one book in print which lists co-op programs in existence. The Guru can't recall the name, but your local newspaper or radio station probably has a co-op manager who has a copy. These media are great beneficiaries of your use of co-op advertising!

There is also a National Association for Promotional and Advertising Allowances, Inc. which includes on its resouce list Co-op Works,

"a new online service that helps retailers, product vendors and media make the best use of co-op and MDF programs. Co-op Works standardizes the language and simpifies the entire process. Retailers and manufacturers can track incentives and accrued funds instantly-reducing the questions, phone calls, and headaches."

Tim Fisher, President
2665 Villa Creek #208
Dallas, TX 75234-7309
Phone: 800-810-2025
Fax: 214-243-6310

Monday, September 16, 1996 #1146
Has anyone already validated the old ratio theory, in order to provide help in answering such statements as : "adspends should not represent more than X% of our turnover in this country"? I know this appears like a rather naive question, but some still use this so-called ratio as a weapon and as a norm, regardless of launching years and conflicting effectiveness measurement tools. Have you got an answer , maybe not so simple as the question ?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 17, 1996 ):
The Guru says "no." Except for individual brands/services basing ratios on their own experience.

Otherwise such static ratios are always limited in applicability.

First, they generally only apply within product category, to take account of competitive environment.

They also must vary with brand maturity; launching always requires spending ahead of sales. Mature, established, category dominating brands can spend at a lower ratio.

Market position is also a factor, a smaller share-of-market holder needs a higher ratio to grow share.

There are so few simple answers to marketing questions, once we go beyond "does advertising work?"

Tuesday, July 02, 1996 #1186
where does a small startup company find info on the market penetration of its competitors

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 03, 1996 ):
If it is in consumer goods or services, then syndicated research such as MRI, Simmons SMM or Mendelsohn's MMR may have the information. You will find links to these services below, in previous answers.

In other business areas you may need to commission research. "Omnibus" studies can where several clients share the cost of research can keep costs within reach. The American Marketing Association or the Advertising Research Foundation can help you find research companies which offer Omnibus surveys.

Some industries also have their own specific Associations which maintain a tracking of market penetration or similar data.

Saturday, June 08, 1996 #1204
One of our clients is about to introduce their next generation computer based system. I should notmention the client, but their industry is not MIS. I 'm trying to figure out the wisest programming of advertising dollars (including media & direct mail) to optimize this introduction. What profile of spendingshould be pursued. Should it be front loaded, even, gradually accretive...etc. Do you know of any source thatspeaks to this, in terms of actual experience with mildly high tech systems? I don't want an academic resource thattells me all the ingredients that go into a successful launch, etc. I would like to know case studies or related.Can you help me?\thanks,

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, June 09, 1996 ):
There are as many theories as cases, and the ones published may not represent a projectible base. The Guru suggests bringing this qustion to one of the 'nets marketing discussion lists where some top people can share their experieince and enjoy dealing with real-life cases.

How to join these discussions is explained below, in answers from March 22 (MediaPlan) and March 4, (Market-L, MKTSEG and MavenConference)

Wednesday, June 05, 1996 #1205
I am looking for household counts and population for the top 100 ADIs in the US. Do you know of an internet source?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 06, 1996 ):
ADI is an out-of-date term, dropped by its creator, Arbitron, when they went out of the Television ratings business. Nielsen"DMA" is the standard, current geographic definition of mutually exclusive marketing areas. The Guru does not think there is a listing of these populations on the 'net. But most media, ad agencies or research companies which subscribe to Nielsen or depend on DMA's,have lists available and share the data fairly readily for legitimate inqiries. It might be worth exploring the search engines for the data, as well, since it is often incidentally attached to research results. Try AltaVista

Tuesday, April 30, 1996 #1233
please discuss the cost evaluation process for advertising on the web. IE. Yahoo, aol, prodigy. What is the basis for comparison and unit of measure for cost evaluation. thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 30, 1996 ):
Rreview the Guru archives by topic, Web Advertising.There is also an excellent, more extensive pricing analysis article here at AMIC, PRICING WEB SITE ADVERTISING;THE MEDIA BUYERS' VIEW

Current trade press coverage is featuring P&G's demand that pricing be based on "clicks" of banner ads rather than just page views. The Guru sees a parallel to "per inquiry" advertising. Websites could and should charge far higher rates for clicks on ads than for accesses. The advertiser, of course shares responsibility for the drawing power of the banner in attracting clicks.

To compare to print or tv, the medium's job is to bring a viewer / reader to the ad. The pay-by-the-click approach is comparable to paying for a magazine only if someone circles your key number on the reader response card. It's a feasible approach, but likely to be costly.

Thursday, March 21, 1996 #1257
Are there any services that track co-op media expenditures by manufacturers?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 22, 1996 ):
There is a least one book which lists available co-op programs. Except for those few media with rules requiring a logo in the ad (like "CAP") to qualify a product ad for retail rates, it would be difficult for a monitroing organization of the CMR type to detact co-op and evaluate the manufacturers share of the cost.

But someone could have done estimates somewhere. Try searching Advertising Age at your library.

Thursday, March 21, 1996 #1739
Are there any services that track co-op media expenditures by manufacturers?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 22, 1996 ):
There is a least one book which lists available co-op programs. Except for those few media with rules requiring a logo in the ad (like "CAP") to qualify a product ad for retail rates, it would be difficult for a monitroing organization of the CMR type to detact co-op and evaluate the manufacturers share of the cost.

But someone could have done estimates somewhere. Try searching Advertising Age at your library.

Sunday, December 17, 1995 #1806
To calculate the household rating you consider as a base the Total ousehold universe or the total TV set universe, I just wondering because if we take the total household in some moments the HUT coul be more than 100%. Thank You in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, December 17, 1995 ):
The base is HH with TV sets. Yes it is theoretically possible for HUT to exceed 100%. HH share, which uses a base of HH *currently* viewing often does sum to more than 100%. In the olden days, when TV's were powered by dinosaurs on treadmills (The 1950"s) we used SIU ("Sets In Use") as a base. Multi set homes were almost non-existent and TV homes were less than 70% of all HH.

Tuesday, April 11, 1995 #1853
I'm looking for information on Sports Marketing. In particular, the effectiveness of stadium advertising and any studies that have been conducted on this subject i.e. cost effectiveness, audience recall, and demo & pycho info on people who attend sportin g events and are exposed to this advertising. Also any competitive info. Any suggestions on possible resources? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 11, 1995 ):
This one looks new, and I trust the recently forwarded covers the others. Demo and psycho would be in MRI/SMRB/MMR.

Sellers of stadium advertising have probably done custom studies of recall / effectiveness and eagerly share results with potential clients. Of course, they might feature the results they find favorable. If advertisers did proprietary studies, they'd be propritary. The ARF (Advertising Research Foundation) library or conference proceedings might have something. We're going beyond media here, you know.

Saturday, February 25, 1995 #1869
Is it possible to find out which product categories (e.g., computers, shoes, clothing, etc.) have the highest/lowest share of their sales through direct marketing channels? e.g., what is the proportion of home computer sales sold through direct marketing channels?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 25, 1995 ):
MRI and Simmons SMM both allow a user, at least by inference, to estimate, share of market for various categories. Both of these product usage studies have data on purchases by mail/phone, etc, in categories like computers and clothing. By comparing these data with the same study's report on total purchase of the same category, a share can be estimated. There may also be proprietary studie by industry groups such as the Direct Marketing Association or the EIAA.