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Guru Search Results: 68 matches were found

Friday, March 14, 2014 #8948
Hi! I am looking for recent industry practices on wearout for Hispanic Ads vs. Total Market- on TV and beyond...are there any white papers out there? would love your insights... Thanks for your help in advance!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 14, 2014 ):
In the Guru's experience, no separate Hispanic wear-out rules have been established. Generally advertisers establish their own standards which may be considered confidential, some based on GRP, some on frequency, but ultimately all an attempt to avoid a drop in effectiveness. The human drivers of this are not likely to be generically different for Hispanics, even if those media have different ratings and numbers of options.

Category competition, size of commercial pool, category interest, creative quality are all more likely to matter more than simple ethnicity.

Click here to see past Guru responses about wear-out

Tuesday, October 08, 2013 #8895
In terms of wear-out... Who determined the levels for the thresholds and can you provide a good current source (Ephron?) Do these still apply today? Has anyone reconfirmed them? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 10, 2013 ):
The true standard for wear-out is a decline in effectiveness, which may be measured in sales, awareness, etc. GRP levels should be avoided as the marketplace and copy quality are bigger variables.

Click here to see past Guru responses regarding wear out. The Guru does not identify any one leading expert on wear-out.

Tuesday, May 14, 2013 #8850
When is television creative worn out?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 14, 2013 ):
Click here to see more than 80 past Guru responses regarding wear out.

Monday, June 18, 2012 #8724
Should frequencies for cable generally be determined on a weekly basis or over the life of the schedule, i.e., 6 months? If a client runs the same creative for the life of the campaign and has a long product life cycle, it seems a waste to set a "3" weekly frequency as they may be at the point of ignoring the message within 4 weeks. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 18, 2012 ):
If you are referring to the average frequency of the schedule's Reach and Frequency calculation, in regard to copy wear-out, 3 is much too low a frequency to worry about.

General media theory is that it takes at least three exposures before a message is fully ingested / undestodd / genrates action. Hence, many planners use a "3 or more exposures" reach as their standard.

In any case, if this query relates to wear-out, it should be life-of-schedule, not weekly.

If you are simply referring to how many units to place on a cable net per week, again, three is far too low a total to consider if over-exposure is your issue.

Thursday, June 07, 2012 #8720
We have a client looking to run 4 different creative messages on a 22 week 2813 GRP media plan. Are we giving enough weight to any one message at this point? How many messages can this level of weight ideally support?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 07, 2012 ):
One old standard was that a commercial would wear out at about 2000 GRP. But that was when that many GRP was many fewer airings due to higher average ratings. But you are not talking about commercial wear-out, your concern is apparently about getting enough weight behind each commercial.

This depends on whether the commercials are a pool of different executions of the same copy strategy or supporting different strategies. If they are all the same strategy, there should be no problem. If they are quite different, then you have to think about what needs to be accomplished in the 22 weeks and whether there will be further use of the copy.

Saturday, January 14, 2012 #8400
Can you define N-Tiles?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 14, 2012 ):
The "N" in n-tiles is "number." It refers to dividing audiences or other demographic groups into equal sized sets according to a specified characteristic.

Probably the most common you will find in media anaysis is the quintile (5-part) analysis of audience reached according to average frequency.

Suppose your plan had a reach of 60% of the target, and an average frequency of 3.0 with a total of 180 GRP.

To examine quintiles, you divide the 60% of the target reached into 5 equal sized groups of 12% of the target, according to average frequency. So the least reached 12% might have an average frequency of 1.0 (frequency is never below 1). The next least might have an average frequency of 1.6, and so forth, with the heviest group at an average og 10+. Some planners look for the top 3 quintiles to have at least a 3 frequncy. Some evaluate wearout by looking for a frequency of perhaps 20 in the second highest.

In other applicstions, such as product usage, tertiles (3) might be used. Ninetiles sometimes are used for other special analyses.

Wednesday, November 30, 2011 #8313
how do you establish wear out of an advert

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 30, 2011 ):
Click here to see dozens of past Guru responses regarding wear out.

Tuesday, November 08, 2011 #8286
how do I calculate wear out for a commercial execution?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 08, 2011 ):
Go to the Guru Archives Search Engine. Use "("wear out" | wearout | wear-out)" as your search term.

Thursday, November 03, 2011 #8277
what is the best way to approach a wearout analysis for local market TV. Assuming the same spot runs at different GRP's for different marketshow would you compare in which markets the spot may be worn out?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 04, 2011 ):
[none] A spot is worn out when it becomes less able to stimulate consumers.

To simplify this, most advertisers will set a media measure which they have learned, from experience, reflects this point. Naturally, the creative quality will cause this to vary. Also, the size of the commerial pool may mean different levels per creative. Some advertisers will set a wear-out level based on achieving a target group average frequency at the middle quintile. 20 might be about right, or more or less. More practically, this could be translated to a GRP level, given assumptions of media mix.

Wednesday, October 08, 2008 #7614
Dear Guru! May be you can give me some informatoin about copy wear - out - I mean whо and how analyze level of GRP or Reach, main theorys or somethin like that

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 08, 2008 ):

Click here to see compiled Guru comment on wear out.

Thursday, December 27, 2007 #7463
I have two questions about a wearout standard according to the frequency in the next-to-highest quintile, something like "when the next-to-highest quintile has a frequency of 20+." My first question is whether quintiles should be made based on only reached target audience (whose frequencies are 1+) or based on all target audience (including the audience with frequency 0). The second question is how the frequency of “the next-to-highest quintile” is defined? The average frequency of that quintile is 20+? The lowest frequency is 20+? Or, the highest frequency is 20+?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, December 29, 2007 ):
When thinking about wear out, obviously only those reached are relevant.

Frequencies of quintiles are the average frequency for that 20% of audience.

Friday, November 23, 2007 #7452
What is the average ROI for newspaper advertising? Where can I find this info?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, November 25, 2007 ):
The question is inherently unanswerable and the answer would be virtually useless if found.

There are far too many non-advertising variables involved, on top of the many, many advertising variables that would make almost any result non-applicable to another scenario.

  • On the media side, size, coloration, coverage, budget, schedule and use of other media if any, are variables are too complex to allow any result to apply to any other situation. Just for example, effectiveness typically follows a bell-like curve: lesser effectiveness at the low spending end, before enough reach, frequency and awareness is built and again at the high when wear-out and exhausting the supply of new prospects may set in.
  • In other advertising issues, the strength of the copy, the "offer" and price are critical variables.
  • On the non advertising side, the price and profit margin are crucial. How could you expect any relevance of the ROI of a retail frozen vegetables campaign to apply to a national luxury auto campaign? Seasonality and promotional periods also muddy the waters.

Beyond all this, since ROI is specific to brands and thus proprietary information, it is not likely one could get ROI on enough of the various campaigns to average anyway.

Nonetheless, try The Newspaper National Network for possible useful information.

Friday, July 27, 2007 #7399
Is there a way I can measure ad wear-out for both radio and TV? How many of the same ad does it take until you saturate awareness and creative becomes moot within a span of a month?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 29, 2007 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses about wear out

Keep in mind that a TV ad and a radio ad are not the same ad so they don't wear out as a unit, even if they share the same creative concept.

Wednesday, May 02, 2007 #7322
Do you know if there are any studies out there (or a general consensus) on whether there is a difference in TV ad wearout between adults and children? For example, would ad wearout occur sooner (or later) for K6-11 than it would for W25-54? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, May 02, 2007 ):
The Guru does not know of any standards or concensus here. The Guru would speculate that kids can take more frequency.

Sunday, March 11, 2007 #7299
Do you have any recent data regarding the Television frequency threshold for :30 commercial wearout. We typically purchase 1,200 Adult 18-49 TRPs for each four week product promotion. However, we recently extended a campaign to eight weeks and an additional 1,200 TRPs. There is client concern that the spots have lost effectiveness given the amount of time and number of exposures.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 12, 2007 ):
The Guru is not aware of any established threshold. So much depends on the quality of the commercial, size of commercial pool and category interest as well as competitive pressure.

One old rule of thumb was 2000 GRP. More sophisticated analyses looked at frequency of exposure to the heaviest two quintiles.

The best guideline the Guru ever knew was "the commercial is worn out when sales decline."

Thursday, December 14, 2006 #7245
Our client was asking whether or not the current creative we are running for our trade effort has reached a point of wearout. Any advice on how to measure/address this very subjective question.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 14, 2006 ):
When it stops selling, it's worn out. If you have sales tracking showing a down-turn, that's the best guide. Otherwise old and current ad awareness data is good.

Simple rules of thumb, like "2000 GRP" are too simple.

Wednesday, October 18, 2006 #7209
When you consider reach and frequency levels, what are considered the upper and lower levels for reach and frequency?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, October 29, 2006 ):
In recency theory, 30 reach weekly, on a continuing basis is considered a minimum by some pratitioners. 95 is the highest many will consider reporting.

Obvioulsy 1 is the irreducible minimum frequency. Some practitioners like a minimum of three (these are not the "recency" theorists). Upper limits are not really to worry about unless one is considering copy wear-out.

Tuesday, September 19, 2006 #7198
We have a health care client that has specfically asked for Quantative data to back up our planned reach and frequency for a buy. We have used Ostrow's model and have determined a 4.4 frequency. Is that a weekly frequency? or the standard 4 week frequency? Over how long do we sustain that level? It's a fairly new brand in a highly competitive market where we are clearly #2. The client has asked for specific examples of R/F levels used by other advertisers (especially in our category). He is concerned about message wearout and consumers being innundated with his healthcare message along with all other healthcare messaging (competition, pharmaceuticals...).

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 23, 2006 ):
You are working with a four week frequency.

Sustaining period depends on issue like budget, and seasonality as well as competitve pressure.

Many healthcare categories are very heavily advertised and others less so, so the media climate is a valid consideration. Consideration of the overall pharmaceutical messaging is less so, in the Guru's opinion. Yeast infection remedies' messaging most likely pass relatively undigested by potential prostate problem patients.

Tuesday, November 15, 2005 #7048
Please let me know if there are any info available on 'copy wear-out' especially on TV?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 15, 2005 ):
The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. ARF materials will also be available through American Association of Advertising Agencies and Association of National Advertisers.

Thursday, July 28, 2005 #6987
TV wearout: what is more effective, to keep a weran out spot running or to have nothig on air? and why?

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 31, 2005 ):
First you need to define wear-out. The most practical general definition is "an ad is worn out when sales decline." But for your question, the answer is an ad is worn out when it costs more to air than the value of sales it generates. Othewrwise, the Guru would say some advertising is better than no advertising.

Thursday, November 18, 2004 #6693
How to calculate Commercial Wear Out

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 18, 2004 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses about wear out

Thursday, November 18, 2004 #6692
wear out

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 18, 2004 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses about wear out

Wednesday, November 17, 2004 #6688
How to determine commercial wearout for each media (TV, Radio, Print, Outdoor, Cinema, etc)

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 17, 2004 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses about wearout

Wednesday, March 10, 2004 #6412
Hello Guru I receive your comments of my question . I Want to know , How many weeks is the maximum period I should accumulate for analysis of the reach for one campaign???

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 10, 2004 ):
The (US) standard is 4 weeks. At times, for various purposes, such as wear-out analysis, 13 week and 52 week cumes may be calculated.

Tuesday, October 07, 2003 #6189
Dear Guru, With all due respect, I had written you back in September about a situation I was encountering (below) and received a response that I found extrememly puzzling. You said that my question had to do with copy opposed to media. Guru, copy is a part of media and a vital one at that. You also sent me to a link where you mentioned wear out. I went to the link and didn't find much to answer my question. Being sincere with my next question, why do you spend time to respond in depth to people with ridiculous questions (How do I buy spot cable, what's a CPM, etc) from people who could find the simple answer in a "Media 101" book, while mine is a rationale, functioning question and concern? Product life (packaging influenced) is also part of media. Why blow all of this off? Thank you, CRH Previous question: Dear Guru, 2 Qs: 1.) My client created a TV ad campaign and RIGHT before we launched, a competitor with lower quality/lower price/larger packaging had close to the SAME TV ad campaign! I feel product confusion has happened between my client's premium brand and that of the less expensive "knock-off" product. Do you concur? Any research to back this theory? 2.) Because of my theory, I have advised my client to change ads IMMEDIATELY. They have agreed and we will begin to advertise our OLD ADS starting October. I feel "ad quality restoration" has been achieved through our previous ad's 6 month hiatus. My client and I find that our campaigns last for about 6 months before we experience ad wearout, based on copy and frequency wearout. However, returning to an OLD AD where we are basing campaign results on ad quality restoration, how long will our old ads last, given new ads burnout in 6 months? should we plan on only 3 months since the audience will quickly remember the ads again? Your thoughts? Any research to back this up? Please help! -Media guru grasshopper. The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, September 14, 2003 ): Much of this question is about copy and product, not media. Regarding the wearout issue, there will probably be quicker wearout than with a new ad, but that is hard to quantify.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 10, 2003 ):
1.) Regarding copy vs. media, quite simply, you are wrong.

Advertising is two essential elements:
Copy (creative message or "the Ad," and
media, the vehicles (TV/Radio/Magazines/Outdoor/Online) which deliver the Ad to the audience.

The Guru deals with the planning, buying and analysis of media. This has nothing to do with copy, the advertising message itself except to decide whether the media is suitable to carry the message and communicate effectively with the target audience. Often, a media professional determines for which media copy should be created to best reach or influence the target, but this is far from deciding marketing or message strategy.

2.) The Guru's past responses about wearout include 50+ more or less detailed comments on the topic, which is a subjective concept at best. If you can define wear out, you can measure it.

3.) The Guru's stated purpose is to answer questions about media planning/buying/research. People who aske "media 101" questions didn't take the course, and the Guru would not accomplish much by telling half his users to look at a text book. Occasionally, that might be the only answer, but the Guru preferes to deal directly with media questions.

If you have signed up for a media position but have found yourself making copy decisions, that's a problem. But not a media problem. Luckily for you, AMIC offers a double-your-money-back on the fee for using the Guru, if you are not satisfied with the answers.

Friday, September 12, 2003 #6154
Dear Guru, 2 Qs: 1.) My client created a TV ad campaign and RIGHT before we launched, a competitor with lower quality/lower price/larger packaging had close to the SAME TV ad campaign! I feel product confusion has happened between my client's premium brand and that of the less expensive "knock-off" product. Do you concur? Any research to back this theory? 2.) Because of my theory, I have advised my client to change ads IMMEDIATELY. They have agreed and we will begin to advertise our OLD ADS starting October. I feel "ad quality restoration" has been achieved through our previous ad's 6 month hiatus. My client and I find that our campaigns last for about 6 months before we experience ad wearout, based on copy and frequency wearout. However, returning to an OLD AD where we are basing campaign results on ad quality restoration, how long will our old ads last, given new ads burnout in 6 months? should we plan on only 3 months since the audience will quickly remember the ads again? Your thoughts? Any research to back this up? Please help! -Media guru grasshopper.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, September 14, 2003 ):
Much of this question is about copy and product, not media. Regarding the wearout issue, there will probably be quicker wearout than with a new ad, but that is hard to quantify.

Click here to see Guru thinking on wearout

Thursday, September 11, 2003 #6150
I have a client that wants to run two totally different creative executions concurrently--on a limited budget I'm not really sure of the budget, but let's assume that it won't be sufficient for message wearout to occur with any one message. Common sense tells me they'd have greater impact running the same message, rather than two different ones, but I can't find any research to substantiate my hypothesis. Any thoughts? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 11, 2003 ):
This is not exactly a media question. It depends more on the message. Are the two executions related variants of the same strategy or very different. It is common to run two versions of the same strategic concept, and wear out is delayed. Two unrelated messages might well confuse the consumer.

Thursday, July 10, 2003 #6072
guru, how can we measure copy wearout of any commercial?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 14, 2003 ):
Click here to see Guru comment on wearout.

Monday, April 21, 2003 #5941
apart from reach, frequency and continuity is there any subject that can be used in determining media objectives?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, April 26, 2003 ):
Seasonality, purchase cycle, effective frequency, BDI/CDI, awareness, wearout, etc.

Thursday, March 13, 2003 #5876
How do you develop a kids TV wearout analysis against a kids target? They have a much higher acceptance of frequency than adults.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 16, 2003 ):
wearout standards are based on experience. It seems you believe you have the experience on which to base an adjustment of a standard analysis.

Monday, September 09, 2002 #5503
Dear Media Guru: I have read in some of your previous responses that the rule-of-thumb wear-out level for a typical 30" TV copy is about 2000 GRPs. What would the wearout level be for a 15" copy, about 1500 GRPs (75% of the 30")? And what about a 5" copy? Thank you. R.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 12, 2002 ):
The 2000 GRP level related to quintiles of frequency of exposure, therefore the copy length chage does not inherently call for a change. Is there a reason to think the :15 wears out faster than the :30? 75% is an impact or recall ratio. If rcall were less, wear out might be, too.

Thursday, January 24, 2002 #5033
Is there any data out there that provides ROI information on Radio/Print/TV/Cable Schedules. Just some basic numbers. For example, we mostly know that direct mail averages about a 2% response. Is there a formula or somewhere I can go to get info for Radio or TV? For example #2 My client is placing a certain number of grps on Radio and wants to know of the people reached, how many will attend the event advertised (like a one day seminar). What they want to know is on average how many people reached respond to an ad (Print/Radio/cable/TV). Any where I can find a rough estimate or some research- This is kind of like the "Ad Effectiveness Lab" that Arbitron is working on , but is not finished with.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 31, 2002 ):
There are too many variables to generalize. It depends much, much more on the message and product than on the medium. An event is different than a movie, which is different than an inexpensive household product which is purchased frequently, which is different than a big-ticket item bought every few years.

One good resource is an article, "Advertising Wearin and wearout" in the September/October 1998 Journal of Advertisng Research.

For much more try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Wednesday, January 23, 2002 #5031
How do you determine the wear-out of a magazine print ad? Is there a formula that can be applied to the number of times you should run a creative unit?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 31, 2002 ):
Wear out is not a matter of calculation, although some develop rules based on their brands' experience..

Click here to see further Guru comment on wear out.

Wednesday, January 23, 2002 #5028
How do you calculate commercial wearout?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 31, 2002 ):
Wear out is not a matter of calculation, although some develop rules based on their brands' experience..

Click here to see further Guru comment on wear out.

Monday, January 21, 2002 #5024
Hello Guru -- Do you have information on newspaper ad wearout? I have a client who wants to increase their newspaper advertising frequency without changing their creative ... what guidelines should be used for a branding campaign? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 31, 2002 ):
This is not really a media question. It's a matter of copy effectiveness. The answer will depend on category interest as well as the size and impact of the ad. For Branding, there may be an arguemnt to stay with a simple effective message. On the other hand, in newspaper, production is relatively inexpensive in comparison to media costs.

Click here to see past Guru comment on wear out.

Monday, January 21, 2002 #5020
Is there a general benchmark for cable wearout levels?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 31, 2002 ):
wearout shouldn't be format-specific. It's about a piece of copy, whether it runs in broadcast network or local cable channels.

Click here to see past Guru comment on wear out.

Tuesday, December 04, 2001 #4920
Can you please site a source (or be the source) to answer a question about print wear-out? If running a print ad in a weekly community newspaper, using a 16 time, every other week schedule, how many creative units would you recommend?...Steve

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, December 04, 2001 ):
  • This is not really a media question, it is a creative question
  • From a media perspective, the answer will depend on many things, such as size, competitive environment, and campaign marketing elements

Click here to see past Guru responses about wear out

Tuesday, November 20, 2001 #4899
I'm currently using 2,000 toal GRP's for the year, as the test for campaign wearout. Are there any new figures for wearout due to the constant increase in messaging?

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 21, 2001 ):
The factors of wearout depend on a lot more than the environmental clutter. Though one common rule of thumb has been 2000 GRP, the Guru has never seen this or any other specific justified through published research.

Click here to see past Guru responses

Monday, November 05, 2001 #4864
Guru, Have you seen any studies regarding television spot wearout? I've heard of various "rules of thumb", yet haven't seen any sort of research to back up the claims. No doubt that 'wearout' is a highly subjective topic.....just wondering whether anyone's taken a stab at identifying thresholds or a framework in which 'wearout' discussions should be held. Many thanks.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, November 05, 2001 ):
Click here to see extensive Guru comment on wearout.

Thursday, May 10, 2001 #4385
I am looking for information on creative wearout, so how often should creative be rotated - is there any research that I can look at? Please.

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, May 12, 2001 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses about wearout

Thursday, September 28, 2000 #3851
Oh great and powerful guru... I've just read a series of responses concerning GRPs and wearout. Most questions seem to be based on X # of GRPs but no mention of reach or frequency. The real answer may lie in average frequency. If your GRP of 1000 is 1000 reached 1 time wearout is not a factor. If the GRP is 50 frequency for 20 reach, it's time to change spots. Am I'm living on a different planet or am I close to understanding something?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, September 29, 2000 ):
You are quite correct; the key audience metric in examining wearout is frequency.

But media people use boxcar GRP numbers as a general reference for schedule magnitude. Any reasonable TV mix of 1000 or more GRP will deliver about 85 - 95 reach for a typical demographic, making the average frequency about 11. The range in this discussion is therefore pretty narrow.

Some set a wearout standard according to frequency in the next-to-highest quintile, something like "when the next-to-highest quintile has a frequency of 20+." Even this kind of standard doesn't give greatly varying results across reasonable mixes of high numbers of GRP.

Monday, September 25, 2000 #3835
Guru, In broadcast planning, what is the generally accepted maximum number of GRPs per schedule when there is only 1 creative spot? I have heard 1000 GRPs as a guideline, do you agree? Is this true for TV and radio? Thanks for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 26, 2000 ):
1000 is low, but it also depends on the lenght of time over which the schedule is spread.

Click here to see past Guru responses about wearout.

Wednesday, August 23, 2000 #3737
I am trying to figure out the wearout for print. My target is African Americans 12-24 and 18-49. All I have is the FY reach, freg and TRPs. What would be my next steps?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 28, 2000 ):
There are no accepted standard formulas for wear-out. By the nature of print, which tends to yield high reach adn low frequency, there is generally less concern about wear-out than in broadcast.

Some of the broadcast rules-of-thumb for wear out include "over 20 frequency in the second highest quintile" or "2000 GRP.

Niether of these are likely to occur in print. Custom research may be the only real way to evaluate this. Start with Starch.

Wednesday, May 17, 2000 #3480
What are your views on the wear-out phenomenon of advertising?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, May 19, 2000 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses

Friday, March 10, 2000 #3307

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 10, 2000 ):
Click here to see past Guru responses

Tuesday, January 11, 2000 #3108
I am working on a preliminary recommendation--a branding awarness campaign for a bank that currently does product advertising but no image advertising. Thre are three levels of spending that will be discussed. The question that I have is what freqency levels should be achieved to have not only a increase in awareness, but also influence the target to switch banks. It is a competitive banking market. What do you think of these reach and freq levels based on 4 weeks of advertising?? The media mix for the first 2 includes TV and Outdoor/Transit and the last Outdoor/Transit. There would be 1 TV commercial, 2 messages for Outdoor and 2 messages for transit. So, I am not concerned that much about wearout as having adequate effective frequency levels. Schedule #1 91% reach/14.6x; Schedule #2 is 90%/11x ; #3 is 79%/9.9x please let me know what you think of these frequency levels. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, January 17, 2000 ):
When you evaluate media schedules which include out-of-home media, considerations of "effective" frequency go out the window. The nature of these media is to amass enormous levels of frequency behind simple, undetailed messages. Statistically, any of these schedules would have plenty of effective frequency, although you haven't mentioned the effective frequency in your details. The most effective schedule would be one of the first two, and the best of those is the one with the higher reach and frequency. Apparently the second costs less than the first.

Friday, September 03, 1999 #2765
Dear Guru, We are in the process of completing an advertising campaign that is targeting the Retired Senior market. Unfortunetly our advertising budget will only allow for regionalized print, and limited national print. Although I am completely aware that frequency of insertion is dependant on numerous variables, I am curious to know if there is an industry standard for number of insertions that a "senior" typically needs to be exposed before becoming familar with a message or risking burn out? Your help is very much appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, September 03, 1999 ):
The Guru has never encountered any industry standard for wear-out in any medium or any target. Too much depends on the ad itself, the interest level of the category, novelty, etc.

Thursday, August 19, 1999 #2726
I buy a base level of 500 Ad 18-49 TRP's per week; a typical flight will run 4 weeks --- for a total of 2000 TRP's. From this base buy, we usually split the base buy in 1/2 trafficking in two different spots (1000 / 1000 TRP's). At what level do you think that wear out will occur? Thanks for your help.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 19, 1999 ):
What is your definition of wearout? A frequency level? A decline in ad awareness? A sales decline? There are may ways to set wearout.

One of the oldest, and easier to use because it is defined entirely by media measurement, is a certain frequency level in the next-to-highest quintile, perhaps a frequency of 20.

Depending on daypart mix, this might mean wearout at about 2000 GRPs for a spot.

Monday, July 12, 1999 #2623
Reciently I have read a couple of documents that explain that you may estimate wearout using an equation(applying quintyl analysis). I would like to know if there is any equation to estimate hoe many grp's per version you need to generate awareness. As always thansk in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 12, 1999 ):
Any number of GRPs generate some awareness. So the question is how much aweareness do you want to achieve. Reach may tie more closely to awareness generation, but GRPs are easier to work with.

Also, consider whether you really care about awarness of individual commercial versions as opposed to advertising overall.

Formulas the Guru has seen generally assume some beginning level of awareness and a fall-off in any week with less than100 GRP.

Wednesday, May 12, 1999 #2506
We have a client who always hears our radio spots (I believe that is a good thing) but thinks they are worn out due to the high exposure. We do not agree as we are running 200 GRPs/wk. for 40 weeks with five spots with a 20% rotation for each spot. We believe that wear out is difficult as frequency is one of the goals of radio and due to listening habits. Is there an industry standard to determine when a radio commercial is worn out? For example, I know packaged goods advertisers who use TV look at the reach at the heaviest viewing quintile. If reach exceeds 25% they considering replacing or resting the spot. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 16, 1999 ):
wear-out is

1. Subjective 2. Variable depending on the quality and memorability of the copy.

Rules of thumb the Guru has seen include

  • "It's worn out when the client starts asking". . . or
  • 2000 GRP -- you're getting close on that one . . .or
  • 20 (or 25 or 30) frequency in the second highest quintile -- you're probably past that one, and have at least a 20 average frequency depending on your target and dispersion.
  • . . . and the one that really makes sense is tracking sales and making a change in the copy when the sales trend drops.

Monday, May 03, 1999 #2485
Hey Guru! Please can you help me to find information/research on wearout of magazine adverts. ie At what stage should the creative be changed and does duplication of readership play a role and if so, how?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 03, 1999 ):
Studies on the question might be at Newsweek Media Research Index and cerainly are in theAdvertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Wear out will differ according to the power, memorabilty, etc, of each piece of copy, of course.

Naturally, duplication plays a role. It is frequency which causes wear out. Higher duplication is another way of saying quicker building of frequency among those reached.

Thursday, April 22, 1999 #2462
What research is available that addresses wear-out for print ads? We're interested in idientifying the maximum "threshold" for frequency for a business-to-business trade publication campagin.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 22, 1999 ):
Try Newsweek Media Research Index and Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.

Wednesday, March 31, 1999 #2422
Dear Guru, Is there any literature on Advertising Decay... more specifically - on the wearout of TVCs - and when is an 'optimal' time to replace them. I would assume that the above is a function of a host of subjective parameters - copy, message, audience profile, etc... but are there any studies / models you could suggest as a starting point ? Regards Lakshmanan Narayan

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 01, 1999 ):
Try Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the library, call 212-751-5656, extension 230; Newsweek Media Research Index and ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization.

Tuesday, December 08, 1998 #2206
Dear Media Guru, I'm certain that these two topics are unrelated, but I was curious if anyone analyzed this. Have you heard if there is a client rule of thumb as to how much the client is willing to put into production of a broadcast spot in relation to the media budget? For example if a client is going to spend $10MM in TV, will the client consider spending $1MM on the spot itself? Just curious, thanks in advance.

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, December 08, 1998 ):
Yes, the Guru has heard of a 10% rule of thumb, but there are so many exceptions. At a certain point of media spending and weight, more than one commercial may be needed to combat wear-out. In some lower priced media, such as General market cable, African American Cable or Spanish language TV, fewer dollars may buy much more target weight and yet the advertiser wants the same standards of production quality as in other TV.

It's a case-by-case situation.

Wednesday, September 30, 1998 #2067
Dear Guru, Are you familiar with any studies that explore when creative "wear-out" occurs for online banner ads? I have read that frequently changing creative will help the click-through rate, but what defines "frequently"? Every week? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 02, 1998 ):
There have been some studies.

C.A.S.I.E. (The Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive Entertainment) probably has the best compilation of research on these issues.

You will also find some in the archives of the NY Times Online or AdAge's Business Marketing.

It seems to be acccepted that after three exposures, banners no longer attract clicks. "Frequently," therefore, is based on when you believe X portion of your target has been exposed three or more times to the banner.

Thursday, September 17, 1998 #2048
We have a client who is interested in utilizing Network Radio over a two-month period (January and February) to help maximize the awareness of a new brand. Is there any research that correlates radio TRP levels with brand awareness levels to give us some direction on how many points we should buy for the period without generating too much wearout? we should buy? brand.

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, September 23, 1998 ):
Awareness is more likely to correlate with reach/frequency than TRP's. Only those reached can be aware. The same level of TRPs might reach 40% of a target or 60% depending on the schedule.

The Guru has seen research that shows that any level below 100 TRP a week in TV allows awareness to decay.

Most research on wearout which the Guru has seen ties wearout to frequency i.e. a commerical is worn out (loses sales effectiveness) after "X" exposures. This may be expressed as the frequency in the next-to-highest quintile. I.e. the 40% most exposed to the commercial would have "X" or more exposures. 25 exposures might be the threshold level you choose. This level would occur at about 200 TRP/week for 8 weeks, which is more than the Guru would guess you would buy.

By the way, one Adult 18-49 plan with those quintiles would have a 66 reach. Another plan with the same TRP's and different schedule could have an 85 reach and just 22 exposures in the next-to-highest quintile.

Friday, June 26, 1998 #1927
Are you aware of any published research that indicates at about how many GRPs recognition (or even recall) measures begin to level off?

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, June 27, 1998 ):
There may be many such studies, most likely available through the Advertising Research Foundation library or Newsweek Media Research Index. However, when such single variable sudies are published, it makes it all too easy to overlook the fact that the creative carries the greater burden for your measures. Thus the perpertual questions about how many GRP = wearout.

Thursday, March 26, 1998 #1554
Has there been any research done recently (in the 1990's) on Print advertising wearout?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, April 06, 1998 ):
Major research if this sort would have been reported in the Journal of Advertising Research

Tuesday, March 10, 1998 #1523
What is the recommended duration to run an initial online campaign drawing traffic to a new web site. 2 months? 3 months? Will there be message wearout? Also should banners be changed weekly?

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 10, 1998 ):
  • Since your server log will tell you how traffic is building, plan to run the campaign until a desired traffic level is reached or until the growth curve flattens.
  • The research seems to indicate that there is a sharp fall-off in response after 3 exposures to a banner. So wearout will be fairly rapid, if you place your banners on sites with a lot of repeat visitors instead of high turnover, or on related sites that get the same visitors.

Monday, October 27, 1997 #1445
Dear Guru, We have been talking (within the Agency) about a new concept which is median frequency ( not average!): The goal of this mesurement tool is to determinate the wear-out level of commercials. Have you ever been across with this subject? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 27, 1997 ):
First, let's define "Median Frequency"

You seem to mean one would array all those exposed to the commerical in order of their frequency of exposure.

Then find the person at the exact middle of the line; one half of those exposed have less frequency and one half of those exposed have more.

It would actually be "less than or equal to" and "more than or equal to," since we are now dealing with discreet individuals, who therefore have a whole number (an integer) of exposures. In the thousands of people exposed, many will be at the median level of exposure

The Guru has not seen this metric used for wear out analysis before, but it seems neither better nor worse than the more common use of quintiles, i.e. looking at the top 2 quintiles, or most heavily exposed 40% of audience.

Thursday, June 19, 1997 #1366
Dear Guru, I have a set of urgent questions to ask of you. I have a meeting tomorrow, and need your help! 1. How is effective reach calculated? 2. Reach v/s Frequency -- when should one be given priority / importance over the other? 3. Is there any way of taking creative into account while analysing competition? If yes, can a system of weights be worked out? 4. How do you reconcile to the vast difference between reach/frequency deliveries from a Peoplemeter system as opposed to the Diary system? My client refuses to accept a 4+ reach of 30% being accustomed to levels of 70% for the same plan! Would greatly appreciate your immediate reply.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 19, 1997 ):
1) In any schedule of several commercials, some of the target group will see only one, some will see two, some will see three, some will see four, some five, etc, etc.

The actual measurement is based on tracking the cume of several different advertisers schedules in a single measurement period such as one month of the PeopleMeter.

A mathematical model that will match the measured GRP/Frequency is calculated so that plan deliveries can be predicted. Going more deeply into the actual measurement, it can be determined how many people of each demographic group were exposed to each commercial in the schedule and a model calculated which will predict that performance for a plan.

For example, below is the typical output of a computer models' frequency distribution, showing what percent of the target saw exactly n commercials and what percent saw n+. (this example is from Telmar's ADplus):

                    Frequency (f) Distributions 
                                  % who saw
                          #seen exactly  at least     
                          ----- -------  -------
               Target:      f     rch    rch    
               P18-49      ---   -----  -----   
                            0     69.1  100.0   
                            1     11.5   30.9    
                            2      6.0   19.3    
                            3      3.7   13.4   
                            4      2.6    9.6   
                            5      1.8    7.1    
                            6      1.3    5.2   
                            7      1.0    3.9   
                            8      0.7    2.9   
                            9      0.6    2.2   
                           10+     1.6    1.6   
                           20+     0.0    0.0    

2) Reach vs Frequency: The determination of emphasis here can be a complicated analysis making up the greater part of a plan's documentation, under the heading of "communications strategy." A commercial so powerful that it's sell is overwhelming in one exposure might take the "Let's buy one spot in the Superbowl" route as did the Macintosh computer with the classic "1984" execution.

In more competitive situations, competitors' levels are taken into account, clutter in the media of choice, copy quality, etc. Obviously a balance must eventually be struck between reach and frequency based on judging all these factors.

3) There are several ways to take creative into account while setting up reach vs frequency goals;

The complexity or simplicity of the message

The number of commercial in the pool

how close your commercial is to the established "wear-out" level

The balance of :30 to :15

etc, etc. can all be assigned factors and totalled or averaged to give a reach vs frequency emphasis factor

a similar exercise can also set effective frequency thresholds

4) There should not be "vast" differences between effective reaches based on people meter and diary systems if schedule GRP and other aspects are the same. 5 or 10% would be the range the Guru would expect.

A plan with a 70 reach at the 4+ level would be delivering in the range of 98% total reach. It sounds as if your client may be confusing a plan with 70 reach and an average frequency of 4 with 70 at an effective frequency of 4. Or perhaps confusing 4-week reach with a long term cume?

Friday, May 16, 1997 #1347
Do you have any recent information about magazine advertising wearout?

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, May 16, 1997 ):
The Advertising Research Foundation and Newsweek Media Research Index are good sources for such research. The Magazine Publishers' Association, (212) 752-0055, also has an extensive research collection.

Wednesday, February 26, 1997 #1032
Hi GU!I am looking for everything I can find regarding wear-out. Have the Jan 1988 article from the Journal of Advertising Research---that pub has probably published more since then, but I can't find a way to get a list of past articles on their web site. Know of any other resources on this subject?Toni

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 27, 1997 ):
AMIC plans to begin offering JAR reprints on behalf of the ARF in the near future. For now, you can direct requests to the editor,

Monday, February 17, 1997 #1045
I am interested in obtaining research that explores effective consumer promotion television weight levels. A typical consumer promotion window may be 2 - 3 weeks. Most consumer promotions are planned in the neighbourhood of 300 GRPs / week. Is there any research that has measured effective levels. I am trying to identifity an optimal level, a level (or range) below which response/sales suffer and/or above which response/sales do not substanitially increase.Goal- avoid spending too little or too much against a given promotion.

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 21, 1997 ):
There are so many variable beyond GRP weight that the Guru doubts you will find simple answers.

Just a few are copy length, daypart mix, competitive arena, product interest, and commercial quality and wear-out status. Further, the Guru thinks that effective reach / frequency is a more useful quantitaive standard than pure GRP.

Two places to look for relevant research would be Newsweek Media Research Index or Advertising Research Foundation

Monday, August 05, 1996 #1171
In regards to print advertising, what is a wear-out report? What data do I need to complete this report (reach, frequency, formulas)?

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 08, 1996 ):
The Guru has discussed Wear Out previously (see below July 17 and May 7).

A wear out report would state the status of various print executions in your campaign in comparison to the wear out standard you have established.

Clients have a way of asking the wear out question without setting a standard or even being able to decide how to set one.

Essentially an ad is worn out when it loses all or most of its ability to accomplish its marketing purpose with its target. The purpose may be as simple as product sales, or lead generation in a direct response campaign, or it may be as difficult to define as building brand imagery or awareness of a specific product benefit. Since directly relating any of these to a specific ad would require custom research, it is typical to use whatever research has been done in the past as related to easily modelled media measurements, such as reach, frequency, GRPs or quintiles.

For example if in the past, a custom study showed the average ad was worn out at a time when the planners knew that 80% of the target had seen it 8 or more times, or when the frequency in the top 2 quintiles passed 30. (Don't use these examplenumbers). Naturally, different ads perform differently, but you will need to work on an average basis.

A wear out report then becomes a matter of reporting something like how many of thetarget have seen the ad at least "x" times, or that the frequency in the top 2quintiles will exceed the standard measure as of a certain month of the schedule, or"X" number of GRPs will have run for the ad by some date.

The key is knowing how one of these media measures relate to your wear out standard. Then the report is a simple task.

Wednesday, July 17, 1996 #1179
Do you know any research about how much average frequency is enough before the consumer turns against the advertised product. I mean before they are fed up with the ad. I would like some articles or tables about different product categories concerning this effect.Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 18, 1996 ):
There does not seem to be any definitive research on this. Planners dread the question "when is the campaign worn out" almost invariably asked without any definition of "wear-out." Certainly some ads are less enduring in terms of selling ability, which may have little to do with consumers being "fed up." Some advertisers use frequency in top quintiles as a guide, some just accumulated GRP, others study the competitive environment and clutter of their usual advertising media.

The "propinquity theory" gaining in appreciation argues for lower frequencies and if it catches on generally, may change the concept of wear out. Probably the best source of published study and opinion would be the Advertising Research Foundation Library

Monday, November 06, 1995 #1824
Do you have any information about "wear-out" of TVCs?

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, November 06, 1995 ):
The first thing to know about wear-out is that there are no absolutes. Different people mean different things by "wear-out" There are numerous ways to set a standard for wear out and numerous ways to measure a commercial's approach to that standard. The simplest, as stated by one of the industry's great researchers is, "a commercial is worn out when the client asks about wear out." Realistically, a practical definition of wear out is when the commercial no longer stimulates additional sales. However, it's rare that any commercial is tracked closely enough to determine that point, and the trick is to *predict* that point. Commercials differ in their quality, impact, and memorability, as well as in the clutter and audience duplication of the schedules used to air them. A commercial that's one of a pool of three closely related commercials for a brand might wear out at a different point in time than one that's one of three dissimilar executions. A commercial airing repeatedly in a single daypart wears out before one in a broad rotation. The audience target and its media habits will also have an impact. Once the wear out level is determined base on the above, then it needs to be associated with a media measurement. Measurement might vary from "when the top quintile is exposed x number of times" to "when effective reach is x% over xx weeks" to "when the commercial has accumulated xxxx TRPs." Bottom line, the answer is a commercial is worn out when it stops selling. How to determine this is a question of judgement and specific research.

Saturday, October 21, 1995 #1831
The big one-humour in advertising! Any studies on the impact on recall brand awaresness, sales, wearout/decay, product category relevance and cultural differences All pointers welcome!

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, October 21, 1995 ):
The ARF library, which is for members only, is the foremost collection of such material. AAAA and ANA members can access the ARF library through those organizations. The Newsweek Media Research Index, online at is a possible source as well as is any library's index of AdAge articles.